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FIT Assignment

22/11/2010

GENERATIONS OF COMPUTER
Generation provides a framework for the growth of computer industry. The
computer era consists of five generations till today.

FIRST GENERATION
PERIOD: (1942-55)

TECHNOLOGY USED: THOUSANDS OF VACUUM TUBES

 A vacuum tube is high speed electronic device, which used filaments


as a source of electronics & could control and amplify electronic
signals.
 Memory used electromagnetic relays, data and instructions were fed
into the system from punched cards.

SOFTWARE TECHNOLOGY USED

 The instructions were written in machine and assembly languages.


 The stored program concept was used.

KEY CHARACTERISTICS

 Bulky in size
 Highly unreliable
 Limited commercial use
 Difficult commercial Production
 Costly
 Difficult to use

EXAMPLES

ENAIC, EDVAC, EDSAC, UNIVAC I, IBM 701

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SECOND GENERATION
PERIOD: (1955-64)

HARDWARE TECHNOLOGY USED

 Transistors because of following properties


 Mode of germanium semiconductor
 Highly reliable as compared to tubes
 Could switch ten times faster than tubes
 One-tenth the power consumed by tube
 Smaller than a tube
 Less expensive to produce
 Dissipated less heat as compared to vacuum
 Magnetic cores were used for main memory
 Magnetic disks and tapes as secondary storage media

SOFTWARE TECHNOLOGY USED

 High level programming languages (like FORTRAN, COBOL, ALGOL,


SNOBOL) were used.
 Batch operating system enabled multiple jobs to be batched together &
submitted at a time.

KEY CHARACTERISTICS

 Ten times faster than first generation computer


 Smaller in size
 Consumed less power and dissipated less heat
 More reliable and less prone to hardware failure
 Easier to program than previous generation systems
 Commercial production was still difficult & costly

EXAMPLES

Honeywell 400, IBM 7030, CDC 1604, UNIVAC LARC

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THIRD GENERATION
PERIOD: (1964-75)

HARDWARE TECHNOLOGY USED: ICS

 Integrated circuits are circuits consisting of several electronic


components like transistors, resistors, and capacitors grown on a
single silicon chip elimination wired interconnection b/w components.
 Integrating about 10-20 components named as Small Scale
Integration (SSI).
 Later, Technology enhanced to integrate about 100 components on a
single chip, known as Medium Scale Integration (MSI).
 Larger magnetic core memory
 Larger capacity magnetic disks & tapes as secondary storage
 Mini computers

SOFTWARE TECHNOLOGY USED

 Timesharing OS came into existence.


 Standardization of high level languages (Fortran & COBOL).
 Unbundling of software from hardware

KEY CHARACTERISTICS

 Powerful, capable of performing about 1 million instructions per


second
 Smaller in size than second generation
 Consumed less power & dissipated less heat
 More reliable & less prone to hardware failures & requiring lower
maintenance cost
 Cheaper to produce commercially
 Scientific, Commercial & Interactive online Applications

EXAMPLE

IBM 360/370, PDP – 8, PDP -11, CDC 6600

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FOURTH GENERATION
PERIOD: (1975-89)

HARDWARE TECHNOLOGY USED

 ICs with very large scale integration (VLSI) technology, capable of


integrating 1 million components on a chip
 A Microprocessor contains all circuits needed to perform arithmetic
logic & control functions on a single chip
 Semiconductor memory
 Larger capacity hard disks as in-built secondary storage
 Magnetic tapes & floppy disks as portable storage media
 Personal computer
 Spread of high speed computer network

SOFTWARE TECHNOLOGY USED

 OS like MS-DOS, Ms-Windows, Apple were developed for PCs


 Graphical user Interface (GUI) provides icons and menus to make it
user friendly
 PC based applications like powerful word processing package, spread
sheet package, etc.
 Multiple windows on a single screen
 UNIX OS
 C programming language became popular

KEY CHARACTERISTICS

 PCs were smaller and cheaper than mainframes or minicomputers of


third generation
 Small, affordable, reliable, easy to use PCs
 More powerful Mainframe systems
 They were general purpose machines
 Easier to produce commercially
 Groupware is such application that allows multiple members working
on a single project located at distant locations using network
 Add-on Hardware feature that allows to invest only in hardware
configuration & software of their need and value

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EXAMPLE

IBM PC, APPLE II, TRS 80, VAX 9000, CRAY-I, CRAY-2, CRAY-X

FIFTH GENERATION
PERIOD: (1989-PRESENT)

HARDWARE TECHNOLOGY USED

 ICs with ULSI (Ultra Large scale Integration) resulting in chips


having ten million components
 Larger capacity main memory
 Larger capacity hard disks
 Optical disks as portable read only storage media
 Notebook Computers
 Powerful desktop PCs & workstations
 Very powerful mainframe
 The Internet

SOFTWARE TECHNOLOGY USED

 A vast ocean of information became readily available to computer


users through World Wide Web (www)
 Multimedia applications
 Internet based applications like e-mail

KEY CHARACTERISTICS

 Portable computers
 More powerful, cheaper, reliable
 Easier to use desktop machines
 Very powerful mainframes
 Very high uptime due to hot pluggable components
 General purpose machines
 Easier to produce commercially

EXAMPLE

IBM, Notebooks, Pentium PCs, SUN Workstations, IBM SP/2, PARAM 10000

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CLASSIFICATION OF
COMPUTERS
ACC TO FUNCTION

 Analog computer
 Digital computer
 Hybrid Computer

1. ANALOG COMPUTERS are that in which data varies continuously


i.e. the movement of data is continuous.

REPRESENTED BY: series of waves

USED FOR

 Measuring temperature, pressure, etc


 Communication
 Broadcast transmission

EXAMPLE

Automobile Speedometer, Voltmeter, etc

1. DIGITAL COMPUTERS are those computers in which data flows in


discrete form.

REPRESENTED BY: pulses, two series i.e. 0s & 1s

USED FOR

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 Mathematical calculations
 Compare values
 Storing the result

EXAMPLE

Digital watch, Education system, business purpose

1. HYBRID COMPUTERS are combination of both analog computer


and digital computer

MEASURES: both continuous and discrete form of data

EXAMPLE

 STD/PCO phone, where one communicate with a person using analog


computer & the rate as charges and pulse rate is measured in forms of
digit.
 Measuring heart beat or ECG system in ICU in a hospital

IN DIGITAL COMPUTER, CLASSIFICATION CAN BE DONE ON


THE BASIS OF PURPOSE
 GENERAL PURPOSE COMPUTER
 SPECIAL PURPOSE COMPUTER

GENERAL PURPOSE COMPUTER: These are designed to perform the


variety of jobs or applications for this reason; they are less efficient than
special purpose computers.

EXAMPLE

Banking, Sales Analysis, PCs, etc

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SPECIAL PURPOSE COMPUTER: These are designed to meet the needs of
some special application. They are designed to perform a single job. So they
execute a task quickly and more efficiently. Program and instructions are
stored permanently in them.

EXAMPLE

Weapon designing

ACC TO SIZES

 Super Computer
 Mainframe Computer
 Mini Computer
 Micro Computer
 Desktop Computer
 Pocket Computer

1. SUPER COMPUTER

PURPOSE: Special purpose computers handle mostly complex scientific,


statistical applications or programs.

KEY FEATURES

 High technology
 High capacity memory i.e. 8.4 million
 Computes data processing in short time
 Highly sophisticated technology
 Cost varies from 1 million to 5 million

IMAGE

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EXAMPLE

India’s first super computer is PERM

DRAWBACK

 Operating Supercomputer requires highly qualified staff.


 Experts were required for such computer engineering.
 They are sensitive to temperature, humidity, dust, etc.
 Non portability & large size

1. MAINFRAME COMPUTERS

KEY FEATURES

 Smaller size than super computer


 Large memory capacity
 Allows networking of up to 100 terminals
 Cost varies from 5-20 lacs.

IMAGE

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EXAMPLE

PDP-370, IBM 40

DISADVANTAGES

 Experts and highly qualified professionals were required to operate it


 Sophisticated technology required for manufacturing & assembling the
computer

1. MINI COMPUTER

KEY FEATURES

 Higher processing speed than lowest category computer but slower


than super computer & Mainframe computer
 Portable computers because of smaller size
 Memory capacity RAM is up to 128 MB
 Secondary Memory store 40 GB
 Costs around Rs 50 thousand to 90 thousand

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EXAMPLE

PDP-11 and PDP-45

DISADVANTAGES

 Cannot connect all hardware devices


 Cannot execute all languages and software

1. MICRO COMPUTER

KEY FEATURES

 Smaller than Mini Computer


 High speed computer but slower than mini computer
 Costs around Rs 30000 to 60000
 Portable
 RAM requires 64 MB to 128 MB
 Limited languages FORTRAN, Basic, COBOL, Pascal can be executed

EXAMPLE

Uptron, HCL, PCL, Wipro, PCs, HP, PC-AT, PC-XT

DRAWBACKS

 Limited Hardware devices can be connected


 Experts were required

1. DESKTOP COMPUTERS

PURPOSE: Education system and small scale industry

CALLED: HOME or Briefcase Computers

KEY FEATURES

 Portable
 High speed processing processor varies from 80286 to 80586

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 Requires RAM from 16 MB to 64 MB
 Internet facility for communication
 Costs around Rs 30,000 to Rs 60,000

IMAGE

EXAMPLE

HCL, PCL, Wipro, COMPAQ, HP, LEO, SAMSUNG, etc

DISADVANTAGES

Execute limited software and languages related to windows based

1. POCKET COMPUTER

KEY FEATURES

 Small in size
 Portable like a digital diary
 Requires RAM maximum up to 1GB

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 Disk capacity is 80 GB

IMAGE

DISADVANTAGE

Execute limited Software

OPERATING SYSTEM
OPERATING SYSTEM: is system software that works as an interface
between a user and the computer hardware.

PRIMARY OBJECTIVES:

• To make computer system convenient to use.


• To utilize computer hardware in an efficient manner.

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EXAMPLE: UNIX, MS-DOS, MS-Windows, Windows NT/2000,OS/2 and Mac OS.

MAIN JOBS OF OS:

• RESOURCE MANAGER: manages hardware software resources of the


computer system and resources include processor, memory, disk space etc.
• APPICATION CONTROLLER: provides stable, consistent way for
applications to deal with hardware without knowing of its detail.

PROCESSOR MANAGEMENT AND SCHEDULING:

 OS manages various peripherals and resources of computer,


user’s request, instructions and commands, and schedules the
job for CPU to carry out in sequence.
 It handles interrupt requirements and reschedules it accordingly.

DEVICE MANAGEMENT

 OS monitors the availability and working conditions or status of


these devices, as shareable (discs, tapes, main memory) or non-
shareable (printer monitor, keyboard)
 It takes care of illegal instructions or commands, reports error
accordingly.
 It also manages BIOS (Basic Input Output Control System).

FILE AND DATA MANAGEMENT

 It sets up directories and stores user files, blocks and stores


record.
 It transfers main memory contents in specific filenames, to discs
and vice versa.
 It displays the name of files stored, their sizes, and request
permissions for overwriting or erasing and warning such as
space not available etc.

SECURITY

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 A computer system may contain highly private data and OS
ensures that the security is maintained by protecting against
destruction and unauthorized access.

COMMAND INTERPRETATION AND EXECUTION

 OS reads the commands entered by users, checks for errors,


interprets and then into machine instructions and gets them
executed by the hardware.

FAULT TOLERANCE

 It is built-in with OS, providing replication and dual hard disks.


 In any interface or peripheral device failure, system
automatically switches over to substitutes, and keeps processor
on.

MEMORY MANAGEMENT

 It provides available memory for processing, such as accepting


the keyboard & storing results or outputs.
 OS partitions memory for different users and programs.
 In multiuser, memory allocation is dynamic.

JO B ACCOUNTING

 OS, with the help of an internal time clock computes the time
each resources (peripherals and CPU) is used by different users.
 It also maintains a log and keeps track of login and logout of
particular users, commands entered by user, files used, and jobs
carried out.

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DIFFERENCE BETWEEN ASCII


AND EBDIC
ASCII:

American standard Code for Information Interchange

PURPOSE:

To be widely used in small peripherals, computer instruments, and various


communicating devices.

It is a character encoding standard.

TYPES:

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 ASCII-7
 ASCII-8

ASCII-7: 7 bit code that can represent 128(27) different characters.

 Computers using 8 bit byte and 7 ASCII either set 8th bit of each
byte as zero or use it as parity bit.

ASCII – 8: extended version of ASCII-7

 8-bit code that can represent 256(28) different characters.


 Additional bit is added to left of 7th bit of ASCII-7 codes.

EXAMPLE:

GIRL n binary no : 1000111 1001001 1010010 1001100

G I R
L

EBDIC :

Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code

PURPOSE:

Standard 8 bit code used for large computers

CHARACTER ZONE DIGIT

A 1100 0001

B 1100 0010

C 1100 0011

D 1100 0100

E 1100 0101

F 1100 0110

G 1100 0111

H 1100 1000

I 1100 1001

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EXAMPLE:

BID in BINARY

11000010 11001001 11000100

B I D

DECIMAL NUMBER
COMPLEMENTS
1’S COMPLEMENT OF THE BINARY NUMBER N = (2N -1) – N

= n (1’s) – N

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EXAMPLE

1’s complement of 110100101 is 001011010

That can be obtained by replacing each one by a zero and each zero by one.

2’S COMPLEMENT OF THE DECIMAL NUMBER N

= 1’s Complement + 1

EXAMPLE

2’s complement of 1101001101 is 0010110011

9’S COMPLEMENT OF THE DECIMAL NUMBER N = (10N – 1) – N

= n (9’s) – N

i.e. {subtract each digit from 9}

EXAMPLE

9’s complement of 134795 is 865204

10’S COMPLEMENT OF THE DECIMAL NUMBER N = 10N – N

= (r-1)’s

Complement + 1

EXAMPLE

10’s complement of 134795 is 865205

RULE:

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To find the 10’s complement of a decimal number leave all leading zeros
unchanged. Then subtract the first non-zero digit from 10 and all the
remaining digits from 9’s.

SUBTRACTION USING R’S COMPLEMENT:

To find M-N in base r, we add M + r’s complement of N

Result is M + (rn – N)

1) If M > N then result is M – N + rn (rn is an end carry and can be


neglected.

2) If M < N then result is rn –(N-M) which is the r’s complement of the result.

EXAMPLE:

Subtract (76425 – 28321) using 10’s complements.

ANSWER 10’S complement of 28321 is 71679

Then add 7 6 4 2 5

+71679

148104

Therefore the difference is 48104 after discarding the end carry.

EXAMPLE:

Subtract (11010011 – 10001100)

ANSWER AS 1’S COMPLEMENT

1’s complement of 10001100 is 01110011


Then add 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 1
+01110011
101000110
1
101000111

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DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE


INTERNET AND WORLD WIDE
WEB

MANY PEOPLE USE THE TERMS INTERNET AND WORLD WIDE WEB
INTERCHANGEABLY, BUT IN FACT THE TWO TERMS ARE NOT
SYNONYMOUS. THE INTERNET AND THE WEB ARE TWO SEPARATE BUT
RELATED THINGS.

THE INTERNET IS THE PHYSICAL NETWORK OF SATELLITES AND


TELEPHONE WIRES THAT PROVIDES A HARDWARE MEDIUM FOR MANY
THINGS, INCLUDING THE WORLD WIDE WEB. THE WORLD WIDE WEB IS
A NETWORK OF WEBSITES LINKED BY HYPERLINKS THAT IS ACCESSED
THROUGH THE INTERNET.

WHAT IS THE INTERNET?


The Internet is a massive network of networks, a networking infrastructure.
It connects millions of computers together globally, forming a network in
which any computer can communicate with any other computer as long as
they are both connected to the Internet. Information that travels over the
Internet does so via a variety of languages known as protocols.

WHAT IS THE WEB (WORLD WIDE WEB)?


The World Wide Web, or simply Web, is a way of accessing information over
the medium of the Internet. It is an information-sharing model that is built
on top of the Internet. The Web uses the HTTP protocol, only one of the
languages spoken over the Internet, to transmit data. Web services, which
use HTTP to allow applications to communicate in order to exchange
business logic, use the the Web to share information. The Web also utilizes
browsers, such as Internet Explorer or Firefox, to access Web documents
called Web pages that are linked to each other via hyperlinks. Web
documents also contain graphics, sounds, text and video.

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SHOW THE USE OF PASTE


SPECIAL
DATA COPIED FROM INTERNET:

Decision Tables

Decision tables are a precise yet compact way to model complicated logic[1].
Decision tables, like flowcharts and if-then-else and switch-case statements, associate conditions
with actions to perform, but in many cases do so in a more elegant way.
In the 1960s and 1970s a range of "decision table based" languages such as Filetab were popular
for business programming.

Microsoft Office
Word Document

PASTE SPECIAL AS WORD DOCUMENT 2007

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Decision Ta

PASTE SPECIAL AS RICH TEXT FORMAT

Decision tables
Decision Taar

Decision tables, l
PASTE SPECIAL AS UNFORMATTED TEXT

Decision Tables

Decision tables are a precise yet compact way to model complicated logic[1].

Decision tables, like flowcharts and if-then-else and switch-case statements, associate

with actions to pe
conditions with actions to perform, but in many cases do so in a more elegant way.

Decision tablesar 23
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In the 1960s and 1970s a range of "decision table based" languages such as Filetab were
popular for business programming.

PASTE SPECIAL AS PICTURE (WINDOWS METAFILE)

Decision Tables

[1]
Decision tablesare a precise yet com pact way to model com plicated logic .

Decision tables, likeflowchartsand if-then-else and switch-case statements, associate conditions


with actions to perform, but in many cases do so in a more elegant way.

In the 19 60s and 1970s a range of "decision table based" lan guages such
Filetab
as were popular
for business programm ing.

PASTE SPECIAL AS PICTURE(ENHANCED METAFILE)

Decision Ta
PASTE SPECIAL AS HTML FORMAT

Decision Tables

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Decision tables are a precise yet compact way to model complicated logic[1].
Decision tables, like flowcharts and if-then-else and switch-case statements, associate conditions
with actions to perform, but in many cases do so in a more elegant way.
In the 1960s and 1970s a range of "decision table based" languages such as Filetab were popular
for business programming.

PASTE SPECIAL AS UNFORMATTED UNICODE TEXT

Decision Tables

Decision tables are a precise yet compact way to model complicated logic[1].

Decision tables, like flowcharts and if-then-else and switch-case statements, associate
conditions with actions to perform, but in many cases do so in a more elegant way.

In the 1960s and 1970s a range of "decision table based" languages such as Filetab were
popular for business programming.

WRITE A PARAGRAPH AND


PERFORM DIFFERENT
FORMATTING FUNCTIONS.
FONT : TYPE, SIZE, BOLD, ITALICS, UNDERLINE, STRIKETHROUGH,
SUBSCRIPT, SUPERSCRIPT, COLOR

Vineet Nayar is HCL Tech V-C


HT Correspondent

NEW DELHI: Joining HCL Technologies as a management trainee in 1985 and being
appointed as the company’s vice chairman 25 years later, Vineet Nayar, CEO, and HCL

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Technologies is on dream run. Nayar, who authored a recent book on employee power,
overturning conventional business logic, tells HT that passion and innovation has been his key drivers.

ALIGNMENT :LEFT, CENTRE, RIGHT, JUSTIFIED

LINE SETTING : 1.15

It has been an impressive innings for you, from trainee to the vice chairman…

What have you been your driving values? (Left Alignment)

(Centre Alignment)The centre of my interest is radical innovation around business

strategy; employees are going to be dealt with. I personally feel that putting humans back

in business is the core motivation I have Life.

(Right alignment)We undervalue humans, we under expect from them and we tend to

under invest in them. In fact, they are the core difference.

(Justified Alignment)What do you look in an employee?

When I hire, I search for passion in an employee. In my mind capability does n t matter but

passion matters. I look for the employee who jumps up from bed and feels like doing this

job. I can teach a person what to do but I cannot motivate him to do it. An employee needs

to motivate himself. I can teach and make him be good on the job.

MAIL MERGE
#1009/2nd floor,

Sector 43-B, Chandigarh-160022


8054378378
devs.dr@live.in
September 21, 2010
«AddressBlock»

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«GreetingLine»:
Dear ______________,
Thank you for coming to my party along with your family. I am really thankful to you for your presence
on this special occasion.

Your Friend

Devika

DOCUMENT SAVED AS
WEBPAGE

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DIFFERENCE BETWEEN
INTERNET AND WWW
Internet WWW

1) Internet is a massive network of


networks, a networking infrastructure.
1) WWW is a way of accessing information
over the medium of the internet.
2) It connects millions of computers
together globally forming a network in
which any computer can communicate with
any other computer a long as both are 2) It is an information sharing model that is
connected to internet. built on the top of internet.

3) Information that travels over the internet


does so via a variety of languages know as
protocols.

4) It does not utilize web browsers. It is the


structure on which WWW is based. 3) The web uses HTTP protocol, to transmit
data.

5) No such creator.

6) Internet provides the structure.


4) It is also utilizes browsers such as
internet explorer or firefox to access web
documents called web pages that are linked
via hyperlinked.

5) It was created by Tim Berners lee in


1992.

6) It provides the dynamic networks via a


variety of different methodologies and
protocols.

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WORKING OF INPUT DEVICES


INPUT DEVICES : is any hardware that takes input from the user.

TYPES OF INPUT DEVICES

• Keyboard
• Optical Mouse
• Trackball
• Joystick
• Light Pen
• Touch Screen
• Scanner
• Digital Camera

KEYBOARD: enters data into computer by pressing one key at a time.

STRUCTURE
 Alphanumeric Keys : (A-Z),(0-9),(+,-,*,/)
 Numeric Keypad : (0-9) on right hand side
 Function Keys : F1 – F12
 Cursor Movement Keys : ↑, ↓, ←, →

WORKING

• When user press a key on keyboard, a tiny computer chip called


Keyboard Controller, records that a key has been pressed.
• Keyboard Controller places the code into a part of memory, called
Keyboard Buffer, indicating the key has been pressed.
• This code is called Key’s Scan Code.

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• Then keyboard sends an
Interrupt request (special
message to computer system in
form of signals) to the system

software when it receives a complete key stroke.


• When system software receives an interrupt request, it evaluates the
request to determine an appropriate response.
• It passes the scan code to CPU then.

ADVANTAGE

 Faster in entering data than in positioning devices.


 More reliable and produce fewer error than others.

DISADVANTAGE

 Take a lot of time in practice to type quickly.


 Typing speed is still very slow when compared with computer speed.

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MOUSE

Pointing device that translates the motion


of mouse into signals.

MECHANICAL MOUSE

• Two rollers are placed attached to


the mouse ball exactly at 90 degree
to each other.
• When mouse ball rotates, rollers
also rotate.
• On either side, there is an infrared
emitter and on board chip read
pulses (signal) from infrared
sensors turns them into binary
data.

DRAWBACK

Performance Degradation like ball takes dust and obstructs proper motion of
shafts.

OPTICAL MOUSE

• It uses small camera that


takes 1500 pictures every
second.
• Light Emitting diode (LED)
bounces off light of surface
onto Complementary Metal
Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS)
Sensor.

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• CMOS sends each picture to digital to see how the image has changed
since previous change.
• The Digital Signal Processor operates at 18 million instructions per
second.
• By analyzing these images, processor determines the movement of
cursor on screen.

ADVANTAGES

 User friendly for computer beginner.


 Easy and convenient to use GUI.
 Selection and movement on screen is faster than using keyboard.

DISADVANTAGE

 Not easy and convenient to input text.


 Issuing command is slower than keyboard.
 Needs practice.
 Requires flat screen to operate.

TRACKBALL

A pointing device that works similar to mouse.

STRUCTURE

Ball placed in base of mechanical mouse, is placed on top along with two
buttons.

WORKING

To move graphic cursor on screen, only ball of trackball is to be moved, not


the whole device.

VARIOUS SHAPES

 A ball
 A button
 A square

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ADVANTAGE

Good for limited desk space as user doesn’t have to move entire device.

DISADVANTAGE

 It

usually not as accurate as mouse.


 Ball mechanism of trackball also requires more frequent cleaning than
a mouse.

LIGHT PEN

It is handheld input device that contains a light source or can detect light.

STRUCTURE

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WORKING

• Light Pen contains a lens that focuses light from computer monitor
onto photoelectric cell.
• As monitor’s electron beam passes through lens, cells emit an electric
pulses.
• Strengthen by an amplifier, pulse is sent as digital signal and
computer determine location of pen on screen.
• A touch of light pen’s control button tells computer to note this
position for selection.

ADVANTAGE

 More direct and precise than mouse.


 Convenient for application with limited desktop space.

DISADVANTAGE

It requires special designed monitors.

TOUCH SCREEN

A monitor that has a touch sensitive panel on screen.

STRUCTURE

You interact with the computer by touching areas of screen with fingers that
acts as input device.

WORKING

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FIT Assignment
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Whenever user touches the screen, it disturbs the electrons emitted on
screen and computer processor recognizes the area where the electron are
being damaged and considers it as selection.

EXAMPLE

Kiosks, located in stores, hotels, airports and museums.

ADVANTAGE

 No extra peripherals are needed except monitor.


 It allows easy access o commands.

DISADVANTAGE

 It is not suitable for inputting a large amount of data.


 Only items already on screen can be detected.

SCANNER

An input device which translates paper document into an electronic format,


which can be stored in computer. The input document can be text, picture,
graphics.

TYPES

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FIT Assignment
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FLATBED SCANNER

Like a copy machine, this consists of a box having a glass plate on the top,
and a lid that cover the glass plate.

WORKING

The document is to be scanned is


placed upside down on glass plate.
Light source below plate moves
horizontally from left to right. After
scanning one lne, light beam moves
up a little and scan next line and
process repeates for all lines.

HANDHELD SCANNER

It has set of LEDs placed in a small


case, which conveniently held in
hand during operation.

WORKING

To scan a document, a scanner is slowly dragged very steadily and carefully


over document.

DIGITAL CAMERA

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FIT Assignment
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It allows you to take pictures and
store photographed images
digitally.

STRUCTURE

WORKING

• It uses magnetic or
semiconductor technologies
to store pictures in binary
form.
• These pictures can easily be
transferred to computer and
after transferring camera
gets ready for the next
picture.
• The no. of photographs a camera can click depends upon the memory
card of camera which can be easily enhanced by adding a memory slot
to it.
• Web Cameras can directly be connected to the computers where
after clicking picture it gets saved in computer directly.
• It is also useful in video conferencing.

ADVANTAGE

 It saves money for buying films and developing costs in long term.
 Images can be reviewed and edited.
 Unwanted images can be deleted from the memory.
 Photographic Images can be directly digitized without using scanner.
 Best for 3-D objects.

DISADVANTAGE

 Normally, these are more expensive than ordinary cameras.


 Photo Printing cost is higher than ordinary cameras.

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FIT Assignment
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WORKING OF OUTPUT
DEVICES
OUTPUT DEVICES: is any hardware component that can convey information to user.

TYPES OF OUTPUT DEVICES

• Monitors

• Printers

• Plotters

• Speakers

• Projectors

MONITORS

• It’s the most important output device

• 2 common types

– CRT

– LCD

• Featured by:

– Refresh rate

– Resolution

– Visible screen size

– Response time

CRT MONITORS

PIXEL:

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FIT Assignment
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CRT monitors a CRT is used
as the picture of monitor.
The screen is divided into
rows and columns. Each cell
of this screen is called Pixel.

• This vacuum tube contains


a negatively charged
cathode which shoots
electrons at the back of
positively charged screen.

• The screen is coated with


phosphorous chemical.

• When the electrons strike


the back of the screen,
phosphorous is excited and
it provides a glow to
individual pixels.

• The distance between these pixels called as Dot Pitch and it is measured in
millimeters.

• The picture tube redraws the picture after a short interval. The number of times the
electronic gun redraws the picture on screen is called as the Refresh Rate and it is
measured in Hertz(Hz).

• The number of pixels per unit area of the screen is called as Resolution. More the
resolution, more clearer will be the picture.

ADVANTAGES OF CRT

• Higher refresh rates.

• Ability to adjust images.

• Display full motion video better.

• Significantly lower cost because the technology has matured.

• Work better at multiple resolutions.

• Modern version may include a sleep mode for energy efficiency.

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FIT Assignment
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• Color fidelity, so essential for graphic artist, has not been matched by
LCD’s.

• Screen images viewed from side angle are as good as when viewed
straight on.

DISADVANTAGES OF CRT

• Larger size takes up more desk space, the bigger the screen, the
bigger the foot print.

• Heavy weight.

• Heavier size limits easy and convenient movement.

• Expands more energy and throws off heat.

DVST

DVST behaves like a CRT with an extremely long persistence. A line written
on the screen will be visible for up to an hour before it fades away from

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sight. It is an alternate method for maintaining the screen image which
stores the picture definition inside the CRT instead of refreshing the screen.

WORKING

DVST resembles the CRT, it uses the same e-gun and phosphorus coated
screen. It also has two guns

PRIMARY GUN:

It is used to store the picture pattern. It draws the picture by knocking out
electrons from the storage grid producing a positive charged pattern.

FLOOD GUN:

It is used to maintain the picture display wire grid just behind the screen.

DISADVANTAGES

• Picture erasing is not easy incase of DVST as storage charge removal


is very difficult.

• It is not capable of being used in dynamic graphic applications.

• It might lead to degraded picture quality as background glow


accumulated.

• On DVST only a single level of intensity can be displayed and only


green phosphorus tube are available.

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FIT Assignment
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TYPES OF FLAT PANEL DISPLAY

PLASMA PANELS

WHAT IS PLASMA?

Plasma is often called as forth state of


matter other three being solid,liquid,gas.

Plasma is a distinct state of matter


containing number of charged particle.

CONSTRUCTION

• Plasma panels are two edge-sealed


layers of glass separated by a thin
layer of neon based gas.

• There are horizontal conductors on


one glass layer and vertical on the
other glass layer.

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FIT Assignment
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WORKING

• When the voltage is


applied on the
intersection of
horizontal and vertical
pair of conduction the
gas at the intersection
become ionized and
emit a spot light.

• All the conductor may


have sustaining
voltage applied to them that keeps the spot eliminated for several
thousand times a second.

• LED stands for light emitting diodes which are basically used in
calculators, retail counters, large digital watches etc.

• The first LED’s that were used deep red in color but other colors are
also available now.

• It is a type of emissive device.

• In this a matrix of diodes is arranged to form pixel positions in the


display.

• The picture definition is stored in the frame buffer.

• As in scan lines refreshing of a CRT, information is read from the


refresh buffer and converted to voltage levels that are applied to
the diodes to produce light patterns on the display.

• The screen used in computer devices is the LCD screen. The LCD
screen produces images by aligning molecular crystals.

• The LCD screen consists of twisted crystals. These crystals are


present in twisted form like a spring and they untwist at varying
angles when varying voltages are applied.

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FIT Assignment
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• These crystals are packed in two screens. The front screen is
transparent and back screen is reflective.

• The back screen reflects light towards the front screen. The light gets
deviated by these molecules.

• This backed and deviated light produces images on front layer.

ADVANTAGES OF LCD

• Light weight.

• Smaller foot print on desk leaving, freeing up work area on the user
desk.

• Flicker free screen.

• More usable display area than on comparably sized CRTs.

• Low frequency radiation is practically eliminated.

• Easy adjustment storage and movement.

• Efficient energy and they do not generate heat.

• Good for basic web surfing.

• Potentially less eyestrain due to reduced screen glare.

DISADVANTAGES OF LCD

• Fragile screen may result in both screen and back light lamp damage
if touched. Thus not recommended in environments where it may be
handled roughly

• Contrast ratio causes darkness to not be displayed true. Darkest area


may be viewed as dark grey rather than black

• Designed only for optimum resolution, can’t adjust images

• The color accuracy of an LCD monitor does not match that of a CRT
monitors.

• These are more expensive than CRTs.

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FIT Assignment
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PRINTERS

• A printer is an output device that produces text and graphics on a


physical medium such as paper.

• Printed information is often called hard copy because the information


exists physically and is a more permanent form of output than that
presented on a VDU (Monitor). Printers can be grouped into - impact
and non-impact printers-

IMPACT PRINTERS

An impact printer forms characters and graphics on a piece of paper


by striking a mechanism against an ink ribbon that physically contacts
the paper.

NON- IMPACT PRINTERS

• A non-impact printer forms characters and graphics on a piece of


paper without actually striking the paper.

SPEED OF PRINTER

The printing speed of a printer is usually expressed in pages per minute


(ppm).

RESOLUTION

Printer resolution is often expressed in dpi (dots per inch). The larger the
number, the higher the resolution.

ADVANTAGES OF PRINTERS

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FIT Assignment
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1. Information produced is permanent.

DISADVANTAGES OF PRINTERS

1. The time to get the printout is slow, when compared with display devices.

2. Paper is wasted for obtaining the output.

3. Printers are generally noisier than display devices.

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FIT Assignment
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How it works: The print head travels from side to side across the paper
and is made up of numerous pins which are pushed out to
form the shape of each character

The pins hit an ink ribbon against the paper so the


characters are printed out.

The paper is usually continuous with holes down each side


and perforations so the pages can be easily separated by
tearing.

Because the pins make an impact against the paper the


characters can be printed through several layers of self-
carbonating paper to produce duplicate copies.
Speed:
Vary from 50 to over 500cps.

Suitable uses: • Limited to situations where duplicate copies are


needed and the quality is not too important.

• Typical uses might be in warehouses where


duplicate copies of orders need to produce quickly

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and cheaply.

Disadvantag • The printing quality is low -


es these printers produce low to
medium quality black and white
printing and can only print low
resolution graphics.

• Because of the impact of the


pins against the paper, these
printers can be quite noisy.

Advantages: • The purchase cost is low and


the running costs are very low.

• They can print fairly quickly,


particularly if you remember
that multiple copies are being
printed in one print run.

• They are robust and can operate


in harsh environments.

• If several sheets of self-


carbonating paper are placed
into the printer then the impact
will produce duplicate copies.

DAISY WHEEL PRINTER

• In this, the print head is like a wheel and the characters embossed at
the corner of these arms. It resembles to the petals of daisy flower so
it is called a Daisy Wheel Printer.

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FIT Assignment
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• These
A motor
printer
spins have
the wheel
very slow
at a very
speedfast
of
speed.ofDaisy
order 30 toWheel
80 characters
Printer are
perSerial
Impact Printers.
second.

ADVANTAGES

• The final copy looks like it has been


typed on high quality typewriter.

• Can print letter quality characters.

• Printing can be performed in either


direction, paper can be fed down or up and it has only few moving
parts.

DISADVANTAGES

• Printing speed is very slow.

• Cannot print graphics.

• They are very noisy.

• Must need to change the ribbon frequently.

INK-JET PINTER

• An ink-jet printer is a non-impact printer that forms characters and


graphics by spraying tiny drops of liquid ink onto a piece of paper. Ink-
jet printers can produce letter-quality text and graphics in both black-
and-white and colors.

• Some ink-jet printers can print photo-quality images on any type of


paper. Printer resolution is measured in dots per inch (dpi). The speed
of an ink-jet printer is measured in pages per minute (ppm).

HOW IT WORKS:

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• The print head contains tiny nozzles
through which different colored inks
can be sprayed onto the paper to form
the characters or the graphic images.

• The ink is forced out by heat or by tiny


piezoelectric crystals which change
shape when an electric current is
applied across them.

SUITABLE USES:

• A popular choice for home use where small amounts of printing are
done and photographic quality color printing is needed.

SPEED:

The speed over 150 ppm.

ADVANTAGES OF INK-JET PRINTER

• Inkjet printers are generally quiet.

• Inkjet printers can produce high quality color output.

• These printers are relatively inexpensive

DISADVANTAGES OF INK-JET PRINTER

• Specialized papers are required to produce high quality color output.

• The printing speed is slow compared to a laser printer.

• The ink cartridges and specialized papers are expensive.

• The ink may smear when printed on ordinary paper.

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LINE PRINTER

How it works: These print individual pages and work in a similar way to
photocopiers.

• A drum is charged to match the image and


powdered ink (toner) sticks to the surface. The
toner is then transferred to the paper and fixed by
heat and pressure.

• A school or business printer would have a typical


Speed: speed of 10 to 20 pages per minute (ppm).

• 10 to 20 ppm.

Suitable uses: • Common wherever fast, high quality printing is


required.

Disadvantages: • Non-color laser printers are more expensive than


ink-jet printers (but the difference is narrowing).

• Color laser printers are considerably more


expensive. (but their speed and high quality
output means they are becoming more popular).

Advantages: • They are quiet and fast and produce high quality
printouts.

• Running cost are low because although toner


cartridges are expensive to replace, they last a
long time.

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DRUM PRINTER

This is an impact line printer. It basically


consist of a drum which is divided into number of tracks. The total tracks
are equal to size of printer that is for the paper width of 132 characters, a
drum will have 132 tracks.

• A character set is embossed on the track. The drum in the drum


printer is made to rotate at a very fast speed.

• Paper is sandwiched between paper and hammer.

SPEED

• Between 300 to 2000 lines per minute.

ADVANTAGES

• Much quieter.

DISADVANTAGES

• You cannot do multiple forms.

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CHAIN PRINTER

These are impact printers because the actual contact is made by chain on
one side and

hammer on the other side of ribbon.

WORKING OF CHAIN PRINTERS

• These are called as chain printer because the chains are used for
printing the output.

the chain is basically a kind of


tape wound on two spools with a
character set repeated,

three or four times.

• A character set may have


48,64 or 96 characters
embossed on it.

SPEED

400 to 3000 lines per minute.

ADVANTAGES

• It adds flexibility.

• Better printing performance.

• Permits simplified type-


changing process.

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DISADVANTAGES

• These make a huge amount of noise.

• They can only print one type and size of font and cannot print images.

PLOTTER

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How it works: • A drum plotter prints by moving a pen sideways over


the surface of a sheet of paper.

• One high precision motor moves the pen from side to


side.

• Another high precision motor moves the paper


backwards and forwards.

• An electromagnet lifts and drops different colored


ink pens onto the paper to draw lines.

Suitable uses: • Plotters are restricted to line drawing and can only
create a solid region of color by drawing a number of
close, regular lines.

• Plotters are often used in science and engineering


applications for drawing building plans, printed
circuit boards and machine parts.

Advantages: • They are accurate and can produce far larger


printouts than standard printers.

SPEAKERS

• These transducers convert an alternating electrical current into


sound.

SUITABLE USES

• They can output music as well as the spoken word.

• Useful for blind users where text or figures can be spoken by the
computer.

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• A speaker and computer-
synthesized voice can be used by
automated systems to read
information such as telephone
numbers or traffic updates.

ADVANTAGES

• Cheap and widely available.

• Capable of producing very high


quality sound.

DISADVANTAGES

• They are an analogue device so


the digital sound signal has to be
converted, usually by a sound card.

PROJECTOR

WORKING OF LCD PROJECTOR

• The video projector contains LCD panels. At the center of projector is a


halogen bulb which is surrounded by panels.

• The panels produce light. As the halogen bulb heats up the crystal
melts and allow more light to pass through. Hence the intensity of

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halogen bulb brings
about the difference in
tones.

• Higher the temperature


of bulb, lighter the tone
and vice-versa.

• Images travel to the


tube present inside the
projector from DVD
player or satellite box.

• These images in turn


bounds on a screen that
is coated with phosphorous. Every fragment of light hitting the screen
is termed as Pixel.

• On hitting the screen, the pixel breaks down into its color components
i.e., red, blue, or green.

• The heat produced by halogen, bulb is controlled by voltage that flows


into LCD video projector.

ADVANTAGES OF LCD PROJECTORS

• Enable a lot of people to be able to see something even from a


distance.

• They also produce sharper images.

• They also have an edge in light efficiency.

• They generate largest possible image size.

• They can be used to throw smaller images a great option also. So it


can serve as an inexpensive.

• Low cost.

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• Space saving.

• Easy to install.

DISADVANTAGES OF LCD PROJECTORS

• Image quality may not be as good as projected.

• Dark room often required.

• Maintenance required.

• Installation can be more involved.

• Separate audio system required.

• The pixels on the chip can burn out. When one pixel burns out, you
wont be able to repair it. You will have to replace the whole chip.

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DIFFERENCE BETWEEN VIRUS


AND WORM
Virus Worm

1. A computer virus attaches 1. A worm is similar to a virus


itself to a program or file by design and is considered
enabling it to spread from one to be a sub-class of a virus.
computer to another, leaving Worms spread from
infections as it travels. computer to computer

2. A computer virus is a small 2. The worm consumes too


program written to alter the much system memory (or
way a computer operates, network bandwidth), causing
without the permission or Web servers, network
knowledge of the user. servers and individual
computers to stop
responding.
3. A virus must meet two criteria:
3. A worm must meet two
• It must execute itself. It often criteria:
places its own code in the
• Worms exploit holes in
path of execution of another
operating system security so it
program.
is important to download and
• It must replicate itself. For
install all patches.
example, it may replace other
executable files with a copy • The weak security and similar
of the virus infected file. network configuration is
required to travel.
1. Worms are programs that
1. Viruses, which requires the replicate themselves from
spreading of an infected host system to system without
file. the use of a host file.

2. Worms spread more rapidly

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than viruses.

3. It can be attached to any


attachments of an email,
2. Spread with uniform speed as any file on network.
programmed.
4. EXAMPLE: Blaster Worm,
the worm has been designed
3. It can be attached to to tunnel into your system
.EXE,.COM,.DOC,.XLS etc. and allow malicious users to
control your computer
remotely,
4. EXAMPLE: Michelangelo, I W32.Mydoom.AX@mm
LOVE YOU, Melissa,
Cascade(file infector virus)
etc.

CREATE YOUR OWN STYLE


AND APPLY IT.
We delivered a solid quarter with good display
advertising revenue growth, big gains in operating
income.
CAROL BARTZ, CEO, Yahoo

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FIT Assignment
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EXCEL ASSIGNMENT
RECREATE THE TABLE SHOWN AND APPLY LOOKUP AND AVERAGE
OF MARKS ENTERED

Exam Exam Exam Final Letter


Name 1 2 3 Final Grade Grade
Banks,Michael 45 35 56 60 49 D
Chau,Lisa 100 90 95 100 96 A
Danforth,Elsie 85 99 82 95 90 A
Elton,Roger 56 76 74 70 69 C

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Mcdonald,Wendy 75 88 97 89 87 B
Renfrew,William 90 90 85 89 89 B
Stwert,Olive 99 92 96 100 97 A
Washington,Adam 80 88 87 94 87 A

Create a chart for each

a. There are 28 students in the class.


b. 10 are fresher man, 8 sophomores, 4 juniors, 1 senior.
c. 5 people did not answer the question.

freshmen 10
Sophomores 8
Juniors 4
Senior 1
Didn't answer 5

There are 11 men and 17 women and draw a pie chart for it.

Men 11
Wome
n 17

If only 23 students did the homework, what percentage of class is that? Another Pie chart.

Did homework 23
Didn't do
homework 5

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