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6 List of Entries

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14 Fifty Years of Spaceflight

ISBN: 978-0-00-723296-3
20 Major Space Agencies
,ANE,S SPACE RECOGNITION GUIDE.
36 Selected Historic Missions
All rights rcscrucd. No part ofthis book may be
used or rcproduccd in any manner whatsoever 78 Historic Launchers
without writtcn pcrmission except in the case of
bricf quotations cmbodicd in critical articles atrd 98 Current/FutureLaunchers
rcvicws. For information in the United States,
address Harpercollins Publishers, l0 East 53rd 126 Launch Sites
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Applications Satellites
ISBN: 978-0-06-119133-6 (in the United States)

FIRST EDITION Published in 2008.


2I4 Military Satellites
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244 Scientific Satellites: Astronomy
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272 Scientific Satellites: Solar System
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3L6 Earth Remote Sensing Satellites
The name ofthe "Smithsonian," "Smithsonian
366 Human Spaceflight
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376 Futures
Text @ HarperCollinsPubiishers, 2008 383 Glossary
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List of Entries Mariner I0 USA 63
Venera 9 USSR 64
Viking USA 65
Voyager USA 66
Pioneer Venus I (Pioneer Venus Orbiter) USA 67
Pioneer Venus 2 (Pioneer Venus Multiprobe) USA 68
ISEE-3/lCE (lnternational Sun-Earth Explorer 3/lnternational Cometary
Explorer, Explorer 59) USA 69
IRAS (lnfrared Astronomy Satellite) Netherlands/UK/USA 70
Major Space Agencies Spacelab I (STS-9/STS-4IA) Europe/USA 7I
Brazilian Space Agency (A96ncia Espacial Brasileira/AEB) 22
Vega USSR 72
Canadian Space Agency (l'Agence Spatiale Canadienne/CSA) 23
Giotto Europe 73
China National Space Administration (CNSA) 24
Mir USSR 74
European Space Agency (ESA) 26
Buran USSR 75
lndian Space Research Organization (ISRO) 78
Hipparcos (High Precision Parallax Collecting Satellite) ESA 76
Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) 30
Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) USA 77
National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) 51
Russian Federal Space Agency (RKA, Roskosmos) 34
Historic Launchers
Ariane l-4 Europe 80
Selected Historic Missions Atlas l-lll USA 8I
Sputnik I (Ps-l) USSR 38
Arrow U l(
Black 82
Explorer I USA 39
Diamant France 83
Sputnik 2 (Ps-2) USSR 40
Energia (SL-17) USSR 84
Luna 3 (Automatic lnterplanetary Station/Lunik 3) USSR 4L
Europa Europe 85
TIROS I (Television and lnfrared Observation Satellite I, TIROS-I) 42
J-r Japan 86
Corona (Discoverer, KH-I-KH-48) USA 43
M-V Japan 87
Vostok I USSR 44
N-l/N-ll Japan 88
Mercury Redstone 3 (Freedom 7) USA 45
N-l (c-le/sL-Is) ussR 89
Telstar I USA 46
Redstone (Jupiter-C/uno) USA 90
Mariner 2 USA 47
Saturn lB USA 9I
Syncom I-3 USA 48
Saturn V USA 92
Ranger 7 USA 49
Scout USA 93
Mariner 4 USA 50
Sputnik/Vostok/Voskhod (A/AI) USSR 94
Voskhod USSR 5I Thor USA 95
Gemini 3 USA 52
Titan l-lV USA 96
Luna 9 USSR 53
Vanguard USA 97
Surveyor I USA 54
TACSAT I USA 55
Current/Future Launchers
Apollo lt USA 56
Angara Russia r00
Luna 16 USSR 57
Ares I (Crew Launch Vehicle/Clv) USA 101
Luna 17 (Lunokhod 1) USSR 58
Ariane 5 Europe 102
Salyut I USSR 59
Atlas V USA 103
Mariner 9 USA 60
Delta ll USA 104
Pioneer I0 USA 6t Delta IV USA 105
Skylab USA 62
Dnepr (SS-I8/Satan, R-t6M) Russia 106

6
7
APSTAR (APT) Hong l(ong/China 169
Falcon USA 107
Arabsat Saudi Arabia I70
Geostationary Launch Vehicle (GSLV) lndia r08
Artemis (Advanced Relay and Technology Satellite) Europe t7r
H-llA Japan 109
t72
AsiaSat Hong Kong/China
Kosmos 3M (Cosmos, SL-8 or C-I) Russia 110
ASTRA lnternational 173
Long March (Chang Zheng/CZ) China 111
Brasilsat Brazil 174
Minotaur USA II2 175
B-SAT Japan
Pegasus XL USA I13
L76
ChinaSat (Zhongxing) China
Proton (UR-500, D-I/D-Ie, SL-9, SL-12/SL-I3) Russia I14
DIRECTV USA L77
Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV) lndia 1I5
ETS-VIll (Engineering Test Satellite, KIKU No. 8) Japan 178
Rockot (SS-19) Russia t16
Europestar-1 (PanAmSat-12, lntelsat-12) lnternational t79
Shavit (RSA-3, LK-A) lsrael IT7
Eutelsat lnternational r80
Soyuz (SL-4, A-2)/Molniya (SL-6/A2e) Russia 118
Express Russia I8t
Start-I (SL-I8, L-1, SS-25) Russia 119
Foton Russia 182
Strela (RS-18, SS-19) Russia 120
Galaxy lnternational I83
Taurus USA LzI
Tsyklon (R-36, SL-II, SL-14) Ukraine t22 Garuda I (ACeS) lndonesia 184
Genesis USA 185
Vega Europe r23
cloVE (Galileo ln-OrbitValidation Element) Europe 186
Volna (R-29R1, RSM-50, SS-N-18) Russia t24
Globalstar USA I87
Zenit (Zenith, SL-16,J-1) Ukraine/Russia 125
Gonets Russia I88
Gorizont Russia I89
Launch Sites 190
I28 llispasat Spain
Alaska Spaceport (Kodiak Launch Complex) USA
llot Bird lnternational 19I
Alc6ntara Brazil I30
ICO USA t92
Baikonur, Tyuratam Kazakhstan t32
lnmarsat lnternational I93
Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Florida USA L34
INSAT lndia 194
Jiuquan (Shuang ChengTzu) China t36
lntelsat lnternational 195
Kapustin Yar Russia/Kazakhstan 138
lridium USA L96
Kourou (Centre Spatial Guyanais) French Guiana I40
197
Kwajalein Marshall lslands t42 JCSAT Japan
Koreasat (Mugunghwa) South l(orea r98
Odyssey (Sea Launch) USA 144
Mcasat Malaysia 199
Plesetsk, Mirnyy Russia r46
Multi-Functional Transport Satellite (MTSAT, Himawari) Japan 200
Spaceport America (Southwest Regional Spaceport) USA 148
Nahuel Argentina 201
Sriharikota (Satish Dhawan Space Center) India 150
Ncw Skies Netherlands 202
Svobodny Russia I5I
Nilesat Egypt 203
Taiyuan (Wuzhai Missile and Space Test Center) China L52
Nimiq Canada 204
Tanegashima Japan 154
( )rbcomm USA 205
Uchinoura, Kagoshima Japan L56
Silius lnternational 206
Vandenberg Air Force Base, California USA 158
lpaceway USA 207
Wallops Flight Facility,Virginia USA 160
superbird Japan 208
Xichang China r62
t t)RS (Tracking and Data Relay Satellite) USA 209
Ihaicom Thailand 210
Civil Communications Q Applications Satellites 2rl
Americom (AMC) USA r66 llror Norway
lhuraya Abu Dhabi United Arab Emirates 2r2
AMOS lsrael r67
XM Radio USA 2r3
Anik (Telstar Canada) Canada r68
9
8
Military Satellites Kepler USA 260
AEHF (Avanced Extremely High Frequency, Milstar 3) USA 2t6 l-lSA Pathfinder (Laser lnterferometer SPace Antenna) Europe/USA 26r
Araks (Arkon) Russia 2L7 MOST (Microvariability and Oscillations of Stars) Canada 262
Cosmo-SkyMed (Constellation of Small Satellites for Mediterranean Planck Europe 263
Basin Observation) ltaly 2I8 Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) USA 264
Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSp) USA 2r9 Spitzer Space TelescoPe USA 265
Defense Satellite Communications System (DSCS) USA 220 Suzaku (Astro-E2) Japan/U SA 266
Defense Support Program (DSP) USA 22I SWAS (Submillimeter Wave Astronomy Satellite) USA 267
Global Positioning System (cPS) USA 222 Swift USA 268
Glonass (Global Navigation Satellite System) Russia 223 WMAP (Wilkinson MaP AnisotroPy Probe) USA 269
Helios France 224 WISE (Wide-field lnfrared Survey Explorer) USA 270
Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX) USA 225 XMM-Newton (X-ray Multi-Mirror) EuroPe 27L
Milstar USA 226
Molniya Russia 227 Scientific Satellites: Solar System
Ofeq lsrael 228 ACE (Advanced Composition Explorer) USA 274
Oko (US-KS) Russia 229 BcpiColombo Europef aPan 275
Orbital Express (ASTRO and NextSat) USA 230 Cassini USA l/6
Parus (Tsikada-M) Russia 232 Chandrayaan-l lndia 277
SAR-Lupe Germany 233 Cluster ll (Rumba, Salsa, Samba,Tango) Europe 278
SBIRS (Space-Based lnfrared System) USA 234 Dawn USA 279
Sicral ltaly 23s l)cep lmpact USA 280
Skynet 5 UK 1)O l)cep Space I USA 281
Space Tracking and Surveillance System (STSS, SBIRS-Low) USA 237 l)ouble Star (DS-l, DS-2[an Ce (TC)iExplorer) China/Europe 282
Strela Russia 238 Galileo Orbiter USA 283
Syracuse France 239 Galileo Probe USA 284
UHF Follow-On (UFO) USA 240 (icnesis USA 285
Wideband Global SATCOM (WGS, Wideband Gapfiller Satellite) USA 24r ticotail 286
Japan/USA
Worldview USA 242 l-layabusa (Muses-C) JaPan 287
Xtar-Eur USA/Spain 243 I linode (Solar-B) Japan/USA/Ul< 288
lluygens Europe 789
Scientifi c Satellites: Astronomy I unar Reconnaissance Orbiter/Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing
AGILE (Astrorivelatore Gamma ad lmmagini Leggero) ltaly 246 satellite (LRo/LcRoss) usA 290
Akari (Astro-F, lRlS-lnfraRed lmaging Surveyor) Japan 247 Magellan USA 29I
Chandra X-Ray Observatory USA 248 Mars Exploration Rovers (Spirit and OPPortunity/MER-A and MER-B) USA 292
COROT (COnvection, ROtation, and planetary Transits) France/Europe 249 Mrrs Express Europe 793
FUSE (Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer) USA 250 Mars Global Surveyor(MGS) USA 294
GALEX (Galaxy Evolution Explorer) USA 25r Mars Odyssey USA )95
GLAST (Gamma-Ray Large Area Space Telescope) USA 252 Mars Pathfinder USA 296
Gravity Probe B USA 253 M;rrs Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) USA 297
Herschel Europe 254 M ESSENGER (MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry,
HETE-2 (High-Energy Transient Explorer-2) USA 255 ,rnd Ranging) USA 298
Hubble Space Telescope (HST) USA/Europe 256 NEAR Shoemaker (Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous) USA 299
lnfrared Space Observatory (lSO) Europe 257 Ncw Horizons USA 300
lntegral (lnternational Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory) Europe 258 I'hoenix USA 301
James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) USA/Europe/Canada 259 l\rlar [JSA 302

IO I1
RHESSI (Ramaty High-Energy Solar Spectroscopic lmager) USA 303 IRS (lndian Remote Sensing) India 344
Rosetta/Philae [u16ps 345
304 Jason-I USA/France
SELENE (Selenological and Engineering Explorer, Kaguya) 305 Kalpana (MetSat) lndia 346
Japan
SMART-I (Small Mission for Advanced Research in Technology) Europe 306 Kompass 2/COMPASS 2 (Complex Orbital Magneto-Plasma Autonomous
SOHO (Solar and Heliospheric Observatory) Europe/USA 307 Small Satellite 2) Russia 347
SORCE (Solar Radiation and Climate Experiment) USA 308 Kompsat (Korea Multipurpose Satellite)/Arirang South Korea 348
Stardust USA 309 Landsat USA 349
STEREO (Solar Terrestrial Relations Obserratory) USA 310 Meteor Russia 350
THEMIS (Time History of Events and Macroscale lnteraction Meteosat/MSG EuroPe 351
during Substorms) USA 31I MetOp Europe 352
TRACE (Transition Region and Coronal Explorer) USA 312 NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) POES (Polar
Ulysses Europe/USA 3I3 Orbiting Environmental Satellites) USA 3s3
Venus Express Europe 314 OrbView USA 354
Wind USA 315 PROBA (Project for OnBoard Autonomy) Europe 355
Radarsat Canada 356
Earth Remote Sensing Satellites SMOS (Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity) Europe 357
AIM (Acronomy of lce in the Mesosphere) USA 318 SPOT (Satellite Pour I'Observation de la Terre) France 3s8
ALOS/Daichi (Advanced Land Observing Satellite) 319 Terra USA 359
Japan
AISAT Al1;cria .IerraSAR-X 360
320 Germany
Aqua t.JSA
32r TIMED (Thermosphere, lonosphere, Mesosphere, Energetics, and
Aquarius (SAC-D) USA/Argentina 2t? Dynamics) USA 36I
Aura [JSA
323 Topex/Poseidon USA/France 362
CALIPSO (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared pathfinder Satellite TopSat UK 363
Observation) USA/France 324 TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission) USA/apan 364
CARTOSAT lndia 325 UARS (Upper-Atmosphere Research Satellite) USA 365
CBE RS (Ch ina-Brazi I Earth Resou rce Satellite/Ziyuan
) BrazilI
People's Republic of China 326 Human Spaceflight
CloudSat USA 511 Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV) Europe Jb6
Coriolis USA 328 H-ll TransferVehicle (HTV) JaPan
369
CryoSat Europe 329 lnternational Space Station (lSS) Multinational 370
Disaster Monitoring Constellation (UK/DMC) UK 330 Progress M Russia 371
Envisat Europe 331 Shenzhou People's Republic of China 372
EROS (Earth Remove Observation Satellite) lsrael ))) Soyuz TMA Russia )t )
ERS (European Remote Sensing) Europe SpaceShipOne USA 374
333
FAST (FastAuroral Snapshot) USA 334 Space Shuttle USA 375
Fengyun-2 (FY-2) China 335
FormoSat-2/ROCSat-2 (Republic of China Satellite-2) Taiwan ))o Futures 378
FormoSat-3/ROCSat-3 (Republic of China Satellite-3)/COSMtC (Constellation
obserling for Meteorology, lonosphere, and Climate) Taiwan 337 Glossary 383
GOES (Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites)USA 33g
GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) Germany/USA 33g
Himawari (Geostationary Meteorological Satellite, GMS)
Japan 340
lCESat (lce, Cloud, and Land Elevation Satellite) USA 34I
IKONOS USA 342
IMAGE (lmager for Magnetopause-to-Aurora Global Exploration) USA 343

12 I3
Fifty Years of Spaceflight
looked in panic towards the heavens and implored their Ieaders to protect them
lrom the apparent Communist threat.
This East-West rivalry was the most significant motivation behind President
John F. Kennedy's 196I rallying call to land a man on the Moon before the
r lccade was out and return him safely to the Earth. It is a sobering thought that
lhe $25 billion Apollo program, which inspired a whole generation of scientists
,rnd engineers and-at Ieast at the beginning-enthralled millions of people
Throughout its existence, the human race has been driven by ,rround the world, would not have taken place without the overwhelming
a desire to explore.
Some 70,000 years ago, the first representatives political desire to demonstrate American prowess and beat the Soviets.
of Homo sapiens began to
migrate from their homeland in Africa. our ancestors overcame advancing ice The early years of the Space Age, starting with the launch of Sputnik in October

sheets, competition for resources, and intimidating physical barriers before I 957, were marked by many setbacks and failures. Hidden behind the iron Curtain,
eventually exploring and settling in every continent. Today, there are few corners llre Soviets were able to hide their disasters, whereas the American "flopniks"
of the globe where humanity has not left its mark. took place in the full glare of the world's media. Soviet cosmonauts and

There are many motivations for exploration. Often, population pressure ,pacecraft designers were airbrushed out ofphotographs and their anonymitywas

necessitated a search for virgin land and untapped natural resources. However, r ir raranteed. Even the fact that Yuri Gagarin ejected from his Vostok capsule and

always in the background was a curiosity to find out what lay in the next valley q;;rrachuted separately to Earth was deliberately withheld. Only with the gradual
or
on the other side ofthe ocean, and a search for a deeper understanding of our opcning up ofthe Soviet program many years later were the mysterious chief
, llsigners, the unknown cosmonauts, and the numerous launch failures exposed
surroundings.
Today, with the major exception of the deep ocean floors, our planet has largely Ior all to see.

been explored and surveyed. However, the spirit ofpast explorers lives on in the Although the first launches and missions involved a great deal oftrial and
desire to learn more about humanity's place in the universe, something that can , r ror, the pace of progress was rapid. Once the ability of animals to cope with the
only be achieved by venturing forth to visit and study new worlds. ',t rcsses and hazards of spaceflight was confirmed, astronauts and cosmonauts

For the first time in history, technology has reached a state of sophisticatron Ir ;rrned not only how to survive in this unearthly environment, but also how to

that enables us to compare the evolution of our planet with its neighboring r rl ilize its unique properties for scientific research.

worlds, to catalogue the resources ofthese worlds, and to search for the answers ln April 196I, Gagarin became the {irst human to observe the blue Earth

to such fundamental questions "How did life evolvel",,,Why is the Earth so I ri ning against the black velvet of space. In 1965, Alexei Leonov became the first
as
different from its neighbors?", and 'Are we alonel', 1,r rson to walk in the vacuum of space. The following
year, Neil Armstrong and
I ),rvid Scott survived a near-disaster to achieve the first space docking. Their

The Birth ofthe Space Age


( ( )lrrageous exploits helped to prepare the way for Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin to

Inevitably, concerns over personal and national security have always played rI f oot on the Mare Tranquillitatis in July l969-thus picking up the gauntlet
a
part in humanity's inexorable drive to settle and colonize newterritories. our t lrrown down by Kennedy only eight years earlier. Eventually, nine manned
r r ri,;sions flew to the Moon, and twelve intrepid explorers left their footprints on
first, faltering footsteps towards the Final Frontier were no exception. The early
years ofthe Space Age resonated with the rhetoric ofthe cold war between the I lrl dust-covered Moon.

United States and the Soviet Union. After the dramatic successes of the Apollo program, humanity retreated to

Fifty years ago, the launch of the first artificial satellite marked the beginning rrr ;rr-Earth space, where we have remained for 35 years. The launches of the first
of a superpower race, in which national prestige and technological supremacy , rr lrrtal space stations and the advent ofthe reusable Space Shuttle led to an

were the major motivations. As the beach-ball-sized Sputnik r rrt rcasing emphasis on microgravity research and the commercialization of low
I circled the globe,
transmitting a monotonous beeping signal, the citizens of Western nations I r th orbit. At the same time, increasingly advanced, automated spacecraft

I4 I5
brought about a revolution in such fields as telecommunications, weather ';o, the $16.3 billion annual budget of NASA is now quite modest compared with
forecasting, Earth remote sensing, and navigation. rt :; heyday in the I960s, when Apollo accounted for 4% of the federal budget. At
tlrt: same time, the US spends about $20 billion per year on military space activities.
Staggering Progress Second in the space expenditure stakes, but a long way behind the US military
Since Sputnik shook the world, more than 6500 satellites have been launched. ,rrrd NASA, is the l7-nation European Space Agency (ESA). Europe has been
Although most ofthese have been inserted into various orbits around the Earth, rrrvolved in human space exploration since the early 1970s, when NASA invited
several hundred robotic ambassadors have been despatched throughout the p,rrlicipation in its crewed shuttle program. The European nations opted to
Solar System. The first, fleeting surveys undertaken by flyby spacecraft were soon r lL:velop a modular research facility, named Spacelab, that would operate in the
followed by long-lived orbiters that were able to map a planet's entire surface. , rrbiter's payload bay.
In recent years, these surveyor missions have been increasingly supplemented ln 1983, during the maiden flight of Spacelab, German Ulf Merbold made
by autonomous rovers and suicidal atmospheric probes. Every planet has been istory by becoming the first ESA astronaut to fly in space and the Jirst non-
I r

visited at least once, with Comet Churyumov-Gerasimenko and the dwarf planets A rnerican "guest" to be launched onboard a US space vehicle. Since 1978, more

Ceres and Pluto soon to be added to the list. Even more exciting is the potential Ilr;rn 30 astronauts from ESA member states have flown on 48 missions. Of these,
to bring back samples of alien material, as originally demonstrated by the Apollo .r / were cooperative programs with NASA, while 2I involved collaboration with
astronauts and the Soviet automated Luna landers. Samples of solar wind and I lrc former Soviet Union.
comet dust have already been collected by spacecraft, and Japan's Hayabusa is Such multinational cooperation has become a theme of recent years as many
currently struggling to return home with a possible payload of a few grains of ,,1 tl.re cold war rivalries have dissipated. Most signi{icantly, 16 countries have
asteroid soil. r onre together to work as partners on the International Space Station (ISS), the
Just as staggering is the progress that has been made in space-based I rrgest, most complex, and most expensive spacecraft ever to orbit the Earth.
astronomy. Refurbished by visiting astronauts on four occasions since its launch Iiuropean contributions to the ISS program include the Columbus laboratory,
in 1990, the Hubble Space Telescope has continued to amaze with its spectacular .rl least half a dozen Automated TransferVehicles, the European Robotic Arm,
and colorful images. Every wavelength in the electromagnetic spectrum is now tlrrce Multipurpose Logistics Modules, two ISS Nodes, the Data Management
utilized by state-of-the-art observatories, with the result that a menagerie of 'iystem for the Russian segment, and a European-built observation module
exotic objects, from extrasolar planets to supernovae and black holes, is now open , ,rllcd a cupola. In addition to these elements, Europe provides specialist
to scrutiny. Even more ambitious future missions are being designed to try to r icnti{ic facilities, including a Microgravity Glovebox and various refrigerators
prove the existence of invisible dark matter, dark energy, and gravity waves. rrrrl freezers. Another major contributor to the ISS is Russia, which has provided
The peaceful uses of space are many and varied, but, like a large iceberg in the ' , vcral modules (one funded by the US) and a reliable, low-cost space
ocean, the global space program has a less familiar, hidden side. Although the I r, rrsportation system involving its Soyuz and Progress craft. Like Europe, Japan
fears ofthe Sputnik generation that space would become a battleground have not , lics on the US and Russia to deliver its astronauts to orbit, but its scientists are
been fuliilled, the Earth is girdled by dozens of military satellites designed to link l, roking forward to conducting some groundbreaking microgravity research in
armed forces around the globe, warn of ballistic missile launches, and spy on I lrt, new Kibo laboratory. AJapanese cargo transfer vehicle, the HTV, is also under
rival nations. Although they rarely grab the headlines, huge sums are spent on ,1, vclopment. Meanwhile, Canada has created its own specialized niche by
these secret programs. Occasionally, as is the case with the US military Global , lr vcloping a series of advanced robotic arms and manipulators.
Positioning System, a program may eventually benefit society as a whole. At the same time, the US, Russia, Europe, Japan, China, and India have developed
I lrt,ir own autonomous access to space, while Brazil has ambitions to do the same.
A Multinational Endeavor rrrce the first Ariane launch in December 1979, the family of European launch
Since the Space Age began, the United States has been the pacesetter for space ,, lricles has been the strategic keyto the development ofall European space
expenditure, and this trend is likely to continue for the foreseeable future. Even Lpgrlications, dominating the world's commercial launch market for many years.

t6 17
Picture Credits
Today, the healryJift Ariane 5 can carry a payload of two large commercial
satellites to geostationary transfer orbit, and a modified version will soon launch
Alrll 130, I53;AIP138;Arianespace Martin 166,184,I97,209,216,219,
the first ATV on a rendezvous-and-docking mission to the ISS. European launch
I /7; Alcatel 169; Alcatel Lucent 46; ASI 220,222,226,234,253,3I2,342;
capabillties will also be augmented with the introduction of the small Vega
.r4(r; Astra I73;BAE 73; BallAerospace Makeyev-plan Soc I24; MarkWade,
vehicle and a launch pad for the Russian Soyuz rocket at Europe's spaceport in
.)', l, 270;BigelowAerospace t5I, 185; EncyclopediaAstronautica 2I7,232;
Kourou, French Guiana.
lliLmingham University 328; Boeing Mid-Atlantic Spaceport 160, 16l;MiT
In the current modest launch market, competition for launch contracts is high,
( Communication) 2t 1;
I lughes Space 25 5; Nahuelsat 201; NASA 34, 42, 45,
even though China's highly reliable Long March vehicles and India's PSLV and
Itocing/Thomas Baur 105; Boeing 48, 49, 50, 52, 54, 56, 6I, 63, 65, 66, 69,7 4,
GSLV launchers are largely excluded from the commercial market by restrictive
17 4, r92,206,207 ,208,209, 77 ,91,92,96, t04,248,25I,252,25g,
US technology-transfer regulations. The oversupply of launchers is not helped by "',,172,
.) | 0, 2I2, 2I3, 230, 240; Brian Harvey 260, 265, 268, 269, 27 4, 280, 28I, 283,
the availability of decommissioned missiles that can deliver small payloads to
r/7; CfA Harvard 267; CGWC IIl, 285,290,29l,292,294,295,296,2g7,
low Earth orbit. Russia, in particular, retains a sizeable legacy of launchers and
modified missiles left over from the cold war era.
t 83,
62; CGWIC L52; CIA 43; CNES 298,299,301, 302, 303, 310, 3t I, 3 15,
.) t9, 249, 345; CNSA 24; CSA 23, 262, 32L, 322, 323, 327, 338, 343, 34g, 352,
However, it is a modern communist power that has taken over the secretive
r',6;DigitalGlobe242;DLR360; 359,362,364,365,37I,373,379;
role of the former Soviet Union. Although it is no longer possible to hide a
rrAi)S-Astrium 82,168,170,180, 191, NASA/Bill Ingalls 22; NASA_Ames 67,
Iaunch disaster from the watching world media, the Chinese space program,
I el, 195, 203,204,224,236,320,336, 68,284; NASA_ESA 276; NASA_GSFC
largely overseen by the People's Liberation Army, remains reluctant to open up
I l9, 358; Energia 5).,72,75,84, 264,334,353;NASA-He_GRIN 32;
40,4I,
its secrets to the outside world.
rr'.r; 94; ESA 25,26,27,7I,76,80,85, NASA-JpL 47;
NASA_KSC 103, I28,
What is clear, however, is that society has been irrevocably changed by the
t t 4, 123, 17 I, L82, 186,254,256,257 , 250,309,375; NASA_LaRC 93; NASA_
Space Age. The livesofjust about everyone in the developed world are touched in
some way by space technology and innovation-whether it be weather satellites,
.),,8, 261, 263, 27 I, 27 5, 27 8, 27 9, 282, MSFC 33, 38, 39, 62, 90, g 5, 97, I0l,
):'9,293,304,306,3I3,329,331,333, 286,308,370;NASA_NSSDC60;
Earth-imaging spacecraft, hand-held navigation systems and mobile phones,
t" I ,357 ,380; ESA/S. Corvaj a t 18; Netherlands
satellite TV broadcasting, or broadband Internet connections. Even in the less
Space Research Institute
l,SA-CNES-Arianespace I02,I40; 70; New Mexico State Univ l4g;
developed countries, space is seen as a driver for high-tech industries and as an
| :j,^-D Ducros 314, 368; ESA-NASA Northrup Grumman 237; Novosti 59;
inspiration for young scientists and engineers. There seems little doubt that the
advances of the last 50 years will be more than matched by the innovations of
i(i7; Eurockot 116,146; GeoEye 136; NpO Mashinostroveniva I20; NpO
I Lrmpton Univ 3I8,324; Hispasat I90; pM 18t,238; OHB 110,233; OSC
the next {ive decades.
tt\l 177,228,332; INPE 326; Inter- (Orbital Sciences) lI2, tt3, f2I,17S,
Given the many varied and different missions and types of technology
Lrsrnos-CNES 64,227;IridiurnIg6; 183, 199, 202,205,337, 354; peter
associated with space over the past {ifty years we have been unable to include
i'rrtO 28, 29, 108, 115, L50,I94,277, Bond 53, 188; einetiq 363; Roscosmos
every single rocket and spacecraft-however the author and editorial team have
',.)", ]44,346;Izmiran 347;Jane'sL43, 122; RSF 223; SAFT 350; Scaled
carefully selected the most signi{icant or recent missions/pieces of hardware, and
i l5; Japanese Ministry ofLand Composites 374; Sea Launch I25,I44;
tried to give as representative a spread ofthe subject as possible. In addition, we
r rlr astructure and Transport 200;

hope that the photographs are sufficiently representative ofthe subjects covered JAI(A Selenia Spazio 235; SpaceX I07, L42;
i0, j1,86,87,88, 109, 154, 156,I78, SS/Loral 179,243 SSTL 330; Starsem
here; the reader should bear in mind that in some cases photos are very rare or
' /,266,288,3I9,340,369;
l I32,I87; Swedish Space Corp. 119;
have restricted access - so some compromises have necessarily been made.
IAXA/Akihiro Ikeshita 287,305;lHU Teledyne BrownEngineeringI8g,22g;
:,'t;JHU-4PL225,300; IGRI 348; ThalesAlenia 176,1"98,218; USAF 8I,
Peter Bond
,lrr unichev 100; Kosmotras 106; LASp I34,I58,22I,241; Verhaert/ESA 355;
r.l l; Lavochkin 57,58; Lockheed Wikipedia 44

18
19
Molor
Spsce
Agencfes
Canadian Space Agency (r'rceruce
Brazilian space Agency (rctr.rcn ESPACTAL austretuAee)
I ,lrrr H. Chapman Space Center, Canada pictured
Marcos Pontes pictured

AEB was created on ;f"


February 10, 1994, as

an autonomous agency
under the Ministry of
Science and Tech-
7k
nology. It replaced the
Brazilian Commission
for Space Activities
(COBAE), which led
I tr' , i.,
Brazil's space activities
s *fir
from the 1970s. AEB's
headquarters are in
Brasilia. The agency
comprises four
directorates: Space
Policy and Strategic lrc CSA was established by the Canadian Space Agency Act of March 19g9,
Investment; Satellite ,.'irrch came into force on December 14, 1990. The legislated
mandate of the
Applications and t ljA rs: "To promote the peaceful use and development of space, to advance
Development; Space I lrt knowledge of space through science and
to ensure that space science and
Transportation and Licensing; and Planning, Budget, and Administration. t, i hnology provide social and economic benefits for Canadians.,'
Brazil's Ministry of Defense operates the Alcintara Launch Center, the site The CEO of the agency is the president, whose rank is equivalent to that
from which AEB tests its small satellite orbital launch vehicle, the Veiculo , ,1 :r deputy minister and who repofis
to the Minister of Industry. The Agency
Lanqador de Sat6lites (VLS). I r r,, {ive core areas: Space Programs, Space
Technologies, Space Science, the
The national space budget in 2003 was $56 million. Traditionally, the ( rrradianAstronaut Office, and Space Operations.
country's satellite activity has concentrated upon Earth observation The CSA has about 635 employees and some 170 service contractors,
applications, including remote sensing, meteorology, and oceanography. ' tt) il, of whom work at the
John H. Chapman Space Center, the agency
Other priorities are telecommunications science and the development of an irr rdquarters in Longueuil, Quebec. The Agency's annual budget is around
indigenous launch capability. I rS $240 million.
Brazil favors a policy ofjoint technological development with other,
'Ihe CSA has several partnerships and collaborative programs with space
more advanced nations. Initially relying heavily on the United States, the ,r,( ncies in other countries, such as NASA, ESA, andJA){A. SinceJanuary I,
()
agency ran into difficulties over technology transfer restrictions. Recently, 't / , Canada has had the special status of a cooperating state with ESA,
Brazil has extended its cooperation to other countries. In 2003, Brazil agreed ' ,r ,bling it to participate in ESA discussions, programs, and activities. Most
to upgrade AlcAntara for international launches of Ukraine's Tsyklon-4 rocket. ' rrrrdian space activities are conducted in collaboration with international
The Russian Federal Space Agency has agreed to assist in the development of ' r lners. Canada's major technological contributions include the Canadarm
a new launch vehicle family. A number of satellites have been developed r, rhanical arm on the Space Shuttle, together with the Canadarm2 and the

under the China-Brazil Earth Resources Satellite (CBERS) program. Involvement r r,rbile Servicing System on the International Space Station. Eight Canadian
in the International Space Station (ISS) has suffered from financial cutbacks, I r onauts have flown into orbit on the Space Shuttle.

but a Brazilian astronaut flew to the ISS in a Soyrz spacecraft in March 2006.
23
22
China National Space Administration (cr.rsr)
CNSA Iaunch ftelow); CNSA-ESA cooperation (opposite)

In recent years, China has shown an increasing interest in collaborating


rvith international partners. Among those countries to have signed space
, ooperation agreements with them are Brazil, Chile, France, Germany, India,
lr,rly, Pakistan, Russia, Ukraine, the United Kingdom, and the United States.
I lowever, commercial launch activities have been severely curtailed by US
lr,rde restrictions intended to prevent arms proliferation and transfer of
',r'nsitive technologies.
China has developed a variety oftelecommunications, Earth resources,
.rrrrl meteorological satellites, although many have been dual-use in nature,
' rrpporting both civil and military efforts. National space spending is
,'limated at around $3 billion per year. In the past decade, China's
rrrvcstment in space science, including infrastructure and programs, exceeded
',I 12.5 million. Key research areas will also include astronomy and solar

I
rlrysics, space physics and solar system exploration, microgravity sciences,
rrrrl space life science. Following on from the Double Star collaboration with
I liA, CNSA plans to launch three satellites to conduct exploration ofthe
',rrn and solar wind. Another priority is deep space exploration, focusing on
lrrrr;rr and Mars exploration. The lunar program will have three stages: the
r lr,rr-rg'e-l lunar orbiter, a surface rover, and a sample return mission.
'Ihe PLA retains control ofthe space infrastructure, such as the launch
,, rrLers and mission control centers.

Until 1998, China's space program was controlled by the People's Liberation
Army (Pl,A). In that year, the civil and military aspects of the program
were separated with the establishment of the China National Space
Administration.
The CNSA reports to the Commission of Science, Technology and
Industry for National Defense. It is responsible for signing governmental
agreements in the space area, including intergovernmental scientific and
technical exchanges; for enforcing national space policies, as laid down in
each five-year plan; and for managing space science, technology, and
industry. This includes responsibility for the planning and promotion
of civilian space activities, such as the manufacture of launchers and civilian
satellites. There are four departments under the CNSA: General Planning;
System Engineering; Science; Technology, and Quality Control; and
Foreign Affairs.

24 ac
European Space Agency (esr)
ESA headquarters, Paris (below); ESA headquarlers interior (right)

hu__ ,,€.!fl liSA's headquarters are in Paris, France, where policies and programs are
1
1' , rrled upon. ESA also has centers in various European countries: European

tk***-y_ ^t

I
Ir onauts are trained for future missions at the European Astronauts Center
rt.,) in Cologne, Germany; the European Space Astronomy Center (ESAC) in
_.. t1

+K 'rL rfrancadelCastillo,Spain,hoststhescienceoperationcentersforallESA
trorromy and planetary missions together with their science archives; the
ropcan Space Operations Center (ESOC) in Darmstadt, Germany, is
' ponsible for controlling ESA satellites in orbit; the ESA Center for Earth
r rl,.crvation (ESRIN) in Frascati, Italy, is responsible for collectrng, storing,
,l rlistributing Earth observation satellite data and is also the agency's
1 ( r lnation technology center; the ESTEC in Noordwijk, the Netherlands,
)

I (, main center for ESA spacecraft design, technology development,


I r

,,1 lr:sting. ESA has liaison offices in Belgium, the United States, and Russia.

The European Space Agency was established on May 31,I975, by merging


the activities of the European Launcher Development Organization (ELDO)
and the European Space Research Organization (ESRO).
Dedicated to the peaceful exploration of space, the original agency had
10 founding members: Belgium, West Germany, Denmark, France, the
United Kingdom, Italy, the Netherlands, Sweden, Switzerland and Spain.
More recent additions to the membership are Austria, Ireland, Portugal,
Greece, Norway, Finland, and Luxembourg, bringing the number of member
states to 17. Canada, Hungary, Poland, and the Czech Republic also
participate in some projects under cooperation agreements.
ESA has no formal link to the European Community (EC). However, in
recent years the ties between them have been reinforced by the increasing
role that space plays in strengthening Europe's global political and economic lrSA's spaceport in Kourou, French Guiana, is owned by the French

role, and in supporting European policies through space exploration and I rrrral space agency, Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES). It is used

utilization. Recent joint initiatives include the Galileo global navigation I I :jA and the commercial space launch company Arianespace to deliver

satellite system and Global Monitoring for Environment and Security program, ,,1,t,an payloads to space.
which was endorsed by ESAs Ministerial Council in December 2005. rSA has developed the Columbus laboratory and other hardware for the
ESA has a staff (excluding subcontractors and national space agencies) ' rn;rtional Space Station (ISS), and its Ariane rockets have become world
of about 1900, with an annual budget of about $4 billion in 2006. Most of the ' l, rs in the commercial launch market. ESA astronauts have flown on the
staff are based at the European Space Research and Technology Center (ESTEC) , r Shuttle and Soyuz to Mir and the ISS. The agency also has highly
, , ss[u] space science and Earth observation programs. ESA collaborates
in the Netherlands. The agency operates on the basis of geographical return:
,lr rll other space powers, most recently with China on the Double
that is, it invests in each member state, through industrial contracts for space
programs, an amount more or less equivalent to each country's financial l)rogram.
contribution.
27
26
Indian Space Research Organization (rsno)
Satish Dhawan Space Center ftelow); INSAT-4c satellite (opposite)

r .rrlt:r which has development wings in Bangalore and Trivandrum,


'.rrlrported by major test facilities at Mahendragiri for a wide spectrum of
motors, from reaction control system thrusters to the Vikas and
lr, lr r rtl

,ry,,licnic engines.
ISRO's annual budget in 2005-6 was about $550 million, with large
rr, r'.rses expected in future years. Its prime objective is to develop space
t, , lrrrologies and their application to various national tasks' It has created
tur, rrrajor space systems: INSAT satellites for communication, television
l,r',,rrlcasting ,and meteorological services; and the Indian Remote Sensing
r l ll i) s;rtellites for monitoring and management of Earth resources. It has

,1,,, rlcveloped the PSLV and GSLV rockets to launch national and
r rt . r r r;rtional payloads. It is now beginning to consider deep space missions
r

ISRO was established in 1969 as India's primary space RQD organization, rrr,l ,r human spaceflight program.
responsible for developing launcher and propulsion systems, launch sites, lljllO works with the Antrix Corporation, the commercial arm of the
and satellites and their tracking networks. Personnel totals rose from 13,488 I ,r l),n lrnent of Space, to promote commercialization of products and services
in 1986 to 16,800 in 1996 and stood at 16,400 in 2002. There are numerous lr ,
'r11
llls Indian space program.
centers and units. The Vikram Sarabhai Space Center near Trivandrum, the
base for launcher and propulsion development, is ISRO's targest facility with
4700 personnel. Another major center is the Liquid Propulsion Systems

28 29
Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (;rxa;
Sagamihara Center (below); Tsukuba Center (right)

r rrl several Japanese astronauts have flown to the station on the

', Shuttle.
,\l'Cj leads aviation research and continues to build on NAL's past
t
, I r' q,1,11sn1r. Projects include the Hypersonic Experimental Vehicle, a

i' , n[]er plane similar to the Concorde, and Unmanned Aerial Vehicle
I ' opment.
IAXA's budget declined from a high of Y226 billion ($1.9 billion) in 1999
t,, /(, billion ($I.5 billion) in 2005.This decline caused delays in a number
,t,,' lict and satellite programs. However, the 2006 budget saw a modest
, , i r\c to Y180.1 billion ($1.53 billion).
,

rr April 2005, JAXA released its 20-year vision statement. This included
,i rl, i r velopment of "launch vehicles and satellites with the highest reliability
,, I '',orld-class capability, with a viewto building a secure and prosperous
JAXA was formed on October l, 2003, through the integration ofthree ,
space-related organizations: the Institute of Space and
' ty. JAXA shall also work toward taking a leading position in the world in
Astronautical science , ,' ,cience and begin preparations forJapan's own human space activities
the National Aerospace Laboratory (NAf), and the National
(ISAS),
Space , , ' i' ,r the utilization of the Moon. JAXA shall further conduct a flight demon-
Development Agency (NASDA).
JAXA,s headquarters are in Tokyo. The agency 1 , L, ) r r of a prototype hypersonic aircraft that can fly at the speed of Mach 5."

also maintains over 20 field centers and tracking station


sites in Japan, as r trrc k€y initiative is Sentinel Asia, a rapid-response disaster management
well as offices in Washington DC; Houston, Texas; paris, France;
Bangkok, ,,,r, based on satellite data and images,that involves 19 nations. In
Thailand; and a liaison office at NASA,s Kennedy Space Center,
Florida. ' II I rr i n to its leading role in space astronomy, the agency plans to send

JAXA has a regular staffofabout 1700 plus graduate students and foreign lo Mercury, Venus, and Jupiter and to conduct a program of robotic
researchers.
l,!, ir ( xploration.
JAXA is organized into six key divisions and institutes: the Office of
Spaceflight and Operations; the Office of Space Applications;
the Institute of
Aerospace Technology (IAT); the Institute of Space
and Astronauticar Science
(ISAS); the Human Space Systems and Utilization program
Group; and the
Aviation Program Group (ApG).
ISAS retained its name after
JAXA was formed and continues to focus
upon space science, observation, and planetary research.
It was responsible
for launching Ohsumi,Japan,s first satellite, in 1970. It is
currentlythe lead
organization for the Hayabusa asteroid sample return mission
and has plans
to send spacecraft to Venus and Mercury in the coming years.
ISAS works in
cooperation with Japanese universities wishing to conduct
space science
research.
The Human Space Systems and Utilization program Group
deals with all
human spaceflight activities, including astronaut training
and International
Space Station (ISS) activities. providing the Kibo laboratory for the
Japan is

30
National Aeronautics and Space Administration (lrasr)
Thc Jct Propulsion Laboratory, California (below); ISS payload Operations Center, MSFC (right)

1 rI I r science research. Although NASA is its main client, JPL also performs
' ,rl {or other US government agencies, such as DOD.
'I he l(ennedy Space Center in Florida was the launch site for the Apollo

, ,, I Skylab missions. It is currently responsible for processing, launching, and


l r, I r r-rg the Space Shuttle and its payloads, including International Space
r Ltion (ISS) components.
NASA's budget peaked in 1966, prior to the Apollo Moon landings, when
I In 2005 and 2007, its
ri counted for 4%o ofttre total US federal budget.
,,", r'all budget was about $I6.2 billion (about 0.6% of the federal budget)'
i.lrrrc than $3 billion is devoted to Exploration Systems, which plans to
,1, vclop a crew Exploration Vehicle (cEV) and Crew Launch Vehicle in order

t, omplete a human lunar surface expedition no later than 2020' Human


rt

rceflight, including flying the Space Shuttle and completion ofthe ISS by
,
,010, is allocated $7 billion. After retirement of the shuttle in 2010, crews will
1,, carried to the ISS by Soyuz and the new CEV.The budget also provides
.',.2 billion in funding for NASAs science missions and $900 million for
NASA was formally established on October l, 195g, replacing the National r( ronautics research.
Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. Its remit was to plan and execute the
US civil space program, which was by then in competition with the Soviet
Union, following the launches of the first Sputniks.
Today, NASA comprises four Mission Directorates: Exploration Systems,
whose main objective is to support the Vision for Space Exploration,
involving sending humans to the Moon, Mars, and beyond; Space Operations,
charged with the management of the International Space Station and the
Space Shuttle programs, as well as launch services and space communi_
cations; Science, responsible for space science research including solar
system exploration and Earth observation; and, last, Aeronautics Research.
NASA employs about 18,000 civil servants, over half ofwhom are
scientists and engineers. Roughly 1100 personnel are located at NASA
Headquarters in Washington, DC. The Agency also operates ten major
research centers and facilities. These include the
John H. Glenn Research
Center at Lewis Field, Cleveland, Ohio, which is NASA,s lead organization for
aeronautics and space propulsion, and microgravity science research; the
Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas, NASA's lead center for human
space flight and home to its astronaut corps; and the propulsion
Jet
Laboratory (JPL) in Pasadena, California, a federally funded facility operated
by the California Institute ofTechnology. Jpl, has bccn under contract to
NASA since 1958. Its main areas ofexpcrtise are planetary cxploration and

)z 33
Russian Federal Space Agency (nrn/nosr<osr,aos)
Mission control centre picturcd

also share control ofthe Yuri Gagarin Cosmonaut


Training Center at Zvezdny Gorodok (Star City)'
near Moscow.
RKA manages more commercial launches per
year than any other agency or country. It has a
25/o slake in the Starsem launch company and
recently signed an agreement with ESA to launch
Soyuz vehicles from Kourou, French Guiana.
Since its creation, the agency has experienced
a constant lack offunding, which has curtailed
development of new spacecraft and launch
vehicles. Science funding, in particular, has
suffered, with very few new missions launched.
This has resulted in increased collaboration with
international partners; efforts to encourage
launches of commercial satellites, including the
marketing of various missile systems as
commercial launchers; and space tourism.
As a major partner in the International Space
Station (ISS), Russia has provided three modules,
one under a commercial arrangement with NASA,
as well as regular Soyuz and Progress missions to
the station. After the initial ISS contract with
The llussian Federal Space Agency, formerly the Russian Aviation and Space
NASA expired, RI(A agreed to sell seats on Soyuz
Agency (llosaviakosmos), is the government agency responsible for Russia's million per
spacecraft for approximately $21
civil space program. It was created by Presidential decree in February 1992,
person each way and to provide Progress transport
after thc brcakup ofthe former Soviet Union and the dissolution ofthe
flights ($50 million each) until 2011.
Sovict sp;rcc program. RI(A headquarters are located in Moscow, where it The recent boom in oil and gas prices has Ied
has abouL 300 cmployees, with another 600 offsite. to promises of increased funds, with a 2006
Rl(A is rcsponsible for all manned and unmanned nonmilitary space
budget of about $900 million, a 33oZ increase over
flights ancl uscs thc Russian technology companies, infrastructure, and
the 2005 budget. Under the current lO-year plan,
launch sitcs thrl bclonplcd to the former Soviet space program. Its principal
the RKA budget will increase 5-10% per year.
areas of rcsponsibility include state programs, human spaceflight, science
This may allow further expansion of the Russian
and comnrcrci;rl s;rtr:llitcs, intcrnational affairs, and ground infrastructure.
section of the ISS, the development of the Kliper
Thc major luunch ccnte r at Baikonur, formerly part of Soviet territory,
reusable spacecraft, and the first launches of
is now leascd fronr tht: govcrnment of l(azakhstan for $1I5 million per year
spacecraft to Mars and the Moon in many years.
In June 2005, thc lc;rsc wls cxtcndcd until 2050. The former military base is
scheduled to be handcd ovcr 1o RI(A control in 2007. RKA and the military

34 35
Selected
Historic
Mlsslons
Sputnik I (PS-t) ussn I xplorer I usr
First orbital artificial satellite r r IJS satellite to orbit eadh

SPECIFICATION: SPECIFICATION:
MANUFAcTURER: OKB-1 (Korolev) MANUFACTuRER: Jet Propulsion
LAUNcH DAIE: October 4. 1957 Laboratory
oRBrr:947 x 228 km (588 x LAUNcH DATE: January 31, 1958
142 mi), 65' inclination oRBrr:360 x 2532 km (223 x
lAUNcH s[E: Baikonur, 1572 mi), 3l.l' inclinatlon
Kazakhstan LAUNcH s rE: Cape Canaveral,
LAUNcHER: Sputnik (R-7) Florid a

LAUNcH MAss:83.6 kg (t8+ lb) LAUNcHER: Juplter C /Juno l


soov oraveren:0.6 m (1.9 ft) LAUNcH MAss: 14 kg (30.8 lb)
PAYLoaD: 2 radio transmitters including integral upper stage
motor
DTMENs oNs: 2 x 0.2 m (6.6 x
0.5 ft) including attached rocket
stage
PAYLoaD: Geiger counter; micro-
meteorite detectors; internal and
external temperature sensors

Sputnik I enabled the USSR to launch the world's first artificial satellite. The
satellite was a smooth aluminum sphere about the size of a basketball that
contained a radio transmitter and batteries. Trailing behind it were four whip
aerials of between I.5 and 2.9 m(4.9 and 9.5 ft) in length.
After the launch of Sputnik 1, the US Army Ballistic Missile Agency was
Simple Satellite I
(PS-l) was launched on a slightly modified R-7 ICBM.
clirected to launch a satellite using the Jupiter C rocket developed by Wernher
The changes included removing the radio system from the core booster and
von Braun's team. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory designed and built the
modifiTing the {iring regime of both the core and strap-on engines.
satellite payload in less than three months.
After launch, it was named "sputnik," meaning "Companion,'or
Explorer I carried S kg (17.6 lb) of instruments designed to collect data
"Satellite." The sphere was filled with nitrogen under pressure. As it circled
on cosmic rays, meteorites, and temperature. The cosmic ray detector was
the Earth every 96 min, its "beeping" signal delivered a message of apparent
designed to measure the Earth's radiation environmen and revealed a much
Soviet military superiority in space that caused major concern among
lower cosmic ray count than expected. Dr. James Van Allen theorized that the
Western nations. Spacecraft tracking provided data about the density ofthe
rnstrument may have been saturated with strong radiation from a belt of
upper atmosphere. Sputnik transmitted for 21 days but survived rn orbit for
charged particles trapped in space by Earth's magnetic field. The existence of
92 days before burning up during reentry on Janu ary 4, 1958.
these radiation belts was later confirmed, and they became known as the Van
AIIen belts.
Explorer 1 followed an elliptical orbit with a period of II4.8 minutes' The
satellite itself was 2 m (80 in) long and I5.9 cm (6.3 in) in diameter. Its final
ii
transmission came on May 23, 1958. It burned up in Earth's atmosphere on
March 31, 1970, after more than 58,000 orbits.

38 39

I
t
Sputnik 2 (PS-2) ussn luna 3 (Automatic Interplanetary Station/Lunik 3) ussn

First satellite to carry a live animal I L I nlr;rges of the Moorfs far side

SPECIFICATION:
SPECIFICATION:
MANUFAcTuRER: O!(B-1 (Korolev)
MANUFAcTuRER: OKB-1 (l(orolev) Ociober 4' 1959
LAUNcH DATE:
LAUNcH oarE: November 3,1957
oRBrr:40,100 x 476,500 km
oRBrr: 225 x 1671 km (140 x (25,041 x 296,091 mi)' 73 8'
1038 mi), 65.3' inclination
inclination
LAUNcH slrE: Baikonur,
rnurcr stre: Baikonur,
Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
LAUNcHERi Sputnik (R-7)
LAUNcH€R: Luna 8K72 (R-7
LAUNcH MAss: 508 kg (1118 lb)
Sputnik with Block E escaPe
BoDY DrMENsroNs: 1.2 m (3.9 ft)
stage)
long r auNcH MAss: 278.5 kB (615 lb)
PAYLoAD: Pressurized container
DrMENsroNs: 1 l x 1 2 m (4.3 x
with dog Laika; Geiger counters; 3.e ft)
2 ultraviolet and x-ray spectro-
PAYLoAD: Yenisey 2TV imaging
photomctcrs
system; micrometeoroid
detector; cosmic ray d€tector

ln January 1959, Luna 1 became the first spacecaft to


fly past the Moon' In
The first satellite to carry a live animal was the result of Premier on the Moon
licptember, the USSR successfully crashed the Luna 2 spacecraft
I(hrushchev's "request" to Iaunch a satellite in time for the 40th anniversary Luna the first probe to
r{ter {ive failed attempts. It was soon followed by 3,
of the Great October Revolution in November 1957. Sputnik 3 was not ready, roughly cylindrical
''rnd back images of the Moon's far side' Luna 3 was a
so, with less than four weeks to prepare, Sergei Korolev's OKB-I design team
.,pacecraft powered by solar cells, with gas jets for stabilization and
decided to modiff the already-built PS-2 "Simple Satellite" by adding a
l,hotoeiectric cells to maintain
orientation' The spacecraft was controlled by
container derived from the payload ofthe R-2A suborbital scientific rocket.
r;rdio command from Earth.
The spherical, pressurized container carried the dog Laika, the first living that enabied the
Luna 3 was launched into a highly elliptical Earth orbit
creature to orbit the Earth. The padded cabin provided enough room to lie with a minimum
:;pacecraft to swing behind the Moon on October 6'
down or stand. Laika was fitted with electrodes to monitor life signs. camera took 29
riistance of about 6200 km (3853 mi)' The dual-lens TV
The scientific purpose of the mission was to gather data on the effects but sunlit' far side'
lrhotographs over 40 min,
imaging 7O7o of the unseen'
of weightlessness on an animal, in preparation for a human flight. The
satellite was not designed to return to Earth with its occupant. Laika survived
i-"g., *... recorded on photographic film, then developed' fixed' and dried
Earth' The {igure-eight
on board before being scanned for transmission to
in orbit for perhaps 5-7 h (figures vary) but died when the cabin overheated. southern hemisphere' then
tlight path carried the spacecraft over the Moon's
Sputnik 2 reentered the atmosphere on April 14, I958, after 2570 orbits. back towards Earth'
ttiverted northwards above Earth-Moon plane and

Contact with the probe was lost on October 22'

41
40
TIROS I (Television and lnfrared Observation Corona (Discoverer, KH-I-KH-4B) usr
satellite I, TtRos-l) t ,r I US suneillance satellite

lrtt'.1 rrplt,rlrrrll,1l wr,,rllrlr .,,rl1llrlt,

SPECIFICATION:
MANUFAcTURER: NASA
LAUNcH DArE: April 1,1960
oRBrr: 692 x 740 km (430 x
460 mi),48.4' inc ination
LAUNcH strE: Cape Canaverrl,
Florida
raurcsen: Thor-Able
LAUNCH MAss: D0 kg(270 16)
DrMENstoNs: 1.1 x 0.6 m
(3.s x 1.8 ft)
PAYLoaD: 2 TV cameras

(iorona was the code name for America's first SPECIFICATION: (KH-t)
MANUFAcTuRER: Lockheed SPace
space photo reconnaissance satellite program' Systems
Approved by President Eisenhower in February LAUNcH DATE: Februar}/ 28,1959
oRBrr:210 x 415 km (131 x
1.958, its objective was to take Pictures of secret 258 mi), 82.9' inclination

rnstallations and military bases in the Soviet Bloc


(variable)
uuucu stre: Vandenberg,
countries. The initial Corona launches were California
LAUNcHER: ThotrAgena A
hidden as part a space technology program called LAUNcH MAss:779 kg(l 717 lb)
Discoverer. DrMENsroNs:5.9 x i.5 m (19.5 x
5ft)
The first test launches took place in early PAYLoAD: f or 2 convergent Pan
cameras; stellar ierrain camera
1959, and the first launch with a camera
TIROS I began as a joint NASA/DOD project to develop a weather and (Discoverer 4) was in June 1959. The Jirst 13
reconnaissance satellite. power was supplied by batteries charged by 9200
missions did not return any images' The {irst
solar cells mounted on the sides and top ofthe spacecraft. Three pairs of
success came on August 18, 1960, when a KH-l
solid-propellant rockets on the base plate controlled its spin.
obtained images of more lhan 4.27 million km'
The spacecraft was spin-stabilized and space-oriented (not Earth_
(1.65 million mi') of Soviet territory on 915 m
oriented). As it rotated, the cameras scanned the clouds and surface. Each first Corona photo
(3000 ft) of 70 mm film. The
camera could take l6 pictures per orbit. The wide-angle camera imaged ofthe
showed a Soviet air base on the shores
an area roughly 1207 km, (750 mi?), the narrow angle an area about
Arctic Ocean. While in orbit, Corona took photo-
I29 km'(80 mi'). When TIROS was in range of a ground station, the cameras
graphs with a constant rotating panoramic camera
could be commanded to take a picture every l0 or 30 sec.
system and loaded the exposed photographic film
The mission ended onJune 15, 1960, after 7g days. TIROS I returned
into recovery vehicles. There were I45 Corona
22,952 cloud-cover photos. Nine more TIRoS satellites were subsequently
missions between 1959 and I972-The last images
launched, carrying infrared radiometers as well as TV cameras. The last of
were taken on May ]I,1972. A total of more than
these, TIROS 10, was launched on July 2, 1965, and shut down on
July 3, 800,000 images were taken on 640,000 m
1967. Altogether, more than 500,000 cloud images were returned.
(2.1 million ft) of {ilm stored in 39,000 cans'

42 43
Vostok I ussn Mercury Redstone 3 (Freedom 7) usa
First human spaceflight I rr r;t US human sPaceflight

SPECTFICATION (MR-3):
MANUFAcTuRER: McDonnell
LAUNcH DArE: MaY 5,1961
oRBrr: suborbital, 187.5 km
(116.5 mi) altrtude
LAUNcH SlrE: CaPe Canavel al'
F lofld a

LAUNcHER: Redstone
LAUNcH MAss: ]290 kg (2838 lb)
DrMENsroNs:4 x 1.9 m (I3.2 x
6.2ft\
, cnew: Alan ShePard

IIBTRTY
SttL
l

-L//.
'//) -'.- /
/t(wnp

Launched into space by a modified R-7 ballistic SPECIFICATION:


MANUFACTURER: OKB-1 (Korolev)
missile, Vostok comprised a spherical reentry
LAUNcH DATE: April 12, 1961
capsule, which housed the cosmonaut, a oRBrr: 181 x 327 km (112 x
203 mi), 64.95" inclination
instrumentation section, and a rocket engine. uuncn srre: Baikonur,
The capsule was as small
There was no backup engine. The spacecraft was Kazakhstan
LAUNcHER: Vostok (R-7)
Mercury was America's first man-in-space program'
designed to operate automatically, with minimal payload capability of the Redstone rocket' which was
LAUNcH MAss:47J0 kg as possible to match the
involvement by the cosmonaut. Secret codes to (10,406 lb)
flighis, and the Atlas, which was used for orbital missions'
orMENsroNs:2.3 m (7.5 ft) ,.rr.d fo, suborbital
unlock the controls were placed in an envelope for comprised a cone-shaped crew compartment' topped by a
cREw: Yuri Gagarin The capsule
and escape tower' Its
use in an emergency. cylindricai recovery compartment, antenna housing'
Vostok I completed one orbit ofthe Earth outer skin was made of titanium and nickel alloy.
The cabin atmosphere was
and the mission lasted for I08 min. The liquid- 100% oxygen at a pressure of 0'36 kg/cm'' (5'5
Ib per in')' There were two
Reentry was achieved by
fuel engine fired for about 42 sec as the space- independent thrusters systems for attitude control'
experienced a
craft approached the coast ofAngola. The firing three solid propellant engines' During launch' Shepard
down on schedule after I42 sec'
instrumentation module initially failed to separate p."L"g-lord of O.a. the Redstone's engine shut
ofvelocity of 8262 km/h (5I31 mph)'
from the reentry module, so Gagarin experienced havin! accelerated the spacecraft to a speed
I0 min of buffeting before the wires burned Shepard experimented with con-
Durin-g about 5 min of weightlessness,
through. attitude and observed the view through the periscope
trolling the spacecraft's
In the absence of a soft-landing system, After the reentry engines fired, he experienced loads
ofup to 11 g'
Gagarin ejected at an altitude of 7 km (4.3 mi). He Following splashdown in the Atlantic, 487 km (302 mi) from Cape Canaveral'

parachuted separately to the ground-though this and Shepard was transported by helicopter to the
the capsJe floated upright
Champlain,followed soon after by his capsule' The
flr3ht Iasted
was kept a s:cret for many years. The landing took carri., lak,
place near the village of Smelovka, Saratov. 15 min 22 sec.
45
44
li'l.,l.rr'l rr,,n Mariner 2 usr
L l' r rtnr.rl r orrrrrrrrrricrtions satellite r r ,l successful Venus flyby and planet flyby

SPECIFICATION:
SPECIFICATION:
MANUFAcTuRER: Jet ProPulsion
MANUFAcTuRER: Bell Telephone
Laboratory
Laboratories August 27, 1962
LAUNcH DATE:
LAUNcH DATE: July 10, 1962
oRBrr: Heliocentric
oRBrr:952 km x 5632 km (592 x
LAUNcH strE: CaPe Canavera,
3500 mi), 44.8' inclination
Florida
LAUNcH srrE: Cape Canaveral,
LAUNcHER: Atlas-Agena B
Florida (a48 b)
LAUNcH MAss: 201.6 kg
LAUNcHER: Delta
DMENsloNs:3x5m(9.9x
LAUNcH MAss: 77 kg(I7I 16)
16.5 ft) with antenna and sol:r
BoDY DrMENsroNs:0.9 m (2.9 ft) panels deployed
PAYLoAD: Hellcrl antennr; Microwave radiometer;
PAYLoAD:
directional feed horns infrared radiometer; fl uxgate
(transmission entennas)
magnetometer; cosmlc dusi
detector; solar Plasma sPectro_
meter; energetic Particle
detectors

Telstar was the first privately sponsored space launch and the first commercial The Mariner series were the first US spacecraft sent
to other planets' Mariner
communications satellite designed to transmit telephone and high-speed I and 2 were almost identical spacecraft developed fly past Venus' The
to
on July 22' 1962'
data. Owned by ATQT of the US, the project involved Bell Telephone rocket carrying Mariner I went off-course during launch
officer' A month later' Mariner 2 was
Laboratories, NASA, the British Post Office, and the French National Post, and was destroyed by a range safety
On the way' it measured the solar
Telegraph and Telecom Office. The main receiving station was Goonhilly launched an 7 3r|month flight to Venus'
It also detected high-energy charged particles
Down in southern England. wind and interplanetary dust.
The satellite was roughly spherical and spin-stabilized, its size limited by from the Sun and cosmic rays from outside the solar system'
(21'648 mi) on
the dimensions ofthe Delta rocket fairing. The outer surface was covered by The spacecraft flew by Venus at a range of 34'838 km
enough solar cells to produce 14 W ofpower. Rechargeable batteries were December 14,7962.Mariner 2 scanned the planet for 42 min with infrared
has cool clouds and an
used to augment peak power requirements. On top was the main helical and microwave radiometers, revealing that Venus
of magnesium
antenna. The 72 receive and 48 transmit antennas consisted of belts of small extremely hot surface. The spacecraft had a conical framework
dish antenna' The data
apertures around the satellite's "waist." It could handle 600 phone calls or one and aluminum with two solar panels and a high-gain
was at least 425oC
TV channel. Placed in an elliptical 2 h 37 min inclined orbit, it was only returned showed that the surface temperature on Venus
The planet's dense cloud
available to transmit signals across the Atlantic for 20 min during each orbit. (800"F), with little variation between day and night'
mi) the surface'
The lirst live transatlantic TV pictures and the first telephone call transmitted layer extended from 56 to B0 km (34'8to 49'7 above

NASA maintained contact until January 3, 1963' when


the spacecraft
via space were relayed onJuIy 23,1962.
km (54.3 million mi) from Earth' a new record for a deep
Telstar was badly affected by increased radiation caused by high-altitude was 87.4 million
rrrrr'lr,rr tcsts. It went out of service in early December 1962, but was restarted space probe. The spacecraft remains in orbit around the Sun'
irr t,;rlly J;rnuary 1963. The satellite was finally shut down on February 21,
l',(' I ll r{ rr rins rrr orbit around the Earth.
47
Syncom 1-3 usn Ranger 7 usa
First geosynchronous communications satellite r rr;l high-resolution images ofthe Moon (Ranger 6 pictured)

SPECIFICATION: SPECIFICATION:
(Syncom 2) MANUFAcTuRER: Jet Propulsion

MANUFAcTuRER:Hughes Space Laboratory


and Communications rnurcn orre: July 28, 1964
LAUNcH DATE: July 26, l96l oRs r: Escape (lmpact)
oRBrr: J5,742 x 16,782 krn LAUNcB s rE: Cape Canaveral,

(22,210 x 22,856 ml), llo Florid a

lnclination (synchronous) LAUNcHER: Atlas Agena B

LAUNcf s rE: Cape Canavera LAUNcH MAss:366 kg (800 lb)


,

Florid a
BoDY D MENsroNs: J.6 x 1.5 m

rauNcern: Thor-Delta (11.8 x 5 ft)


LA!NcH MAss: l5 kg (78 lb) PAYLoAo: 6 TV cameras

DrMENsroNs:0.7 x 0.4 m (2.3 x


l.l ft)
PAYLoAD:2 1815 MHz
transmitters; ) /36f M!,z

'Ihe Ranger series was the first US attempt to obtain close-up images of the
Moon's surface. The spacecraft were designed to fly directly into the Moon
The first Syncom was launched on February 14,1963.At first, all proceeded and send images back until the moment of impact. The first five Rangers
smoothly. The ground team confirmed that the systems all functioned, but were failures. A modified version, known as Block III, was developed for
all communication was lost after the satellite's onboard apogee motor fired Ranger 6, but no pictures were returned before lunar impact. Later
to inject Syncom into final orbit. Syncom 2's reliabilitywas improved by investigations showed that sterilization procedures damaged components
reducing pressure in the nitrogen system and using a different motor. The and contributed to failures.
satellite was a spin-stabilized cylinder coated with 3840 silicon solar cells. Ranger 7 had a magnesium hexagonal framework to which two solar
On July 26,1963, Syncom 2 successfully reached synchronous orbit over panels and a high-gain antenna were attached. The TV system consisted of
the Atlantic Ocean. With an orbital inclination of 33o rt was not stationary six slow-scan vidicon cameras. The overlapping photographs taken by these
over one point on the Earth's surface but moved in an elongated figure-eight cameras provided large-scale topographic information needed for the
pattern between 33'N and S ofthe equator. Its successes included the {irst Surveyor and Apollo projects.
live two-way call between heads of state by satellite relay. The camera system began transmitting pictures at l3:08 UT onJuly 3I,
By 1964, launch vehicle technology had advanced sufiicrently for Syncom 1964,L7 min 13 sec prior to impact. The last partial picture was taken about
3 to reach a geostationary orbit. Located over the Pacific Ocean, Syncom 3 0.3 sec before impact and achieved resolution of 0.5 m. In a11,43,816
was used to relay live TV coverage of the 1964 Olympic Games in Tokyo. black-and-white photographs were returned, showing a flat surface with
After the Department of Defense took over Syncom 2 and 3, they served numerous small craters. The spacecraft hit the Moon's Mare Nubium
as the primary communications link between Southeast Asia and the Western (I0.35'S, 339.42"E) aI 13:25:49 UT.
Paci{ic during the Vietnam conflict. The satellites were decommissioned and
retired in April 1969.

48 49
I
tI
Mariner 4 usr
t
Voskhod ussn
First successful Mars flyby L .t three-person spacecraft, {irst spacewalk (Voskhod 2 pictured)

S PECIFICATION
(Voskhod 2):
MANUFACTuRER: oKB-1 (Korolev)
LAUNcH DArE: N4arch 18,1965
one r: 167 x 475 km (103 x
295 m ),64.8' inclination
rnurucl srtt: Baikonur,
Kazakhstan
raurucern: Voskhod (R-7 w th
Luna second stage)
uuncu vrss:5682 kg
(r2,s26 1b)
DTMENs oNs: 5 x 2.4 m (16.4 x
8ft)
cREw: Pave Belyayev, Alexei
Leonov

Two Mariner spacecraft were designed by NASAs SPECIFICATION:

Jet Propulsion Laboratory for the first close-up MANUFACTuRER: Jet Propulsion
Laboratory
study of Mars, but Mariner 3 was destroyed after LAUNcH DATE: November 28,
1964
its launch shroud failed to separate. The identical
oRB T: Hel ocentr c
Marrner 4 was launched 23 days later. Lautcn sttr: Cape Canaveral,
Flor da
The spacecraft's main body was an octagonal LAUNcHER: Atlas-Agena D
magnesium frame with hydrazine thrusters for LAUNcH MAss: 260.8 kg\574 16)
BoDY DrMENsroNs: 1.4 x 2.9 m
course correction. There were four solar panels (a.s x 9.5 ft)
PAYLoAD: TV imaging system;
Voskhod (Sunrise) was a modi{ied Vostok spacecraft, hurriedly adapted in
and 12 nitrogen thrusters for attitude control.
cosmic dust detector; cosmic ray advance of the US Gemini program. Only 6 months after the adaptation of
The closest approach to Mars was 9846 km telescope; ionization chamber;
magnetometer; trapped radiatlon two spacecraft began on April 13, 1964, Voskhod I went into orbit with a
(6118 mi) on July 15, 1965. Forty min before, the detector; so ar plasma probe
three-man crew In order to make room for them, the Vostok ejection seat
TV scanning system began an automatic 25-min
was removed and the crew were unable to wear pressure suits. The crew had
imaging sequence, returning 2l partially
no emergency escape system.
overlapping black-and-white pictures that covered
Shock-absorbing couches and a soft landing system allowed the crew to
a strip of land from about 37oN to 55"S-about
Iand inside the capsule. The orientaiion system used ion sensors, and a back-
1% ofthe planet's surface. These pictures took
up solid propellant retrorocket was installed, making it safer to enter a higher
four days to transmit to Earth. They showed a
orbit. Voskhod 2 was fitted with an inflatable cylindrical airlock.
heavily cratered, ancient surface with no evidence
The Voskhod I missron carried Boris Yegorov, I(onstantin Feoktistov, and
of life. No magnetic field was detected.
Vladimir Komarov. They completed I6 orbits in 24 h before landing northeast
Once past Mars, Mariner 4 orbited the Sun
of Kustanai, I(azakhstan, on October 13,1964. Voskhod 2, carrying Pavel Bela-
before returning to the vicinity of Earth in 1967.
yayev and Alexei Leonov, lasted 26 h, and included the world's first spacewalk.
The spacecraft was used for operational and
This 24 min extra-vehicular activity (EVA) almost ended in disaster when
telemetry tests to improve knowledge of the
Leonov's suit ballooned, preventing him from reentering the spacecraft until
technologies that would be needed for future
he reduced its pressure. An unscheduled manual reentry meant landing in
interplanetary spacecraft. The fi nal communication
the Ural Mountains and a night in the forest before the crew were recovered.
took place on December 21, 1967 .

50 5l
Gemini 3 usa Luna 9 ussn
First US multicrew flight
I r r :;l soft landing on the Moon, {irst pictures from lunar surface

SPECIFICATION:
unturrcruren: Lavochkin
LAUNcH DATE:January J1, 1966
oRBrr: Heltocentric
uuncn srre: Baikonur,
Kazakhstan
LAUNcHER: R-7 (Vostok)
LAUNcH MAss: 1518 kg (3384 lb)
BoDY DrMENsroNs: ),.7 x L) m
(8.9 x 3.9 ft); capsule diameter,
58 cm (1.9 ft)
PAYLoAD: TV imaging system;
radiation detector

Project Gemini was the US program to develop SPECIFICATION:


techniques required for the Apollo Moon MANUFAcTuRER: McDonne
Aircrall Corporation
landings, such as rendezvous, docking, and EVA. LAUNcH oATE: March 23,1965
After two unmanned test flights, the first manned oRB r: 160 x 224 km (100 x
139 mi), 33" inclination
mission was the first attempt to simulate rendez- LAUNcH slrE: Cape Canaveral,
Florid
vous by changing orbit. The spacecraft, Gemini, a

LAUNcHER: Tttan ll
was similar in shape to Mercury, but larger. At the LAUNcts MAss: 1232 kg (7111 lb)
DlMENsroNs: 5.6 x 10 m max
rear was the large equipment section; in the (r8.4 x 32.8 ft)
center was the deorbit section, carrying four solid- cREw: Virgll "Gus" crissom,
John Young
fuel retro-rockets. In front was the pressurized Luna 9 was the first spacecraft to achieve a lunar soft landing and then
cabin with a conical habitation section.
transmit photographs to Earth. It comprised three main sections. At the
Gemini 3 was the first spacecraft to carry a bottom was a liquid fuel retro-rocket. The central cylinder contained the
computer. It weighed 22.7 kg (50lb) and could
communications and control units; strapped on either side were jettisonable
make 7000 calculations per second. Each astronaut
compartments containing a radar altimeter, sets of nitrogen thrusters, and
had a hatch, fitted with a porthole, large enough
batteries. On top was a spheroidal container housing the landing capsule.
to permit an EVA. Later versions carried a rendez-
After making a direct approach to the Moon, the radar triggered the final
vous radar and fuel cells to make electricity. I descent sequence at an altitude of 75 km (47 mi). The two side compartments
Gemini 3 completed three orbits in 4 h 53 min.
il were jettisoned and the main engine ignited to slow the descent. A sensor
It was the first spacecraft to change orbit. This was
detected the surface when the spacecraft was 5 m (16 ft) out and ordered the
achieved three times by using the l6 thrusters on
engine to shut down. The capsule was ejected while the main bus impacted
the adapter section. Splashdown in the Atlantic at 22 km/h (ta mph) in the Mare Procellarum on February 3, 1966. The
was more than 80 km (50 mi) uprange from the
capsule, weighing 99 kg (218 lb), was hermetically sealed and contained radio
predicted landing point.
equipment, a program timing device, heat control systems, scientific apparatus,
power sources, and a TV system. Nine scans were completed during seven
sessions totaling 8 h and 5 min.
52
53
Surveyor I usn I'ACSAT I usn
First US soft landing on the Moon ,rLrndbreaking military communications satellite

SPECIFICATION SPECIFICATION:
(Surveyor 1): MANUFAcTuRER: Hughes A rcraft
MANUFACTuRER: Hughes Aircraft Company
LAUNcH DATE: May 30,1966 LAUNcH DArE: Febnrary 9, 1969

$
oRBrr: Hcliocentric oRBrr: l07"WGEO(ater
LAUNcH srrE: Cape C:naveral, cha nged)
Florid a LAUNcH s rE: Cape Canavcral,
LAUNcHER: Atlas-Centaur Flor da
LAUNcH MAss:995 kg (2189 lb) LA!NcHER: I itan lllC
DrMENsroNs: 3 x 4.3 m (9.8x LAUNcH MAss: 6aS kgQa)a l:)
14 ft) with leg5 dep oyed BoDY DrMEN5roNs: ).8x7.6 tr
PAYr oAD: 1V c:mcra (e.3 x 25 {t)
PAYLoaD:2 hard I miting
repe.t".rs (UlF and SHF)

Surveyor 1 was the first to spacecraft to make a truly soft landing on the
i-'
Moon. Altogether, seven landers were built. Their main objectives were to , t+*
send back detailed images from the lunar surface and to determine if the
surface was safe for the Apollo manned landings.
Each Surveyor spacecraft was equipped with a TV camera. Surveyors 3
lrb
'IACSAT I was the largest and most powerful communications satellite of
and 7 also carried a scoop for digging trenches and were used for soil
mechanics tests. Surveyors 5,6, and 7 had magnets attached to the footpads its day, designed for the Department of Defense under the direction of the
and an alpha scattering instrument for chemical analysis of soil. Surveyors 2 US Air Force Space and Missile Systems Organization. The experimental
and 4 crashed on the Moon. The Surveyors had a triangular aluminum satellite was used by the US armed services to test the feasibility of using
framework with a hinged leg at each corner and two panels-one solar array synchronous satellites for tactical communications with mobile military field
and a high gain antenna-above a central mast. The heaviest unit was the units, aircraft, and ships.
solid fuel retro-rocket, which was jettisoned after use. Surveyor I Ianded in The {irst satellite to be dual-spin-stabilized on its minor axis, using the
the southwest region of the Mare Procellarum (2.5'S, 43.2'W) on June 2, Boeing-developed gyrostat, TACSAT's payload could be continuously pointed
Lg66,14 km (8.7 mi) from the planned target. At landing, the spacecraft at Earth while the main body rotated. The cylindrical satellite was coated with
weighed 29a3 kg (647 lb). During two communications sessions, having solar cells. At the top was a then-unique array ofthree antenna systems.
survived one lunar night, Surveyor I sent back 1I,350 images, revealing a Since the satellite's strong signals were picked up by all types of terminals,

dusty plain with numerous boulders more than I m (3.3 ft) across and low including those with antennas as small as 0.3 m (1 ft) in diameter, remotely
mountains on the horizon. The mission was completed byJuly i3, but NASA deployed field units were able to communicate with their headquarters and
maintained contact until January 7 , 1967. each other through the satellite. The high power ofthe satellite's trans-
missions permitted simultaneous access by many users. TACSAT was taken
out of service on December 16,1972.

54 55
Apollo 11 usn Luna 16 ussn
I I rit automated lunar soil sample return
First manned Moon landing

SPECIFICATION:
SPECIFICATION:
MANUFACTuRER: North American
(CSN4-Combined Command varurrcrunen: Lavochkin
LAUNcH oATE: September 12,
Module and Service Module),
Grumman (Llvl) r970
LAUNcH DArE: July 16, 1969
rNrrAL LUNAR oRBrr: ]10 km
(68.4 mi) circular, 70' inclination
ruNAR oRBlr: 1ll x l14 km
(69 x 195 mi) uurcu srre: Baikonur,
slrE: Kennedy Space Kazakhstan
LAUNcH
LAUNcHER: Proton D-l-e
Center, Florida
LAUNcH MAss:5727 kg
LAUNcHER: Saturn V
(12,600 lb)
LAUNcH MAss:43,961 kg
(e6,715lb) BoDYDrMENstoNS:4x4m
(11.1 x 11.1 ft)
BooY DtMENsroNs: CI\4,
PAYLoaD: TV stereo imaging
3.5 x 1.9 m (11.4 x 12.8 ft); SM,
system; remote arm and drill
7.5x3.9 m(24.6x 12.8ft); LM,
7 x 4.) m ()2.9 x I4.I ft)
for sample collection; radiation
cREw: Neil Armstrong, Edwin
detector
"Buzz" Aldrin, Michael Collins

Luna 16 was the first success out of six Soviet attempts to land an automated
craft on the Moon and return a soil sample to Earth - though it was too late
to beat the Apollo Il and 12 missions. The descent stage was equipped with
aTV camera, radiation and temperature monitors, communications
equipment, and an extendable arm with a drill for collecting a lunar soil
Apollo 11 followed two manned flights in Earth orbit and two manned flights sample. The ascent stage included a liquid-fuel engine beneath a smaller
in lunar orbit. The main living quarters en route to the Moon were in the cylinder that carried a sealed soil sample container inside a spherical reentry
conical Command Module (CM). One astronaut remained inside the CM capsule.
while his two companions explored the lunar surface. Luna 16 was launched toward the Moon from an Earth parking orbit' It
The Lunar Module (LM) comprised an octagonal descent stage, with a entered a circular 110 km (68.4 mi) lunar orbit on September 17, 1970' After
rocket engine and four legs. This was used as a launch pad for the ascent stage' several orbit maneuvers, the main engine was fired on September 20 to
which included the crew living quarters, LM controls, and an ascent engine' begin the descent. The landing thrusters cut off at 2 m (6.6 ft), followed by
After almost two orbits, the S-IVB engine reignited for 5 min 47 sec to free fall to the surface. Luna 16 landed on the Mare Fecunditatis, on the lunar
boost the spacecraft to escape velocity-39,500 km/h (2a'5a5 mph)' Three night side.
days later, the CSM engine fired for 357 sec to brake into lunar orbit' On July The drill was able to penetrate to a depth of 35 cm (f'I ft). After 26 h
20, the LM Eagle separated from the CM Columbia on the far side of the 25 min on the lunar surface, the ascent stage lifted off from the Moon
Moon. Eagle landed on the Mare Tranquillitatis with about 20 sec of fuel left' carrying I01 g (0.2 Ib) of material. The reentry capsule returned directly to
The crew collected samples, planted the US flag, and deployed experiments Earth and made a ballistic entry into the atmosphere on September 24' The
during a 2 h 3I min EVA. The ascent module blasted off after 21 h 36 min on capsule Ianded about 80 km (50 mi) southeast ofthe city ofDzhezkazgan
the surface. Eagle docked with Columbia and the CM splashed down in the in Kazakhstan.
Pacific on July 24 after jettisoning the LM and SM (Service Module)'
56
Luna t7 (Lunokhod l) ussn Salyut I ussn
First automated lunar rovet , rr ,l space station

SPECIFICATION:
MANUFACTuRER: OKB-I (Korolev)
LAUNcH DArE: April 19,1971
oRBrr: 184 x 214 km (114 x 132
mi) variable, 51.6' inclination
r arrcs sttt: Baikonur,
Kazakhsian
LAUNcHER: Proton
LAUNcH MAss:18,500 kg
(40,700 lb)
BoDY DrMENstoNs: 14.4 x 4.2 m
max (47.2 x 13.6 ft)
PAvLoaD: Orion telescope; Oasis
greenhouse
cREw: Georgi Dobrovolsky,
Vladislav VoLkov, Viktor Patsayev

Salyut (Salute) was a "civilian" space station for Earth observation and
I
rnicrogravity research. The largest component was the unpressurized Selvice
n1odule which housed the fuel, oxygen, and water tanks. The central section
rvas the main work and living area. At the front was the docking equipment
Luna 17 was a Luna sample return vehicle wrth SPECIFICATION: ;rnd airlock/transfer tunnel, as well as a telescope and communications

the return section replaced by the Lunokhod I (Lunokhod 1) cquipment. Most of its major components were originally made for OKB-52's
rover. It launched from an Earth parking orbit
uaruuracrunrn: Lavochkin Aimaz military space station program' with others borrowed from Soyuz'
LAUNcH DATET Novembcr 10,

towards the Moon and entered lunar orbit on t 9t0 A few hours after liftoff, the station's engine was used to circularize

November 15, I970. The spacecraft soft-landed


onart: Escape
Llurcu srrr: Baikonur,
the orbit. Three days later, Soyuz 10 was sent to link up with the station'
on the Sea ofRains on November 17. The 756 kg
l(azakhstan A problem with the Soyuz docking mechanism prevented a pressure-tight
LAUNcHER: Proton D-1-e
(1663 lb) rover comprised a pressurized magnesium LAUNcH MAss:5700 kg docking, so the three man crew were unable to enter Salyut'
alloy compartment and was controlled by a team
(12,s40 lb) A second crew arrived in Soyuz ll on June 7. This time docking was
BoDY DrMENsroNs: I.4 x ).2 m

of five in ihe Crimea. Communication sessions (a.a x 7 ft) successful. The crew began a three-week program of scientific and bio-

lasted about 6 h per day. Four TV cameras on the


PAYLoAo: 2 TV cameras;4 hlgh-
resolution photometers; X ray
medical research. On June 16, the crew reported a strong sme1l of burning
sides ofthe vehicle provided side, down, and rear spectrometer; pen€trometer; and smoke in the station, but after an emergency retreat to the Soyuz the
laser reflector; radiat on
views when the rover was stationary. Two front- detectors; X-ray telescope; atmosphere cleared.
mounted TV cameras provided stereo images
odometer/speedometer The crew returned to Earth in the Soyuz on June 29, but were found
during the drives. The rover traveled at up to dead on landing. Without pressure suits, the men had suffocated due to an

2 km/h (1.3 mph). Operations officially ended on air leak and depressurization ofthe reentry capsule. Salyut I remained
October 4, I97I after 1l lunar days. Lunokhod had unoccupied and was deorbited on October Il, after some 2800 orbits'

traveled 10.5 km (6.5 mi), transmitting over 20,000


TV pictures and 206 panoramas. It had also
conducted more than 500 soil tests. The rover was
left parked on the Moon so that its laser reflectors
could continue to be used.
59
58
Mariner 9 usr Pioneer I0 usr
First planet orbiter I rr ,t Jupiter flyby, first Saturn flyby, first spaceoaft to leave the solar system

Mariner 8 and 9 were designed to be the first SPECIFICATION:


MANUFAcTURER: NASA-Jet
Mars orbiters. Mariner 8 was lost during launch i)ioneer l0 and 11 paved the way for the more SPECIFICATION:
Propu sion Laboratory
on May 8,I97I, but the identical Mariner 9 was LAUNcH DATE: May 30,1971 advanced Voyagers. In I972,Pioneer 10 was the MANUFACTuRER: TRW Systems

MARs oRBrr: 1394 x 7 l,I44 km Group, lnc.


launched successfully three weeks later. The (866 x 10,653 mi),64.34" fastest spacecraft ever to fly, leaving Earth at LauNcH DATE5: March l,1972
(Pioneer 10); April 5, 1973
spacecraft was based on Mariner 6 and7, with an inc ination 51,670 km/h (32,107 mph). A gold anodlzed (Pioneer 1l)
LAUNcH stTE: Cape Canaveral,
octagonal magnesium framework and large Florida plaque bolted to the spacecraft's main frame oRBri: escape
LAUNcNER: Atlas Centaur 23 LAUNcH srrE: Cape Canaveral,
propellant tanks for the retro-rocket. marked its point of origin. Florida
LAUNcH MAss: 998 kg (2196 lb)
After about a 5 month journey from Earth, BoDY DrMENsroNs:2.3 x 6.9 m The first images of Jupiter were returned on rauNcner: Atlas/Centaur/
(7.5 x 22.6 ft) with solar pane s rE364 4
Mariner 9 entered orbit around Mars on deployed November 6, I973. Closest approach to the planet LAUNcH MAss: 270 kg (59a lb)
BoDY DrMENsroNs:2.9 x2.7 m
November 13,L97I. However, a dust storm was PAYLoAo: TV system; ultravlolet
was on December 3,1973, at a distance of 130,000 km
spectrometer; infrared radlo (9.s x 8.9 ft)
obscuring the entire planet. The storm lasted for a meter; i nfrared spectrometer (30,780 mi). More than 300 images were returned, PAYLoaD: Helium vector
magnetometer (France); plasma
month, but then Mariner 9 was able to send back many of them at a higher resolution than the best analyzer; charged particle
remarkable images of gigantic volcanoes, a huge ground-based views. Other instruments studied instrument; cosmic ray
telescope; Geiger Tube telescope;
canyon system, and dry river beds. Spacecraft the atmospheric circulation and composition, the trapped radiat on detector;
meteoroid detector; Asteroid-
tracking revealed a large equatorial bulge, and the radiation belts, the magnetic field, and the particle Meteoroid Experiment;
first detection of water vapor was made over the environment. Tracking enabled an accurate ultraviolet photometer; imaging
photopolarimeter; i nfrared
south pole. Data were also returned on atmos- determination of the planet's mass. radiometer; flux gate
pheric composition, density, pressure, temperature, The Jupiter flyby formally ended on January 2, magnetometer (Pioneer 11 only)

and surface composition. Mariner 9 also took the 1974. Pioneer 10 crossed Neptune's orbit in May
first close-up pictures of the two small Martian 1983, and for many years was the most remote
moons, Phobos and Dejmos. man-made object in the solar system. The science
By the end of the mission, Mariner t had mission continued until March 3I,1997 . The last
returned 7329 images covering the entire planet signal was received on January 23, 2003. The
at l-2 km resolution. The mission ended on space$aft is heading for the star Aldebaran in the
October 27 , 1972, when the supply of nitrogen for constellation ofTaurus. It will take Pioneer over
attitude control ran out. two million years to reach it.
60 61
Skylab ,so Mariner 10 usr
First US space station
r t N'iercury flybys

SPECIFICATION:
SPECIFICATION:
(skylab l) MANUFACTuRER: Jet Propulsion
Laboratory
MANUFACTuRER: McDonnell LAUNcts DATE: November l,1971
Douglas Astronautics Co. oRBrr: Heliocentric
LAUNcH DATE: May 14, l97l
. '.qe. LAUNcH s rE: Cape Canaveral,
,rb oRBrr:411 x 434 km (268.1 x Florid a
"q6, 269.5 mi), 50' inclination LAUNcHER: Atlas-Centaur 34
raurcu srrr: Cape Kennedy, LAUNcH MAssr 502.9 kg (1106 lb)
rf. Florid a
BoDY DTMENs oNs: 1.4 x 0.5 m
:
LAUNctsER: Saturn V (2 stage) (4.6 x 1.5 ft)
LAUNcH MAss:74,783 kg TV imrging sysiem;
PAYLoAD:
(r64,868 lb) ultraviolet spectrometer; infrared
aoDY DrMENsroNs: 25.3 x 6.7 m radlometer; ultravlolet
(83 x 22 ft) max. occultat on spectrometer; solar
PAYLoAoT 6 UV/X-ray telescopes
plasma analyzer; charged Particle
(Apollo Te escope Mount);
telescope; 2 magnetometers
multlspectral cameras; eath
terrain camera; infrared
spectrometer; multispectral
scanneT; microwave radiometer/
scatterometer and altimeter;
L-band radiometer; materia s
processing lacil ty; multipurpose i'.,lariner I0 was the first (and, so far, only) spacecraft to explore Mercury'
I his was achieved through the first use of a gravity-assist maneuver, the
electr c furnace
cnews: Pete Conrad, Paul weltz,
Joe Kerwin (Skylab 2); Alan Bean, :pacecraft passing close to Venus in order to bend its flight path and change
Jack Lousma, Owen Garriott
iLs perihelion to the same solar distance as Mercury' The spacecraft then
(5kylab 3); Jerry Carr, William
Pogue, Edward Gibson (sky ab 4) L.ntered an orbit that repeatedly brought it back to Mercury' The three-axis-
,tabilized spacecraft was based on the Mariner Mars craft. Three months aIler
Skylab, based on the S-IVB third stage of the Saturn V rocket, was America's lcaving Earth, Mariner 10 passed Venus on February 5,I974, at a distance of
first space station and the largest spacecraft ever placed in Earth orblt. The 'r768 km (358a mi). Altogether, 4165 photos of Venus were returned'
first crew arrived 1l days later. Three crews visited the station, with missions The first Mercury encounter took place on March 29 , I97 4, at a range of
Iasting 28, 59, and 84 days (a record not broken by a US astronaut until the /03 km (437 mi). Looping once around the Sun while Mercury completed
Shuttle-Mir program over 20 years later). They performed UV astronomy two orbits, Mariner I0 made another flyby on September 2I,I97 4, aI a
experiments and X-ray studies of the Sun, remote sensing of the Earth, and distance of48,069 km (29,870 mi). The third and final encounter took place
biological and medical studies. on March 16,).975, at a range of 327 km (203 mi). Unfortunately, the
The largest section of Skylab was the 295 m' (10,246 ft') workshop, which geometry of Mariner IO's orbit meant that the same side of Mercury was
housed crew quarters plus lab facilities. In front were an airlock module and sunlit each time, so only about 457" of the surface was seen. The images
the docking adapter, to be used by an Apollo CSM spacecraft. The airlock returned by Mariner l0 showed a heavily cratered world very much like the
was the environmental, electrical and communications control center. Moon. The most striking feature was a partially sunlit impact basin 1300 km
Skylab was launched with a {ixed amount of supplies-fuel, water, air, (808 mi) across.
food, clothing, etc. After the final crew Ieft on February 8,L974, the station
was put into a stable attitude and shut down. It was expected to remain in
orbit for 8-I0 years, but increased atmospheric drag caused it to reenter the
atmosphere on July 11, I979. The debris dispersion area covered the
southeast Indian Ocean and a sparsely populated area ofWestern Australia'

63
62
Venera 9 uss* Viking usr
First images from surface ofVenus, first Venus orbiter I rr ,l US Mars landings

'I he two Vikings follorved on from NASA's SPECIFICATION:


Venera 9 was the first of the second-generation SPECIFICATION:
MANUFAcTuRER: IMartin N4arietta
Venus craft designed by the USSR. It comprised vrrurrcrunen: Lavochkin ,;uccessful Mariner Mars missions. Each mission
LAUNcH DATE: June 8, 1975 LAUNcH DArEs: August 20, 1975
a conical base containing the electronics and the vENUs oRBrr: 1500 x 111,700 km consisted of an orbiter and a lander' The orbiter (Viking l); September 9, 1975
(932 x 69,410 mi), 34.1' (vikins 2)
retro-rocket, with scientific instruments around vras based on Mariner 9 but carried a much larger rNrrrAL MARs oRBtr: 1510 x
inclinztion
iquid-fu e1led retrocket. 32,800 km (938 x 20,380 mi),
its exterior, topped by the 2.4 m (7 .9 ft) spherical reuncs srre: Baikonur, I
17.9'inciination
Viking I arrived at Mars onJune 19,1976.
Kazakhstan
descent module. LAUNcNER: Proton D-1-e LAUNcH slrE: Cape Canaveral,

highly elliptical Venus LAUNcH MAss:4936 kg 'fhe lander separated from the orbiter and touched Florida
The orbiter entered a
LAUNcHER: Titan ll lE-Centaur
(10,860 lb)
orbit on October 20,I975, after about 4.5 months. DrMENsroNs: 2.8 x 6.7 m (9.2 x down at Chryse Planitia (22.48'N, 49.97"W) on LAUNCH MAssi 3521 kg(7760 16)
22 ft) with solar panels deployed BoDY DrMENsroNs:3.3 x 2.5 m
Two days later the descent sphere was released, PAYLoAD, oRBrrER: TV imaging July 20. Viking 2 touched down at Utopia Planitia (i0.8 x 8.2 ft)
entering the atmosphere at 10.7 km/s (6.6 mi/s) at system; UV imaglng (47.97'N, 225.74"W) on September 3, 1976. The PAYLoAD, oRBrrER: 2 vidicon
spectrometer; infrared cameras; i nfrared spectrometer;
an angle of 20.5o. Parachutes were then used, with radiometer; photopolarlmeter;
primary mission objectives were to obtain high- infrared radiometer
PAYLoAD, AERosaELL: Retarding
the final descent in free fall. Touchdown was at magnetometer; ion/electron resolution images of the Martian surface, charac-
detectors; optical spectrometer potential analyzer; mass
about 7.5 mls (26.6 ft/s). The lander recorded light PAYLoAD, LANDERT Panoramic terize the structure and composition of the atmos- spectrometer; pressure,
imaging systemi mass spectro- temperature, and acceleration
levels comparable to those on a cloudy summer phere and surface, and search for evidence of life. sensors
meter; iemperature and pressure
day on Earth, so its floodlights were not needed' sensors; anemometer; nephelo- The Viking landers sent back over 4500 PAYLoAD, LANDER: 2 TV cameras;

meter; photometers; gamma-ray biology lab (gas exchange,


Surface pressure was about 90 Earth atmospheres, spectrometer; radiation densito-
images. The Viking 2 lander mission ended on labeled release, and pyrolytic

and surface temperature 485"C (905'F). Precooling meter; accelerometers April 1I, 1980, and the Viking I lander shut down release); gas chromatograph
mass spectrometer; X-ray
prior to entry and a system of circulating fluid to on November 13,1982. The biology experiments uorescence spectrometer;
fl
pressure, temperature, and wind
distribute the heat load enabled the craft to survive found no clear evidence of living microorganisms. velocity sensors; th ree-axis

for 53 min. The first black-and-white images of The orbiters provided more than 50,000 images, seismometer; sampler arm;
magnets
the surface showed numerous rocks 30-40 cm mapping 97%" of the planet. The Viking 2 orbiter
(about I ft) across. The end ofthe orbiter mission lasted untilJuly 25,1978, and theViking I mission
was announced on March 22,I976. ended on August 7, 1980, after over 1400 orbits.

65
64
Voyager usr Pioneer Venus I (Pioneer Venus Orbiter) usn
lrirst US Venus orbiter, fi$t surface radar mapper
First Uranus and Neptune flybys, {irst exploration of heliopause

SPECIFICATION:
MANUFAcTuRER: NASA Ames
LAUNcH DATE:20 May 1978
vENUs oRBrr: 150 x 66,889 km
(93 x 4I,564 mi), 105" inc inat on
LAUNcH slrE: Cape Canavera,

't€}- Florid a
LAUNcHER: Atlas-Centaur
LAUNcH MAss: 517 kg (1117 lb)
BoDY DrMENsroNs: 2.5 x I.2 fi
(8.1 x 4 ft)
pavroro: Cloud photopolari-
q\wt meter; surface radar mapper;
infrared radiometer; airg ow
ultraviolet spectrometer; neutral
mass spectrometer; solar wind
plasma analyzer; magnetometer;
electric field detector; electron
temperature probe; ion mass
spectrometer; charged particle
retarding potential analyzer;
gamma ray burst detector
The two identical Voyager spacecraft were built SPECIFICATION:
MANUFACTuRER: NASA-Jet
to visit Jupiter and Saturn with a prime mission
Propulsion Laboratory
lasting five years. However, Voyager 2 was able to LAUNcH DArEs: August 20, 1977
(Voyager 2); September 5, 1977
take advantage of a rare alignment ofthe outer (Voyager 1)
planets that allowed gravity assists leading to oRBrr: Escape
LAUNcH strE: Cape Canaveral,
flybys ofUranus and Neptune. Florida l)ioneer Venus I (PV1) was pafi of a two-pronged exploration ofVenus. Its
Titan ilLE - Centaur
Voyager 2 launched first but was overtaken by LAUNcHER:
mission was to study the planet's thick clouds and upper atmosphere and to
LAUNcH MAss: 825 kg (1815 lb)
Voyager I whlch flew past Jupiter on March 5, BoDY D MENs oNs:0.5 x 1.8 m make the first map of the hidden surface. Six months after launch, on
(1.5 x 5.8 ft) without high-gain
1979, at a distance of 206,700 km (f 28,400 mi) a nten na
December 4,)"978,the orbiter was injected into a highly elliptical orbit
from the cloud tops. Voyager 2's flyby was onJuly PAYLoaD: lmaging system; around Venus. Circling the planet every 23 h I1 min, it passed within I50 km
infrared spectrometer; ultraviolel
g,lg79, at a range of 570,000 km (350,000 mi). spectrometer; photopolarimeter; (93 mi) of the surface. Radar mapping took place around the close
The Voyager I Saturn flyby was on November 12, planetary radio astronomy;
approaches. Although the radar instrument malfunctioned between
magnetometers; ow energY
1980, with close-up observations ofTitan. Voyager charged particle investigation; December 18, 1978, andJanuary 20,1979, it mapped most of the surface
p asma paftic es investigation;
2 passed 41,000 km (26,000 mi) from Saturn on cosmic ray telescope; plasma between 73'N and 63o5 at a resolution of75 km @7 rnl). The map revealed
August 25, 1981. wave lnvestlgation broad plains, two large "continents," and many volcanic features.
Voyager I's Titan encounter sent it on a path PVI also recorded global observations ofthe clouds and atmosphere
35.5'N of the ecliptic, so no more planets could be and made studies ofthe solar wind-ionosphere interaction' For the first
visited. Voyager 2 flew past Uranus on January 24, 19 months, the periapsis remained at about 150 km (93 mi). As propellant
1986. Finally, it flew over Neptune's north pole at began to run low, the maneuvers were discontinued, and the low point rose
a distance of 5000 km (3000 mi) on August 25, to about 2300 km (1a30 mi). From 1986, the orbit lowered again, enabling
1989. The scan platform instruments have been further measurements within the ionosphere. PVI also observed several
turned off, but both spacecraft continue to send comets with its ultraviolet spectrometer, including Halley's Comet.
back data on interplanetary space and to search On October 8, 1992, with its fuel supply exhausted, the spacecraft burnt
for the outer edge of the solar system' up in the planet's atmosphere.

67
66
Pioneer Venus 2 (Pioneer Venus Multiprobe) ,so ISEE-3/lCE (lnternational Sun-Earth Explorer 3/
First US Venus atmosPheric Probes lnternational Cometary Explorer, Explorer 59) usr
SPECIFICATION: lrrrst comet encounter, first craft in halo orbit
MANUFACTURER: NASA AMES SPECIFICATION:
LAUNcH oATE: August 8, 1978
oRBrr: Heliocentric (impact) urrurncrucen: Fairchild
LAUNcH DAiE: August 12,1978
reulcr stte: Cape Canaveral,
Florida oRBrr: halo, then heliocentric
Ll
LAUNcH srr€: Cape Canaveral,
LAUNcHER: Atlas-Centaur
Florida
LAUNcH MAss:875 kg (1925 lb);
LAUNcHER: Delta 2914
bus 290 kg (638 lb); large probe
LAUNcH MAss: 478 kg (1052 lb)
315 kg693 lb); small probes
BoDY orMENstoNs:1.7 x 1.6 m
90 kg (204.6 lb) each
BooY DrMENsroNs: 2.5 x I.2 m (5.6 x s.3 ft)
pavroro: Solar Wind Plasma
(8.3 x a ft)
PAYLoAD: Neutral mass spectro- Experiment; Magnetometer; X_
Ray and Low Energy Cosmic RaY
meter (bus, large probe); ion
mass spectrometer (bus); gas Experiment; InterPlanetarY and
chromatograph (large probe); Solar Electrons Experiment;
Plasma Wave Experlment; Plasma
solar flux radiometer (large
probe); infrared radlometer Composition Experiment; Radio
(large probe); cloud par-ticle size Wave Experiment; energetic
paft icle anisotropy sPectrometer;
spectrometer (large probe);
nephelometer (large probe, small X ray and gamma-ray bursts;
probes); temperature, pressure, I i .;:+- . medium-energy cosmic raYs and
and acceleration sensors (large r tC.lr'i electrons; high-energY cosmic
probe, small probes); net flux rays; cosmic ray energy
radiometer (small probes) spectrum; cosmic raY isotoPe
spectrometer

Pioneer Venus 2 consisted of a bus that carried four atmospheric probes'


Their mission was to make a ballistic entry into the planet's dense, hot
atmosphere and send back data to Earth during their descent' After a three- This NASA spacecraft was launched into a halo orbit around the Ll Sun-
month journey to Venus, the large probe was released from the bus on Earth libration point, I.5 million km on the sunward side of the Earth. Its
November 16,Ig78, followed by the small probes on November 20' AII four mission was to provide data on the solar wind.
probes entered the planet's atmosphere on December 9. On June 10, 1982, having completed its original mission, it was diverted
The drum-shaped bus was similar to the Pioneer Venus Orbiter but towards Earth and began a series oflunar flybys' A final close lunar flyby'
without a hlgh-gain antenna and orbit insertion motor' Although it had no 119.4 km (7a.2 m1) above the Moon's surface, on December 22, 1983, ejected
heat shield, its instruments were able to return data before it burnt up in the the spacecraft into a heliocentric orbit that would enable it to intercept
upper atmosPhere. Comet Giacobini-Zinner. ISEE-3 was then renamed the International
The large probe was about I'5 m (4.9 ft) in diameter' It carried seven Cometary Explorer (ICE).
first ever passage through a comet's tail on September 1I'
science experiments. The three identical small probes were 0'8 m (2'6 ft) in ICE made the
diameter. The radio signals from all four probes were used to characterize 1985, sending back data on particles, fields, and waves' It passed 7860 km
the winds, turbulence, and other characteristics of the atmosphere' (a88a mi) behind the comet's nucleus at a closing speed of 75,300 km/h
The small probes were each targeted at different parts ofthe planet' (a6,790 mph). Having survived the passage through the coma, ICE went on to

The North Probe entered the atmosphere at 59'3'N, 4.8"E on the day side' observe Halley's Comet in March 1986, becoming the first spacecraft to
The Night Probe entered on the night side at 28.7"5, 56.7'E. The Day Probe directly investigate two comets. Operations ended May 5,1997, but ICE
entered at 3l.3os, 317"E, well into the day side, and was the only one to send remains in a 355-day heliocentric orbit that will bring it back to the vicinity
radio signals back after impact, lasting for over an hour. of the Earth in August 2014.

69
68
IRAS (lnfrared Astronomy Satellite) rrr".*trruos/usalur Spacelab I (STS-9/STS-41A) EURoPE/usA
First all-sky infrared observatory i rL ,t Lluropean manned space facility

IRAS was designed to survey the whole sky at SPECIFICATION: ln 1973, the European Space Research Organiz- SPECIFICATION:
MANUFACTURER: N4BB-ERNO
infrared wavelengths. The satellite bus was built MANUFAcTuRER: Netherlands
rtron (later ESA) agreed with NASA to provide LAUNcH DATEi November 28,
lnstitute for Aeronautics and
by the Dutch; the US provided the telescope, Space Spacelab, a manned science laboratory. The 1983
LAUNcH DATE: January 26, 1983 oRBir:241 x 254 km (150 x
detectors, and launch while the UK provided the
oRB r:889 x 903 km (552 x
rnodular 1ab, comprising one long module and a 158 mi), 57" lnclination
satellite control facilities. 561 mi), 99' incllnation single pallet, was designed and built by ESA under LAUNcH srrE: Kennedy SPace
(su n-synchronous) Center, Florida
The top section was built around a large dewar raurucu srrt: Vandenberg, West German IeadershiP. LAUNcHER: Space Shutt e

(vacuum vessel) filled with liquid helium. The outer Cal iforn ia
The first Spacelab flew in the payload bay of (Columbio)
LAUNcHER: Delia 1910 LAUNcH MAss: Pressure module,
wall of the dewar was insulated, and a sunshade LAUNcH MAss:1075.9 kg the Shuttle Columbia on mission STS-9/STS-41A, 8145 kg (17,919 lb); pa let,
(2367 lb) 1186 kg (7a49 lb)
prevented sunlight from entering the telescope.
BoDY DtMENs oNs: x 3.2 m
November 28-December B, 1983. A long tunnel D MENsroNs: Pressure module,

The lower section included the control systems and (ll.8 x 10.6 ft) ".6 connected the module to the Shuttle mid-deck' 4.1 x 7 m (13.5 x 23 ft); Pallet,
prvrono: lnfrared camera 3x4m(9.8x13.1ft)
communications. ( SOCAM); short wavelength STS-9 carried six people into orbit on a single PAYLoaD:6 astronomY and so ar
physics experiments; 6 sPace
IRAS flew over the poles every 90 min and spectrometer (SWS); long
vehicle. Among the crew were Byron Lichtenberg plasma physics experiments;
wavelength spectrometer (LWS);
scanned a 0.5o wide strip of sky that half infrared photometer and and Ulf Merbold, the first payload specialists to fly 6 atmospheric and Earth
polarimeter ( SOPHOT) observations; 16 life sciences
overlapped with its previous scan. It eventually on the Shuttle. Merbold, from West Germany, was experiments; 36 materials
scanned the entire sky three times. The mission also the first foreign citizen to participate in a Shuttle science experlments
cREw: John Young, Brewster
ended when the supply ofliquid helium ran out flight. The crew was divided into two teams, each Shaw, Owen Garriott, Robert A.
Parker, Ulf Merbold, Byron
on November 2I,1983, after almost 10 months of scheduled to work 12 h shifts but sometimes Llchten berg
operation. IRAS detected about 350,000 infrared working up to 18 h attime. The first direct
a

sources, increasing the number of cataloged voice communications were set up via the TDRS-1
astronomical sources by about 70%. It also satellite.
discovered six new comets and revealed for the Seventy scientific experiments were carried
first time the core of the Milky Way galaxy. out in many different fields. They were provided
by 11 European nations, the US, Canada, and Japan'

70
7l
Vega ussn Giotto EURopE
t r .l ESA deep space mission, close flybys of two comets
First close comet flyby, first planetary balloons L

SPECIFICATION:
SPECIFICATION:
MANUFAcTuRER: Brltlsh
unrurrcruren: Lavochkin
Aerospace
LAUNcH DArEst December 15,
rnurcu orrr: July 2, 1985
1984 (Vega 1); December 21,
oRBrT:Heliocentr c
1984 (Vega 2)
LAUNcH srrE: Kourou, French
oRBrT:Heliocentric
Guiana
Launcn srre: Ba konur,
LAUNcHER: Ariane I
Kazakhstan
LAUNcH MAss: 960 kg (2112 ib)
LAUNcHER: Proton D-1-e
DLMENsToNs: 1.9 x 2.9 m
uurcs vass: 4920 kg (10,82+ lb)
(6.1 x 9.1 ft)
BoDY DrMENsroNs: 2.5 x I m
ervroro: l-lalley mu ticolor
(8.2 x 9.8 ft)
Camera; neutri mass
PAYLoaD, LANDER: Mass
spectromet€r; ion mass
spectrometer; gas chromato-
spectrometer; dust mass
graph; hygrometer; gemma-ray
spectrometer; dust impact
spectrometeri u ltraviolet
detector; plasma analysis (2);
spectrometer; X-ray fl uorescence
energetic particle analyzer;
spectrometer and drill;
magnetometer; opt cal probe
nephelometer/scatterometer;
temperature and pressure
sensors; aerosol analyzer
The Soviet missions to explore Halley's Comet PAYLoaD, BUs: Television system

were called "Vega," from "Venera-Gallei" (rather (TVS); infrered spectrometer


(ll(5); three-channel (UV, visible, T
than Venera-Halley) because there is no "H" in I nfrared) spectrometer (TKS);
dust mass spectrometer (PUMA);
the Russian alphabet. The identical spacecraft dust particle counters (SP);
were the last to be based on the second neutral gas mass speclrometer
( NG); plasma energy analyzer
generation Venera vehicles. (PLASMAG); energetic particle
analyzer (TUNDE-1,4); magneto- Giotto was named after Giotto di Bondone who portrayed Halley's Comet
The spacecraft were launched six days apart in as
meter (MlSCHA); wave and
December I984. Their first task was to deliver a plasma analysers (APV-N); lhe Star ofBethlehem in his fourteenth-century ftesco Adoration ofthe Magi.
energetic particles (MSU-TASPD)
lander and a Teflon-coated plastic balloon as they It was originally proposed as part of a joint US-European mission to Halley's
PAYLoaD, BALLooN: Temperature
flew past Venus. The Vega I lander was released and pressure sensors; vertical Comet, but NASA later withdrew.
wind anemometer; nephelo-
on June 9, 1985, followed by the second on June meter; light level sensors The cylindrical spacecraft was based on the GEOS Earth-orbiting
15. On the way down, a balloon separated from research satellites. The most significant addition was an aluminum and
the 1500 kg descent module and inflated with I(evlar bumper shield to protect it from high-speed dust particles during the
helium. Both balloons survived for about 46.5 h. comet encounter.
Retargeted by the Venus gravity assist, the Giotto was part of an international program to investigate Halley. The
Vega I bus encountered Halley's Comet on March first comet data arrived on March 12,1986, when the instruments detected
6, 1986; Vega 2 did so three days later at a flyby hydrogen ions 7.8 million km from the nucleus; 22 hours later, Giotto crossed
velocity of 77 .7 kmls. Uncertainty in the position the bow shock, where the solar wind slowed to subsonic speed, and entered
ofthe comet nucleus and concern over dust the coma; 7.6 seconds before closest approach, it was sent spinning by a dust
damage led to flyby distances of 39,000 km pafticle. Giotto lost contact with the Earth for 32 minutes, and its camera was
(2a,85 ml) for Vega I and 8030 km (4990 mi) for irreparably damaged. But by then Giotto had passed 596 km (370 mi) from the
Vega 2. Both spacecraft obtained imagesofthe nucleus, obtaining the closest pictures ever taken of a comet.
nucleus and acted as pathfinders for ESAs Giotto Giotto was redirected to Comet Grigg-skjellerup. It was placed in
mission. hibernation on July 23, 1992, and the spacecraft has since been inactive.

73
Mir ussn Buran ussn
Third generation Soviet space station I r t rutomated flight of a reusable shuttle

SPECIFICATION: SPECIFICATION:
MANUFACTURER: RSC Energia MANUFACTuRER: NPo Molniya
LAUNcH DATES: February 20,1986 LAUNcH DAJE: November 15,
(base module); March 31,1987 1988
(Kvant-1); November 26, 1989 oRBrr:252 x 256 km,51.6o
(Kvant-2); May 31,1990 (Krista l); incli nation
May 20, 199s (Spekt4; April 23, LAUNcH srrE: Baikonur,
1996 (Priroda) Kazakhstan
oRBrr: 185 x 393 km (239 x LAUNcHER: Energia
244 mi), 51.6' inclination LAUNcH MAss:79,400 kg
LAUNcH strE: Baikonur, (17s,000 lb)
LENGTH: 16.7 m (119.4 ft)
LAUNcHER: Proton wTNGsPAN: 23.9 m (78.a ft)
MAss: 1J7,160 kg (135 tons) MAx. HEtcHT (wtrH wHEELs
BoDY D MENsroNs: I3.l x 2,9.7 fr oeeroveo): 16.4 m (53.8 ft)
(41.t x 97.s ft)
cnrws: I04 different crew from
l2 different nations (125 visitos
in total); 17 visiting expeditions
and 28 long-term crews

Mir (Peace or World) was the successor to the Salyut series of Soviet/Russian
space stations. The station's modular design resulted from the payload
limitations of the Proton rocket. It eventually comprised seven modules,
including a docking module for use by the Space Shuttle. All of the Soviet
modules were delivered by Proton and docked automatically.
The three-section base module contained the living quarters. At the fhe Buran (Snowstorm) orbiter was the Soviet response to the US Space
front was a separate airlock/five-port docking node. At the rear was the Shuttle. It was the first (and, so far, only) reusable Russian manned space

service section with thrusters, main engine, tanks for consumables, and vehicle. The forward cabin could house a crew of six but the orbiter's only

communications. flight was unmanned. It was then abandoned because of cost-


On June 29,1995, US Space Shuttles began docking with Mir. Before this Unlike the Shuttle, Buran carried no rocket engines. It was launched on
first docking, the Mir-19 crew used the Lyappa manipulator arm to relocate the side of the Energia booster, which provided all of the launch thrust. The

Kristall module, providing clearance for Atlantis.In November 1995, a orbiter returned to Earth like a glider, landing on a runway' Thermal
Russian-built docking module arrived on Shuttle mission STS-74 and was protection for the descent required almost 40,000 custom-made heat tiles.
attached to Kristall. Finally, the Priroda remote sensing module was added Buran completed two orbits ofthe Earth. The Energia core stage shut

opposite Kristall. down eight minutes after launch and the orbiter separated at 160 km (99.4 mi)

Over its lifetime, 3I crewed altitude. About 2 min later, the orbiter's maneuvering engines fired for
spacecraft docked with Mir, including nine
Shuttles, as well as 64 uncrewed cargo ships. In1997 the station suffered a 67 sec to boost the altitude to about 250 km (155 mi). Another maneuver over

serious fire and a collision with a Progress ship that caused partial the Pacific circularized the orbit. Retrofire occurred during the second pass
depressurization. It was deorbited over the Pacific on March 23, 200I. over the Pacific, and the mission ended with an automated landing at
Baikonur. The only flown Buran orbiter was destroyed when the Energia
hangar collapsed in May 2002.

74 75
Hipparcos (High Precision Parallax Collecting Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) usn
I rr ',t detailed study of cosmic microwave background
Satellite) esr
First astrometry mission
SPECIFICATION:
MANUFAcTuRER: Matra Marconi
Space
LAuNcH DArE: August 8,1989
oRBrr:526 x 35,896 km (327 x
22,305 mi), 6.90 inclination
r AUNcH strE: Kourou, French

Guiana
LAUNcHER: Ariane 44LP
LAUNcH MAss: 11a0 kg (2508 lb)
body dimensions: 3 x 1.8 m
(9.8 x 5.9 ft)
PAYLoao: 0.3 m (1 ft) Schmidt
telescope; two star maPPers

COBE was developed to provide a highly accurate SPECIFICATION:


MANITFAcTuRER: NASA-Goddard
rneasutement of the diffuse radiation from the November 18,
LAUNcH oATE:
r,arly universe. It carried three instruments-to 1989
onerr: 900 km (559 mi),99'
search for cosmic infrared background radiation, inclination (sun-synchronous)
to map variations in the cosmic microwave uutcr stre: Vandenberg,
California
Hipparcos was the first space mission for astrometry-dedicated to the radiation, and to compare the spectrum of the LAUNcHER: Delta 5920

pr..ir. -.rr,r.ement of the positions, distances, and proper motions of background radiation with a precise blackbody' LAUNcH MAss:2270 kg (a99a Ib)
BooY DrMENsroNs: 2.5 x 4.9 m
the stars. tiach yielded a major cosmological discovery. (8.2 x 16 ft)
prvroro: Diffuse infrared
The satellite was to operate in GEO, but it was stranded in a highly Intended for launch on a Shuttle, it had to be background experiment (DIRBE);
elliptical transfer orbit when the solid-fuel boost engine failed to {ire. downsized after the Challenger disaster to fit on differential microwave radio-
meter (DMR); far infrared
The satellite had to endure repeated passes through the Van AIIen radiation a Delta rocket. absolute spectrophotometer
its
belts and periods in shadow. Despite these problems, Hipparcos outlived
(FlRAs)
The experiment module on top contained the
30-monthdesignlifebeforecommunicationswereterminatedinAugust1993' instruments and a dewar filled with 650 I (1.1 qQ
Eventually, Hipparcos pinpointed more than 100,000 stars' 200 times of liquid helium at a temperature of 1.6 K (just
just
more accurately than ever before. The spacecraft turned on its axis in above absolute zero), with a conical, deployable
over 2 h, while slowiy changing the direction of the axis of rotation sun-shade. The satellite was turned at 94o from
so that it could repeatedly scan the entire sky' It measured angles between the Sun and away from Earth. The instruments
over
widely separated stars and recorded their brightness, which often varied performed a complete scan of the celestial sphere
time. Each star selected for study was visited about 100 times over four years'
every six months.
The end product was two catalogs-the Hipparcos Catalog, charted
with the After the helium ran out on September 21,
highest precision, and the Tycho Catalog, more than 2'5 million stars mapped
1990, operations continued with the onboard
wiih slightly lower accuracy by an auxiliary star mapper' differential microwave radiometer until December
23,1993. COBE was then used as an engineering
training and test satellite by NASAs Wallops
Flight Facility.
77
t6
ffi"listoric
Lqunchers
Ariane l-4 eunopg Atlas l-lll usa
Ariane 44L pictured ill r,; Ua pictured

SPECIFICATION SPECIFICATION
(Ariane 44LP): (Atlas llAS):
MANUFAcTu RER: Aerospatiale ulluFlcrunEn: General
(EADS Launch Vehicies) Dynamics (now Lockheed Martin)
LAuNcH srrE: Kourou, French LAUNcH srrEs: Cape Canaveral,
Guiana Florida; Vandenberg, Cali{brnia
FLRsr LAUNcHEs: December 24, FrRsr LAUNcH: December 16,1993
1979 (Ariane 1); August 4, 1984 FU EL:
(Ar'ane 2-3); J!ne 15, 1988 srRAP-oNs: Solid
(Ariane 4) FrRsr srAGE: Liquid oxygen/
FUEL: kerosene (RP-1)
srRAP oNs: Solid/N,Oy'UH25 (2) sEcoND srAGE: Liquid hydrogen/
FrRsr srAGE: N)O,/UH25 (UDMH liquid oxygen
+ 25"/o hydrazine hydrate) PERFORMANCE:
sEcoND sracE: N,Oy'UH25 PAYLoaD To LEo:8610 kg
(UDMH + 25% hydrazine (18,980 lb)
hydrate) PAYLoAD ro cro:3719 kg
rHrRD srAGE: Liquid hydrogen/ (8200 lb)
liquid oxygen
PROPULSION:
PERFORMANCE: srup-ons: Thiokol Castor 4A (4)
PAYLoAD To GTo:4310 kg FrRsr srAGE: Rocketdyne
(ro,89o lb) MA-5A (1)
PROPULSION: sEcoND srAGE: RL]0A-4 or
soLrD srRAP-oNs: P9.5 (2) RLl0A-4-1 (2)
LreurD srRAP-oNs: Viking 6 (2) FEATU RES:
FrRsr srAGE: Viking 5 (4)
TENGTH:24.9 m (8i.7 ft)
sEcoND srAGE: Viking 4 (1) coRE DTAMETER:3.3 m (10 ft)
rHrRo srAGE: HM-78 (1) lAUNcH MAss:214,000 kg
FEATURES: (sis,ooo lb)
LENGTH: 58.4 m (191.6 ft)
coRE DTaMETER:3.8 m (12.4 ft)
LAUNcH MAss:421,000 kg fhe Atlas was introduced in 1957 as America's first operational ICBM.
(928,000 Ib)
Despite some spectacular failures, it successfully launched four manned
Mercury spacecraft in the early I960s. It also carried the Agena upper stage
The Ariane launcher was developed by ESA and CNES in the 1970s to provide that was used during orbital rendezvous and docking tests in the manned
independent access to space. The three-stage Ariane I flew lI times between Gemini program.
1979 and 1986, with nine successes. A more powerful version (Ariane 3) was After the Challenger shuttle disaster, the Atlas II was developed in the late
introduced in 1984, with uprated engines, a stretched upper stage, and two 1980s as an unmanned launcher for government and commercial satellites.
solid propellant strap-ons. Ariane 2 was a version without the strap-ons. An improved Centaur upper stage increased its payload capability. The most
The most successful member of the family was the Ariane 4, which powefful version was the Atlas IIAS, with four solid rocket boosters and a
launched half of the world's commercial satellites into GTO. It flew 116 times Centaur 2A upper stage. The last Atlas IIAS flew on August 3I,2004, carrying
between 1988 and 2003, with II3 successes (a97.4% success rate) delivering a National Reconnaissance Office payload.
182 satellites into orbit. Six variants ofthe Ariane 4 were available with The Atlas III was introduced on May 24,2000, during the transition to
different combinations of solid and liquid propellant strap-ons. The most the Atlas V. It flew six times and included the Russian RD-180 engine. This
powerful ofthese, the Ariane 44L, which used four liquid propellant strap- was the first use of a Russian rocket engine to power an American launch
ons, could lift 4950 kg (10,890 lb) to cTO. vehicle. The last Atlas III flew on February 3, 2005.
Payloads included one or two major satellites and six 50 kg payloads.
An apogee kick motor on the satellites was used to reach GEO.

80 8l
Black Arrow ux Diamant FRANcE

SPECIFICATION: SPECIFICATION
MANUFACTuRER: Saunders-Roe/ (Diamant B):
Royal Aircraft Establishment MANUFAcTuRER: SEREB/CNES
LAUNcH srrE: Woomera, Australia LAUNcH srr€s: Hammaguir,
FrRsr LAUNcH: June 27, 1969 Algerla; Kourou, French Guiana
FUEL: FrRsr LAUNcH€s: November 26,

Hydrogen peroxide, kerosene 1965 (Diamant A); March 10,


1970 (Diamant B); February 6,
PERFORMANCEi
1975 (Diamant B P4)
PAYLoAD ro reo: 73 kg (160 lb)
FUEL:
PROPULSION:
FrRsr sracE: UDMH/N,O,
rrcsr srrce: Gamma 8 (I) SECOND ANO THIRD sTAGE5:
sEcoND srAGE: Gamma 2 (1)
Solld
rHrRD srAGE: Waxwing (1)
PERFORMANCE:
FEATU RES:
PAYLoaD ro tEo: 160 kg (350 lb)
LENGTH: 13 m (42 ft)
oreurren:2 m (6.5 ft)
LAUNcH MAss:18,110 kg rrnsr suce: Valois L17 (1)
(r9,e6o lb) sEcoNo srAGE: Topaze P-2.3 (1)
rHrRo srAGE: Rubis P0.6 (1)

FEATURES:
LENGTH:21.5 m (77 ft)
oraMErER: 1.4 m (4.6 ft)
TAUNcH MAss:24,600 kg
(s4,r20 lb)

France's first satellite launcher, Diamant A, was developed as a result of the


I)ierres Pr6cieuses (Precious Stones) experimental rocket program led by
SEREB from 1959.
The launcher enabled France to become the third nation to place a

Black Arrow was the UK's only indigenous launch vehicle' In September satellite in orbit in November 1965. Diamant A's first payload was Ast6rix
1g64, the government decided to develop a small, three-stage vehicle based (or A-I), a small technology capsule weighing less than 40 kg. Although it was
on the Black Knight research rocket. successfully placed into LEO, one ofthe antennas was destroyed, preventing
The {irst two stages used hydrogen peroxide and kerosene, topped with a it from communicating. Emeraude, the first stage of the Diamant A, used
Waxwing solid rocket motor manufactured by RPE Westcott' After burnout a liquid propulsion engine that burned for 93 sec. The second and third
the second stage remained attached to the third stage until they coasted to stages used solid propellants. The Diamant B had larger fuel tanks and a
apogee. Only then did the third stage spin up and separate' After a time third stage derived from the Europa launcher. An uprated version was known
delay, the apogee motor fired to accelerate the payload to orbital velocity. as the B P4.

Four Black Arrows were launched from Woomera, Australia' However, The Diamant program ended on September 27,I975, after ten successful
after only three test flights, one of which was successful, the project was launches out of 12, delivering 11 satellites to orbit. All of the Diamant A
canceled in July 1971. The fourth and final flight placed the 72'5 kg (150 lb) launches took place from Hammaguir military base in the Algerian desert.
Prospero satellite into low Earth orbit (LEO) on 28 October 1971' The Diamant B and B P4 were launched from Kourou, French Guiana.

82 83
Energia (SL-17) ussn Luropa EURoPE

SPECIFICATION: ...- i SPECIFICATION


MANUFAcTuRER: N PO Energia
i (EuroPa l)
LAUNaH srrE: Ba konur, Russia urrurrcacrunrn: ELDO
FrRsr LAUNcB: May 15,1987 I LAUNCH SITES: woomera,
I Australia (Europa l); Kourou,
FUEL:
French Guiana (Europa I l)
F Rsr srAcEr Liquid oxygen/
FLRsr LAuNcH: June 4, 1964
kerosene
sEcoND srAGE: L quid oxygen/ FUEL:
liquid hydrogen FrRsr sracE: Liquid oxygen/
kerosene
PERFORMANCE:
sEcoND srAGE: UDi\4H/N,O,
PAYLoAD ro LEo:88,000 kg
rHrRD srAGE: Acrozine 50/N,O.
(194,000 lb)
PAYLoAD ro cEo: 18,000 kg PERFORMANCE:
(4o,ooo lb) PAYLoAD ro LEo: 1150 kg
(2s10 lb)
PROPU LSIONi
r csr sucr (srnne-ons): PRO PU LS ION:

RD-170 (4) FrRsr sracE: Rolls Royce RZ-2 (2)


sEcoND sracE: RD-0120 (4) sEcoND sracE: LRBA 7f (4)
rH RD srAcE: ASAT Erno (1)
FEATURES:
LENGTH: 58.8 m (192.9 ft) FEAIU RES:
coRE D aMETER:7.75 m (25.42 ft) LENGTH:31.7 m (104 ft)
LAUNcH MAss: ),5)4,600 kg oraveren:3.05 m (10 ft)
(5,56s,700 lb) LAUNcH MAss:104,670 kg
(210,750 lb)

Europa was the {irst launcher


developed by a collaboration of
European countries. In 1962,
Belgium, France, West Germany,

The Energia vehicle was designed to launch large unmanned payloads and the Netherlands, Italy and the UI( (associated with Australia) agreed to create
the Buran shuttle. It was the most poweful launcher in the world at the time. the European Launcher Development Organization (ELDO), whose main
After 12 years of development, Energia made its maiden flight in May 1987, objective was to gain independent access to space.
carrying the top-secret military Skif-DM Polyus antisatellite weapons The ELDO A launcher (later renamed Europa I) was to launch 500-1000 kg
platform. The launch was successful, but the payload failed to enter orbit (l f00-2200 1b) satetlites into LEO. It used the British Blue Streak ballistic
due to a guidance-system failure. The second and last flight took place on missile as the first stage. France provided the Coralie second stage, and
November f 5, f 988, when the Buran was delivered into LEO' Germany the Astris third stage. Italy was responsible for the nose fairing, and
The strap-ons were almost identical to the first stage of the Zenit vehicle lhe Netherlands and Belgium for tracking systems.
developed simultaneously by the Yuzhnoye design bureau. Designs included The first five tests using the Blue Streak were largely successful, but three
up to eight ofthese, with plans to make them reusable. Buran and other orbital launch attempts failed, largely due to the unreliability ofthe third
payloads were side mounted. A cryogenic upper stage was also under stage. Despite the withdrawal of the UK and Italy from the program' a

development. The extremely high cost of the Energia-Buran program and a Europa II version with a solid propellant fourth stage was developed to send
shortage of potential payloads led to its cancellation in1992. A11 remaining smal1 payloads into geostationary orbit. Its only flight from Kourou, on

hardware was mothballed. A medium-lift Energia-M version was proposed November 5,Ig7i-.,was a failure. In1972 the project was canceled and
but never flew replaced by Ariane.
85
84
M-V lrerN
J-I lrerN
SPECIFICATION:
SPECIFICATION:
MANUFACTURER: Ni5san
MANUFACTuRER: Nissan LAUNcH srrE: Uchinoura Space
LAUNcH srrE: Tanegashima, JaPan Center, l(agoshima, Japan
FrRsr LAUNcH: FebruarY 11,1996 FrRsr LAUNcH: December 2. 1997

FUEL: FU EL:
ALL srAGEs: Solid (Pol},butadiene) aLL srAGEs: So id (3 stages)

PERFORMANCE: PERFORMANC€i
PAYLoAD ro reo: 850 kg (1870 lb) PAYLoAD To rEo: 1800 kg
PROPULSION: (3eoo lb)
FrRsr srac€: H-ll SRB-A
sEcoNo srAGE: M-21 FrRsr srAGE: M-14 (1)
THrRD slAGE: M-38 sEcoND 5JAGE: M-24 (1)
FEATURES: rnrno suce: M-34 (I)
LENGTH: 33.1 m (108 6 ft) FEATURES:
I B m (5 9 ft)
coRE DTAMETER: rercra: 30.7 m (101 ft)
LAUNcH MAss:88'500 kg DTAMETER: 2.5 m (8.2 ft)
(194,700 lb) LAUNcH MAss: 137,500 kg
(r01,100 lb)

'l'he M-V was the last in the Mu series of small satellite launchers that was
launch vehicle designed to meet
growing
The J-l was a three-stage solid-fuel flown from 1970 byJapan's Institute of Space and Astronautical Science
It was based on the Mu-3S-II
dem".td for the launch of smaller satellites' (ISAS). One of the largest solid-fuel rockets in the world, the M-V was a
of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS)'
rocket developed by the Institute three-stage vehicle with an optional kick stage. It was sufficiently powerful
a division of JAJG. The J-l flew
only once' in 1996' in a partial configuration'
to launch scientific satellites such as Muses-B into Earth orbit and Nozomi
Experiment) demonstrator'
to launch the Hyflex (Hypersonic Flight 1o Mars. The final M-V rocket Iaunched the Hinode satellite into Sun-
A]ower-costvelsion,knownasthel.rF2,wasdeveloped.Itcombined synchronous orbit on September 22,2006. Its launch recold was six successes
the second and third stages ofthe
the solid rocket booster ofthe H-II with and one failure.
the OICETS
avionics' Itwas intended to launch
J-1, and used updated satellite' but
Engineering Test Satellite)
(Optical Inter-orbit Communications
before it could fly and the
ceased due to budget overuns
i-t'd.u.lopm.nt
a Russian Dnepr'
satellite was eventually launched on 87

86
N-l/N-ll laerr.r
N-1 (G-1e/SL-15) ussn

SPECIFICATION:
MANUFACTURER: OKB-l
(Korolev/NPO Energia)
!auNcH srrE: Baikonur, Russia
FrRsr lAuNcH: February 21, 1969

FUEL:
ALL srAGEs: Liquid oxygen/
kerosene (5 stages)

PERFORMANCE:
PAYToAD ro LEo: 70,000 kg
(1s4,000 lb)
PROPULSIONi
FrRsr srAGE: NK-15 (30)
sEcoND srAGE: NK-15V (8)
rHrRD srAGE: NK-21 (4)
FoURTH srAGE: NK-19 (1)
FrFrH srAGE: RD'58 (1)

FEATURES:
LENGTH: 105 m (344 ft)
BAsE DTaMETER:17 m (55 ft)
LAUNcH MAss: 2,735,000 kg
(6,029,000 lb)

In an effort to fast-track the Japanese space SPECTFTCATTON (N-il):


program, the N-I and N-lI (the "N" prefix is taken MANUFAcTuRER: Mitsubishi
Heavy lndustries
from the first letter of"Nippon" fJapan]) rockets LAUNcH srrE: Tanegashima, Japan
FrRsT LAUNcH: September 9,
'l heN-l was intended to send manned spacecraft to the Moon and deliver
were based on US technology. They were
1975 (N-l); November 2,1981
essentially versions ofthe Delta rocket built under (N-il)
vcry heavy payloads to LEO. The program was given the o{ficial go-ahead in
license in Japan using American and Japanese FUEL: I 962, with the start of the L3 lunar-landing project in 1963.
srnap-ors: Solid There were four test flights of the N-J", none of which were successful.
components and used to launch NASDA (National FrRsr srac€: Liquid oxygen/
'1he first ended after a fire. The
Space Development Agency) satellites. The kerosene second began to fail immediately after liftoff
sEcoND srAGE: N'O,iUDMH
first-stage engine on the N-I was licensed from rHrRo srAGE: Solid
rvhen the oxidizer pump of engine 8 ingested a piece of debris and exploded.

Rocketdyne, who also assisted in the development PERFORMANCE: Alter a number of major modifications, the third launch took place on June
PAYLoAD To cro:715 kg )7,I97I. Although all 30 first-stage engines operated nominally, the rocket
ofthe rocket's second-stage engine. The strap-ons, (157s rb)
solid propellant third stage, and control systems PROPU LSION:
developed a serious roll and began to break up. It was destroyed by ground
srRAP-oNs: Casior ll (9) t ontrollers after 57 sec. The {inal launch took place on November 23, 1972.
were purchased from the US. FrRsr srAGE: MB-l (1)
'I'his version included a gyrostabilized platform, steering vernier
The N-I launched seven satellites in I97 5-82 sEcoND srAGE: Aj-10 (1) engines,
THrRD srAGE: TE-M-364 ;rnd a fire-extinguishing system. The rocket flew for 107 sec without incident,
and could place up to 130 kg (286 lb) in geo-
FEATU RESi
stationary orbit. The larger N-II used nine but vibrations ruptured fuel lines and caused the engine 4 oxidizer pump
LENcTH: 35.4 m (116 ft)
strap-ons instead of three. It had more powerful oraueren:2.4 m (8 ft) lo explode.
LAUNcH MAss:115,200 kg
motors and an inertial guidance system. It could (297 ,440 lb) The next launch was scheduled for late 1974, but when Glushko became
lift 350 kg (770 lb) to geostationary orbit and the head ofNPO Energia in May 1974, he ordered the program to be
launched eight satellites in 1980-86. lerminated and all rocket stages and associated hardware to be destroyed.

88
89
Redstone (Jupiter-C/Juno) rso
Saturn lB usr

SPECIFICATION:
SPECIFICATION
MANUFAcTuRER: NASA/Chrysler
(Mercu ry- Redsto n e):
(s-lB)/Douglas (S-lvB)
MANUFACTuRER: US Army LAUNcH strEs: Cape Canaveral,
LAUNcH srrE: Cape Canaveral, Florida; Kennedy Space Center,
Florida Florid a
FtRsr LAUNcH: December 19, FrRsr LAUNcH: February 26,1966
1960
FUEL:
FUEL: FlRsr sracE: Liquid oxygen/RP-1
Liquid oxygen/ethyl alcohol sEcoND srAGE: Liquid oxygen/
PERFORMANCE: liquid hydrogen
PAYLoaD ro r85 ru: 1300 kg PERFORMANCE:
(2860 rb) PAYLoAD To LEo: 15,300 kg
PROPULSION: (11,700 lb)
F Rsr srAGE: A 6 (1) PROPU LSION:

FEATU RES: rrnsr srace: H-1 (8)


LENGTH: With MercurY,25 3 m sEcoND sracE: Rocketdyne
(83.4 ft) J.2 (D
ouveren:1.77 m (5.9 ft) FEATURES:
LAUNcH MAss:29,395 kg reNcru:68 m (224 ft)
(64,669 lb) DTaMETER:6.6 trr (21.6 fl)
LAUNcts MAss: 589,170 kg
(1,100,220 1b)

I Irc Saturn series of rockets was proposed as a follow-on to the Jupiter series.
lrlcments of the Saturn I and planned Saturn V were combined to build the
The first Redstone was basically an enlarged version of the v-2 missile. The rrrid-range Saturn IB. A much more powerful second stage gave the Saturn IB
liquid-propelled surface-to-surface missile was developed by the Army ,r 50oZ greaterlift capability than Saturn I, making it possible to carry a
Balllstic Missile Agency at Redstone Arsenal, Huntsville, Alabama, under the r ornplete Apollo spacecraft to LEO.
direction ofWernher von Braun. Production began in 1952' The improved The first (S-IB) stage used eight uprated engines and burnt out at an
Redstone 2, also named Jupiter, attained a flight range of 2400 km (1500 mi) rltitude of 67.6 km (42 mi). The second (S-I\rB) stage was identical to the third
and reached an altitude of 640 km (a00 mi). A version known as the Jupiter-C ',trge ofthe Saturn V except for the interstage adapter. It had a single engine
called
was used for reentry tests of nuclear warheads' A four-stage Jupiter-C, rlrat burned 242,2501(63,996 gal) of liquid hydrogen and75,7001(19,998 gal)

Juno, had upper stages comprlsing clusters of scaled-down Sergeant missiles' ,rf liquid oxygen in 450 sec of operation before reaching orbital altitude.
It launched America's first satellite, Explorer I (January 3f , 1958), as well as The Saturn IB flew three test flights in 1966, two ofwhich were
Explorers 3 and 4. Juno iI was used to launch Explorers 7, 8, and 11, and sent ,ruborbital demonstrations of the Apollo Command and Service Modules

Pioneer 4 past the Moon into solar orbit. (CSM). The Apollo 5 flight on January 22,1968, was an unmanned orbital test
About 800 modifications were made in order to use an uprated Redstone of the lunar module. On October 11, 1968, the Saturn IB launched the Apollo
as a launcher for the first US manned missions' Three Mercury-Redstone 7 crew into LEO. It carried three crews to the Skylab space station inL973.
'lhe Saturn IB's final launch onJuly I5,I975, delivered the Apollo 18 CSM to
test flights were made December 1960-March 196I' They were followed
by the suborbital flights of AIan Shepard (May 5, 1961) and Gus Grissom l.EO for the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project. All of its nine flights were successful.

fluly 21, 1961). Of the 12 launchers built, three were unused.

91
90
Saturn V usr Scout usr

SPECIFICATION
SPECIFICATION:
(Scout G):
MANUFAcTuRER: NASA/Boeing
MANUFAcTuRER: LTV Aerospace
(S-lC)/North American (S-l l)/
Douglas (S-lVB) Corporation
LAUNcH srrE: Kennedy Space
uurcr stres: Wallops lsland,
Center, Florida
Virginia; Vandenberg, California;
FrRsr LAUNcH: November 9, 1967
San Marco platform, Kenya
FrRsr LAUNcHEs: July 1, 1960
FUEL: (Scout X-1); October 30, 1979
FrRsr srAGE: Liquid oxygen/ (Scout G)
kerosene
FUELi
sEcoND srAGE: Liquid oxygen/
liquid hydrogen rrr suces:5olid
rHrRD srAGE: Liquid oxygen/ PERFORMANCE:
liquid hydrogen PAYToAD ro rro: 210 kg (450 lb)

PERFORMANCE: PROPU LSIONI


PAYLoAo ro LEo: 118,000 kg rrnsr srrcr: Algol 3 (1)
(260,000 lb) sEcoND srAGE: Castor 2 (1)
TRANsLUNAR PAYLoAD: 47,000 kg rurno srece: Antares3A (1)
(10r,000 lb) FouRrH srAGE: Altair 3 (l)
PROPULSION: FEATURES:
rrasr srlce: F-l (5) LENGTH:25 m (85 fi)
secoro sucr: J-2 (5) oTAMETER: 1.1 m (3.7 ft)
THrRD sracE: J-2 (1) LAUNcH MAss: 20,930 kg
(46,140 lb)
FEATURES:
L€NGrH: With Apollo, lll m
(164.r ft);with Skylab, 109 m
(3s7.5 ft)
onverrn:10.1 m (33.1 ft)
LAUNcH MAss: Apollo 11,
2,938,3I2 kg (6,464,286 16\
Scout was developed in the late 1950s as the first US solid-propellant rocket
capable ofplacing payloads in orbit. It was a reliable, versatile, and cost-
Saturn V, the most powerfirl launch vehicle ever built, was developed solely to
cffective vehicle that was used in nine configurations over 34 years. It could
Iaunch Apollo crews to the Moon. It comprised completely new first and
launch suborbital probes and high-speed reentry vehicles as well as small
second stages, together with the S-IVB third stage used by the Saturn IB.
orbital payloads.
The five engines of the first stage produced 3.4 million kg (7.5 million lb)
Early Scouts were capable ofboosting Iess than 150 kg (330 lb) into a
of thrust. They burned for 2.5 min, consuming 2 million kg (4.5 million lb) of
nominal 500 km orbit, but performance was enhanced by changing to larger,
propellant. The second stage engines burned for about 6 min, after which the
more pov\rerful solid motors. The original first stage evolved from the Polaris
vehicle had reached near-orbital velocity of 24,622 km/h (15,300 mph). The
missile, the second stage was derived from the Sergeant missile, and the
third stage engine burned for 2.75 min, boosting the spacecraft to orbital
fourth stage was derived from the Vanguard Program. A fifth stage could
velocity. The Apollo spacecraft entered LEO about 12 minutes after liftoffi
be added for highly elliptical orbits or improved hlpersonic reentry
After the Apollo CSM docked with the LM, the third stage was abandoned
performance.
and aliowed to impact the Moon.
In addition to use by NASA and the US DOD, Scout iaunched payloads
The Saturn V production line was shut down in 1970. Between 1967 and
from the UK, Italy, France, Germany, and the European Space Research
1973, 13 rockets were launched with a perfect launch record, although there
Organization (ESRO). The last launch, a ballistic missile defense satellite
were engine failures on Apollo 6 and Apollo 13. Nine Saturn Vs delivered
called MSTI, took place on May g,I9g4.There were II8 Scout launches, with
manned Apollo spacecraft to the Moon. The final launch on May 14,I97),
an 88oZ success rate. Most failures occurred in the I960s.
placed the Skylab space station in LEO.
93
92
Sputnik/Vostok/Voskhod (A/Al) ussn l'hor usr

SPECIFICATION
(Thor Able):
MANUFAcTuRER: Douglas A rcraft
Company
LAUNcH srrEs: Cape Canaveral,
Florida; Vandenberg, California
FtRsr oRBtrAL LAUNcH: August
r7,1958
FUEL:
FrRsr sracE: Liquid oxygen/RJ-l
sEcoNo srAGE: Nltric acid/
UDMH
rsrno srece: Solid
PERFORMANCE:
PAYLoAD ro reo: 120 kg (260 lb)

PROPULSION!
flnsr suce: LR-79 (1)
sEcoND srAGE: AJ10-40 (1)
rHrRD srAGE: Altair ABL 248 (1)

The A series of launchers was based on the R-7, SPECIFICATION FEATU RE5:

(Vostok): rercru: 30 m (98 ft)


the Soviet Union's first ICBM. Its first successfui coRE DTaMETER:2.4 m (8 ft)
MANUFAcTuRER: l<orolev Design LAUNcH MAss:51,608 kg
launch placed Sputnik, the world's first artificial Bureau (OKB-1) (tr1,776 6)
satellite, into LEO. During the following years, raurucu srtes: Baikonur,
l<azakhstan; Plesetsk, Russia
there were some spectacular successes, but also FrRsr LAUNcB: October 4,1957
(Sputnik); I\4ay 15, 1960 (Vostok)
numerous failures that were hidden from the I hor was the US Air Force's answer to the Jupiter missile being developed in
FUEL:
public. The largest payload, Sputnik 3, had a mass aLL srAGEs: Liquid oxygen/ llre 1950s by the US Army and Navy. It became the first operational
of 1327 kg (292s lb). kerosene
rrrtermediate-range ballistic missile deployed by the US. Thor's first launches
PERFORMANCE:
The Sputnik launcher had a central core with wcre reentry vehicle test flights, followed by the failed launch ofthe first
PAYLoAD To LEoi 4730 kg
four cone-shaped liquid strap-on boosters. The (10,400 lb)
l)ioneer-an attempt to send a space probe to the Moon-in August 1958.
core engine ignited simultaneously with the PROPU LSION:
The first successful launch of the two-stage Thor-Agena-A was on
srRAP-oNs: RD-107 (4)
strap-ons, so at liftoff the vehicle had 20 main coRE srAGE: RD-108 (1) I
icbruary 28, 1959. It was used by the USAF to launch the first reconnaissance
sEcoND srAGE: RD,448 (1)
chambers and I2 vernier chambers in operation. ,;;rtellites of the Corona (Discoverer) series. The Thor-Agena-B was almost
FEATURES:
The more powerful Vostok variant was intro- LENGTH: 38.4 m (126ft) L,xclusively used to Iaunch military satellites. The Thor-Agena-D, first
duced in 1959 to send the first three Luna space- coRE DTaMETER:2.7 m (8.9 ft)
leunched onJune 27,I962,remained in service until 1968. In I965, it carried
LAUNcH MAss:290,000 kg
craft to the Moon. This version had a second stage (619,000 lb) out the first launch of a NASA satellite from Vandenberg Air Force Base.
(stage E) and a larger payload fairing that was in 1963, three solid motors derived from the Sergeant missile and an
used for six manned Vostok missions and their irnproved main engine were added to increase liftoff thrust. This version,
precursor test flights. For the manned Voskhod hnown as the Thrust-Augmented Thor, used upper stages from the Agena-D
missions, the upper-stage propellant tanks were .rnd, Iater, the Delta. Stretched versions ofthe Thor also flew in the late
stretched and a more powerful engine added. The I 960s. The Agena vehicle was used in large numbers during the I960s and
first commercial launch of a Vostok, with the | 970s as the upper stage for the Atlas and Titan missiles.
Indian IRS-lA satellite, took place on March 17,
1988. Its last launch was on August 29,I99L

94 95
Titan l-lV usa V:rnguard usr
Titan IV pictured

SPECIFICATION SPECIFICATION:
(Titan lV): MANUFACTuRER: Naval Research
Laboratory
MANUFACTURER: Martin Marietta
lAUNcH srrE: Cape Canaveral,
Astronautics
Florida
LAUNcH srrEs: Cape Canaveral,
FIRST ORBITAL LAUNCH:
Florida; Vandenberg, Calilornia
December 6,1957
FrRsr LAUNcHEs: Aprll 8,1964
(Titan ll); September 1,1964 FUEL:
(Titan FrRsr srAGE: Liquid oxygen/
l1l); June 14, 1989 (Titan lV)
kerosene
FUELi
sEcoND sracE: Nitric acid/
sranc-ons: Solid (2)
UDMH
FrRsr srAGE: Aerozine 50/N,O,
sEcoND srAGE: Aerozine 50/N,O' PERFORMANCEi
rHrRD srAGE: Solid/HTPB (lUS) PAYLoaD ro reo: 25.4 kg (56 lb)
or liquid oxygen/llquid hydrogen PROPULSIONi
(Centau r) flnsr srace: X-405 (1)
PERFORMANCE: sEcoND srAGE: AJ10-118 (1)
P^YLoAD To LEo: wlth SRMU, FEATURESi
2I,640 kg(47,700 16) LENGTH:21 m (75 ft)
PAYLoAD ro Gro: with SRMU, oraveren: 1.1 m (3.7 ft)
8620 kg (19,000 lb) LAUNcH MAss: I 0,050 kg
PROPU LSION: (22,1s0 lb)
srRAP-oNs: SRM (2) or SRMU (2)
FrRsr srAGE: tR87 - Aj-11 (2)
sEcoND srAcE: LR91 -AJ-11 (1)
rus rtsrRD sracE: SRM-f (I) and
sRM-2 (r)
cENrauR rHrRD srece: RL-10A (2)

FEATURES:
LENGTH:62.2 m (204 ft)
coRF DTaMFTFR: 3.1 m (10 ft)
LAUNcH MAss:860,000 kg
(1.9 milllon lb)
I r r 19 5 5, the Navy's proposed Vanguard vehicle was selected by the US DOD
The two-stage Titan II space launcher was based on the ICBM of the same lo launch America's first satellite as part of the International Geophysical

name and flew 12 times in the mid-1960s. It was chosen for the Gemini Ye non-missile origin was a factor in this decision. The Vanguard first
ar. Its

manned launches because of its non-explosive storable propellants. ',tage was based on the Viking, the largest of the US liquid-fuelled scientific
The Titan II was the basis for the many versions of its more powerful rounding rockets. The second stage was adapted from the Navy's Aerobee
successor. The Titan IIIA, a Titan II with a new upper stage, only flew three ';ounding rocket. The third stage used a new solid-fuel engine'
times. The Titan IIIB was a Titan II with an Agena third stage. The IIIC The prototype of the Vanguard flew a successful suborbital mission on
comprised a IIIA plus two strap-on solid rocket motors. The IIID was a IIIC october 23,1957 . The first attempt to launch a satellite took place in
without the upper stage, while the IIIE was a IIID with a powerful liquid-fuel i)ecember 1957 but ended with the vehicle exploding on the pad. After
Centaur upper stage. This version was used to launch the Helios, Viking, and ;rnother failure in February 1958, the vehicle successfully launched the 2 kg
Voyager interplanetary spacecraft . (4.4 lb) Vanguard l-America's second satellite-on March 17, I958. Two
After the loss of the Challenger shuttle in 1986, Martin Marietta used its more small satellites were launched before Vanguard was retired. Altogether,
own funds to develop the commercial Titan III. The Titan IV, the most power- there were eight failuresin 12 Vanguard launches. The final launch took
ful unmanned US rocket, was developed for the Air Force. With a Centaur place on September 18, 1959. Despite its only modest success, the Vanguard
upper stage and two upgraded solid rocket motors, it was used to send the upper stages led to the Able upper stage for Thor and Atlas.
Cassini spacecraft to Saturn. Its last flight was on October 19, 2005.
97
96
l
ffiurrent,
Future
Lqunchers
Angara nussrr Ares | (Crew Launch Vehicle/CLV) usr
Angara 1.1 pictured

SPECIFICATION: SPECIFICATION:
r#'-' (Angara I.I) mnruucrunen: ATI( Thiokol,
t.-
I- MANUFAcTuRER: l(hrunlchev Boeing Space Exploration
LAUNcH 5rrE: Kennedy Space

i
LAUNcH sLTE: Plesetsk, Russia
e- FrRsr LAUNcHT 20lll Center, Florida
FrRsr LAUNcH:2009?
FUEL:
t. FUEL:
Liquid oxygen/
FrRsr sracE:
t: kerosene rrnsr sucr: Solid
sEcoND stAGE: Breeze l\/1, sEcoND sracE: Liquid oxygen/
A
N.O /UDMH hydrogen
R
PERFORMANCE:
A PAYLoaD To LEo:2000 kg PAYLoaD ro LEo:25,000 kg
(4400 rb) (55,ooo lb)
1
PROPULSION:
FrRsr srAGE: RD-f9l (1) Shutt e SRB (5)
FrRsr srAGE:

a sEcoND srAGE: Breeze M, sEcoND sracE:.J-2X(l)

x RD-2000 (1)

FEATURESi
LENcrts: 14.9 m (114.5 ft)
FEATURES:
rrucrc:93
DTaMETER:
m (309 ft)
10 m (33 ft)
coRE DTaMETER:3.9 m (12.7 ft) LAUNcH MAss:900,000 kg
LAUNcH MAss:145,000 kg (1.8 million lb)
(319,000 lb)

The Ares I will launch manned and cargo versions of the Orion
',P:rcecraft after the end ofthe Space Shuttle flight program in 2010. In the
, rrrrent design, Ares I will use a five-segment version ofthe Space Shuttle
The Angara program began in 1993 when the Russian Ministry of Defense
Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) for its first stage, with
liquid-fuel second stage
a
and the Russian Federal Space Agency announced a tender to develop a new
l,owered by a single J-2X rocket engine derived from the Saturn rockets. The
national space launch system. Khrunichev was eventually named as the prime
Ares I will also be used to launch the unmanned cargo supplyversion of the
contractor. Although the program has received financial suppoft from the ( )rion spacecraft. Orion, like its Apollo predecessor, will be mounted on the
federal budget, the rocket's maiden flight has been delayed several years.
tt>p of the rocket, eliminating the possibility of damage by debris shaken
Khrunichev planned to produce light, medium, and heavy versions, based
I r om the launch vehicle.
on a Multi-Purpose Rocket Module (MPRM) that uses the RD-191 engine.
The first suborbital test flight (ca1led Ares I-X) is scheduled for 2009. This
The Angara 1.1 and Angara 1.2 will use one MPRM as a first stage, while the
a first stage comprising four active SRB segments with an inert fifth
rvjll test
central part ofthe Breeze-M upper stage and the Block'I'ofthe Soyuz-2 will
;cgment and upper stage. A test flight ofthe fully operational Ares I launcher
form the second stage. This will be able to launch payloads of 2-3.7 t
is scheduled for 2013, followed by an orbital test with the fully operational
(4400-8140 lb) to LEO. The medium-class Angara 3A will have two additional,
Orion spacecraft. The initial crewed launch of the complete Ares I/Orion
side-mounted MPRMs, while the hearry Angara 5A will have five MPRMs as
vchicle should follow around 20I5. The larger, unmanned Ares V cargo
its first stage. The eventual goal is to replace the Proton launcher with Angara
l:runch vehicle will be used to launch the Lunar Surface Access Module into
54 at Baikonur and Plesetsk. All members of the Angara family will be
l,EO for later retrieval by an Orion crew.
launched from the same pads.

I00 I01
Ariane 5 eunope Atlas V usa
Ariane 5 ECA pictured

SPECIFICATION SPECIFICATION
(Ariane 5 ECA): (Atlas V 55I):
MANUFAcTURER: EADS Space MANUFACTuRER: Lockheed Martin
Transportation Leulcu s res: Cape Canaveral,

LAUNcH s rE: Kourou, French Florida; Vandenberg, California


Guiana FrRsr LAUNcH: August 21,2002
FrRsr LAUNcH:.June 4, 1996
(Atlas V 401)
(Ariane 5 dev.); December 11, FUEL:
2002 (Ariane 5 ECA) siRAP oNs: So id
FUEL: F Rsr sracE: Liquid oxygen/RP1

srRAP-oNs: Solid sEcoND srAGE: Centaur-llquld


FLRsT sracE: Liquid oxygen/ oxygen/liquid hydrogen
liquid hydrogen PERFORMANCE:
sEcoND sracE: Liquid oxygen/ PAYLoAD To LEo: 18,500 kg
liquid hydrogen (40,780 ib)
PERFORMANCE: PAYLoAD ro cror 8700 kg

PAYLoAD ro Gro:9600 kg (19,180 lb)


(2r,120 lb) PROPULSION:

PROPUL5ION: srRAP oNs: Aerojet

srRAP-oNs: EAP FrRsr srAcE: RD-180 (D


FrRsr srAGE: Vulcain 2 (1) sEcoND srAGE: RLl0A 4-2
sEcoND sracE: HMTB (1) (1 or 2)
LENGTH: 59.7 m (196 ft)
FEATURES: coRE D aMETER: 1.8 m (12.5 ft)
LENGTH: 50.5 57.7 m LAUNcH MAss: 333,29a kg
(16s.6-18e.3 ft) (734,800 b)
coRE DTAMETER: 5.a m Q7 .7 ft)
LAUNcH MAss:780,000 kg
(1.7 million lb)

Since 2003, ESA has been in charge of Ariane program management, while
EADS Space Transportation has been prime contractor. ESA and CNES were
responsible for the first three Ariane 5 launches, then Arianespace became
responsible for commercial operations. I he Atlas V was developed as part ofthe US Air Force Evolved Expendable
Ariane 5 features a radically new design from its predecessors. Originally I ;runch Vehicle (EELV) program. There are six versions of the Atlas V 500
intended to carry Europe's manned Hermes minishuttle, it is now solely a :,rrries, of which the Atlas V 55I is the most powerful. The numbers in the
commercial launcher. The basic Ariane 5G had a payload capacity of 6900 kg rle signation refer to the fairing diameter (m), the number of solid rocket
(15,180 lb) for dual launches into GTO. This has been phased out in favor of boosters, and the number of Centaur engines. The Atlas V 401 has the
the Ariane 5 ECA (Evolution Cryog6nique A), which incorporates a new ',rnallest fairing.
cryogenic upper stage carrying over 14 t (30,865 lb) ofpropellants. Up to Atlas V 500 series launchers feature a Common Core Booster first stage,

eight secondary payloads can be carried with an ASAP (Ariane Structure for rquipped with a Russian-developed RD-i80 engine, plus zero to Iive strap-on
AuxiliaryPayl oad s) platform. :;olid rocket boosters. Their second stage is the multiburn Centaur with
Future versions include the Ariane 5 ES (Evolution Stockables) and the one or two high-performance engines. The Atlas V used for NASA's New
Ariane 5 ECB (Evolution Cryog6nique B). The ES will deliver the Automated llorizons mission also carried a custom-built Boeing solid-propellant Star
Transfer Vehicle to the International Space Station from 2007. The ECB will 48B third-stage motor to send the spacecraft on its way to Pluto at a record
use the newVinci multiple-ignition engine and be able to launch up to 12 t cscape velocity. New Horizons left the Earth at approximately 57,600 km/h
(26,400 lb) into GTo. (36,000 mph).

I02 t03
Delta ll usr llclta lV usr
I r lV Ileavy pictured

SPECIFICATION SPECIFICATION
(Delta ll 7000 series): (Delta lV Heavy):
MANUFAcTuRER: Boeing .. MANUFACTURER: Boeing
LAUNcH strEs: Cape Canaveral, ; LAUNCH srres: Cape Canaveral,

Florida; Vandenberg, California


: Flor.dr: v:nderberg, C""forn a

FrRsr LAUNcHEs: May 13,1960


'I rrnsr uuNcH: December 21,
(Delia); February 14, 1989 (Delia :. 2004
ll); August 27, I99B (Delta lll) . ' FUEL:

FUEL: ,: , ' FJRsr srAce: Liquid oxYgen/

srnap-ons: So d liquid hydrogen


FrRsr sracE: Liquid oxygen/ sEcoND sracE: Liquid oxygen/
kerosene 't.-( liquid hydrogen
sEcoND sracE: N,o'/aerozine PERFORMANCE:
(UDMH and hydrazine) ''ilr PAYLoaD ro LEo:23,040 kg
rrrno srncr: (PAM D) solid .rl 00,800 lb)
PAYLoAD To GTo: 13,110 kg
PERFORMANCEi i
.i (28,e50 lb)
ro LEo:2700 6100 kg
PAYLoAD
(s960-11,440 lb) .,i PROPULSION:
PAYLoAo ro Gro: 900-2170 kg FRsr sraGE: Rocketdyne
(1e80-4790 lb) ,l RS-58 (3)
I sEcoND srAGE: Pratt &Whitney
srRAP-oNsr GEM 40 (l-9) 'r
RLroB-2 (1)
FrRsr sraGE: Rocketdyne I FEATU RES:
I
RS-27A (1) LENGIH: 70.7 m (21 1.9 ft)
sEcoND sracE: Aerolet Ajl0 t coRE DTAMETER:5 m (16.a ft)
118r< (r) LAUNcH MAss:73J,400 kg
rH RD srAGE: Thiokol star 488 i-.i (1.6 mlllion lb)
so id rocket motor (1) I
FEATURES: yl
LENcTH: lB.2-39 m(I25.3-).7 ft)
o auerec:2.4 m (8 ft)
LAUNcH MAss:151,700 211,870 kg
(134,300-sr1,180 lb)
I hc Delta IV family of medium- to heavyJift launch vehicles was developed
r the lg90s under the uS Air Force Evolved Expendable Launch vehicle (EELV)
The original Delta was derived from the US Air Force Thor intermediate-
rr

range ballistic missile. The vehicle was modified during the I960s and 1970s r)rogram. There are five launch vehicle configurations based on a new liquid
Booster Core (CBC) first stage' Its RS-68 motor
so that lt could use two or three stages, augmented with three, six, or nine 'rxygen/hydrogen Common
the {irst new cryogenic engine produced in the US in over 20 years'
solid-fuel strap-ons. NASA's first successful Delta launch was the Echo IA '.'ras

satellite on August L2,1960, and the Delta remained NASAs primary A Delta IV Small launcher was proposed without additional strap-ons, but
rl has never flown. The Delta IV Medium consists of a single CBC first stage
launcher until the advent ofthe Shuttle halted production in 1981-86.
Following the Challenger shuttle disaster, the US Air Force contracted to rnd a second stage fitted with the Pratt QWhitney RLIOB-2 engine' There is

build a more powerful Delta II, which was introduced in 1989. The Delta II choice of two sizes of expanded fuel and oxidizer tanks. The Delta IV
.r

can be configured as a two-stage or three-stage launcher, with a varying number


Medium+ has three variants, each using a single CBC augmented by either

ofstrap-on solid rocket boosters and two sizes ofpayload fairings. For example, lwo or four solid rocket strap-on graphite epoxy motors (GEMs)' It can carry
,r 4 m (13.1 ft) or 5 m (16.4 ft) diameter fairing.
a Delta II 7925has the 7000-series first stage, nine strap-ons, a second stage,
and a Star 48B third stage. The Delta II Hearry has the larger GEM-46 solid The most powerful version, the Delta IV Heary, uses two CBCs on either

rocket boosters. Development of the more powerful Delta III commercial side of another CBC, plus a single cryogenic second stage. During its first
launcher began in 1995, with first launch in 1998. Of three flights, two were flight in December 2004, a demonstration satellite was deployed in a lower-
failures, the third carried a dummy payload. It was replaced by the Delta IV. lhan-expected orbit.

I04 105
Dnepr (SS-f8/Satan, R-36M) nussn I ,rlcon usr

SPECIFICATION: SPECIFICATION:

MANUFAcTuRER: Yuzhnoe Design


vaturacruntn: SpaceX
Leurucu srrrs: Vandenberg,

f
Bu reau
Ca ifornia; Cape Canaveral,
LAUNcH srrEs: Baikonur, Russia;
Florida; Kwaja ein, Marshall
Domba rovsky/Yasnyy, Russia
lslands; l(odiak, Alaska; Wallops,
F Rsr LAUNcH: April 21,1999
Virgl nla
I FrRsr LAUNcH: March 25,2006
ALLsracEs:NO/UDMH
FUEL:
FrRsr srAGE: Liquid oxygcn/RP-l
PAYLoAD ro LEo:4500 kg (refined petroleum)
(ee00 rb) sEcoND srAGE: Liquid oxygen/
PROPULSION: RP-1 (refi ned petroleum)

'o' I
FrRsr srAGE: RD-264 (1) PERFORMANCE:
sEcoND sracE: RD 0755 (1) PAYLoAD ro rro:670 kg (1480 lb)
rtsrRD sracE: RD-869 (1)
PROPU LSION:
FEATU RES: Mcr in (I)
FrRsr srAGE: SpaceX
LENGTH:34.3 m (111.2 ft) sEcoND sraGE: Spacex l(estrel (l)
ohurren:3 m (9.8 ft)
FEATURES:
LAUNcts MAss:211,000 kg
(465,000 lb)
rrrcrc:21.3 m (70 ft)
DTAMETER: 1.7 m (5-5 ft)
rauncn mnss:27,200 kg
(60,ooo Lb)

The Dnepr is a modified version of the Russia-Ukraine SS-18 ICBM, the


world's most powerful ballistic missile. Following the START (Strategic Arms
Reduction) treaty, at least 115 SS-18 missiles were slated for conversion into i .rlcon I is a privately funded launcher being developed by SpaceX as a low-
space launch vehicles. InlggT,International Space Company I(osmotras was
L ost means of access to LEO for commercial payloads. The first stage returns
established to manage and market the launcher program. l,y parachute for a water landing and is recovered for reuse, while the second

Like other Russian iCBMs, the rocket is fuelled during production and i;rge is not reusable.

leaves the manufacturer's premises ready for launch. It uses toxic liquid After lengthy delays, the first Falcon I launcher lifted off from Kwajalein
propellants, which have been criticized for their environmental impact, but iiloll in the Marshall Islands on March 25, 2006. On board was the US Air
iorce Academy's FalconSAT-2. A fuel leak caused a fire in the first stage and
the missile can be stored for years without performance degradation.
The first commercial launch took place from Baikonur on April 2l,Iggg, L lrc rocket crashed onto a nearby reef. The second flight was launched from
using a missile that had been on duty for over 20 years, to launch the UK- i(wajalein on March 20,2007. The rocket failed to reach orbit. The next was
built UoSat-12. After this success, the guaranteed service life ofthis type was , xpected to carry the US Naval Research Laboratory's Tacsat I and a Space
exlended to aL least 75 years. Scrvices Incorporated payload of cremated human remains.

The first space launch of a Dnepr from Yasnyy (Dombarovs\ ICBM Falcon 5 and Falcon 9 will be larger, more powerful versions with {ive
base), took place on July 12,2006, when it delivered the Genesis I inflatable rnd nine Merlin engines respectively. They will use the same structural
spacecraft into orbit. ISC I(osmotras plans to continue Dnepr launches until ,rrchitecture, avionics, and launch system as the Falcon 1, but both stages will
2017, when the guaranteed servrce life expires. During that period the be reusable. SpaceX hopes to use Falcon 9 to fly its reusable Dragon capsule

Dnepr's reliability will be checked annually. lo the International Space Station.

I06 107
Geostationary Launch Vehicle (GSLV) IN DIA I I llA ,1renr'r

SPECIFICATION:
MANUFAcTURER: ISRC)
LAUNcH s rEs:
FrRsr LAUNcH:

FU EL:
Srihaikota, lndia
April 18,2001

Strap-ons, N.O /
F RsT STAGE:
|'i'i,i,
UDMH;core, solid

H\
sEcoND sracE: N.Oy'UDMH
THrRD sracE: Liquid oxygen/ *4

t..:l' liquid hydrogen

-t
PERFORMANCEi !$--;
ro
...-T:'
PAYLoAD LEo: 5000 kg
(11,000 lb)
PAYLoAD To GTo:2500 kg
(5500 rb)

PROPU LSION:
FrRsr srAGE: Strap-ons, Vikas 140
(4); core, PSLV r (1)
sEcoND sracE: Vikas L37.5 (1)
rHrRD srAcE: RD 561\1 (l)

FEATURES:
LENcTH:49 m (160 ft)
coRE DTAMETER:2.8 m (9.1 ft)
LAUNcN MAss:402,000 kg
lrc I-{-I was the first ]apanese launcher to incor- SPECIFICATION:
(886,000 ib)
r)()rate an indigenously developed liquid oxygen/ ueruurncrunen: Mitsubishi
Heavy lnduslries
r,lLrid hydrogen (LOX/LH) engine.Nine satellites LAUNcH srrE: Tanegashima,.Japan

, H-I in 1986-199I. it was replaced


, rc launched by the
F Rsr LAUNcH: August 29,2001

FUEL:
l,y the H-II rocket, which had two stages powered srRAP-oNs: Solid
The GSLV vras developed to launch lndian and foreign communication ,y LOX/LH. However, it was very expensive to FrRsr sracE: Liqu d oxygen/
liquid hydrogen
satellites of 2000-2500 kg (4400-5500 lb) into GTO. It uses major I rrrnch and suffered two launch failures in 1999. sEcoND srAGE: Liquid oxygen/
components from the PSLV launcher, particularly the core stage solid booster I quid hydrogen
The H-lIA, Japan's current heavy launch vehicle,
and the Vikas liquid-fuel engine. These Indian-built Vikas L-40 motors are oenronunrce (xrtr-zoz4):
lrrrs modified engines, fuel tanks, strap-on boosters, PAYLoAD To Gro: 5000 kg
based on the Ariane Viking-2 engine.
rrrd guidance systems. Introduced in 2001, it has a (11,000 lb)

The first stage core motor,which is made up of five segments, carries PROPULSION:
irnilar launch capability to the H-lI, but it is cheaper srRAP'oNs: SRB-A (2), SSB (4)
129-138 t(284.4-304.2lb) of HTPB. It is one of the largest solid propellant
rnd more reliable to operate. Three versions are FLRsr sracE: LE-7A (1)

boosters in the world. The core stage is ignited 4.6 sec after confirming the sEcoND srAcE: LE-5B (1)
, rrrrently in use. The basic 202 vehicle has two
normal operation of each of the L40 strap-ons. The second stage uses a Vikas FEATURES:
i OX/LH stages with two SRB-A solid rocket LENGTH: 52.5 m (I72)fI)
engine based on the French Viking-4A. The upper stage uses a cryogenic coRE DTaMETER:4 m (13.1 ft)
lroosters strapped to the side. The most powerful
LAUNcH MAss:351,000 kg
engine from Russia; this will eventually be replaced by a more powerful
'rcrsion is the 204, which has four SRB-As. (772,000 lb)
cryogenic stage.
In addition to launches to GTO, the H-liA has
The development of the GSLV Mk-III was approved by the Indian
rlciivered a payload offour satellites to polar orbit.
government in April 2002. This is an entirely new three-stage launcher.
A yet-to-be flown'Augmented" H-IIB version with
It will initially be able to launch a 4400 kg (9680 lb) satellite to GTO, or
;r wider first stage and two LE-7A engines is being
10,000 kg (22,000 lb) to LEO, with growth potential towards a 6000 kg
developed. This will be able to deliver Japan's H-II
(13,200 lb) payload capability. 'ltansfer Vehicle to the International Space Station.

108 109
Kosmos 3M (Cosmos, SL-8 or C-I) RUSSIA I ong March (Chang Zheng/CZ) currua
I1 ill shown)

SPECIFICATION: SPECIFICATION
MANUFACTuRER: Polyot Design (Long March 3B):
Bureau
MANUFACTURER: CALT
LAUNcH srrEs: Plesetsk, Russia;
LAUNcH slrEs: Xichang, China
Kapustin Yar, Russia
(Ll\4-2E, 3, 3B); Juiquan, China
FrRsr LAUNcH: August 18,1964 (LM-2C, 2D, 2F); Taiyuan, China
FUEL: (LM-4)
aLL sracEs: N,O,/UDMH FrRsr LAUNcH: February 14,1996
PERFORMANCEi FUEL:
PAYLoAD To LEo: 1400 kg srRAP oNs: N,O./UDMH
(3080 rb) FrRsr srAGE: N,O,/UDMH
sFcoND srAGE: N,Oy'UDMH
PROPULSION:
rHrRD sracE: Liquid hydrogen/
FrRsr sracE: RD-216 (2)
I quld oxygen
sEcoND srAGE: RD-219 (l)
,AL,T. PERFORMANCE:
FEATURES:
TENGTH:12.4 m (106.1 ft) t-l-
C
PAYLoaD To LEo: 11,200 kg
(24,600 lb)
coRE oTAMETER: 2.4 m\7.9 ft) z PAYLoao ro GTo:5100 kg
LAUNcH MAss:109,000 kg I

(1r,200 lb)
(23e,800 b) B

srRAP oNs: YF-20 (4)


FrRsr sracE: YF-21 (1)
sEcoND srAGE: YF 22 (1)
rHrRD srAGE: YF-75 (1)

FEATU RES:
LENGTH: 54.8 m (I79.7 ft\
coRE DTaMETER:3.a m (11 ft)
rauNcH MAss:425,800 kg
(938,700 lb)

Kosmos is a two-stage liquid-fuelled rocket developed in the I960s by the ()ver the last 40 years, China has developed a series ofLong March launch
Yangel Design Bureau. Kosmos l, with a first stage based on the R-14 vchicles that offer a wide range of performance to meet the demands of
medium-range missile, was launched from Baikonur in 1964. An improved
liovernment and commercial payloads. The LM-2 series, generally used for
version (Kosmos 3) was in use until 1977, delivering 500 kg (1100 1b) into I llO missions, includes the LM-2E, which can also lift 3500 kg (7700 lb) into
LEO, including payloads such as the Kosmos and Intercosmos satellites. (ifO, and the LM-2F, which has been developed for the crewed Shenzhou
There were also hundreds ofhigh velocity reentry tests. ,;pacecraft. The LM-3 series is used for launches of communications satellites
The Kosmos 3M, a more powerful version with an upgraded second 1o GTO, and the LM-4 is used for various missions to polar- or Sun-
stage, was developed in the late 1960s. In I968, the production ofthis vehicle synchronous orbit. An LM-5 version is under development and expected to
was transferred to PO Polyot in the eastern Siberian town of Omsk. The 3M cventually replace the current family.
has delivered eight small satellitesinto orbit, and, between 1980 and l9gg, The LM-3B is the most powerful version currently available for GTO
launched I0 BOR scaled prototypes to test the aerodynamics ofthe future missions. It is based on the LM-3A core stage but has four liquid strap-on
Buran shuttle orbiter. Polyot continued to manufacture the Kosmos 3M until l;oosters-identical to those on the LM-2E-and enlarged second-stage
1994, when production was suspended. It has now resumed. In October 2005, fuel tanks.
the 3M successfully orbited the SSETI Express student satellite. It is also The first LM-3B launch was a failure. Since then, all launches have been
scheduled to orbit five German SAR-Lupe satellites between 2006 and 200g. successful. Sanctions and technology-transfer restrictions by the USA meant
that there were no LM-3B launches between 1998 and 2005.

1I0 n1
Minotaur usr l'cgasus XL usr

SPECIFICATION:
varuacrunrq: Orbital Sciences
Corporation
uurce srres: Vandenberg,
Califbrnia; Cape Canaveral,
Florida; Wallops, Virginia;
Kodiak lsland. Alaska
FlRsr LAUNcH: January 27,2000

FUEL:
,N$,,ff
ALr srAGEs: Solid (4 stages)

P^YLoaD ro rEo: 580 kg (1280 lb)


PIOPULSION:
FrRsr srAGE: i\455A1 (1)
I sEcoND srAGE: SR19 (1)
THrRD srAG!: Orion 50XL (1)
FouRrH 5TAGE: Orion 38 (1)

FEATURES:
LENGTH: I9.2 m (61 li)
DTAMETER: 1-7 m (5.5 ft)
lrrrrrded and developed by Orbital Sciences SPECIFICATION:
LAUNcH MAss:36,200 kg
(79,800 Ib) ( r)rporation, Pegasus was the first all-new US varuuracrunen: Orbital Sciences
Corporation
l,rrrncher since the 1970s and the world's first uurcu srrrs: (Air launched)
Vandenberg, California; Wallops,
pr ivately developed space launch vehicle. It was
Virginia; Kwajalein, Marshall
, lr,signed as a low-cost, three-stage, solid- lslands (Pegasus only); Cape
Canaveral, Florida; Dryden,
1'r opellant vehicle to carry small satellites to a California (Pegasus only); Gando,
v,rriety of LEOs. Canary lslands
FrRsr LAUNcH: April 5,1990
During its first six missions, Pegasus was air- (Pegasus); April 27, 1994
(Pegasus XL)
l,runched from a NASA B-52 aircraft flying from
FUEL:
I )ryden Flight Research Center, California. Orbital
The Minotaur I is a small launcher developed under the US Air Force's ALL srAGEs: Solid (3 stages)
I lren began to use a modified Stargazer L-I0I1
Orbital/Suborbital Program to utilize surplus Minuteman II missiles. It uses
,rircraft. An uprated version, the Pegasus XL, was PAYLoAD ro LEo: 440 kg (968 lb)
Minuteman rocket motors for the first and second stages, reusing engines PROPU LSION:

decommissioned as a result of arms-reduction treaties, combined with the


rrrtroduced in 1994. Aerodynamic lift generated FrRsr srAGE: Orion 5OSXL (1)
lry its unique delta-shaped wing enables Pegasus sEcoND srAcE: Orion 5oXL (1)
upper stages and payload fairing ofthe Pegasus XL. Its capabilities have been rHrRD 5racE: Orion 38 (I)
lo deliver satellites to orbit in a little over I0
enhanced with improved avionics systems. On its maiden launch (from FEATURES:
rrinutes. LENcTH: 17.5 m (57.7 ft)
Vandenberg), it delivered II US nanosatellites to LEO. The first launch from
r

oraueren: 1.3 m (4.2 ft)


The standard three-stage Pegasus has been
Wallops took place on December 16,2006. LAUNcH MAss:24,000 kg
rrsed to launch multiple payloads, notably eight (52,000 lb)
The more powerfui Minotaur IV is currently under development.
Orbcomm satellites. There is also an optionai
It combines the solid rocket motors from decommissioned peacekeeper
I-lydrazine Auxiliary Propulsion System fourth
ICBMs with technologies from other Orbital-built launch vehicles, including
stage, first flown in 1997. A wingless version,
the Minotaur I, Pegasus, and Taurus. The first Minotaur IV is scheduled to
called the Orbital Boost Vehicle, has been
Iaunch the US Air Force's Space-Based Surveillance System (SBSS) satellite in
developed to support missile defense technology
December 2008. A Minotaur V five-stage version for GTO and interplanetary
development.
missions is also under study.

t12 lI3
Proton (UR-500, D-1/D-1e, SL-9, SL-12/SL-13)
Proton-K pictured
nussu I l'olar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV) IN DIA

SPECIFICATION
(PSLV c):
MANUFACTURER: ISRO
LAUNcH srrE: Sriharikota, lndia
FrRsr LAUNcH: September 20,
t99l
FUELi
STRAP.ONS AND FIRST STAGE:
Solid
sEcoNo sracE: N,O./UD/\4H
rsrno srnce: Solid
FouRrH sracE: N,Oy'MMH

PERFORMANCE:
PAYLoAD To L€o: 3700 kg
(8100 rb)
PAYLoAD To GTo:1100 kg
()420 6)

PROPULSION:
srRAP-oNs: S125 (6)
F Rsr sracE: 59 (l)
sEcoND srAGE: Vikas (1)
rHrRD srAGE: 57 (1)
The Proton was developed as a heavy-lift launcher SPECIFICATION: FouRTH srAGE: L2 (2)
between 1961 and 1965. Its name originates from MANUFACTURER: Khrunichev State FEATURES:
Research and Production Center LENGTH:44.4 m (1a5.6 ft)
a series of large scientific satellites that were Lluncc stre: Ba konur, coRE DTAMETER:2.8 m (9.1 ft)
among the rocket's first payloads. It was the first Kazakhstan LAUNcH MAss:294,000 kg
FrRsr LAUNcHEs: July 16, 1965
(648,000 rb)
Soviet launcher not based on an existing ballistic (Proton); March 10, 1967 (Proton
K); April 7,2001 (Proton M)
missile. The original version ofthe Proton (SL-9)
FUEL:
had two stages, the first with a cluster of six FrRsT TtsREE sracEs: N,O,/UDMH

engines and the second with four engines. It was FouRrts srAGE: Block DM, liquid
oxygen/kerosene; Breeze M,
only used for four launches in 1965-66. I ire PSLV followed on from the SLV-3, a four-stage solid-propellant vehicle
N,Oy'UDMH
A modi{ied version, now known as the Proton cenronurNce (rnoror u/ ilown from 1979 to 1983, and the ASLV which also had two strap-ons. It was
oreeze u): rlcveloped to launch the Indian Remote Sensing (IRS) satellites into Sun-
K, was first flown in 1968. The three-stage model PAYLoAD To LEo:21,000 kg
launched large payloads into LEO, including all (46,r00 lb) orbits, removing reliance on Russia. Since the first successful
PAYLoAD To GTo:6220 kg
';ynchronous
Soviet space station modules. A four-stage Proton, (11,710 lb)
llight in October 1994, its Sun-synchronous orbit capability has been
fitted with an Energia Block D or DM upper stage, PROPU LSIONi i,nhanced from 805 kg (1770 lb) to 1200 kg Q6a0 lb). PSLV can also launch a
was first flown in 1967. This has been used to
F Rsr srAGE: RD-251 (6) 1700 kg (8140 ]b) satellite into LEO and a 1000 kg (2200 lb) satellite into GTO.
sEcoND sracE: RD 0210 (4)
launch planetary missions and deliver communi- rHrRD srAGE: RD-0212 (l) The operational "C" version, first flown in 1997 , consists of two solid-
FouRrH srAGE: Block Dl\4, RD-58
cations satellites to GTO or GEO. (1); Breeze M,55.981\4 (D
propellant stages (l and 3) and two liquid stages (2 and 4). The {irst stage is
A modified version, the Proton M, introduced F EAIU R E5: one ofthe largest solid-propellant boosters in the world and carries 138,000 kg
LENcTH:57.6-58.2 m (103,600 lb) of HTPB propellant. Six solid-fuel strap-on motors augment the
in 2001, uses a Khrunichev Breeze M fourth stage (r88.e-190.9 ft)
capable of multiple restarts. It mainly launches coRE D aMETER:4.2 m (11.6 ft) first stage.
LAUNcH MAss: Proton l(,
commercial payloads. Both the Proton I( and 712,800 kg (1.6 million lb);
After some initial setbacks, the PSLV completed its first successful launch
Proton M can launch multiple payloads into Proton M,690,000 kg in 1996.lt remains ISRO's primary launcher for LEO satellites. A modified
(1.s million lb)
LEO or GEO. version will be used to launch the Chandrayaan-1 lunar mission in 2008.

I14 II5
Rockot (SS-19) nussrn Shavit (RSA-3, LK-A) rsueL
lr rvrl 1 pictured

SPECIFICATION: SPECIFICATION
MANUFAcTuRER: Khrunichev State (Shavit 1):
Research and Production Center
MANUFACTuRER: lsrael Aircraft
LAUNcH srrE: Plesetsk, Russia
I ndustries
FrRsT LAUNcH: November 20,
LAUNcH srrE: Palmachim, lsrael
1990
FiR5T LAUNcH: September 19,
FUELi 1988 (Shavit); April 5, 1995
N,O,/UDMH (shavit 1)
PERFORMANCE: FUEL:
PAYLoaD To reo: 1950 kg ALL srAGEs: Solid (3 stages)
(42e0 tb)

PROPULSION: PAYLoAD ro LEo: 160 kg (350 lb)


FrRsr sraGE: RD-0231/
PROPU LSION:
RD-0234 (4)
FrRsr srAGE: ATSM-13 (t)
sEcoND srAGE: RD-0235 (1)
sEcoND srAGE: ATSM-9 (1)
FEATURES: rHrRD srAcE: AUS-5I (1)
TENGTH:29.2 m (95.8 ft)
FEATU RES:
oTAMETER:2.5 m (8.2 ft)
LENGTH:3.4 m (11 ft)
LAUNcH MAss: i07,000 kg
DTAMETER: 1.4 m (4-5 ft)
(2rs,400 Ib)
LAUNcH MAss:27,250 kg
(60,000 lb)

Shavit (Comet) is a solid-fuel launcher whose first two stages are derived
Rockot is a three-stage liquid-propellant launcher. Its first and second stages lrom the Jericho II medium range ballistic missile. Developed to launch
are based on the Russian SS-19 ICBM. During 1994 and 1995, Khrunichev small satellites into LEO, the Shavit enabled Israel to become the eighth
and DaimlerChrysler Aerospace (now EADS Space Transportation) created a ( ountry to launch a satellite. Its first payJoad in September 1988 was the
joint venture, Eurockot, which succeeded in booking a number ofWestern Israeli Ofeq 1 reconnaissance satellite.
payloads. The basic Shavit (RSA-3) launcher flewthree times from 1988 to 1994. Its
Combined with the reignitable, highly maneuverable Breeze-KM upper last launch was a failure. It was replaced by the Shavit I (LK-A), which has a
stage, Rockot is capable oflaunching a 1950 kg (4290 lb) payload into LEO larger, more powerful first stage. The latest failure of the Shavit in September
from Plesetsk. It is particularly suitable for launches of small and medium- 2004 resulted in the destruction ofthe Ofeq 6 spy satellite.
sized spacecraft into Sun-synchronous, near-polar, and highly inclined orbits. The Shavit 2 (LK-I|-similar to the Shavit I, but with a larger second
Rockot became available for commercial launches after a demonstration stage-was introduced with the launch of Ofeq 7 in June 2007. Also planned
flight from Plesetsk in May 2000. In June 2003, Rockot launches from is the Shavit 3 (LK-2), which will use a Thiokol Castor 120 motor as its first stage.
Plesetsk were temporarily banned because ofthe environmental threat from It has been proposed to also launch the Shavit 2 from Wallops Island,
UDMH fuel. On October 8,2005, a failure of the Breeze upper stage led to Virginia, so that it can be launched eastward over the Atlantic. Another
the destruction of ESA's CryoSat spacecraft. Rockot returned to flight on July possibility is an airlaunched version, using a standard Shavit I without a first
28,2006, with the launch of South Korea's Kompsat-2. stage that would be dropped from a Hercules C-130 aircraft.

116 I17
T
Soyuz (SL-4, A-2)/Molniya (SL-6/A2e) *,"'o ,iart-1 (SL-18, L-1, SS-25) nussn
Soyuz-FG pictured

The Soyuz is best known as the launch vehicle for SPECIFICATION: r r lhe early 1990s, the Start launcher was SPECIFICATION:
all crewed Soyuz spacecraft since 1967. It is also (Soyuz U)
unruu racru neq: TsSl(B-Progress
,1, vcloped by a group of Russian enterprises led M^NUFACTURER: Moscow

used to launch unmanned Progress supply ln.li Ltc ot Fcrl le, l-nology
LAUNcH srrEs: Plesetsk, Russia; ry the MIHT Scientific and Technological Center. (MtHr)
spacecraft to the International Space Station and Baikonur, Kazakhstan;
ir is almost entirely derived from the Topol (SS-25) o"''''
for commercial launches marketed and operated
FIRsT LAUNcH: November 23, illiiS";1;;;;';'"'o'
1961 (soyuz); May 18, 1973 t llM, which is the core of the Russian Strategic rRsl LAUNCH: March 25, 1993
(Soyuz U); December 27,2006
by the Russian-European Starsem company. tiocket Forces. The original version made only one FUEL:
(soyuz 2 1B)
The Soyuz was derived from the R-7 ICBM aLL sracEs: sol d (4 stagcs)
FUEL: r r r.successful) flight on March 28, 1995.
PERFORMANCE:
and the Vostok launcher. It was initially a three- ALL STAGEs: Liquid oxygen/
The Start-1, with a new fourth stage, consists pAyLoaD ro LEo: 800 kg (1760 lb)

stage rocket, but in 1965 the four-stage Molniya ,,1 four solid-propellant stages and is launched pRopuLsroN:
(SL-6) variant was introduced, enabling it to reach 'ERFoRMANCE:
PAYLoaD ro reo: 6855 kg
1r om a mobile missile launcher on a seven-wheel ::"iJ,'J^,",:": ;'l;t('](,)
(15,080 lb)
the highly elliptical Molniya orbit or deliver ixis truck. Up to the launch, the missile remain.
pRopuls,oN: l:Jff-L";Jrll;:-,i],
payloads beyond Earth orbit. The addition ofthe oNs:
FrRsr srAGE srRAP I rSide a COntainer tO pIOteCt it frOm meChaniCal
FEATURES:
restartable Ikar upper stage to the three-stage RD-107 (4)
sEcoNDsrAcE:RD 108(t) ,llmage and adverseweatherconditions. rerucru: 227m(745ft)
D AM il R. l.b n {5.q fr)
Soyuz in 1999 enabled 24 Globalstar satellites to rHrRD srAGE: RD-0110 (r)
Start-l can place a 550 kg (1210 lb) payload :;;;; ;;;;l;r, ;-
be deployed in six launches. FEATURES:
rnto LEO and payloads of490-800 kg (1078- (103'400 ib)
LENGTH:45.2 m (148.3 ft);
The latest variant is the Soyuz 2-18, which 49.5 m (162.4 ft) wlth Soyuz-TM I 760 lb) in near-polar circular orbits at altitudes of

{lrst flew on December 27,2006. This vehicle has a escape tower


coRE DTaMETER:3 m (9.7 ft) /00-1000 km(124-624 mi), with a wide range of
new digital guidance system and a more powerful LAUNcH MAss:103,000 kg
rrrclinations. The first demonstration launch took
(666,600 lb)
RD-I24 third-stage engine that significantly
lrlace from Plesetsk in March 1993, with a 225 kg
increases the overall launch vehicle performance (a95 lb) payload. There have been half a dozen
and payload mass capability. Launches of Soyuz commercial launches, most recently the Israeli
ST (modified Soyuz 2-1A,) vehicles from Kourou I1ROS B imaging satellite on April 25,2006.
in French Guiana will begin in 2008.

r18 I19
Strela (RS-18, SS-19) nussra l.rurus usn
LrrrLr ; XL pictured

SPECIFICATION: SPECIFICATION
MANUFACTURER: NPO Mashino- (Taurus XL):
stroyeniya MANUFACTuRER: orbital sciences
LAUNcH srrEs: Svobodny, Russia; Corporation (OSC)
Baikonur, Kazakhstan reurcu srre: Vandenberg,
FrRsr LAUNcH: December 5,2003 Ca lifbrn ia
FUEL: FrRsr LAUNcH: March 13,1994
ALL sracEs: N,O,/UDMH (Taurus); May 20,2004 (Taurus
(2 stages) XL)

PERFORMANCE: EUEL:

PAYLoAD ro LEo: 1700 kg ALL srAGEs: Solid (four stages)


(37s0 lb) PERFORMANCE:
pRopu tstoNi PAYLoaD ro LEo: 1350 kg
FrRsr srAGE: RD-0233 (4) (rooo lb)
sEcoND sracE: RD 035 (1) PAYLoaD ro cro:430 kg (950 lb)

LENGTH:26.7 m (87.6 ft) rrrsr srrcr: Castor 120 (1)


DTAMETER:2.5 m (8.2 ft) sEcoND srAGE: Orion 50SXL (1)
LAUNcH MAss:104,000 kg THrRD sracE:Orion 50XL (1)
(229,000 lb) FouRrH srAcE: Orion l8 (l)

FEATURES:
LENGTH:27.9 m (91.5 ft)
onueren:2.4 m (7.7 ft)
LAUNcH MAss:73,030 kg
(161,000 lb)

l lie Taurus was developed by Orbital Sciences Corporation under a Defense


Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) contract for a demonstration
Strela was converted by NPO Mashinostroyeniya into a launch vehicle from l;runch of a "standard small launch vehicle." The four-stage all-solid rocket
the RS-18 ICBM's prototype, the UR-100N (SS-19) missile, with very few vehicle uses Pegasus upper stages with a Castor 120 first stage.
changes apart from two fairing options and improved control-system The first Taurus launch in 1994 delivered the USAF Space Test
software. The two-stage Strela can be launched from an upgraded silo at llxperiment Platform and DARPASAT payloads to LEO. The second flight
Svobodny or from Baikonur. A post-boost module is attached to the orbital irr February 1998 carried two Orbcomm satellites and a Celestis "burial"
payload. Although Strela is slightly inferior to its Rockot (SS-19) competitor payload. However, a launch failure in September 200I caused the vehicle
in terms of payload mass, it has a lower orbital injection cost. It can put to be grounded for almost three years. It returned to flight in May 2004 with
satellites into orbits with an inclination of 630 from Baikonur and with the maiden launch of the uprated Taurus XL version, which uses the same
inclinations in the range 52-104" from Svobodny. rrpper stages as the Pegasus XL. This gives up to 25%" more performance
It was reported on December I7,2002, that environmental concerns during launch.
prompted residents in the city of Blagoveshchensk to protest future launches OSC intends to offer the more-powerful Star 37 upper stage, whichwill
of Strela, which uses UDMH as a fuel source, from nearby Svobodny increase performance to Sun-synchronous orbit from 945 kg (2080 lb) to
Cosmodrome. The first Strela demonstration launch took place from about 1160 kg (2550 lb). Under a 2002 contract from Boeing, a three-stage
Baikonur in December 2003. A978 kg (2150 lb) dummy spacecraft was version ofTaurus was developed for use as interceptor boost vehicles for the
injected into a 458 km (284.6 mi) circular with an inclination of 670. US government's missile intercept system.

120 121
Tsyklon (R-36, SL-I1, SL-14) uKRATNE i{A EUROPE
Tsyklon-3 pictured

SPECIFICATION: SPECIFICATION:
MANUFACTuRER: YuThnoye MANUFAcTuRLR: ELV SpA
Design Burcau (Avio/ASl)
Laulcu srrrs: Bl konur, LA!NcH s TF: l(o!rou, French
l(rzrkhstan (Tsyklon 2); P esetsk, Guiana
Russia (Tsyklon-3) frRsr LAUNcH:20081
F Rsr r^uNcH: Ad. )7,1967
FU EL:
(Tsyklon 2);.June 24, 197./
ALl, srAGEs: Sol d (3 strgcs)
(Tsyklor'3) .'.., 4
:..".* .i
-n...
FU EL:

N O /Ur)MH . ,_a.r.
PAYLoaD
(4400 lb)
ro Lto:7000 kg

PERFORMANCE:
PROPULSION:
PAYLoAD ro reo: lsyk on'7,3200 (l)
FrRsr sracE: P80
kg (7040 lb); Tsyklon 3, 1600 kg
sEcoND sr^6E: Zefiro 23 (1)
(7e20 lb) 'rHrRD sracL: Zefiro 9 (1)
FEATURES:
FrRsr srA6Et l\yklon-t, RD 251
LENGTH:30.2 m (99.1 ft)
(3); Tsyklon'3, RD 261 (l)
orrurr ra: 3 rn (9.8 il)
!tcoND sracE: Tsyk on 2,
LAUNcH MAss:137,000 kg
RD 757 (l): Tsyk on l, RD 262 (l) (301,400 b)
ilrRD srAGE: RD 861 (l)
FEATU RES:
rrucrr: Tsyk on 2, 35.5 39.7 rr
(116.4 130.2 ft); Tlyklon'1,
r9.3m(r28.8ft)
DTAMLTLR:lm(9.8fl)
rarNcr uass: Tsyklon 2,
1E2.000 kg (400,400 lb);
Tlyklon-3, 186.000 190,000 kg
(409,200 418,000 lb)

The name Tsyklon (Cyclone) appeared for the {lrst time in 1986 when the
Soviets began promoting their launchers for commercial use in the West. \./,'ga has been under development since 1998, with the suppofi of seven ESA
The original Tsyklon launcher proposal, based on the Yangel Design Bureau's rir:mber states (ltaly, France, Belgium, Switzerland, Spain, the Netherlands,
R-16 ICBM, never flew. However, the Tsyklon-2, based on the larger R-36 rrrd Sweden). The small satellite launcher is an all-solid three-stage vehicle
ICBM, did become operational in 1966. The two-stage rocket was initially '..'ith a liquid-fuelled injection module used for attitude and orbit control and
used to launch Iarge military payloads, including an antisatellite interceptor rtellite release. ELV SpA, a joint venture ofAvio and ASI, the Italian space
and ocean reconnaissance satellites. rgency, is responsible for Vega development' CNES, the French space agency,
Tsyklon-3, whrch featured a restartable third stage, was introduced in lrolds similar responsibility for the P80 first stage'
1977.Thts version has been used for a wide variety of commercial, civil, and Vega is designed to loft single or multiple payloads to orbits up to
military payioads, often in multiple launches. The Tsyklon-2 (SL-11) is launched 1500 km (932 mi) in altitude. Its baseline payload capability is about 1500 kg
almost entirely from Baikonur, whereas the Tsyklon-3 (SL-ia) is operated (.]300 lb) to a circular 700 km (435 mi) high Sun-synchronous orbit, but it can
from Plesetsk. Production for both versions is now closed, but an updated Llso loft satellites from 300 kg (660 Ib) to more than 2000 kg (aa00 lb), as well

version, known as Tsyklon-4, is currently under development. This includes ;Ls piggyback microsatellites. Once quali{ied, Vega will be marketed and
modified lower stages, a new upper stage, and a 4 m (13.1 ft) diameter operated by Arianespace for the small- to mid-sized satellite launch market.
payload fairing. This version, which may be launched from Alcantara in lhe {lrst launch is planned for 2008 from Europe's Kourou spaceport in French
Brazil, will be able to place a payload of 5250 kg (11,550 lb) into LEO. Guiana, where the Ariane I launch facilities have been adapted for its use.

L)) 123
Volna (R-29RL, RSM-50, SS-N-I8) nussra /cnit (Zenith, SL-16, J-1) ururNE/RUssrA
' L I lSLpictured

SPECIFICATION: SPECIFICATION:

g MANUFAcTuRER: Makeyev Design


Bureau
LAUNcH srrE: Nuclear missile
MANUFACTuRER: SDO Yuzhnoye/
PO Yuzhmash
uuncu sLres: Baikonur,
i submarine (Barents sea)
FrRsr LAUNcH: June 6, 1995
l(azakhstan (Zenit-2, Zenit-2SLB,
and Zenit-ISLB); Sea Launch
platform, Pacific Ocean (Zenit-

ft
FUEL:
25L and 35L)
N,Oy'UDMH
F Rsr LAUNcts: April 11,1985
PERFORMANCE: (Zenit-2); March 28, 1999
PAYLoAD ro LEo: 120 kg (264 lb) (Zenlt-351)
PROPUL5ION: FUEL:
FrRsr srAGE: RD 0243 (l) Liquid oxygen/kerosene
secoro srrce: I (1)
PERFORMANCE:
rHrRD 5TAGE: I (1)
PAYLoAD To LEot Zenil-z,
FEATU RESi 13,740 kg (30,290 lb)
LENGTH: 14.1 m (46.1 ft) PAYLoAD To GTo: Zenit-3S1,
DTAMETER: 1.8 m (5.9 ft) 6160 kg (13,s52 lb)
LAUNcH MAss:35,200 kg
PROPU LSIONi
(77 ,440 t6)
FrRsr srAGE: RD-171 (1)
sEcoND sracE: RD-120 (1)
rHrRD srAGE: RD-58M (1)

FEATU RES:
LENGTH:57.4-58.7 m
(188.3 1e2.4 ft)
onuerrn:3.9 m (12.8 ft)
LAUNcH MAss: Zenit-2,
I 445,20a kgQ8l,a97 16);

"'tr?#s
1.

)q &** Zenit-3S1,535,998 kg
(1.2 million lb)

The Volna (Wave) is a R-29L submarinelaunched ballistlc missile (called I he Zenit was developed in the 1980s for two purposes: as a liquid strap-on
SS-N-18 by NATO) built by the Makeyev company. Approximately 350 lrooster for the Energia rocket and, equipped with a second stage, as a
missiles were built after it entered service in 1977.The submarine cruises Lruncher in its own right. At that time, it was expected to replace the Soyuz
for 4 or 5 h to its designated launch station. Ln.rncher for manned missions, but these plans were abandoned after the fall
The basic three-stage Volna is only capable of suborbital missions, but of the Soviet Union. Four Zenit strap-on boosters were successfully flown on
a Volna-O version with a small liquid-fueled fourth stage developed by lroth flights of Energia.
Babakin can launch small payloads to LEO. The standard Volna commercial The Zenit-2 has been launched from Baikonur Cosmodrome in
microgravity orbit is about 2200 x 200 km (1367 x 124 mi) with an inclination l(azakhstan since 1985. A three-stage version, the Zenit-3SL, has been used
of 7 6". lor commercial launches from the Sea Launch consortium's floating Iaunch
Reliability is an issue for the Volna. Three of five commercial launches platform in the Pacific Ocean since 1999.
have been unsuccessful, with two of these failures-both involving the The first- and second-stage engines, as well as the Block-DM upper stage
Cosmos-I solar sail-due to a malfunction of the missile. ofthe Zenit-3SL, are supplied by Russian companies Energia and Energomash.
Other Volna missions have carried the IRDT inflatable reentry device, A commercial launch service from Baikonur is expected to begin in 2008,
designed to return cargo from orbit to Earth. After third-stage separation, the using a Zenit-3SLB rocket equipped with a modified Block-DM third stage
IRDT fires a boost motor to increase its speed and then inflates the first stage manufactured in Russia by RSC Energia. The Zenit-M, with a modified first-
of its heat shield. stage engine and flight-control system, first flew on June 29, 2007 .

r24 t25
tounch
Sites
Alaska Spaceport (Kodiak Launch Complex) usr
57.43'N, I52.33"W

I lr Alaska State Legislature created the Alaska Aerospace Development


, ,)rl)oration (AADC) in July 1991 to promote development of the aerospace
rrrrlustry-including space launch services-in the state. In 1995, the state
l' llrslature approved funding for the Kodiak Launch Complex. In 1996, the
I lsAF Atmospheric Interceptor Test Program committed to two launches
I r om Kodiak. Bids for construction were solicited in 1997 and construction
l,r'gan in 1998. That same year, AADC signed its first contract with a
, ornmercial customer, Lockheed Martin Corporation. Construction was
, ompleted in 2000.
Alaska Spaceport covers an area of 15 km'(5.8 mi')and is located on
i'J;rrrow Cape, Kodiak Island. The hilly, almost-treeless island is a volcanic
lrcak in the ocean,48.2 km (30 mi) offthe southern coast ofAlaska. It is about
,tt)0km (248.5 mi) south of Anchorage and 40 km (2a.8 mi) southwest of the
r ity of Kodiak. The climate is more moderate than its northerly latitude
rvould suggest, with a yearly mean temperature of 4oC (39.2'F) and only three
rnonths in the year where the average temperatures fall below zero (32'F).
Visibility and prevailing winds compare favorably with those at Vandenberg
Air Force Base in California.
The site is promoted as one of the best locations in the world for polar
launches, providing a wide launch azimuth and unobstructed downrange
flight path over the North Pacific Ocean, avoiding populated areas.
Launch Pad I, used for Iaunching orbital missions, is serviced by an
cnclosed and movable gantry called the Launch Service Structure (LSS).
Launch Pad 2, used for suborbital launches, is enclosed and serviced by the
Spacecraft and Assemblies Transfer (SCAT) facility. The SCAT, a movable
structure roller-mounted on rails, also provides all-weather indoor transfer of
processed motors into the LSS. Other facilities include the Launch Control
Center, a Payload Processing Facility, and an Integration Processing Facility.
The only orbital launch was by an Athena-l rocket carrying the Kodiak
Star payload offour NASA and DOD satellites on September 29,2001. In
2003, AADC and the US Missile Defense Agency entered into a five-year
contract for numerous suborbital launches in connection with tests ofthe
nation's missile defense system. The first launch under this contract took
place on December 14,2004. The most recent launch, on February 23,2006,
involved the launch of the Missile Defense Agency's FlightTest rocket FT 04-
I in support of a target missile tracking test. The spaceport also offers backup
to Vandenberg Air Force Base for satellites needing delivery to polar orbit.

129
AlcAntara snrzrL
2.28'S,44.38'W

Construction of the 520 km'z (200.7 mi') base


began in 1982. Brazilian government and military
officials held a formal opening ceremony in
February 1990; on February 21, the facility had its
first launch-the Sonda 2 XV-53 sounding rocket.
In addition to Brazilian sounding rockets,
meteorological rockets, and other suborbital
scienti{ic flights, the Ongoron I and Ongoron II
rockets were tested here by the French
government, and NASA flew four Nike Orion
vehicles in 1994.
The launch site has been expanded for
operations ofthe VLS orbital Iauncher.
Unfortunately, none ofthe VLS launches have
been successful. On August 22,2003, the explosion
of the third VLS-I rocket (VO3) killed 2I people
and destroyed the launch pad.
There are also plans to launch several
international rockets from Alcintara. In 2003,
contracts were signed to launch Ukrainian
Tysklon-4 and Israeli Shavit rockets. There are
also tentative plans to launch the Russian Proton
and the Chinese Long March 4.
Current government plans to construct a
civilian launching center, operated by the
Brazilian Space Agency (AgAncia Espacial
Brasileira) and adjacent to the military-controlled
Cl"{, has stirred opposition among the local
population, who are concerned about relocation.
The Centro de Lanqamento de AlcAntara (CLA) is a satellite launching base
near the city ofAlcintara, located on Brazil's North Atlanlic coast, in the
state of Maranhao. It is operated by the Brazilian Air Force (Comando da
Aeroniutica). The CLA is closer to the equator than any launch site in the
world. This gives it a significant advantage in launching payloads such as
geosynchronous satellites towards the east: Iaunches gain 25%" in launch
energy due to Earth rotation compared with those from Cape Canaveral.
The coastal location also gives a wide launch azimuth to the north and east
over the ocean.

I30 131
Baikonur, Tyuratam KAZAKHsTAN
45.6"N,63.4"E

llussia's largest cosmodrome is located on the flat steppes near the town of
'lyuratam in Kazakhstan. It has an extreme climate, with bitterly cold winters
and hot summers. In the cold war, it was misleadingly given the name
Baikonur by the Soviet authorities in order to hide its precise location. Today,
the spaceport is leased from the Kazakh government. In 2005, Kazakhstan
agreed to continue leasing Baikonur to the Russian Federation until 2050.
The cosmodrome extends for 85 km (53 mi) north to south, and 125 km
(78 mi) east to \rest. Aside from dozens of launch pads, it includes five
tracking-control centers, nine tracking stations, and a 1500 km (930 mi)
rocket test range. The cosmodrome has traditionally been split into three
sectors: the Right and Left flanks and the Center. Nine launch complexes
with a total of 15 pads are available. It is the only cosmodrome supporting
Proton and Zenit launches. It also provides services for Soyuz, Molniya,
Tsyklon, Rockot, Kosmos, and various missile and missile-derived rocket
Iaunches. Future Angara launches are expected to take place from there.
The inltial R-7 launch complex, Area 1, in the Center sector, was built for
missiie and rocket tests, which began in 1955. The first pad built at Baikonur
launched both Sputnik 1 and Yuri Gagarin into orbit. Today, the refurbished
pad hosts Soyuz launches. Azimuth launches from due east (the most
efficient) are prohibited because the lower stages would impact in China.
The Left Flank is mainly occupied by the launch pads, assembly
buildings, and housing for the Chelomei design bureau. It includes launch
pads for the Tsyklon-2 and Proton. In the Centre Flank are facilities for the
projects ofthe Korolev OKB-I design bureau, including the R-7/Vostok/
*iB,i:i.. Soyuz launch pad and the N-l Moon program facilities (later converted for
!i; | .:' use in the Energia-Buran program). The Right Flank primarily houses
facilities for Yangel's design bureau. It includes a second R-7 pad and a Zenit
launch pad.
Baikonur town, previously known as Leninsk, was founded May 5, 1955,
as the cosmodrome's residential area. It has an ofiicial population of about
60,000, down from a peak of 100,000 in the mid-1980s. The cosmodrome has
several hotels and residential areas, closer to launch facilities and separate
from the main town.
Today, all Russian manned flights and planetary missions are launched
from Baikonur. Until now, it has been operated by Russian Space Forces, but
they are about to hand over to the Russian Federal Space Agency.
Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Florida usn
28.5'N,81.0"W

(.ape Canaveral Air Force Station lies on a sandy peninsula on the Florida
i oast that is also a nature reserve. It originated as a missile test center on the
r;ite of an old air base. The construction of permanent facilities began in
I 950, when it became known as the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station at
i)atrick Air Force Base. It is part of the US Air Force Command 45th Space
Wing. From 1964 to 1973, Cape Canaveral was known as Cape Kennedy.
The station's Eastern Range tracking network extends all the way into the
lndian Ocean where rt meets the Western Range network. Launches take
place toward the east (over the Atlantic Ocean) with orbital inclinations up to
57o Polar launches are not permitted because they would have to fly over
populated areas. The first launch from the test center took place onJuly 24,
1950. It was a Bumper rocket, a V-2 missile carrying a WAC Corporal
second stage.
With the launch of Explorer I by a Jupiter-C rocket on January 31, 1958,
the station became the main center for US civil launches. Three years later,
rvith the beginning of the Mercury program, it became the only site for
US manned launches. Since then, more than 500 space launches have been
made from the station, including NASA's manned missions. The annual
launch rate reached 25-30 flights during the 1960s. There were eight space
launches (including three shuttle flights) during 2006.
The 45th Space Wing provides extensive support for Space Shuttle launch
operations. The USAF Eastern Range provides weather forecasting, range
safety, tracking, and preparation of DOD payloads. For over four decades,
launches took place from 47 different complexes; today, most launch
activiiies are handled byjust a few. Space Launch Complex (SLC) al launches
the Atlas V SLC 37 launches the Delta IV and SLC 17 launches the Delta II.
(SLC 4l is actually north ofthe Air Station boundary in I(ennedy Space
Center, on a site allocated to the USAF.)
Launch Complex 39, located on Merritt Island to the north of the Cape
Canaveral base, was added in the mid-1960s for Saturn V launches and
administered by NASA. This area is known John F. I(ennedy Space
as the
Center and now has two launch pads for the Space Shuttle. There is also a
commercial launch site at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station operated by the
Spaceport Florida Authority. It has converted the Navy's old SLC 46 pad for
launching small to medium commercial launchers to equatorial orbit. Core
rocket stages for large vehicles such as the Delta IV are delivered by special
cargo ships to nearby Port Canaveral.

134 135
Jiuquan (Shuang Cheng Tzu) cr.,,'.m
40.6"N.99.9"E

40 mm (0.2 in), but Jiuquan lies close to the


Ruoshui River. This has made it possible to
irrigate the area, with the development of more
than 60 oases. To store water, a man-made
reservoir covering 10 km' (3.2 mi') was built in the
/\.i town. The site comprises three separate zones-
' \1 "..., the launch zone, the red wrllow and poplar zone,
7:',.:iYX !.'";. .
and the urban zone. Construction of China's first

s/lr/'' z +J._.
and largest launch site began in 1958.
The {lrst launch, involving a Russian-built R-2
-^flF

?: "$ - .,."f1 ".:, -t


5i".'ai
$;w
',,
vehicle, took place on September 1, 1960. Jiuquan
was also the location for the first orbital space
Y ''--dilF..... launch by the People's Republic of China when a
i't, xr"rd
Long March I rocket launched the Mao I satellite
\
,Ri
'i{ on April 24,1970. China then became the {ifth
i\ ; ,t4-
\ nation to launch an artificial satellite into orbit.
Today, Jiuquan is limiied to southeastern
Jr'
\ ,\" launches into 57-70o orbits to avoid overflying
i.... ,.
t+
Russia and Mongolia. There are two launch pads
416 m (1365 ft) apart, with a shared mobile service
'. ..!"
""Bba],,' tower. Road and rail systems for transport of
*+1 -
satellites and rocket stages link the site to an
Xir
airport 94 km (151 km) to the south. Rockets of
i
,t
...,
.$".1r.i,;..tr,
the Long March I and 2 series are launched from
*" -rJf
rr l" Jiuquan, carrying recoverable Earth observation
i.?;e.
and microgravity payloads. Jiuquan is also the
launch center for the Long March 2F, which
carries China's manned Shenzhou spacecraft. Due
to the site's northerly geographical location, most
Chinese commercial flights take off from other
spacepofts.
Northeast of the launch base is the burial site
of more than 500 people who contributed to the
Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center was built north ofJiuquan City in the Gobi country's space cause, including the founder of
desert of Inner Mongolia, 1600 km (1000 mi) west of Beijing. The site is China's space program, Marshal Nie Rongzhen.
known in the West as Shuang Cheng Tzu. The site is about 1000 m (3300 ft)
above sea level. Tt has long, cold winters and hot summers. Annual rainfall is

136 t37
Kapustin Yar nussra,/rcAzAKHsrAN
48.s'N, 45.8'l

. prrstin Yar lies near the Volga river, partly in the Volgograd and Astrakhan
,'ions ofRussia and partly in western l(azakhstan. It has also been called
I rL. Volgograd Station, the Fourth State Central Test Site, and the State

( r rrtl'al Inter-Service Test Site. It occupies a total of 65,000 km'(25,097 mi')


, I clesert. Following the break-up of the USSR, the Kazakhstan portion of the
,

riLr was leased to Russia.


First established by government decree in 1946, it was the first test range
lol Soviet missiles and sounding rockets, with the first launch of a modified
\.r 2missile on October I8, 1947.lt was greatly expanded as the test site for
,lrrnerolrs Soviet intermediate and short-range missile projects in the 1950s.
l(;rpustin Yar was also the headquarters ofthe first operational R-1/R-2 units
ir orn 1950 to 1953, and later a base for 12 operational R-14 missile launchers.
i\ll larrnches are towards the east.
A new town, Znamensk, was established for the scientists, supporting
personnel, and families working on the site. For many years, the Soviets tried
1o keep its existence a secret. Evidence ofits importance was obtained by
\Vcstern intelligence through debriefing of returning German scientists and
,,pY flights.
The first orbital launch from l(apustin Yar was Kosmos I in 1962. By
i965, two silo complexes were converted for the l(osmos 2 launcher. Since
1973, the Kosmos 3M launcher has flown from this base. By 1980, 70 space
iaunches to orbit were carried out, mostly small Kosmos science satellites.
'l he USSR then concentrated its classi{led space launches at Plesetsk, leaving

I(apustrn Yar to send up only occasional missions, usually for radar


calibration. Between 1980 and 1988, a modi{led version of the l(osmos 3M
rocket launched 10 scaled prototypes of a reusable shuttle to test the
aerodynamics of the future Buran orbiter.
There has only been one orbital launch since 1987, although there have
been some missile-testing activities as well as I(osmos suborbital launches.
The last orbital l(osmos 3M launch from I{apustin Yar, a commercial flight
lor Germany and Italy, took place on April 28,1999, after an 1l-year break.

I39
Kourou (Centre Spatial Guyanais) FRENCH GUTANA
5.2"N, s2.8'W

The site at Kourou, in the colony of French Guiana, South America, was Diamant orbital launch inI975,184 sounding rocket and nine orbital
selected in April 1964 after Algeria gained independence from France and launches had been made from Kourou.
access to launch sites in that country was lost. With its location near the The Europa Ii launch complex (ELA-l) was modified for use with the
equator and near the Atlantic coast, Kourou is one ofthe best launch sites in Ariane, and since December 1979, I(ourou has been the launch center for all
the world. The near-equatorial location allows maximum energy assist from Ariane flights. A second pad, ELA-2, was completed in 1986 and used for
the Earth's rotation for launches into equatorial orbits, giving an extra Ariane 4 launches. The introduction ofAriane 5 led to the addition of ELA-3,
460 mf s (f S00 ft/s) in velocity. Weather conditions are favorable throughout completed in 1996. After the final Ariane 4 launch in 2003, ELA-I and EIA-2
the year. The shape ofthe coastline allows launches between north and east were decommissioned. However, ELA-I is now being refurbished for use by
(-10.50 to +93.5') the Vega launcher, with a first flight planned in 2008. Launcher assembly and
Although the site is owned by the French space agency, CNES, it has integration will be performed on the pad within a new mobile gantry. A new
been used as the main European spacepofi since July 1965, when ELDO pad, 10 km (6 mi) north of ELA-1, is being built for use by the Russian
chose the site for launches ofthe Europa II launch vehicle. Today, it is used Soyuz 2 (Soyuz ST) launcher, with the maiden flight planned for early 2009.
by the ESA and the commercial launch company Arianespace. Rocket stages are delivered by sea to a nearby poft, while most payloads
Four pads for sounding rockets were completed in 1968 and a Diamant arrive by air.
pad in 1969. The Europa II launch complex was ready in l97I but was used
for only one launch before the project was terminated. At the time of the last

t40 141
Kwajalein MARsHALL rsLANDs
9.28'N.167.73"E

1
rr oximity to the equator allows additional payload to be launched to the east,
rrrd space launches require a smaller plane change when launched from
i(rvajalein rather than from other sites. However, the site can accommodate
I runches for almost any orbital inclination. Due to its relative isolation,
t)melek has long been used by the United States military for launches of
:rnall research rockets. The last US government launch occurred in 1996.
More recently, a new commercial launch company, SpaceX, updated facilities
on the island for the {irst flightsoftheir Falcon I rocket. The first launch
iittempt of the Falcon I in March 2006 was cut short by an engine fire; the
second test flight on March 20, 2007, was more successful.
Launch vehicles arrive at Kwajalein via commercial cargo carrier and are
lransferred to Omelek by landing craft. Four days before launch, a trailer
carries the launcher, which is fitted to the erector, to the pad in a horizontal
position. The island is evacuated during the launch. The rocket's first stage is
fitted with a parachute system that enables it to fall into the sea and be
recovered by ship for possible refurbishment and reuse.

I(wajalein Atoll belongs to the Republic of the Marshall Islands in the South
Pacific. Located about 3380 km (2f 00 mi) southwest of Hawaii and
2250 km (1a00 mi) east of Guam, it is the home to the only US equatorial
launch facilities. These facilities are known as the Ronald Reagan Ballistic
Missile Defense Test Site and operated by the US Army under a long-term
lease. The Reagan Test Site encompasses approximately 1.9 million km,
(750,000 mi'), although the total land area is only about 180 km, (70 mi').
It includes rocket launch sites on l1 islands in the Kwajalein Atoll, on Wake
Island, and at Aur Atoll. About 2000 suppofi personnel and family members
live on I(wajalein and Roi-Namur islands.
One of the launch sites is on a tiny island called Omelek. The island is
part of a coral reef and covers about 32,000 m, (8 acres). The island's

).42
Odyssey (Sea Launch) usn
0"N,154'W

Two unique ships form the Sea Launch


marine infrastructure. The ACS is a specially
designed vessel that serves as a floating rocket-
assembly factory while in port; provides accom-
modation and leisure facilities for up to 240 crew
members, customers, and VIPs; and houses
mission-control facilities for launches at
,,' sea.
The ACS is 200 m (660 ft) long and approximately
32.3 m (106 ft) wide, with a displacement of more
than 34,000 t (68 million lb). It has a cruising
range of 33,336 km (18,000 nautical mi).
The launch platform is a former North Sea
oil-drilling platform. Refurbished in Stavanger,
Norway, the vessel is one of the largest semi-
submersible, self-propelled vessels in the world.
It measures I33 m(436 ft) long and about 67 m
(220 ft) wide, with an empty draft displacement
of 30,000 t (60 million lb). The platform provides
accommo-dation for 68 crew and launch-system
personnel. It has a large, environmentally
controlled hangar for storage ofthe Zenit rocket
and mobile transporter/erector equipment that is
used to roll out and raise the rocket prior to
fueling and launch. It also stores the rocket fuel
(kerosene and liquid oxygen) for each mission.
The launch platform takes ll-12 days to
reach the equatorial launch site in the mid-Paciflc.
The Odyssey launch platform is operated by Sea Launch, an international It is then ballasted to its launch depth and turned to a specific heading to
company of American, Russian, Ukrainian, and Norwegian partners. Starting minimize wind and wave effects. Countdown, launch, telemetry, and tracking
up in 1995, the company's first launch took place on March 27,1999,when a are dealt with from the launch control center on the Sea Launch Commander
Zenit-3SL vehicle completed a demonstration launch of a test payload. by English- and Russian-speaking launch teams. The rocket is rolled out ofits
Launch operations begin at Home Port rn Long Beach, California, where environmentally protected hangar and automatically erected on the launch
the satellite is delivered. Following the fueling and encapsulation ofthe pad 27 hours prior to liftoff. Launch-suppoil personnel transfer to the ship
satellite in the payload processing facility, the integrated payload unit is prior to propellant loading.
transferred to the Sea Launch Commander Assembly and Command Ship The platform was damaged during a launch failure on January 30,2007 ,

(ACS) for integration with the launch vehicle. Then, the horizontally but operations should resume in January 2008 (at the earliest).
integrated rocket is transferred to the launch platform, where it is stored
for transit to the equator.

L44 145
Plesetsk, Mirnyy nussn
6,).7"N,40,1"1

Despite its importance as a military base,


Plesetsk suffered from financial difficulties after
the fall of the Soviet Union, and in September
1995, its electricity was cut off for three days
due to a failure to pay its power bills. There have
been at least three launch-pad disasters in the
history of Plesetsk: those in 1973 and 1980 cost
a total of 60 lives. Most recently, a launch
explosion in October 2002 killed one man,
injured eight people, and severely damaged the
Soyuz launch pad.
Plesetsk was a originally a missile defense
facility where R-7 intercontinental missiles were
based. In 1964, some of the facilities were

tt converted for civilian space launches. Its first


satellite launch took place on March 17, 1966,
when a Vostok-2 booster placed the secret
Kosmos-l12 spacecraft into orbit. Since that time,
more than 1500 missiles and rockets have been
launched from Plesetsk-more than from any
other launch site in the world.
There are currently eight operational launch
pads, with facilities for Kosmos 3M, Soyuz-U/
Molniya-M, Rockot, Start-1, and Tsyklon-3
vehicles. A launch pad was being built for planned
Zenit launches but these were dropped, and the
The Plesetsk launch site is located close to the Arctic Circle, 170 km (I05 mi)
partly finished site is now set aside for the Angara.
south ofArchangel at Mirnyy in Arkhangelsk Oblast and about 800 km
The rockets are delivered by rail from the
(500 mi) north east of Moscow. It is situated south of the river Emtsa in a
assembly and test facilities in a horizontal position
relatively flat taiga (coniferous forest) landscape among numerous lakes.
and then erected on the pad. Range restrictions
Winters are cold, down to -38'C, with a fair amount of snow, while summers
now limit ]aunches to between 62.80 and 83o for
are quite hot, up to 33oC.
polar and high-inclination orbits.
Established on July 15, 1957 , as the secret 'Angara" facility, Plesetsk has
been a leading rocket-testing and spaceJaunch complex for over 40 years.
Its existence was only officially acknowledged by the Soviets in 1983. The
launch site, which is operated by the Russian Ministry of Defense, covers
I49 km'(575.3 mi') and includes 1745 experimental-technical facilities. About
40,000 service personnel and their families live in the nearby town of Mirnyy.

t46 147
Spaceport America (Southwest Regional Spaceport) usn
33'N, I07'W

By the end of 2006, the list of spaceport tenants also included


UP Aerospace, Starchaser Industries, and the Rocket Racing League. Up
Aerospace made the first (suborbital) rocket launch from temporary facilities
at the Spaceport on September 25,2006, using the Spaceloft XL solid-fuel
rocket. Although this was a failure, a second suborbital flight on April 28,
2007, was successful. The spaceport is expected to become operational by
late 2009 or early 2010. Studies projeci that 2300 people will be empioyed
at Spaceport America by its fifth year of operation. Future infrastructure
will include a launch complex; a 3600 m (f f ,800 ft) long runway suitable
for handling White Knight 2 tourist craft returning from suborbital flights
conducted by Virgin Galactic; a payload assembly complex; and a
futuristic terminal.

Spaceport America, formerly known as Southwest Regional Spaceport, was


conceived by the Southwest Space Task Force, a private group of space
activists who were keen to develop a commercial launch site in New Mexico
that would also be suitable for reusable launch vehicles. Based on years of
study, they selected 70 km' (27 mi'?) of state-owned land, 72krr' (45 mi) north
of Las Cruces. This area of flat, open range to the west of White Sands
Missile Range lies 1389 m(4557 ft) above sea level.
In 2003, the governor and state legislature accepted the idea of
developing the site as America's premiere inland commercial spaceport. A
year later, New Mexico hosted the X Prize Cup annual spaceflight exhibition.
On December 13, 2005, it was announced that Virgin Galactic was to
undertake a joint venture with New Mexico to construct a $225 million

facility to be known as Spaceport America at Upham. The venture was


approved by the state legislature and the funding plans signed into law on
March 1, 2006.

148
I
Sriharikota (Satish Dhawan Space Center) rr.rora Svobodny nussn
13.7'N,80.2'E 51.4"N. I28.3'E

Sriharikota, which is operated by the Indian Space Research Organization Svobodny was established in 1968 as a secret ICBM base for strategic missile
(ISRO), is the main Indian launch center. It is located on Sriharikota Island on forces. It was closed in 1993 after an agreement on the Strategic Arms
the east coast ofAndhra Pradesh, southern India, about f00 km (66 mi) north Reduction Treaty II (START II). It was reactivated as a cosmodrome
of Chennai. It was previously called Sriharikota Range and Sriharikota by President Boris Yeltsin on March 1, 1996, during negotiations with
Launching Range. It was given its current name in 2002, after the death of I(azakhstan over the future ofBaikonur. The plans called for the restoration
ISRO's former chairman, Satish Dhawan. of up to five launch silos for UR-l00-type missiles, which could be used for
The center became operational in October 1971, with the launch ofthree the Rockot and Strela converted missiles.
Rohini sounding rockets on October 9 and 10. OnJuly 18,1980, India The cosmodrome is located at Svobodny-I8 , about 97 km (60 mi) from
became the eighth nation to launch an artificial satellite, launching Rohini 1, the Chinese border. Although the division ofthe Strategic Rocket Forces
using an SLV (Satellite Launch Vehicle). Today, in addition to sounding-rocket stationed in Svobodny-18 has been disbanded, the town still has a population
facilities, the center has two launch pads for orbital vehicles. The PSLV launch of 6000. Despite its remote location and extreme climate, Svobodny has the
complex was commissioned in 1990. It has a 3000 tonne (6.6 million 1b), advantage ofbeing closer to the equator than Plesetsk, with the result that
7 6.5 m (250 ft) high mobile service tower, which provides the payload clean a launcher can deliver a payload up to 25To heavier than would be possible

room. The tower is rolled back for launch. from Plesetsk.


The second complex was introduced in May 2005 as a universal launch Svobodny is available for launches of both military and commercial
pad, abte to accommodate both the PSLV and the larger, more powerful satellites. Five satellites have been launched since its reactivation in 1996.
GSLV. The two launch pads allow more-frequent launches. Sriharikota's The first of these took place on December 24,1997 , when the Zeya
proximity to the equator is especially advantageous for launching payloads experimental satellite was placed into orbit. The most recent launch was
eastward, although safety considerations limit these to azimuths less than 140". on April 25,2006, carrying the Israeli Eros-B1 remote sensing satellite. All
The center also has facilities for solid-propellant processing; static ofthe launches used Start-I boosters fired from mobile launchers.
testing of solid motors; launch-vehicle integration and launch operations; Future launches have been proposed for Strela, Rockot, and Angara
range operations comprising telemetry tracking, and command network; boosters, but the necessary construction was delayed due to lack offunds.
and a mission control center. Approximately 2400 people are employed at In early 2007, it was reported that the seldom-used launch site will be shut
the center. down again in the near future. Only a military unit and a ground
measurement station would remain at the site.
I50 15r
Taiyuan (Wuzhai Missile and Space Test Center) .*,*r
37.5"N,112.6"E

1,,rrrt project designed to study the Earth's magnetosphere, was launched


1 r, rrn Taiyuan in 2004.
Taiyuan is equipped with a command and control center as well as
lr,rcking and telemetry facilities. It is served by two railways that connect
,.'rrlh the Ningwu-Kelan railway.

Taiyuan Satellite Launch Center is located in Kelan County, northern Shanxi


Province, nearly 300 km (480 mi) away from Taiyuan city, the provincial
capital, and 500 km (800 mi) southwest of Beijing. The climate is fairly dry ,
t
(540 mm or 2I in of rain per year), with cold winters and fairly hot summers.
t
Hemmed in by mountains to the east, south and north, and the Hwang t
Ho (Yellow Rrver) to the west, the center stands at an elevation of 1500 m
(4920 ft) in sparsely populated terrain. US Space Command refers to the site I
as Wuzhai Missile and Space Test Center. , c
The formerly secret center was founded in March 1966 and began z
I I

operation as a missile testing range in first photographs of the site


1968. The I
4
B
were not released until 1990. Today, it is also used as a launch center for
government and commercial satellites. It has a single launch pad, opened in
I
1988, for launching Long March rockets. +
The first Long March 4 was launched from Taiyuan on September 6, I E
|.t.
1988. Since then, the Long March 4 has been used to carry all ofthe Chinese I
T
Sun-synchronous meteorological satellites, as well as remote sensing and I
reconnaissance satellites to polar and Sun-synchronous orbits.
;.i+;'
Long March 2C rockets carrying US lridium satellites were also launched '?
'.1'
i^.
from Taiyuan in the 1990s. The second Double Star satellite, an ESA-Chinese
"wr.
r52
Tanegashim? ;rerru
30.4'N,131.0'E

*'-'=f, a=::are:-tf
-: a,4:=:"-^<--:.4

The Tanegashima Space Center is on the south eastern tip of Tanegashima rockets and provides facilities for H-ll solid-booster static firings and the
Island, 50 km (31.f mi) off the southern coast of I(yushu and 1050 km (650 mi) H-II Range Control Center. With few exceptions, departures from both
south west ofTokyo. It is the largest rocket range in Japan, with a total area ranges are normally restricted to two launch seasons (January l5-end of
of 8.6 km'(3.3 mi').The landscape of blue sea, cliffs, and white sandybeach February and August l-September 15) because of range safety procedures and
has led to its being called "the most beautiful launch site in the world." agreements with the fishing industry.
Formerly the main launch center for NASDA (see JA){A entry), it is now The first orbital launch from Tanegashima took place on September 9,
operated by Japan's space agency, JAXA. 1975,with a N-I rocket and its Kiku-I satellite. On February 23,1977, it
There are two main facilities. The Osaki Range in the north includes the became the third site in the world from which geostationary satellites could
Yoshinobu Launch Complex, from which H-llA rockets are launched, and a be launched. The N-I, N-lI, H-I, and J-l have all flown from Tanegashima.
second pad from which the J-l rocket was launched. This includes the Vehicle Today, the sole orbital launcher is the H-IIA, which is launched from a site
Assembly Building, the Spacecraft Test and Assembly Building, and the Block 1 km (0.6 mi) away from the old H-I pad, which closed in 1992. By the end of

House for countdown operations. It also has static test facilities for liquid- 2006, the center had conducted 42 orbital launches.
fuel rocket engines. The Takesaki Range to the south handles sounding
r54 155
Uchinoura, Kagoshima JAPAN
11.2'N,131.l'E

Facilities for launching rockets, telemetry,


tracking, and command stations for rockets and
satellites, and optical observation posts have been
built by flattening the tops of several hills.
Antennas 20 m(66 ft) and 30 m (98 ft) in height
receive telemetryfrom satellites to track and
control them while in Earth orbit. The 34 m
(112 ft) antenna can back up the 64 m (2I0 ft)
antenna at the Usuda Deep Space Center.
Following the closure of the original facility
Iwaki (now Yuri-Honjo) Akita Prefecture, the
center was founded in February 1962, as part of
the Institute of Industrial Science, University of
Tokyo. In 1964, it became part of the University's
Institute of Space and Aeronautical Science.
Seventeen years later, the I(agoshima Space
Center became an independent research facility,
part of ISAS. It was renamed the Uchinoura Space
Center on October l, 2003, aftre the creation
ofJAXA.
Launches are limited to two months each
year in order to avoid disturbing local fisheries.
Despite this, more than 360 rockets and 23
satellites and probes were launched from the
center between 1970 and 2003. The site was
originally used for atmospheric sounding rockets
and meteorologrcal rockets. The first orbital flight
took place on February II, L970, with the launch
of the Ohsumi satellite by a Lambda 4S-5 rocket,
makrng Japan the fourth nation to launch an
artificial satellite. The largest launch vehicle
operated from Uchinoura was the M-V, {irst
launched in 1997. The most recent launch from
Uchinoura Space Center is the launch site for solid-fuel sounding rockets and Uchinoura was on September 22,2006, when the
satellite launchers developed and launched byJapan's Institute of Space and final M-V rocket delivered Hinode (Solar B) into
Aeronautical Science (ISAS), now part of JA){A. It is located in a hilly region Earth orbit-
on the east coast of Ohsumi Peninsula, I(agoshima Prefecture, on the
southern tip of I(yushu Island. The center covers an area of 0.7 km' (0.3 mi').

156 r57
Vandenberg Air Force Base, California usr
34.4'N, r20.35"\r

V,rndenberg Air Force Base covers 400 km'(I50 mi') of former grazing land
rrr Santa Barbara County on California's central coast. It is located 19 km
(l/ mi) north of Lompoc and 240 km (150 mi) northwest of Los Angeles.
V;rndenberg's location, with a stretch of clear ocean for thousands of miles to
tlrc south, makes it ideal for the launch ofsatellites into polar orbits from
rrorth to south,
Vandenberg's military service dates back to 1941, when it was an Army
lraining facility known as Camp Cooke. Since 1956, it has been responsible
for missile and space launches on the US West Coast. In 1957, the facility was
lransferred to the US Air Force and acquired its present name. In the decades
since, it has served as a staging ground for ballistic missile tests as well as the
launch of space-bound rockets. Today, the base is operated by the Air Force
ii;.--c
Space Command's 30th Space Wing.

r{ Vandenberg is the only military installation in the continental United


States from which unmanned government and commercial satellites are
rl
lg launched into polar orbit.The base sends satellites to polar orbits by

'Fi launching them due south and also test-fires America's ICBMs westward

iI frlI
toward the l(wajalein Atoll in the Marshall Islands.
The base has launch pads for Atlas, Delta, Taurus, and other rockets. The

;l-:'l air-launched Pagasus XL also flies from Vandenberg. The northern area is
generally employed for missile development and operational test launches;
most are deactivated, but Minuteman and Peacekeeper ICBM silos and pads
remain in use. Apart from the SLC-2W Delta pad, the orbital pads are
clustered in the Point Arguello area in the south. The commercial California
Spaceport, created in 1995, is also located at the southern end ofthe base.
3Q_',s.-,
The site is leased from US Air Force for 25 years.
Until 1994, Scout rockets were launched from Vandenberg's complex 5.
-' 'Iitan vehicles were supported by SLC-4 until October 19, 2005. Vandenberg
l@ "ro"
was to have been a second launch site for the Space Shuttle, but the facilities
!t were never completed. The former shuttle SLC-6 pad is now used for Delta
!-J5.-
l
IV launches. Vandenberg suppods a population of over 18,000 (military,
family members, contractors, and civilian employees).

I58 159
Wallops Flight Facility, Virginia usr
37.8'N,7s.s'W

p rds with associated assembly, control, and tracking facilities. Today, it is still
II main center for NASA's sounding rocket program, using Black Brant,
rc
|, rurus-Tomahawk, Taurus-Orion, and Terrier-Malemute rockets. Watlops

r onducted l1 sounding-rocket launches in 2003, but has completed only a

It w in each ofthe years since then.


a wide array of launch vehicle trajectory options. In
Wallops offers
rlcneral, it can accommodate launch azimuths between 90o and 1600.
N4ost orbital launches occur between 38o and approximately 600. Other
Illjectories, including polar and Sun-synchronous orbits, can be achieved by
rn-flight azimuth maneuvers.
From 1945 to 1957, Wallops was known as the Pilotless Aircraft Research
Station. From the birth of NASA in 1958 until I974,itwas known asWallops
Station. From 1975-I98I, the site was called Wallops Flight Center. Since
1982, it has been called Wallops Flight Facility, and today it is part of NASAs
(ioddard Space Flight Center. Wallops employs about 1000 civil service and
contractor staff.

Wallops Flight Facility, located on the eastern shore ofVirginia about 240 km
(I50 mi) southeast of Washington, is one of the oldest launch sites in the
world. The site was founded in 1945 as a National Advisory Committee for
Aeronautics (NACA) facility, and the first suborbital firing made from Wallops
was a Tiamat on July 4, 1945. It became America's third orbital launch site in
1961 with the launch ofExplorer 9 on a solid-fuel Scout rocket. Nineteen
orbital launches were conducted until the end of 1985, when NASA and the
USAF largely suspended orbital operations. The Scout was retired in 1994,
and an attempt to launch the commercial Conestoga rocket failed in 1995.
The Virginia Commerciai Space Flight Authority, a state agency created
in 1995, built a Minotaur launch pad in 1998 on land leased from NASA on
the south end of Wallops Island. Now known as the Mid-Atlantic Regional
Spaceport, this commercial facility has two launch pads, known as Launch
Complex Zero, capable of launching small and medium vehicles to LEO. Two
Minotaur launches took place in December 2006 and April 2007.
Wallops is comprised of three separate areas: the Mainland, the Main
Base, and Wallops Island. Over the years, the range has grown to six launch

I60
Xichang cr-rrr.rn
28.25'N, 102.0'E

:. r( lrrng is the most modern of China's three main launch centers. Located
r,', krn (40 mi) north of Xichang City, Sichuan Province, in southwestern
r I rin a, it is further south than the others (although a new site is under
,l, vclopment on Hainan Island) and so offers better access to geostationary
, rrlrit. Its lies about 1839 m (6030 ft) above sea level and has a subtropical
, rnate, which means temperatures are generally very mitd in all seasons.
I r

l'lrc dry season (October-May), is the most suitable time for launch
, ,rrnpaigns, but the site enjoys 320 days of sunshine annually.
Construction began in 1978, with the first launch inJanuary 1984. The
, r'nter has two launch pads for the launch of geostationary communications

,,rtellites and meteorological satellites by Long March rockets. One pad is


rlcsigned for Long March 3 rockets. The second complex, 300 m (985 ft) away,
r,; used by Long March 2El3Al3B vehicles fitted with add-on boosters. The
I i rst launch of a Long March 2E took place on July 16, 1990, delivering the
l';rkistani Badr-A sclentific satellite and a Chinese satellite into orbit.
The area is fairly densely populated, and launch accidents have resulted
in civilian casualties. When the first Long March 38 rocket crashed on a
lrillside 1.6 km (1. mi) from the launch pad in 1996, six people were killed
;rnd 57 injured. The launch failure of a Long March 2E in \995 killed six and
injured 23 in a village 8 km (5 mi) downrange.
The site's first commercial communications mission was in April 1990,
when the Hong Kong-owned AsiaSat 1 was launched on a Long March 3.
Ilecent launches include the first ofthe Double Star satellites and the Beidou
navigation satellites.
The site lies 50 km from Xichang Airport and has links to the national
Chengdu-Kunming railway and the Sichuan-Yunnan highway. Launcher
stages are delivered by rail to a transit ha11 and assembly room capable of
processing three complete vehicles. The launchers are assembled, checked
out, and then transferred separately by road for stacking in stages on the pad.
The command and control center lies 7 km (4.3 mi) southeast of the pads.

t62 r63
Ciuil
Communi'
cqtions E
Applicqtions
Sqtellites
Americom (AMC) usr AMOS rsuel
Communicaiions r) rrmunications

SPECIFICATION
(AMos-2):
MANUFACTuRER: lsr:el Aircraft
I ndustrles
LAUNcH DATE: December 28,
2003
oRBrr: 4'W (GEO)
LAUNcH srrE: Baikonur,
Kazakhstan
LAUNcHER: Soyuz-Fregat
d
LAUNCH MAss: 1374 kgG0)3 lb)
I BoDY DrMFNsroNs: r.7 x 7.1 x
2.4 m (a.9 x 6.9 x7.9 lI)
pnvroro:12 Ku-band
transponde6

The largest supplier of satellite services in the SPECIFICATION 'fhe AMOS class is a family of lightweight geosynchronous communication
Americas, SES AMERICOM was established in (AMC-r8): satellites, developed, Iaunched, and controlled by IAI/MBT. The satellites,
MANUFAcTuRER: Lockheed Martin
1973 with its fiIst satellite circuit for the US DOD. Commercial Space Systems
colocated at 4'W, provide high-quality broadcasting and communications
The company currently operates a fleet of 16 TAUNcH DATE: December 8,2006 services to Europe, the Middle East, and the US East Coast.
oRBrr: 105'W (cEO)
spacecraft , predominantly providing service LAUNcH srrE: Kourou, French AMOS-Spacecom operates AMOS-I and AMOS-2 in orbit, and intends to
throughout the Americas. Guiana
Iaunch AMOS-3 in the near future. AMOS-I, launched in 1996, was followed
LAUNcHER: Ariane 5 ECA
AMC-18 provides advanced C-band digital LAUNcH MAss: 208I kg (4578 lb) by AMOS-2 in 2003. AMOS-2 expands the available bandwidth and coverage,
BoDY DrMENs,oNs:3.8 x 1.9 x
transmission services, including high-defi nition I.9 m (I2.5 x 6.2 offering a hot spot for European and Middle East customers. It also adds a
x 6.2 ft)
channels, for cable programming and broad- PAYLoAD:24 C-band third beam covering the Atlantic bridge from the US East Coast to its other
transponders
casting in the continental US, Mexico, and the sewice areas, creating a vital link for VSAT operators, government agencies, and
Carribean. The three-axis-stabilized satellite is other service providers.
based on the Lockheed A 2100 platform. Its dry AMOS-2 has 22 active 36 MHz segments, while AMOS t has 14.
mass is 918 kg (2020 lb) and its span in orbit AMOS 2 serves more transponders, and each of these provides 76W of
I4.7 m(48 ft). AMC-18 has onboard power of power, compared with 33 W for AMOS 1. AMOS-2 was the Soyuz rocket's
1467 W, with a projected lifetime of at ieast {irst commercial launch to GEO; it was originally scheduled for launch on
15 years. board Ariane 5. AMOS-3 is scheduled to be launched by the end of 2007,
eventually replacing AMOS-1.

166 t67
Anik (Telestar Canada) cnrooo Al)STAR (APT) uor.rc KoNG/cHrNA
Communications nrrrnications

SPECIFICATION SPECIFICATION
(Anik F2): (APSTAR-vr):
MANUFAcTURER: Boeing Satellitc uarurncrunrn: Alcatel Space
Systems LAUNcH oArE: April 12,2005
LA!NcH DATE: July 17,2004 oRBrr: l14"E (GEO)
oRBrr: 111.]"W (cEO) rauncu strr: Xichang, Ch na
LAUNcH srTEt (ourou, French LAUNcHER: Long March 3B
Gulana LAUNcH MAss:46E0 kg
LAUNctsER: Ariane 5G (r0,J1o lb)
LAUNcH MAss:5950 kg aoDY DrMENsroNs:4 m (13.1 1l)
(1l,0eo lb) long

{:t
BoDY D MENsroNs: 7.J x 3.8 x PAYLoaot 38 C-band
1.4 m (21.9 x 14.4 x 11.2 ft) transponders;l2 Ku-band
prvroao:38 Ka band transponders
transponders; l2 Ku band
transponders; 24 C-band
transponders

Canada's Telesat is one of the world's leading commercial satellite operators.


Created in 1969, the company made history in 1972 with the launch of Anik
A1-the world's first commercial domestic communications satellite placed
in geostationary orbit. in the Inuit dialect,'Anik" means "little brother."
Today, the company has eight satellites in GEO slots over North America.
qELl[U
The most recent of these is Anik F3, which was launched on April 9, 2007. Its
predecessor, Anik F2, was the world's largest commercial communications
satellite and the first to fully commercialize the l{a-frequency band for
delivering two-way broadband services.
MASSE A VIDE
Anik F2 is used to deliver high-speed satellite Internet services to 6390 Kq

consumers and businesses in North America, as well as direct-to-home


satellite television and interactive seruices for the Canadian government,
APT Satellite Holdings of Hong I(ong successfully launched its first Comsat,
including interactive healthcare and learning, and e-government services. APSTAR-1, in 1994. Today, APT operates {ive satellites in GEO, providing
Based on the Boerng 702 bus, it carries 14 reflectors: two dual-gridded
coverage overAsia, Oceania, and parts ofthe Pacific Ocean as far as Hawaii.
reflectors (one each in C-band and Ku-band), four 1.4 m (a.6 ft) transmit
With their high-power transmission and broad footprints, the satellites'
reflectors in l(a-band, four 0.9 m (3 ft) receive reflectors also in Ka-band,
services reach over 707" o{ the world's population.
and two 0.5 m (1.6 ft) track reflectors in I(u-band. It is expected to operate
APSTAR-VI is based on the SPACEBUS-4IO0 Cl platform developed by
for at least 15 years. Alcatel Space. The C-band transponders cover Asia, Australia, New Zealand,
ihe Pacific Islands, and Hawaii. The Ku-band transponders mainly focus on
the Greater China region. Designed with powerful transponders, single
polarization, and other unique features, APSTAR-VI is used for direct-to
home and other broadcasting and telecommunication services. It is the first
commercial satellite in China to be equipped with an antijamming feature.
It has an estimated operational lifetime of over 15 years.

168 r69
Arabsat sAUDr ARABTA Ar lcmis (Advanced Relay and Technology Satellite) EURopE
Communications r ' rr rre rrtal optical communications

Arabsat was founded in 1976 by the 2l member SPECIFICATION ii r lcmis was built to demonstrate new techniques SPECIFICATION:

states ofthe Arab League. It is the leading satellite (Bad r-4/Ara bsat-4 B): I , r r data relay and mobile communications. It was MANUFAcTuRER: Alenia Spazio
uurcu orrr: July 12, 2001
MANUFAcTURER: EADS Astrium ,lro the first ESA spacecraft to carry operational
services provider in the Arab world, reaching over LAUNcH DATE: November 8,2006
oRBrr:21.5'E (GEO)
LAUNcH strE: Kourou, French
100 countries across the Middle East, Africa, and onarr:26'E (GEO) r lrctric propulsion. Due to a malfunction of the Guiana
LA!NcH strE: Baikonur,
Europe. It operates four satellites at the
a fleet of Kazakhstan
,\r iane 5 upper stage, it was left in a low transfer LAUNcHER: Ariane 5
LAUNcH MAss: 3105 kg (6831 lb)
, r bit of 590 x I7
26oE and 30.5oE slots in GEO, with two more LAUNcHER: Proton/Breeze M ,
,487 km (367 x 10,866 mi). To DrMENsroNs: ln orbit.4.8 x 8x
LAUNcH MAss: 3280 kg (7216 lb)
satellites planned. Arabsat is the only satellite r i cover the mission, its liquid apogee engine was
2s m(15./ x26.)x82fI)
BoDY DrMENsroNs: 1.8 x 2.3 m
PAYLoaD: S/Ka band Data Relay
(5.9 x 7.5 ft)
operator in the region offering the full spectrum lircd eight times. From a circular 31,000 km (51(DR); Semiconductor Laser
PAYLoAD:32 Ku-band
lntersatellite Link Experiment
of broadcast, telecommunications, and broadband transponders ( 19,263 mi) orbit, its ion thrusters were used to
(SILEX); SILEX and SKDR feeder
r cach operational altitude in GEO on link; L-band Land Mobile (LLM);
services. January 31,
Navigation payload (NAV)
Arabsat's fourth-generation satellites, Arabsat-4A 1002. Enough fuel/xenon remained for up to 10
and Arabsat-4B, are based on the Eurostar-2O0O+ years of operations.
bus. Arabsat-4A, also known as Badr-1, was lost On November 2I,200I, it completed the first
during an upper-stage Proton/Breeze M malfunc- l;rser data transmission between European satellites,
tion in 2006. Its replacement, called Arabsat-4AR/ tlrrough an optical data link with SPOT 4, which
Badr-6, is scheduled for launch in 2008. Arabsat- rvas in LEO at 832 km (517 mi). On December 9,
4BlBadr-4 was successfully launched and carries 2005, the first ever bidirectional optical interorbit
direct-to-home television services, together with c:ommunication was made using a laser beam
voice and data telecommunications services. The between Japan's Kirari (OICETS) and Artemis. On
25 m (82 ft) solar-array span produces 5 kW of December 18, 2006, Artemis relayed the first optical
power. It is colocated at 26oE with Arabsat-A/ Iaser links from an aircraft over a distance of
Badr-3. 40,000 km (24,855 mi) during two flights.
170 17I
AsiaSat sonc ronc,/cHrr.rr ASTRA INTERNATIoNAL
( lorr r rrru nications , ,nil)runications

Asia Satellite Telecommunications Company SPECIFICATION


(AsiaSat) was formed in 1988 as Asia's first pri- (Asiasat 4):

vately owned regional satellite operator. AsiaSat 1 MANUFACTURER: Boeing Sateliite


Systems
was launched on April 7, 1990. There are currently LAUNcH DArE: April 11,200J
oRBrr:122.2'E (cEO)
three operational satellites-AsiaSat 2, AsiaSat 3S, LAUNcH strE: Cape Canaveral,
and AsiaSat 4-that are designed to cover the Florida
SIIS ASTRA is the leading direct-to-home satellite SPECIFICATION
LAUNcHER: Atlas lllB
Asia-Pacific region. The latest ofthese, AsiaSat 4, LAUNcH MAss: 4l17 kg (9121 jb) :;ystem in Europe, delivering satellite TV and cable (ASTRA rL):
BoDY D MENsroNs: 5.8 x 3.4 x
is a Boeing 60IHP (High Power) satellite that scrvices to more than 109 million households. MANUFACTURER: Lockheed Martin
3.5 m (19 x 11.1 x 11.4 ft) Commercial Space Systems
offers excellent "look angles" over Asia and prvroro:28 C-band 'l-he ASTRA satellite fleet
currently comprises 12 LAUNcH DATE: May 4,2007
transponders; 20 Ku,band oRBrr: 19.2'E (cEO)
Australasia. transponders :;atellites, transmitting 1864 analog and digital LAUNcH srrE: Kourou, French
AsiaSat 4 generates up to 9600 W using two tclevision and radio channels. SES ASTRA also Guiana
LAUNcHER: Ariane 5-ECA
sun-tracking, four-panel solar wings covered with prrovides satellite-based multimedia, Internet, and LAUNCH MAss: a497 kge893 16)
triple-junction gallium arsenide solar cells. It has telecommunication services to enterprises, BoDY DrMENstoNs:7.7 x 2.6 x
3.6 m (25.3 x 8.6 x 11.9 ft)
28 linearized C-band and 20 Ku-band trans- tlovernments, and their agencies. PAYLoAD:29 Ku-brnd

ponders, with 16 operating in the FSS (Fixed transponders; 2 Ka-band


ASTM IL is located at one ofAstra's three transponders
Satellite Service) and 4 operating in BSS (Broad- prime orbital positions, replacing Astra 2C, which
casting Satellite Service) frequency band. It offers was moved to 28.2oE slot. It is used to provide
extensive C-band coverage across Asia, with distribution of direct-to-home broadcast services
targeted Ku-band beams for Australasia and East across Europe as well as a Ka-band payload for
Asia, and a BSS payload for the provision of interactive applications. ASTM IL is a three-axis-
direct-to-home services to Hong Kong. In April stabilized A2100 AXS relay platform built by
2006, AsiaSat awarded a contract to build AsiaSat 5 Lockheed Martin. The 27 m (88.6 ft) span solar
as a replacement for AsiaSat 2. Launch is arrays produce about 13 kW ofpower, and are
scheduled for 2009. expected to provide 15 years of design life.

172
Brasilsat enrzrL B-SAT lrear.r
Communications ornmunications

SPECIFICATION
(Brasilsat 84):
MANUFAcTuRER: Hughes Space
end Communications
LAUNcH DATE: August 21,2000
oRBrr:92'W (GEO)
LAUNcH strE: Kourou, French
G u iana
LAUNctsER: Ariane 44 LP
LAUNcH MAss: 1757 kg (1865 lb)
BoDY orMENsroNs: 3.4 x 3.7 m
(11.3 x 12 ft)
PAYLoAD:28 C-band
transponders

J
ap an's To\o-based Broadcasting Satellite System SPECIFICATION
Corporation (B-SAT) was established in 1994. (BSat-2c):
'l'he company currently owns and manages five MANUFACTuRER: Orbital Sciences
Corporation
satellites: BSAT-1a and-lb for analog services; LAUNcH DATE: June 11, 2003
oRBrr: 110"E (GEO)
BSAT-2a and -2c for digital services; and BS-3N, LAUNcH strE: Kourou, French
Embratel, a Brazilian communications company, pioneered satellite Guiana
built by Lockheed Martin, as a spare. BSAT-3a is
LAUNcHER: Ariane 5G
communications in the country with the launch of Brasilsat Al in 1985, scheduled for launch in late 2007. LAUNcH MAss: 1290 kg (2818 lb)
creating the first domestic satellite system in Latin America. Brasilsat A2 was BSAT-2c is the third a series of Orbital
BoDY DrMFNsroNs: 3 8 x 7 5 x
2 m (12.3 x 8.2 x 6.7 ft)
launched in 1986, followed by the first second-generation satellite, Brasilsat Sciences satellites built for B-SAT since 1999. It PAYLoAD:8 Ku-band
BI, in 1994. Since then, three additional B-series satellites have been replaced BSAT-2b, which was lost during a launch
transponders

launched.
failure in July 2001. Based on the company's STAR
Brasilsat 84, which replaced Brasilsat A2, carries voice and data tra{Iic. platform, the three-axis-stabilized spacecraft has
It is a Hughes HS 376W (Wide-body) spin-stabilized satellite with two two solar arrays spanning 16 m (52.5 ft) and
cylindrical, telescoping solar panels covered with large-area silicon solar cells generating 2600 W. It provides direct digital
that provide up to 1800 kW ofpower. The bottom panel slides over the upper television broadcast links throughout Japan, with
portion for launch and the antenna folds down. Deployed in orbit, the the capacity to reach 13 million homes. The
spacecraft extends to a height of 8.3 m (27 .3 ft) and weighed 1052 kg (2320 lb)
spacecraft's lifetime is l0 years.
at the start of orbital operations. The satellite has a design life of 12 years.
TWo follow-on spacecraft, known as Star One Cl and C2, are expected to
replace Brasilsat B1 and 82.

174 175
ChinaSat (Zhongxing) .*,*r l)IRECTV usr
Communications t' llrtc TV broadcasting

SPECIFICATION
(DTRECTV r0):
MANUFACTURER: Boeing Space
and lnte ligence Systems
LAUNcts DArE: July 7, 2007
oneLr: 102.8'W (GEO)
LAUNcH sLrE: Baikon!r,
Kazakhsta n
LAUNcHER: Proton/Breeze M
Enhanced
LAUNcH MAss:5893 kg
(12,e6s lb)
BoDY D MENs oNs:8 x 3.7 x
3.1 m Q6.) x 12.1 x 10.8 ft)
PAYLoAD:44 K:,band
transponders

China Telecommunications Broadcast Satellite SPECIFICATION


(Chi nasat-68):
(ChinaSat) began in I983 as a subsidiary of China's
MANUFACTuRER: Thales Alenia
Ministry of Post and Telecommunications. It later Space
became a subsidiary of China Telecom. In 2001, it LAUNcH DArE: July 5,2007
oRBrr: 115.508 (GEO)
was re-created as the China Satellite Communi- LAUNcH s rE: Xichang, China
LA!NcHER: Long March 3B
cations Corporation. Its business includes civil
LAUNcH MAss:4600 kg
fixed and mobile telecommunications and tele- (10,120 lb)
PAYLoaD: l8 C-band
vision broadcast services in China. At first, the transponders
program was purely military. Chinasat-5/Spacenet-1,
launched in 1984, was the first civilian satellite.
ChinaSat has purchased and operated both I )IRECTV of El Segundo, California, delivers satellite-based TV services to
Chinese-built DFH and western satellites. One of over than l5 million US homes and businesses. The company currently has
these, ChinaSat-8, was ordered in the late 1990s i 0 satellites in its constellation. The latest ofthese is DIRECTV 10, the

from Space Systems/Loral but grounded when the lrcaviest and most powerful DIRECTV spacecraft so far launched.
US refused to issue an expod license. The most Built on the Boeing 702 bus, it has a 48 m (175 ft) solar array, made of
recent satellite is ChinaSat-6B (Zhongxing-6B), Iriple-junction gallium arsenide solar cells, which provide 18 kW of power.
which is based on the Thales Alenia Space 4000C2 It carries two 2.8 m (9.2 ft) Ka-band reflectors and nine other Ka-band
platform and produces 8.7 kW of power. It will rcflectors. The payload integrates 32 active and l2 spare National Service
enable China Satcom to expand its TV and fixed- l(a-band Traveling Wave Tube Amplifiers (TW'IAs) in addition to 55 active
communication services. The ChinaSat-9 and J,5 spare spot-beamTW'IAs. It is designed to provide local and national
(Zhongxing-9) satellite, also built byThales Alenia, High-Definition Television (HDTV) throughout the US from a prime orbital
is the country's second direct-to-home satellite. It slot over the east Paci{ic. Its projected life span is 15 years. Two similar
is scheduled for launch in late 2007. satellites have been ordered.

t76 177
ETS-VIll (EngineeringTest Satellite, KIKU No.8) toro* Eu ropeSta r- t (PanAm S at-Lz, lntelsat- 12), *"or, o rur.
lixpcrimcntal satellite communications ,, r r rmunications "r.

Japan's space agency has been launching a series SPECIFICATION: liuropeStar was a joint venture between Loral SPECIFICATION
ofEngineering Test Satellites (ETS series) since MANUFAcTuRER: MitsIbishi Space and Communications and Alcatel Spacecom. (EuropeStar-t):
Electric, NEC Toshiba Space
the launch of ETS-I (KIKU No. I) in 1975, with the Systems llased in the UK, EuropeStar was also a member MANUFACTURERs: Alcatel Space,

aim of developing and testing advanced satellite LAUNcH DATE: December 18, Space Systems/Loral
2006
ofthe Loral Global A]liance, a worldwide satellite rauNcH DATE: October 29, 2000
technoiogies. The most recent is Engineering Test oRBrr: 146'E (cEO) rretwork including Loral Skynet, Satmex, and oRBrr:45.E (GEO)
LAUNcH stTE: Tanegashima, Japan LAUNcH strE: Kourou, French
Satellite VIII (KIKU No. 8), one of the largest geo- Skynet do Brasil. The company originally filed Guiana
UUNcHER: H.IIA
stationary satellites ever launched. ETS-VIII will rauNcH MAss:5800 kg rights to three orbital slots (43, 45, and 47 .5oE). uuNcHER: Ariane 44Lp
(12,760 tb) LAUNcH MAss:4150 kg (9110 lb)
conduct orbital experiments on the Large-scale BoDY DrMENstoNs:7.3 x 2.5 x liuropeStar-B (formerly Koreasat l) was eventually BooY DtMENstoNs:2.7 x 5.5 x
Deployable Reflector (for S-band). The satellite ).4m(23.9x8x7.7ft) 1.5 m (8.9 x 18 x tt.S ft)
PAYLoaD:32 low noise amplifiers;
located at 47.5.E while EuropeStar-l was placed in PAyLoao:30 Ku-band
carries two ofthe largest deployable antennas in S-band refl ector; high-power the 45oE slot, where it could serve a market of 3 transponders

the world and two solar panels that generate 7.5 kW transponder; atomic clock
billion people in 76 countries.
Its overall length is 40 m (131 ft). The area of each EuropeStar-l was built by prime contractor
deployable mesh reflector is 19 x 17 m (62.3 x Alcatel Space, which provided the payload; Space
55.8 ft). The dishes are made from gold-plated Systems/Loral, which provided the SS/L 1300
molybdenum. Soon after deployment, a problem platform, assembled and tested the satellite.
was traced to a harness that connects the ampli- The powerful 12 kW satellite became the first
fiers with their power supply; however, the start of European Ku-band satellite system to directly
normal operations was announced in May 2007. cover much ofthree continents, providing
ETS-Vil is also equipped with high-accuracy telecommunications, high-speed Internet protocol
atomic clock and time transfer equipment. multicasting, and television distribution. in
July
Combining the clock signal with GPS data, it can 2005, it was sold to panAmsat and renamed
conduct satellite-positioning experiments. Design PAS-I2. In February 2007, it was renamed
Iifetime is 10 years. Intelsat-12.

178
179
Eutelsat TNTERNAToNAL Express nussrn
Communications ( olnmunications

'fhe Express-AM series is operated on behalfof SPECIFICATION


lhe Russian state by the Russian Satellite Commu- (Express-AM3):
Eutelsat Communications is the holding company SPECTFTCATTON (W3A):
MANUFACTURER: NPO PM
nications Co. (RSCC).The first satellite was launched
of Eutelsat S.A. With capacity on 20 satellites (p1us MANUFACTURER: EADS Astrium LAUNcH oArE: June 24, 2005
LAUNcH DATE: March 16,2004 on October 27,1999. InJanuary 2007, five satellites oRBrr: 140o8 (GEO)
four with leased capacity) that provide coverage oRBrr: 7'E (GEO) LAUNcH srrE: Baikonur,
raurucs srrr: Baikonur, in the Express-AM series were operating (at 40,
over the entire European continent, as well as the Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan tauNcHER: Proton K
53, 80,96.5, and 140oE). The most recent ofthese,
Middle East, Africa, India, and significant parts of LAUNcHER: Proton/Breeze M LAUNcH MAss:2600 kg (5720 lb)
LAUNcH MAss:4200 kg (92a0 lb) Uxpress-AM3, was developed for RSCC by NPO BoDY DtMENsroNs: not known
Asia and the Americas, Eutelsat is one of the BoDY DrMENsroNs: 5.8 x 2.4 x PAYLoAD: 16 C-band
2.9 m (I9 x 7.9 x 9.5 ft) I)M, in cooperation with Alcatel Space (France).
world's three leading satellite operators in terms transponders; 12 Ku-band
prvroeo: 3 Ka-band
Express-AM3 has steerable antennas that transponders;1 L-band
of revenues. transponders; 55 l(u-band transponder
transponders rnable the satellite to serve customers in Siberia,
One of the most recent additions to the fleet
lhe Far East, Asia, and Australasia with high-
is W3A, based on the Astrium Eurostar 3000 plat-
quality digital TV and radio broadcasting,
form. Covering Europe, the Middle East, and North
multimedia, and data transmission services. The
Africa, the satellite almost doubled Eutelsat's
i.-band transponder on Express-AM3 is set aside
capacity over sub-Saharan Africa, providing broad-
for mobile presidential and governmental
band services such as voice over IP, Internet access,
communications. Its service life is 12 years.
and distancelearning services. It carries 58 trans-
The failure of Express AM-l1 in May 2006
ponders (of which 50 can be simultaneously
was attributed to an impact with space debris or a
operated). Up to eight transponders are available
micrometeorite. The Express AM-33 and AM-44
for two-way communications between Europe
satellites are scheduled for launch in late 2007 or
and Africa. Communications over Africa are in
2008. RSCC is also planning to use the Express-
Ku-band and over Europe in Ka-band, with
MD series; these smaller satellites, developed by
switching managed by the satellite.
I(hrunichev, are said to offer more flexibility.

I80 I81
Foton nussn Galaxy TNTERNATToNAL
Microgravity research r')[lmunications

SPECIFICATION
(Galaxy l7):
vrruurecrunrn: Thales Alenia
Space
LAUNcH DATE: May 4,2007
oRBrr: 91'W (GEO)
LAUNcH stTE: Kourou, French
Guiana
LAUNcHER: Ariane 5-ECA
LAUNcH MAss: 4100 kg (9020 lb)
BoDY DrMENsroNs: 1.8 x 1.8 x
).3 m (I).3 x 5.9 x7.5 fi)
prvroro: 24 C-band
transponders; 24 Ku band
transponders

The Foton unmanned spacecraft is based on the SPECIFICATION


Vostok and the Zenit military reconnaissance sat- (Foto n- M 3):
uFAcru TsSKB-Progress
e11ite. It consists of a battery module, a spherical MAN RER:
LAUNcH DATE: September 14,
reentry capsule, and a service module. When 2007
oRBr:258 x 280 km (160 x
introduced in l-985, Foton was mainly used for 17 4 mi), 62.9" inclination

materials science research, but later missions LAUNcH MAss: 70 kg (154 lb)
LAUNcH srrE: Baikonur,
incjuded experiments in fluid physics, biology, and Kazakhstan 'Ihe Galaxy series of communications
LAUNcHER: Soyuz U
satellites was originally owned and
radiation dosimetry.
BoDY DrMENsroNs: Approx.6.5 x operated by Hughes Communications. The first three satellites were
The improved Foton-M has larger battery 2.5 m ()I.1 x 8.2 ft)
launched in 1983-4. The company was later sold to panAmSat, which in turn
PAYtoaD: ESA microgravity
capacity, enhanced thermal control, and telemetry payload, including BIOPAN 6; rnerged with Intelsat in 2006. On February 1, 2007, when Intelsat changed
and telecommand capabilities for increased data Second Young Engineers'
Satellire (YE52) lhe names of 16 of its satellites, "Galaxy" replaced the ,,Intelsat Americas,'
flow. Missions typically last I2*I8 days. The 12-day
lrrand.
Foton-M3 mission carried a European payload of
The latest of 15 operational satellites in the series is Galaxy 17, which
a00 kg (882 lb) with experiments in fluid physics,
uses a Thales Alenia Spacebus 3000 83 platform. Eventually to be located at
biology, crystal growth, meteoritics, radiation
91'W it takes over the orbital slot of Galary 11, a Boeing 702 model launched
dosimetry and exobiology. It included studies of in 1999, whose solar arrays have a defect that results in a gradual loss of
bacteria, newts, geckos, fish, and snails. The BIOPAN-6
Power. The dedicated cable satellite willjoin Intelsat's fleet that serves video,
platform on its exterior exposed its contents
corporate, and consumer broadband customers in North America, Central
directly to the space environment. Foton-M3 also
America, and the Caribbean. The three-axis-stabilized spacecraft has two
carried YES2, which released a small Fotino
solar arrays that span 36.9 m (121 ft) and provide 8.6 kW ofpower at end of
capsule at the end of an 30 km (18.6 mi) tether.
life. Its service life is I5 years.
182
I83
Garuda I (ACeS) rNDoNEsrA Genesis usa
Communications I r rll,rtable spacecraft research

SPECIFICATION
(Genesis l):
MANUFACTURER: Bigelow
Aerospace
uurcn onre: July 12, 2006
oRBrr: 550 km, 64. inclination
LAUNcH MAss: 69.8 kg (15a lb)
LAUNcH srrE: Dombarovsky/
Yasny, Russia
TAUNcHER: Dnepr
BoDY DtMENsroNs:4.4 x 2.5 m
(r4.4 x 8.3 ft)
PAYLoAD: GeneBox; Lifb science
experiment; personal items
and photos

The ACeS (ASIA Cellular Satellite) Garuda I was SPECIFICATION: Ihe two Genesis modules are one-third scale models of future inflatable
the first regional, satellite-based mobile telecom- MANUFAcTuRER: Lockheed Martin :;pacecraft that are expected to begin
flying as early as 2010. They are based
Commercial Space Systems
munications system specifically designed for the LAUNcH oATE: February 12,2000 on NASA's Transhab concept and developed with private funding by Bigelow
oRBrr: 12lo E (GEO)
Asian market. It is owned by a consortium Aerospace. Each module has a 15 cm (6 in) thick multilayer exterior. Once
rnuNcn srte: Baikonur,
including Lockheed Martin and companies from Kazakhstan in LEO, the 4.4 m (I5 ft) module deploys eight solar arrays that provide
LAuNcHER: Proton K/Block DM
the Philippines, Indonesia, and Thailand. LAuNcH MAss: 4500 kg (9900 lb) I kW ofpower and expands from its launch width of 1.9 m (6.2 ft) to
Garuda I uses the Lockheed Martin A2100XX ooov orueNsrors:6 m (19.7 ft) ,'.s m (8.3 ft).
max.
spacecraft bus. The 14 kW satellite was one of ervroro: 88 (+22) L-band Genesis II, launched on June 28,2007, is a near-twin of Genesis I, but
transponde6
the most powerful commercial Comsats ever lhe later version has an improved attitude-control system and a distributed
produced and the heaviest single Comsat ever rnultitank inflation system that replaces the single-tank design of Genesis I.
launched on a Proton. However, an anomaly with Iloth modules carry cameras to image the exterior and record views inside
one ofthe two L-band antennas reduces the lhe spacecraft's 11.5 m'(406 ft') volume. Genesis I has six internal and seven
maximum cali capacity from 2 million to I.4 cxternal cameras, and Genesis II has a total of 22.Data and images are sent
million a day. to the mission control center in North Las Vegas, Nevada.
With a projected service iife of 12 years, the Genesis I contains various personal items and photos, a life science
payload features two 12 m (39.a ft) L-band cxperiment that includes cockroaches, Mexican jumping beans, and a NASA
antennas, which beam signals directly to dual- cxperiment called GeneBox. Genesis il also carries personal items, as well as
mode handheld phones via 140 satellite spot :r Space Bingo game and Biobox, a three-chamber pressurized vessel with
beams. A second satellite is planned as a back-up compartments for biological specimens to be observed by onboard cameras.
at ll8oE, but in 2006 ACeS agreed to combine Occupants include cockroaches, scorpions, and red harvester ants.
coverage ofthe Garuda I satellite and the
Inmarsat 4 series of satellites.

184
I85
GIOVE (Galileo ln-Orbit Validation Element) EURopE (ilobalstar usn
Navigation ()( ommunications constellation

SPECIFICATION
(FM65, 69,7I and 72):
vnruuracrunen: Alcatel Alenia
Space (now Thales Alenia Space)
LAUNcH DATE: May 30,2007
oRBrr:920 km (572 ml),52.
inclination (eight planes)
LAUNcH srrE: Baikonur,
Kazakhstan
LAUNcHER: Soyuz/Fregat
LAUNcH MAss: a50 kg (990 lb)
BoDY orMENsroNs:0.6 x 1.5 x
1.6 m (2 x 4.9 x 5.2 ft)
PAYLoaD: C-band; 16 L-band
cells; 16 S-band cells

ESA and the European Community have agreed to SPECIFICATION t llobalstar provides mobile satellite voice and data services, especially to
create Galileo, the first civil satellite positioning, (GrovE-A): r( rnote areas without a cellular or landline service, through a constellation of
MANUFAcTuRER: Surrey Satellite
navigation, and timing system. Development began Technology
.rrrall satellites in phased MEOs. Under the original plan, there woutd be 56
in 2003, including three or four satellites to test LAUNcH DATEr December 28, rlcllites, including eight on-orbit spares. The first launches were in 199g,
2005
the system. The GIOVE satellites secure access to oRBrr: 23,226 x 21,285 km rrrd the system has been operational since 1999. After 12 were lost in a Zenit
(74,432 x 14,469 mi), 56"
the Galileo fiequencies allocated by the international l.rilure, the system was restricted to 48 satellites. Eight ground spares are to
i nclination
Telecommunications Union, studythe radiation LAUNcH MAss: 600 kg (1320 lb) l,r, launched by Soyuz in 2007 to augment the existing constellation of40
LAUNcH strE: Balkonur,
environment, and test critical technologies (e.g., Kazakhstan
,,pcrational satellites.
onboard atomic clocks, signal generator, and user uurcnen: Soyuz/Fregat The sateliites are based on the SS/Loral LS-400 platform, with a
BoDY DTMENSLoNS: 1.3 x 1.8 x
receivers). GIOVE-A and -B were built to provide I.7 m (4.1 x 5.9 x 5.4 11) r,rpezoidal body and two deployable solar panels. Like "bent pipes," or
PAYLoAD: 2 rubidium atomic
in-orbit redundancy, and their capabilities are rrirrors in the sky, the satellites pick up signals from over 80% ofthe Earth,s
clocks; L-band antenna; signal
complementary. The smaller GIOVE-A carries a generation units; 2 radiation 'rrrface. Several satellites pick up a call, ensuring that it is not lost. As soon as
monitors; navigat on recelver
rubidium atomic clock (plus backup) and transmits r second satellite picks up the signal, it can take over the transmission to a
a signal through two separate channels at a time. rieteway on the ground. A second generation of satellites is scheduled for
The three-axis-stabilized satellite has a cube- rlclivery from summer 2009.
shaped body and two solar arrays that generate
700 W. The larger Galileo Industries satellite adds
a hydrogen-maser clock and will transmit a signal
through three channels. GIOVE-A is expected to
operate until early 2008. A third Surrey Satellite
Technology test satelllte, GIOVE-A2, is scheduled
for launch in 2008.

I86 r87
Gonets nussn (iorizont nussn
Mobile/store-dump communications 'rrrrrrunications

SPECIFICATION
(Gorizont 33la5L):
MANUFACTURER: NPO PM
LAUNcH DATE: June 6, 2000
oRBrr: 145'E (cEO)
rauNcH s rE: Baikonur,
Kazakhstan
LAUNcHER: Proton K
LAUNcH MAss:2300 kg (5060 lb)
BoDY DtMENstoNs:5.5 x 1.3 m
(17.9 x 10.8 ft)
pnyroro: 6 C-band transponders;
1 Ku-band transponder; I
L-band transponder

The civil Gonets (Messenger) system of small SPECIFICATION


(;orizont (Horizon) was developed during the I970s as a successor
to the
communications satellites in medium Earth orbit (Gonets-M): l,liran Comsats. It was one of the first geostationary satellites 1aunched by
MANUFACTURER: NPC) PM
is derived from the Strela-3 military program. tlrc USSR and the first Soviet civilian satellite to carry multiple transponders.
FrRsr TAUNcH: December 2I,
Once a state-run program, it is now operated by 2005 It had an improved three-axis attitude control system and rotatable
oRBrr: 1449 x 1469 km (900 x
the Gonets SatCom company. The first Gonets-D 911 mi), 82.5'E
'rolar panels.
demonstration missions took place in 1992 as LAUNcH srrE: Plesetsk, Russia The sateliites were used for data transmission, TV and radio broad-
LAUNcHER: Kosmos lM
Kosmos 2199 and 2201. After several more test LAUNcH MAss: 280 kg (616 lb) r ,rsting, telecommunications, internet, and videoconferencing. Gorizont I
BoDY orMENsroNs:0.8 x 1.6 m
flights, six Gonets-D1 satellites were launched into (2.6 x s.2 ft)
rvas launched to support broadcasts of the 1980 Olympic Games from Russia.
two orbital planes to create an operational system elvrolo:16 C-band l:rom 1988, they also supported maritime and intemational communications
transponders;1 L-band
by December 200I. The cylindrical satellites are ,rs part of the Okean system. The Gorizont system occupies 10 positions in
transponder;1 Ku-band
transponder
covered in solar cells with an extended boom for llcostationary orbit.
gravity stabilization and cone antennas. Three Gorizonts were deployed to an orbital location owned byTonga
The new generation Gonets-DIM (or ,rnd were operated for the US company Rimsat (Gorizont 17 as Tongastar l,
Gonets-M) transmits digital, speech, text, and ,rnd Gorizont 29 and 30 as Rimsat I and 2). Later, the two Rimsats were
video data. It is able to transmit urgent repofis lransferred to PASI and AsiaSat (one each), and finally to LMI. The latest
during environmental disasters, support areas satellite, Gorizont 33, was the payload on the first successful launch of a
with poor infrastructure, and provide the l)roton K/Breeze M rocket. Gorizont is being replaced by the Express series
exchange of commercial, medical, scientific, and of satellites.
technological information between individual
computers. Its operational lifetime is five years.
Eventually there may be 36 satellites in six to
eight orbital planes.

188 189
Hispasat serrr.r I lot Bird TNTERNAToNAL
Communications rLrrrlications

Hispasat was set up in 1989 with the objective of SPECIFICATION I rrlclsat Communications, based in Paris, provides SPECIFICATION
sewing the Spanish and Portuguese language (Hispasat lD): ,,,nrrnunications coverage over all ofEurope (Hot Bird 8):
MANUFAcTuRER: Alcatel Space Astrium
markets, including Latin America, where it is now LAUNcH DATE: September 18,
,"rl much of the globe. InJuly 2007, Eutelsat's MANUFAcTURER: EADS
LAUNcH DATE: August 4,2006
the leading commercial satellite operator. The 200) rlcllites were broadcasting over 2600 TV oRBrr: 13' E (cEO)
oRBrr: 10" w (GEo) rnurcn srre: Baikonur,
Hispasat 1B, lC, and ID satellites are located at LAUNcH srrE: Cape Canaveral,
r lr rnnels and ll00 radio stations. Three Hot Bird Kazakhstan
Florida
30oW. Other satellites in the family include rtcllites, located at 13oE, form one ofthe largest LAUNcHER: Proton/Breeze M
LAUNcHER: Atlas ll AS LAUNcH MAss:4875 kg
Spainsat, Amazonas, and Xtar-Eur. The high-power LAUNcH MAss: 3288 kg (7234 lb) l, r ordcasting systems in Europe, delivering over (10,748 tb)
BoDY DrMENsloNs:2.8 x 2.1 x goov otuelsrons: 5.8 x 2.4 x
satellites enable optimum coverage with the 1.8 m (9.2 x 7.s x s.89 ft)
1000 television channels to more than 120 million
2.8 m (19 x 7.9 x 9.5 ft)
highest degree of flexibility in America, Europe, PAYLoaD:28 Ku-band lrornes in Europe, North Africa, and the Middle PAYLoaD:64 Ku-band
transponders transponders
and North Africa. lr rst. In addition, the system provides multimedia
Hispasat lD was launched to maintain the lrvices and over 600 radio stations.
Ku-band coverage offered through IA and 1B. A "Superbeam" enables direct-to-home reception
Based on the Alcatel three-axis-stabilized rrr beam center with antennas smaller than 0.7 m
SPACEBUS 30008 platform, it has three antennas, t.,.3 ft), and a "Widebeam" with slightly larger
28 transponders, and connective flexibility in the .rr rtennas offers reception throughout Europe,
Ku-band frequencies. Hispasat lD brings the I'Jor1h Africa, and as far East as Moscow and Dubai.
additional capacity growth of six transponders \.I"rrth a launch mass of 4.9 tonnes (10,803 1b), solar-

with American and transatiantic connectivity in .r ray power of almost 14 kW at end of life, and a
order to meet an expected growth in demand. A r Lrcord-breaking 64 transponders, Hot Bird 8 is
beam over the Middle East gives access to Asian 1 ire largest and most powerful broadcast satellite
satellites for American and European customers. r,rving Europe. The identical Hot Bird 9, based on
The operational lifetime of Hispasat ID is 15 years. llre Eurostar E3000 platform, wijl follow in 2008.

190 I91
ICO usa lrrmarsat TNTERNATToNAL
( irr rr rnrrnications , rrrrrrrtications

SPECIFICATION
(rco F2):
vrrumcrunrn: Hughes
(later Boeing)
LAUNcH DArE: June 19, 2001
oRBrr: 10,390 km (6456 mi),
45o incl nat on
LAUNcH srrE: Cape Canaveral,
Florida
LAUNcHER: Atlas llAS
LAUNcH MAss:2750 kg (6050 lb)
BoDY DrMENsroNs:4.7 x 2.3 x
2.1 m (Is.4 x7.s x7.s ft)
PAYLoAD: 163 S-band spot
beams; C-band transponders

I r rnarsat is the world's


leading provider of global SPECIFICATION
urobile satellite communications. It owns and (ln marsat-4F2):
( )l)crates a fleet of
l0 GEO satellites. Inmarsat's MANUFAcTURER: EADS Astrium
LAUNcH oaTE: November g,2005
lrr st wholly owned satellites, the Inmarsat_2s, were oRBrr: 53. W (cEO)
I rrrnched in the early 1990s, and the LAUNcH strE: Odyssey platform,
Virginia-based ICO Global Communications (ICO for Intermediate Circular Inmarsat_3s_ Paci6c Ocean
I rt: {lrst generation to use spot-beam technology_
I LAUNcHER: Zenit 3SL
Orbit) was established to provide global mobile personal communications LAUNcH MAss:5958 kg
followed later in the decade.
seruices. Originally begun by Inmarsat, it became a separate company in 03,108 tb)
The Inmarsat-4 series, based on the Eurostar BoDY DtMENsroNs: 7 x 2.9 x
1995. It emerged from bankruptcy in May 2000. 2.3 n(23x9.5 x7.5ft)
1000 bus, are the largest commercial telecom_ prvroro: L-band and C-band,
ICO ordered its first 12 satellites inJuly 1995 and three more in
r rrunications satellites
630 channels; navigation
September 2000. All are versions of the Hughes (now Boeing) 601 model, ever launched and are 60 package
tirnes more powerful than the Inmarsat_3. The
with some subsystems modified for operation in MEO. The first satellite was
lirst inmarsat-4s were launched in 2005. A third in
lost in a Zenit launch failure in 2000.
tlre series is planned. Each satellite is equipped
The new ICO satellites will be placed in two planes 90o apart, giving
lrith a global beam, 19 regional spot beams, and
complete, continuous overlapping coverage ofthe Earth's surface. Ten will
.)/8 narrow spot beams. This will eventually
form the base constellation and the remainder will be on-orbit spares. The
,leliver complete mobile broadband coverage
{irst satellite (F2) was launched in 200I and provides data-gathering services of
i lre planet, except for the extreme polar regions.
for the US government. There are 10 MEO satellites in storage, most of
i hey support the Broadband Global
which are in advanced stages of completion. They feature active S-band Area Network
(lrGAN) for delivery of video-on-demand,
antennas capable of forming up to 490 beams for satellite-user links and i

videoconferencing, fax, e-mail, phone, and Local


C-band hardware for satellite-ground station links. The ICO Gl geostationary
Area Network (LAN) access at speeds up to half
satellite, which will serve the USA, is due for launch in late 2007. a
rnegabit per second. End-of-life power is l3kW
t92 I

I93

li
INSAT rNore lntelsat TNTERNATToNAL
t,rrrrrunications
Communications

I rr I 965, Intelsat established the first commercial SPECIFICATION


lllobal satellite communications system. In 2006, ntelsat 10-02):
(l

ll rc company merged with rival panAmSat, MANUFACTURER: EADS Astrium


LAUNcH DArE: June 16, 2004
r rllting the world's largest commercial communi- oner:359'E (GEO)
Started in 1983, INSAT is the largest domestic SPECIFICATION , rtions satellite operator and confirming its LAUNcH sirE: Baikonur,
Kazakhstan
communication satellite system in the Asia-Pacific (r N SAr-48):
lrosition the leading provider offixed satellite
as LAUNcHER: Proton/Breeze M
MANUFAcTuRER: ISRO/ISRO LAUNcH MAss: 5600 kg
region, with nine operationai satellites equipped Satellite Center 'lrvices. As ofluly 2007, the company operated a (12,120 tb)
with I75 transponders. The satellites provide TAUNcH DArE: March 11,2007
I llr:t of 52 satellites under various soDY orMENstoNs:7.5 x 2.9 x
oRBrr: 91.5'E (GEO) names. The
2.4 m (24.6 x 9.5 x7.9 ft\
services in telecommunication, television broad- LAUNcH srrE: Kourou, French I rlcst of these was Galaxy 17. Most of the Intelsat pryroro:70 C,band
c u iana transponders; l6 Ku-band
casting, and meteorology, including disaster /, U, and 9 satellites are still operational.
LAUNcHER: Ariane 5-ECA transponders
warning. The program is a joint venture involving LAUNcH MAss: 1028 kg (6662 lb) Intelsat 10-02 is the largest and most powerful
EoDY DrMENsroNs:1.1 x 1.8 x
the Indian Department of Space (DOS) and 2 m (10.2 x 5.8 x 6.6 ft) rr r lhe fleet.It has three steerable spot antennas
pnvroro: l2 C-band
the Departments of Telecommunications, .rrrd provides a full range of Ku- and C-band
transponders; 12 Ku-band
Meteorology, and Radio. The DOS is responsible transponders , r vices withhigh level of cross-connectivity. It
a
for the satellite and satellite operation. Jrrovides coverage as far east as India and as far
The Indian-built INSAT-4B is the twelfth in vrcst as the Americas, with optimum footprint over
the INSAT series and the second of the INSAT-4 I rrrope, Africa, and the Middle East. Its solar array
spacecraft. The platform is derived from the '.Jr;rn is 45 m (I47 .6 ft) and power at
end of life
INSAT-3 series. It provides television and communi- vill be l1 kW. The satellite is based on the Euro_
cation services over India, beaming TV programs ' l;rr E3000 bus, and service life is at least 13 years.
directly to households using small dish antennas.

\94 195
lridium usr JCSAT lnenru
[.EC) communications , rr rrrunications

I - - --T;-.--
' ./- SPECIFICATION
flcsAr-i0):
MANUFAciURER: Lockheed Martin
Commercial Space Systems
LAUNcH DATE: August 11,2006
oRBrr: 128. E (cEO)
LAUNcH srrE: Kourou, French
Guiana
LAUNcHER: Ariane 5-ECA
LAUNcH MAss:4048 kg (8906 lb)
BoDY DrMENstoNs:5.5 x 2.2 x
2.2 m (18 x7.2 x7 ) fr)
pavroao: 12 C-band
transponders; l0 Ku-band
transponders

Iridium is a system of 66 active LEO communi- SPECIFICATION


cation satellites and nine spares. Since the system (sve7le8):
MANUFAcTuRERs: Motoroia,
was originally t o have 77 active satellites, it was Lockheed Space Systems
named for the element iridium, which has atomic LAUNcH DArE: June 20, 2002
oRBrr:780 km (484.7 mi),
number 77; the original name was retained. More 75" inclination, 6 planes.
LAUNcH srrE: Plesetsk, Russ a
than 80 spacecraft were launched into LEO over
LAUNcHER: Rockot
an l8-month period in 1997-98, using three LAUNcH MAss: 690 kg (1520 lb)
BoDY DrMENsroNs:4 x 1.J m
different boosters (Delta 7000, Proton, and Long (13.1 x 4.3 ft)
PAYLoAD: I l<a-band antenna;
lSAT Corporation is a leading satellite operator in the Asia_pacific region.
March 2C). The first launch was on May 5, 1997 . A
3 L/S band antennas I lrc company owns and operates nine satellites in
new company, Iridium Satellite, bought the assets eight orbital slots covering
t'lorth America, Hawaii, Asia, and Oceania.
ofbankrupt lridium LLC in December 2000. JSAT services include digital
',rlcllite TV, video, and data broadcasting.
Lockheed Martin provided the satellite bus.
JCSAT-10 is the second of three satellites Lockheed Martin is building for
The system uses L-band to provide global com-
l'lA'r. It followed on from the identical JCSAT-9, which was launched earlier
munications services through portable handsets.
rr I is scheduled for launch in the third quarter of 2007.
r 2006. JCSAT- I
The satellites are in near-polar orbits in six planes
JCSAT-10 is a high-power hybrid satellite carrying 30 active Ku_band
and circle the earth once every 100 min. Each
I r,rnsponders and 12 active C-band
transponders that provide coverage to
satellite is cross-linked to four others-two in the
I rPan, the Asia-Pacific region, and Hawaii. It is based on Lockheed Martin,s
same orbital plane and two in an adjacent plane.
r\/100M bus and is designed for a minimum service life of 15 years. v/ith a
The service has been maintained with the
'p;rn of 26.9 m (88.2 ft), its solar arrays will produce g.7 kW
addition of six spares in February and May 2002, at end of life.
ensuring continuity until at least 2010.

196
197
Koreasat (Mugunghwo) souru ronea Measat MALAvSTA
Commercial and military communications
t 1, Ir]uniCationS

SPECIFICATION
(Koreasat 5):
MANUFAcTuRER: Alcatel Alenia
Space
LAUNcH DATE: August 22,2006
oRBrr: llloE (GEO)
LAUNcH slrE: Odyssey platform,
Pacific Ocean
LAUNcHER: Zenit JSL
LAUNcH MAss: 4457 kg (9805 lb)
BoDY DrMENstoNs: 4 x 2.2 x 2m
(13.i x 7.2 x 6.6 ft)
PAYLoAD:74 Ku-hand
transponders; 8 SHF-band
transponders;4 Ka band
transponders
\

l.,llasat Satellite Systems uses three communi- SPECIFICATION


r rlions satellites to provide services to more than (Measat-3):
Four satellites have been launched in the Koreasat series. Koreasat I was /l)'/o of the world's population. The Measat fleet MANUFACTURER: Boeing
LAUNcH DATE: December 12,
retired in 2005, while its two successors continue to operate (as ofJanuary , ornprises Measat-1 (launched in f 996), Measat_2, 2006
onerr:91.5' E (GEO)
2007). The name Koreasat 4 was avoided because the number four represents rrrd Measat-3. Measat-lR, under construction
LAUNcH strE: Baikonur,
death in some Asian cultures, so the fourth (and latest) satellite is actuaily 1,y Orbital Sciences Corporation, will be added Kazakhstan
LAUNcHER: Proton M
Koreasat 5. L r r 2008. LAUNcH MAss:4765 kg
Koreasat 5, based on the Alcatel Alenia Spacebus 4000 Cl platform, is The most recent satellite, Measat-3, is based (10,483 lb)
BooY DlMENstoNs: 3.8 x 7.4 m
South Korea's first dual-use commercial and military communications satellite. ,)n a Boeing 601HP satellite bus. Its two solar (I2.s x 2a .4 ft)
PAYLoaD:24 C-band
Its payload of 36 transponders is divided between the co-owners, South Korea's ,r rays, each with four panels oftriple-junction
transponders; 24 Ku-band
Agency for Defense Development and the KT Corporation. Eight channels in l.rliium arsenide solar cells, spen 26.2 m (g6.0 ft) transponders

the SHF band and four Ka-band transponders offer secure communications .,nd produce 10.8 kW. It provides C- and Ku-band
for the country's armed forces. Some of the technology and systems were ' ( rvice to Asia, Australia,
the Middle East, Eastern
developed for the French Defense Ministry's Syracuse 3 program. lrrrrope, and Africa. Three C-band beams provide
KT Corporation is responsible for 24 Ku-band transponders that serve t, levision broadcasts and telecommunications to
commercial customers in East Asia. Half of these are attached to regional I I 0 nations from Japan to Africa. Three Ku-band
beams that provide broadband multimedia and digital television services. ircams provide direct-broadcast television services
The remainder replace domestic capacity provided by the aging Koreasat 2. to South Asia and Southeast Asia, including
In Korea, the satellite family is known as Mugunghwa (Rose of Sharon). I rrdonesia and Malaysia.

I98
199
Mu lti- Fu nctional Transport Satellite (MrsAr, N,rhuel ARGENTNA

Himawari) lrerN ' rrrrricrtions


Air traffic control and navigation/meterology

SPECIFlCATION
(MrsAr-2):
unrurrcrunrn: Mltsubishi
Electric
LAUNcH DArE: February 18,2006
oRBrr: 145'E (GEO)
LAUNcH srrE: Tanegashima, Japan
LAUNcHER: H-llA F9 (2024)
LAUNcH MAss: 2900 kg (6380 lb)
BoDY D MENs oNsr 4 x 2.6 x
2.6 m (11.1 x 8.5 x 8.5 ft)
PAYLoAD: Vis ble/infrared
imaging system; S-band recelve
and transmit antennas; UHF
anienna; l(u'band, l(a-band, and
L-band communication sysiems

i i rlrrrclsat S.A. is the private operator ofthe SPECIFICATION


,r rtr ntine Nahuel Satellite System. (Nahuel l):
It was set up in
l')'):j lo operate a telecommunications system for MANUFAcTURER: Aerospatiale
LAUNcH DArE: January 10, 1997
,r 11r,ntina, Chile, and Uruguay through paracom oRBrr: 71.8'W (cEO)
', rltlites S.A., the owner of two LAUNcH s rE: Kourou, French
satellites, Nahuel Guiana
The MTSAT satellites carry payloads for weather observation and aviation ,I , rnd C2. These were decommissioned and LAUNcHER: Arirne 44LP
control. They are owned and operated by the Japanese Civil Aviation Bureau LAUNcH MAss: 1780 kg (3916 lb)
'' l,lrced by the currently operating Nahuel l. EoDY DiMENsioNs: 1.6 x 1.5 x
and the Japan Meteorological Agency. Imagery is available in one visible and Nahuel I has three different beams specifically 2.) m (5.4 x 4.8 x7.2 ft)
PAYLoaD: l8 Ku band
four infrared wavelength bands, including the water-vapor channel. The ,l' rigned for each region-one for Argentina, transponders
visible-light camera has a resolution of I km (0.6 mi); the infrared cameras ,
I i le, Paraguay, and Uruguay;
r
one exclusively for
have 4 km (2.5 mi) resolution. tlr rzil; and one for all of Latin America, the Carib_
MTSAT-I was lost during a launch failure of the H-ll rocket on L rn, and the southern United States. Its functions
November 15,1999. MTSAT-IR (Himawari 6), also built by Space Systems/ rrriude image and voice transmission, as well as
Loral, was launched by H-IIA on February 26,2005, and is operational at L rrsmission of all types of data, including Internet.
I40"E. MTSAT-2 (Himawari 7) is an orbital spare, and will succeed MTSAT-lR i j rlruel I is based on the Aerospatiale Spacebus
around 2010. ,{)00 platform. The solar
arrays span 22.3 m (73.I ft)
The three-axis-stabilized spacecraft has a2.7 kW gallium arsenide solar ,rcl produce 3.2 kW ofpower. A second Nahuel
array that rotates to track the Sun. This allows the imager's north-facing rtcllite was canceled and a new company, Arsat,
passive radiation cooler to face cold space. A 3.3 m (I0.8 ft) solar sail, located I formed to operate and replace the
r'; been
on a I5.1 m (a9.5 ft) boom, counteracts the torque produced by sunlight , rrent spacecraft. It was reported in July 2007
r r

pressure on the solar array. In addition to the meteorology payload, the I i r;it Nahuel I was experiencing technical
problems
satellite carries antennas for air traffic voice/data links and navigation. , .,ilh its thrusters
and was drifting off station.

200 201
New Skies NETHERLANDs
Nilcsat ecvpr
Communications
,,, rrrrrications

SPECIFICATION
(N ss-ro): SPECIFICATION
(Nilesat I02):
MANUFAcTuRER: Alcatel Space
LAUNcH oArE: February 3,2005 MANUFACTURER: EADS Astrium

oRBrr: 37.5'W (cEO) LAUNcH DArE: August 17,2000


LAUNcH srrE: Baikonur, onorr: 7'W (GEO)
Kazakhstan LAUNcH stTE: Kourou, French
LAUNcHER: Proton/Breeze M Guiana
LAUNcH MAss:4979 kg LAUNcHER: Ariane 44LP
(10,954 lb) LAUNcH MAss: 1827 kg (4019 lb)
BoDY DtMENstoNs: 5.1 x 2.2 x BooY DtMENstoNs:2.4 x 1.7 x
2 m (II) x7.2 x 6.6 ft) 2.2 m (7.9 x s.6 x7.2 ft)
PAYLoAD:72 C band PAYLoao:12 Ku-band
transponders transponders

SES NEW SKIES is an SES company based in the Netherlands, offering


l'lrl.sat is an Egyptian company established inJuly 1996 to operate direct-to-
video, Internet, data, and voice communications services around the world.
lr"rne broadcasting satellites and high-speed data-transmission services. It
It operates a fleet of seven commercial geostationary communications lr r ; launched two satellites into the orbital position 7oW (Nilesat I0I and
satellites, with NSS-9 due to be added in 2009. SES NEW SKIES is
l.lrlcsat 102). Nilesat 101 was launched by an Ariane 4 in April J.99g.
complemented by SES ASTRA in Europe and SES AMERICOM in North
lrlitional capacity is provided by Nilesat 103 (Atlantic Bird 4) which was
Ar
America.
lrifted to the same orbital location.
NSS-10, previously known as AMC-l2/Astra 44, was transferred to New
Nilesat 102, based on the Eurostar 2000 bus, is basically identical to
Skies in 2007 . It serves the Caribbean, South America, Europe, and Africa. I'lrlcsat I01, although it has an additional receiving horn antenna
It was the first satellite to be based on the Alcatel Spacebus 4000 platform.
for
r rJrlinking from Europe and additional channels to those provided
by Nilesat
NSS-I0 offers individual transponder switching capability between the 101' Each satellite can transmit more than 100 channels
of digital television
Europe/Africa beam, the South America beam, and the North America beam
l{ antennas only 60 cm (2 ft) in diameter. Coverage extends from Morocco
)
and features "simultaneous" downlink functionality. It can also provide links to
t Gulf with high power concentrated over the most densely
lrc Arabian
to other regional satellite systems. Its three high-powered C-band beams
l,opulated areas. The communications payload, supplied by Alcatel Space,
provide high data throughput to smaller antennas with great reliability, even ( omprises 12 Ku-band transponders
and a 2.3 m (7.5 ft) diametertransmit
in areas of high rainfall. Anticipated service life is 16 years.
urtenna. It is expected to continue operating until 2013.

202
203
Nimiq cANADA ()rbcomm usr
Communications I I ! ) ( onlmunications constellation

I lrl Orbcomm system was a joint commercial SPECIFICATION:


t', rture between Orbital Communications MANUFAcTURER: Orbltal Sciences
t Corporation
or poration and Teleglobe of Canada. It was the FrRsr LAUNcH: Aprrl 1,1995
I r r I service to provide a global, affordable two_ oRsrrs: 28 satellites-800 km
(a97 ni), 45' inclination,
Created in 1969, Telesat Canada was one ofthe SPECIFICATION ,..' ry wireless-messaging and positioning service 4 planes; 2 satellites-710 km
early pioneers in satellite communications. Today, (Nimiq 2): cr,r handheld personal communicators and and 820 km (441 and 510 mi),

MANUFACTuRER: Lockheed Martin


70' and 108. inclinetion
Telesat operates a fleet of Amik and Nimiq Commercial 5pace Systems
tr.rt king units. Its purpose was to send and receive rauncr srre: Wallops lsland
(air launch)
satellites for the provision of broadcast distri- LAUNcH DATE: December 29, ' I ( ) rL messages anywhere on Earth
r
at very low LAUNcHERs: Pegasus and
2402
bution and telecommunications services. oRBLr: 82'W (GEO)
,, r,l. Potential applications included real-time Pegasus XL
LAUNcH MAss: a2 kg(9) lb)
Nimiq 1 and 2 are high-power I(u/Ka-band LA!NcH srrE: Baikonur,
lJr r son-to-person or machine-to-machine BoDY DtMENS oNs: I x 0.2 m
Kazakhstan
satellites fitted with 32 active Ku-band trans- LAUNcHER; Proton/Breeze M (,)ntmuni-cations, remote industrial asset and (3.4 x 0.s ft)
PAYLoaD: VHF transponder;
LAUNcH MAss: 1600 kg (7920 lb)
ponders with 120 W power amplifiers. They , rrvironmental monitoring, stolen vehicle recovery UHF transponder
BoDY D MENs oNs: 5.8 x 2.4 x
provide direct-to-home satellite television across 2.4 m(I9x7.9x7.9fi) rrrrl two-way e-mail communications for laptop
PAYLoAD:2 Ka-band
Canada. Nimiq 2 also has a Ka-band payload to transponders; l2 l(u band .rr rrl palmtop computers.
provide broadband services. The satellites are transponders A small test satellite, Orbcomm-X, was launched
based on the Lockheed Martin A2I00M bus and ,,rr July 16, 1991. It had a different design and was
have a minimum service life of 12 years. The r,rl included in the operational system. The full
name-chosen from 36,000 submissions in a { )rl)comm constellation comprised 36 small
national contest in 1998-is an Inuit word for rlcllites, including six spares, in six orbital planes.
any object or force that unites things or binds I lrc first two satellites experienced communications
them together. On February 20,2003, Nimiq 2 I oblems but were recovered. These provide
, r

experienced a malfunction that reduced its ,..'orldwide coverage. These satellites are
small in
available power. It is currently generating enough rzc, since they do not require a propulsion system
power to operate 26 ofthe 32 transponders. ,rrd have low power requirements.

704
205
Sirius TNTERNATToNAL \Jraceway usr
Communications ' rrrrrunications

SPECIFICATION
(Sirius 3):
MANUFACTuRER: Hughes Space
and Communications (now
Boeing)
LAUNcH DATE: October 5,1998
oRBrr: 5'E (GEO)
LAUNcH slrE: Kourou, French
Guiana
LAUNcHER: Ariane 441
LAUNCH MAss: Ia65 kg(3227 lb)
soov otuerusrorus:2.2 x l.l m
(7.1 x 10.e ft)
prvroao:15 Ku-band
transponders

I lrr' first two Spaceway satellites are owned and SPECIFICATION


, ,1,r rated by US company DIRECTV. They were (Spaceway 2):
,,r r1;inally commissioned MANUFAcTURER: Boeing Satellite
as part of the Hughes
Systems
',1),rceway globa1 broadband communications LAUNcH DATE: November 16,
2005
.;,,,1em. After the Hughes DTH business rr'r'as taken oRBrr: 99.2oW (cEO)
,,vcr by DIRECTV, the satellites were retrofitted to LAUNcH slrE: Kourou, French
Guiana
, l, liver high-definition local TV channels across LAUNcHER:Ariane 5 ECA
lirc USA. LAUNcH MAss:6116 kg
(13,45s lb)
SES SIRIUS AB is owned by SES ASTRA and the Swedish Space Corporation. Spaceway 1, launched in April 2005, was the soDY DrMENsroNs: 5.1 x 3.4 x
As such, it is part of SES,
the world's largest network of satellite operators, lrt':rviest commercial communications satellite 3.2 m (16.6 x 11.2 x 10.6 ft)
PAYLoaD:72 Ka band
with 44 satellites in its fleet. SES SIRIUS owns and operates two SIRIUS I rrrnched by a Zenit 3SL. Spaceway 2, also a three- transponders

satellites that deliver TV radio, data, Internet, and multimedia communi- r,rs-stabilized Boeing 702 model satellite with a
cations to the Nordic and Baltic regions and Eastern and central Europe. t .r-year life expectancy, was moved to an Ariane 5
SIRIUS 3 is a high-power satellite providing direct-to-home and cable l,) cnsure the satellites were both launched in
television services as well as data distribution in Scandinavia and .r005. It features onboard digital processors,
neighboring countries. It is also capable of providing television distrlbution p.rcket switching, and spot-beam technology,
and high-speed Internet data to Greenland. The three-axis-stabilized providing high-speed, two-way communications
spacecraft is based on the HS 376 bus and uses gallium arsenide solar cells lor internet, data, voice, video, and multimedia
to generate a minimum of 1.4 kW of power at end of life. The Sirius 3 lrplications. The spacecraft includes a flexible
antenna has octagonal surface reflectors of approximately 2 m (6.6 ft) in 1r;ryload with a fully steerable downlink antenna
diameter, with single offset feeds. This antenna has three surfaces: one for II rat can be reconfigured on orbit. Two solar
horizontally polarized signals, one for vertically polarized signals, and one for rrrays span 40.9 m(134.2 ft) and produce 12.3 kW
on-station tracking and command. Operational lifetime is 12 years. .rl end of life.

206 201
Superbird ;reaN ll)RS (Tracking and Data Relay
Communications
, rlrrrrications
Satellite) usa

1],- \i SPECIFICATION
(rDRS t0):
MANUFAcTURER: Boeing Satellite
Systems
LAUNcH DATE: December 5,2002
oRBrr: 40.9.W (cEO)
LAUNcH s rE: Cape CanJVerrl,
Fiorid:
LAUNcHER: Atlas llA
LAUNcH MAss: 3196 kE(./039 lb)
4"' BoDy DrMENstoNs:3.4 x J.4
x
8.4 m (11.7 x tl .7 x 27.7 ft)
I
cnvrono: 5-b:nd transponders:
jI
Ku-band transponders; K:_band
transponders: navtgation
It
package

The Space Communications Corporation, a SPECIFJCATION


?:"
consortium of Jeading Japanese companies, was (Su perbird-D):
i!
formed in 1985; its first communications satellite, MANUFAcTURER: Lockheed Martin
Commercial Space Systems
Superbird-A, was launched four years later. Today, LAUNcH DAiE: October 7,2000
one r: 110'E (GEO)
t.
SCC operates four communications satellites LAUNcH sllE: l(ourou, French
named A, 82, C, and D at four orbital slots. Guiana
ilrr 'ft26[rng and Data Relay Satellite
Superbird-6 (A2), launched in 2004, was placed
LAUNctsER: Ariane 42L system is the backbone of NASAT
LAUNcH MAss: 3530 kg (7766 lb) .1, r(c-to-ground communications, providing
in a lower perigee than expected and suffered BoDY DtMENsroNs: Height,6 m almost uninterrupted voice,
(re.7 ft) l, l( vision, digital, and analog
data commun-ications with
Earth_orbiting
damage to a solar array. One of two main fuel PAYLoaD: 24 Ku band '1, rrc Shuttles and
transponders satellites. The firstTDRS was launched
tanks then lost pressure on November 2g, causing from the Space
rrttle challenger (srs-6) in April
an attitude error. "i 1983. At that time it was the
largest, most
.,rlrlristicated communications
sateilite ever built. its upper_stage
Superbird-D (also known as N-SAT-tl0 and I rrlt ri and the satellite took motor
six months to reach GEO. This
JCSat-I10) was built for use by SCC and Japan ,,'r rational lifetime, and it has reduced its
since been reduced to part_time
Satellite Systems (ISAT). It is based on the rrlrporting Antarctic communications. duty, such as
Lockheed Martin A,210OAX satellite bus. The The second sateilite was lost in
t ltttllenger disaster and later the
replaced by TDRS 7.
three-axis-stabilized spacecraft features high- 'Ihe first seven
satellites were built by TRW (now
output 120 W Ku-band transponders and a circular Northrop Grumman),
r',lrilc TDRS 8(H), 9(I), and 10(J)
were built by noeing, ur,,rr rn.
downlink. The solar arrays span 26.a m $6.6 ft) i r h has two steerabl reflectors, 5 m (16.4 HS 601 bus.
and will provide 8.3 kV/ at end oflife. It provides ft) in diaieter, that can simul_
I rrcouslytransmit and
receive on S_band and either
high-volume communications and broadcasting Ku_ or l(a_band. The
rrr 1ys1 s2lglljlss can receive
data at 300 Mbps using Ku- and
services to all ofJapan and is used for the Ka-band, and
JSAT []bns.o" S-band. Each spacecraft
ll. r .band carries the additional capability
direct-to-home service of SKy perfecTV!. Design for
receive rates of up to g00 Mbps.
life is 13 years.

208

209
Thaicom THATLAND
I ltor r'ronwrv
Communications
r,,lillunications
SPECIFICATION
(Thaicom-5): SPECIFICATION
vanuracrunrn: Alcatel Alenia (Thor 3):
Space MANUFACTURER: Hughes Space
LAUNCH DATE: May 27,2006 and Communications (now
oRBrr:78.5oE (cEO) Boeing)
LAUNcH srTE: Kourou, French LAUNCH DATE: June 9, I99g
G u iana oRBrr: 0.8"W (GEO)
LAUNcHER: Ariane 5 ECA Lruncr srre: Cape Canaveral,
LAUNcH MAss: 2266 kg (6085 lb) Florida
BooY orMENsroNs:3.7 x 3-3 x TAUNCHER: Delta ll 7925
2.2 m (12.1 x 10.8 x 7.2 ft) uuNcH MAss: 1750 kg (3850 lb)
P^YLoao:25 C-band BoDy DrMENsroN5: 3.3 x 2.2 m
transponders; 14 Ku-band (10.s x 7.1 ft)
transponders PAYLoAo:14 Ku-band
transponders

l!trrway's Telenor Saterite Broadcasting


is the largest provider ofTV services
rrr lhe Nordic region. Telenor currentiy owns two
Thor satellites and is co_
Thailand inaugurated its first national GEO communications network in
"wner, with Inteisat, ofthe Intersat 10-02 spacecraft. Both Thor sateilites are
1993-94 with the launches of Thaicom-l and Thaicom-2, followed by l' rr';rted at Telenor's row orbital
slot. Thor 2, which is to be retired by earry
Thaicom-3 in April 1997 and Thaicom-4 (IPSTAR) in August 2005. The .;(X)9, will be replaced by Thor
2R, curently under construction by Orbital
Shinawatra Satellite Company ofBangkok operates the fleet under a lease :;( icnces Corporation.
arrangement with the Thai government. Both Thor 2 and Thor 3 are based on HS
376 models. The cylindrical,
The latest in the fleet is Thaicom-5, a three-axis-stabilized spacecraft I lr.ce-axis-stabilized
satelrites use gallium arsenide sorar cets
to generate
based on the Alcatel Alenia Spacebus 3000A platform. Power output at end L4 kW ofpower at end oflife and reiy
on nickel hydrogen batteries for
oflife is 5 k\M and design life is 12 years. Thaicom-5 provides telecom and 1r'wer through eclipses. Thor 2 has 15 active Ku-band transponders
(with
television services for the entire Asia-Pacific region. Global beam coverage I lrree spares), while Thor
3 has 14 active Ku-band transponders.
Their
spans most ofAsia, Europe, Australia, and Africa. The high-powered Ku-band .r r tennas have octagonal
r
surface refl ectors about 2 m (6.6ft) in diameter,
transponders, wrth both spot and steerable beams, are ideally suited to digital rvith single offset feeds. These powerful
satellites deliver direct_to_home
direct-to-home services for Thailand and other countries in the region. It will lr lcvision to Scandinavia and northern
Europe. Design iife is about 12 years.
eventually replace Thaicom-3. I lror 3 is expected to be retired
in 2010.
2I0
2I1
Thuraya uNrrED ARAB EMIRATEs XM Radio usa
Communications L ! rl r.rrlio communications

SPECIFICATION SPECtFICAT|ON (XM_4):


(Th u raya-2):
MANUFACTURER: Boe ng Srte lite
MANUFAcTuRER: Boe ng Systems
LAUNcH DArE: JuLy 10, 2001 LAUNcH DATE: October 10,2006
onsrr:44"E (GEO) oneLr: 115"W (GEO)
LAUNcH srrE: Pacific ocean LAUNcH strE: Odyssey platform,
raurucsrn: Zenit-lSL Pacific Ocean
LAUNcH MAss: 5250 kg LAUNcHER: Zenit JSL
(11,s78 lb) LAUNcH MAss:519J kg
BoDY DTMENs ols:7,6 x 3.2 x (r1,42s tb)
).4 m ()4.9 x 10.5 x 1r.2 ft) BoDY DrMENsroNs:2.0 x 3.2 x
PAYLoaD: l2B L-band 3.6 m (6.6 x 10.5 x 11.8 ft)
transponders;2 C band prvLono:2 S band transponders
transponde6

Thuraya was founded in the United Arab Emirates in 1997 by a consofiium !' i!] satellite Radio owns and operates four spacecraft that provide digital
of national telecommunications operators and international investment r.rrlio programming directlyto cars, homes, and portable radios coast_to_
houses. The concept was to offer cost-effective satellite-based mobile- , () r:;t in the United States and parts of Canada. The first two XM satellites_
telephone services to Europe, the Middle East, North and Central Africa, and i,A4-Rock and XM-Roll-were launched in 2001. XM_3 (XM_Rhythm) was
Central and South Asia. Thuraya-1 was launched in October 2000, followed I rr nched in 2005, followed by XM-4 (also known as XM_Blues) in 2006.
by a second satellite three years later. Thuraya-D3 will follow in late 2007. Built by Boeing with a high-power S-band digital audio radio payload
The high-power Thuraya satellites are the first spacecraft in the Boeing ',rrgrplied by Alcatel Alenia Space, XM-4 will replace XM_l and -2, which are
GEM series. The satellites (derived from the Boeing 702 body-stabilized , 'rPccted to reach the end of their lives in 2008 and will then become in-orbit
design) generate 11 kW and provide a range ofvoice and data services over p;rres. Two active transponders generating approximately 3 kW of power are
a large geographic region, carrying many transponders to relay mobile I I most powerful commercial transponders ever built. The Boeing BSS_702
rt:
telephone calls between countries in and around the Middle East and the ,.rdel adds to XM Satellite Radio',s in-orbit capacity to serve its 7 million
Indian subcontinent. Thuraya's 200 spot beams can be steered to meet r rdio subscribers. It is designed to deliver Ig kw ofpower
at the beginning
varying call densities, and enable it to handle I3,750 calls simultaneously. ,,1 its contracted]5-year service life. A fifth xM unit, now under construction
It carries a12m(39.4 ft) antenna for L-band mobile communications. .rl Space Systems/Loral, is scheduled to be completed by late 2007.

2r2 2I3
Mflitorg
Sstellftes
AEHF (Advanced Extremely High Frequency, Milstar 3)
Ar,rks (Arkon) nussrn
USA r, ,,i, ry rntelligence
Communications
SPECIFICATION
SPECIFICATION: (Kosmos-2392/Araks 2):
MANUFAcTuRER: Lockheed Madin MANUFACTURER: NpO Lavochkin
Space Systems LAUNcH oArE: July 25, 2002
LAUNcH DATE:2008?
oRBrr:1506 x 1774 km (915 x
oRBrT: GEO 1102 mi), 61.5" inclination
LAUNcH srE: Cape Canaveral,
uutcs srre: Baikonur,
Californ ia l(azakhstan
LAUNcHER: Delta lV or Atlas V lauNcHER: Proton K/Block DM
LAUNcH MAss: Approx. 6136 kg LAUNcH MAss: )600 kg(5720 16)
(13,500 lb) PAYLoAD: CCD imaging system
BoDY DrMENstoNs: Length
9.75 m(32ft)
ervroao: Onboard signal
processing; crosslinked EHFiSHF
com m unications

I rr I authorized in
1983, this third generation of militaryphoto_
r , , ( )nnaissance
satellites began with the development of a multimission

AEHF wiil replace the Milstar 2 series, providing global, highly secure l,l rtlorm based on the Arkon bus of NpO Lavochkin. The name used
by
lir,,,iia's space forces is Araks, after a river
communications for US armed forces. They will form the backbone of the in the Caucasus. The original
rrrr.rrtion was to launch two groups often satenites
DOD's intermediate-term Military Satellite Communications (MILSATCOM) lnto orbits at different
rltrludes.
architecture until the larger-capacity Transformational Communications
Delayed by technical and budgetary problems,
Satellite System or its equivalent enters service. only two spacecraft have
'', f ,rr been launched. The
first test flight was by Kosmos_2344, which was
Based on Lockheed Martin's A2100 bus, the core structure contains the
I r r r r rched on
integrated propulsion system, while the payload module carries the June 6, IggT,into an unusually high (1516 x 27 47 km (942 x
I/07 mi) orbit that considerably reduced spatial
electronics as well as the payload processing, routing, and control hardware resolution. It apparently
I rrlcd
after four months instead of the estimated two
and software that perform the satellite's communications function. Northrop years. It was followed
l'y lhe much smalrer l(osmos 2392 in 2002. This
Grumman Space Technology provides the payload. The AEHF system will saterite has arso ceased to
lrr 6ps12{i6n1l.
have ten times the capacity and deliver data at six times the speed of the
The satellite is placed into a parking orbit by proton
Milstar 2 satellites. The higher data rates permit transmission of tactical a K and then moved
l{) jts operational orbit by two burns of
military communications such as real-time video, battlefield maps and the Block DM5 upper stage. A
r, flecting telescope system with a very long
targeting data. focal length gives ground
r r rolution of 2-I0
Originally, five AEHF satellites were to be built, four crosslinked satellites m (6.6-33 ft) with a typical swath width of t5_35 km
().1-2I.7 mi), depending on altitude. A CCD
providing coverage ofthe Earth from 65'N to 65" S plus one spare. In sensor operates in eight bands
rrr the optical and near infrared. The
November 2002, two satellites were canceled and the third satellite was use ofinfrared sensors, which operate
rn lowtemperatures, requires a large cooling system
delayed. Lockheed Martin is now contracted to provide three satellites and on the side of the
the command control system for the Military Satellite Communications lracecraft. The satellite can be pointed 20o from nadir, and has a rapid
r, visit capability.
Systems Wing at Los Angeles Air Force Base.

216
2r7
COSMO-SkyMed (Constellation of Small Satellites I )r.lcnse Meteorological Satellite
Program (DMSp) usn
for Mediterranean Basin Observation) rrar_v ' r ',,1o11y

Radar imagery intelligence


SPECIFICATION
(DMSP F-17):
MANUFACTURER: Lockheed Martin
LAUNcH DArE: November 4,2006
oRBrr:846 x 850 km (526 x
528 mi), 98.8" inclination
(Sun-synchronous)
LAUNCH MAss: t2)0 kg(2684 lb)
BoDy DtMENsloNs: Approx. 1.2 x
6.4 m (3.9 x 2t ft) deptoyed
uurcc srre: Vandenberg,
California
LAUNcHER: Delta lV Medium
eavroeo: Operational Linescan
System (OLS) jmager; Special
Sensor Microwave lmager/
Sounder (SSMIS); Special
Sensor Precipiteting Electron
Spectrometer (SSJ5); Special
Sensor lon/Electron Scintillator
COSMO-SkyMed is a joint civil-military program SPECIFICATION (5SlES3); Special Sensor

(CosMo-SkyMed I): Mrgnetometer (SSM); Laser


funded by Agenzia Spaziale Italiana and the Italian
threat warnrng sensor
Ministry of Defense. The system, now being built, urrurrcrunen: Thales Alenia
Space ltalia
consists of a constellation of four mid-sized LAUNcH DATE:.June 7, 2007 r 1965,44
Lockheed Martin DMSp satellites have
oRBrr:620 km (385 mi), "'rr been launched bythe
satellites in LEO, each carrying a multimode, I r'; Air Force to aid US forces
97.86o inclination in planning operations. The satellites are
high-resolution X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (sun-synchronous) r irted by Nationar
uurucu srrr: Vandenberg, '! '|r" oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
and provide
(SAR) with best resolution of less than i m (3.3 ft). Califbrnia f i"lr;rl weather data for US armed services. The Air Force
weather Agency at
The primary mission is to provide services for land LAUNcHER: Delta ll 7420 t tllrrlt Air Force Base in
uurcu urss: Approx. 1700 kg Omaha, Nebraska, is the primary data
monitoring, territory strategic surueillance, man_ user within
(37+o kg) tlr, lJS. The Space and Missile Systems Center at Los Angeles Air
Force Base,
agement of environmental resources, maritime PAYLoAD: Synthetic Apertu re
Radar (SAR)
t rlifornia, manages the program.
and shoreline control, and law enforcement. I)MSP F-17 is the second Block 5D_3
spacecraft built under contract for
The satellite is based on the pRIMA (translates I lrr USAF by Lockheed
Martin. placed in a morning, Sun_synchronous
as Reconfigurable Italian platform for Multiple orbit,
rr rr,Placed DMSP 5D-2 F_13, which
was launched l' f SSS. The Block 5D_3
Applications) bus ofAlcatel Alenia Space (now ' , r rcs carries larger sensor
payloads than earlier generations. They
also
Thales Alenia). The three-axis-stabilized spacecraft li rlure a more capable power subsystem, a more;owerful
onboard computer
consists of the main bus, two solar arrays, and a r.,rllr increased memory and increased
battery capacity. Starting with F_17,
5.75 x I.5 m (18.9 x 4.9 ft) SAR antenna on the t I rr attitude-control
subsystem hasalso b..r, ..rhlrr..i by the integration
nadir side. .r , Lrcood
of
inertial measurement unit using ring laser,
instead of mechanical,
A11 satellites will operate on the same orbital t,y'r os to provide greater precision
I
pointing flexibility.
plane, following a dawn-dusk Sun-synchronous Visible and infrared sensors image cloud
cover ,rrd
orbit with a 16-day repeat cycle. 3-D SAR imagery 1rr t'cipitation, surface temperature, and soil -"rrrr"
moisture. There are always two
will be produced by combining two slightly ,,1rt:rational spacecraft in near_polar
orbits. After DMS' F_17, three satellites
different radar views of the same target. The series r I rnain to be launched.

will be completed by 2009. Design life is five years.

218
219
Defense Satellite Commun ications System (DSCS) usr lh'fcnse Support Program (DSp) usr
Communications ,r rrrissile eariy warning

SPECIFICATION
(DScs 3-86):
MANUFAcTuRER: Lockheed Martirr
Astro Space
LAUNcH DATE: August 29,2003
oRBrr: 85'W (CEO)
LAUNcH slrE: Cape Canaveral,
Florida
LAUNcHER: De ta 4 Medium
LAUNcts MAss: 1232kg(2716 )b)
DrMENsroNs:rxl.9xl9m
(6.6x6.2x6.2ft)
PAYLoAD:4 C band transponders

I lrr i )SP satellites, operated by the USAF Space


SPECIFICATION
The DSCS constellation, which includes nine active satellites in geostationary r ,,rrrrnafld,provide earlywarning of missile (DSP-23):
I rrrrr lrcs, space launches, and nuclear detonations. MANUFAcTURER: Northrop-
orbit, is the US Air Force's longest-running communications satellite system. G rum man
( ),rilrrally built by TRW, the first phase I satellite
It provides uninterrupted, secure voice and high-data-rate communications LAUNcH DATE: November 10,
,. r l;runched in November 1970. It weighed 2407
to the DOD and other government users, including troops and military oRBrr: GEO

commanders at multiple locations. rl,,,rrl 900 kg (2000 lb), with 400 W of power, 2000 LAUNcH str€: Cape Canaveral,
Florida
The first generation of DSCS satellites, weighing about 45 kg (99 lb), were ,lr tr r [ors, and a design ]ife of 1 year 3 months. LAUNcHER: Delta lV,Heavy

launched between 1966 and 1968. The DSCS 2 program began in I971, I lr, 1 111ysn1 version, the DSp-l series (satellites LAUNcH MAss:2186 kg (5250 lb)
Booy DtMENstoNs: l0 x 6.7 m
expanding the services provided by their predecessors. The first ofthe third l.l to 23), has 1485 W ofpower, 6000 detectors, (12.8 x 13.7 ft)
pavroro: Medium-infrared
generation was launched in 1982, overlapping the DSCS 2 series. rrr,l;r designlife of atleast I0years.
wavelength telescope; mercury
'fhe satellites use infrared sensors cadmium telluride detector;
The last satellite, DSCS 3-86, was scheduled to launch with DSCS 3-A3 to detect
dual radiation detectors; Space
aboard a 1986 DOD Space Shuttle mission. After the Challenger disaster, the lr, rl from missile plumes against the Earth,s Atmosphere Burst Reporting

satellites were significantly modified, with major enhancements to their l' lrground. With up to l0 satellites still System (SABRS)
',
capabilities. The A3 satellite eventually flew in 2003, followed by 86. This ,,1,r ational, they can provide stereo views of
r

brought the total to 14 DSCS satellites in orbit, ofwhich nine are active. I r rrrches and better plume characterization.
The final four spacecraft have service-life-enhancement upgrades that li, ( cnt improvements in sensor design include
provide increased downlink power, improved connectivity to their antennas, rl,iive-the-horizon capability for full hemispheric
and upgraded transponder channels. Design life is 10 years. Their successor
( i,\/(.rage and improved resolution, and increased

is the Wideband Global SATCOM. ,,,rl;oard signal-processing capability.


Most DSP satellites were launched into GEO
l,y :r Titan IV. DSP-16 was launched from Shuttle
l)i ;(:oDerj on mission STS-44 (November 24, 1991).
I lre twenty-third and final satellite will be launched
, lrr cctly into GEO by a Delta 4-Heavy. DSp will be

', lrlaced by the Space-Based Infrared System.


)20
221
Global Positioning System (GPS) usr ('lonass (Global Navigation Satellite System) nussrn
Navigation IIr r) ilton

SPECIFICATION
SPECIFICATION
(Navsta r-2 RM 3/B lock
(Kosmos 2424):
il R-r6M):
MANUFAGTURER: NPO-PM, NPO
MANUFAcTuRER: Lockheed Martin
Reshetnev
Space Systems
LAUNcH oarE: December 24,
LAUNcH DArE: November 17,
2006
)006
oRBrr: 19,100 km (11,868 mi),
oRBrr:20,182 km (12,540 mi),
64.8'inclination
55" inclination (plane B4)
tauNcH srr€: Baikonur,
LAUNcH srrE: Cape Canaveral,
Kazakhstan
Florida
LAUNcHER: Proton K
LAUNcHER: Delta ll 7925
lAUNcH MAss: 1415 kg (3113 lb)
LAUNcH MAss: 2032kg(44'19 lb)
aoDY DrMENsroNs: 2.4 x],'l m
BoDY DrMENsroNs: 1.5 x I.9 x
(7.9 x 12.1 ft)
1.9 m (s x 6.3 x 6.3 ft)
prvroro: L-band and S-band ervroro: L-band transmitters;
Ku-band transponders
trrnsmitters

The Navstar GPS program is a dual-use, satellite-based system that provides t,l.rr;rss is a radio-based satellite navigation system developed bythe
Soviet
accurate positioning, navigation, and timing information to military and l lrrron and now operated for the Russian government bythe national
space
civilian users worldwide. Originally developed by the US DOD to provide 1,,r,,,.. t, is the Russian counterpart of the US Global positioning System
precise positional information and weapon guidance, the system now 1 t 'S). Today, Glonass has both military and civilian applications, but funding
, t

supports wide range of civil, scientific, and commercial functions. GPS is


a
l,r,,lrlcms mean that the constellation remains incomplete. A fully operational
based on 24 satellites in six orbit planes, with four satellites per plane. Each is ',y'.1(,m consists of 24 satellites: three orbital planes, each with
eight
fitted with four atomic clocks that emit timing signals. When several signals '.1' rr ccraft, including three in-orbit spares. Russian officials have declared
are detected, the location ofthe receivers can be accurately determined. llr.rr intention to make Glonass comparable in precision to the US GpS
After a number of preliminary test flights, a GPS technology prototype, l,y /{)ll.
Navstar I, was launched on February 22,I978. Eleven ofthe Block I satellites 'ihe Glonass program began with three
satellites (Kosmos 14I3_15),
were launched between 1978 and 1985. They were replaced by the l,rrrrrched by a Proton on October 12,I982.Theywere inserted into
operational Block 2 and 2A series, with 28 launches between 1989 and 1997. parking orbit and then moved to their operational orbit after two burns
., l,,rv
GPS Block IIR satellites were introduced in 1997 , carrying improved clocks ,l I lre upper stage. Ten Block I satellites were launched but average lifetime
,

and reprogrammable processors to enable fixes and upgrades in flight. The r/ r , only 14 months.
GPS Block IIR-M (Modernized) satellites were introduced in September 2005. 'Ihe latest version is the
Glonass-M or Uragan-M, first launched on
Improvements included a new military signal on the LI and L2 channels, and I ), ( cmber 10,2003. It has two solar arrays providing 1.4
kW of power, a
a more robust civil signal. In September 2007, the constellation consisted of l,,rr1Jcr service life of seven years, updated antenna feeder systems, and an
16 Block IIA satellites built by Boeing and 12 Block IIR and three Block IIR-M r, r itional navigation frequency for civilian use.
I I
Kosmos 2424-26 were
satellites built by Lockheed Martin, with five GPS Block IIR-M satellites I rruched to repopulate plane 2; planes I and 3 had operational satellites.
remaining to be launched. Block IIF is under development. I r r ()ctober 2007, the constellation
consisted of nine operational spacecraft
v. llr one being commissioned. A third generation, Glonass-K, is under
, I' v1'16p6.tt1.

)22
Helios FRANCE Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX) USA
Imagery intelligence i rrrr ntal ballistic missile warning satellite

SPECIFICATION:
MANUFACTURER:
Johns Hopkins
University Applied physics Lab
LAUNcH DAIE: April 24, 1996
oRBtr: 908 km, 99.6o inclination
(near Sun-synchronous)
uuncn srrr: Vandenberg,
Ca lilo rn ia
LAUNcHER: Delta ll 7920
LAUNcH MAss:2700 kg (S9a0 lb)
BoDy DtMENstoNs:5 x 1.5 x
1.5 m (16.4 x 4.9 x 4.9 ft)
eavroao: Space lnfrared
lmaging Telescope (SptRtT ilt):
LJltraviolet and Vis ble lmagers
and Spectrographic tmagers
(UVlSl); Space-Based Visible
sensor (5BV); Onboard Srgnal
Dat, Processor (OSDp);
contamination sensors; mirror
Helios was Europe's first family of military optical SPECIFICATION cleaning experiment

surveillance satellites, based on the SPOT space- (Helios 2A):


MANUFACTURER: EADS-Astrium
craft bus and imaging system. The first generation,
LAUNcH oarE: December 18,
Helios lA and Helios 1B, were launched on July 7, )044
oesrr:690 km (429 ml),
1995, and December 3,1999. The first remains 98.08" inclination (Sun- L )i was developed by the US Ballistic
l' ,
Missile Defense Agency to
operational, but lB's mission ended when its four synchronous)
, l* rr:terize ballistic missile signatures during
LAUNcH strE: Kourou, French their midcourse phase of
batteries failed in October 2004. Guiana llrl'lrl and to collect data on the backgrounds
LAUNcHER: Ariane 5G against which targets are seen.
The third satellite, Helios 24, is a collaborative lt ri carried out scientific investigations ofthe cerestiar
LAUNcH MAss: 4200 kg (92a0 lb)
effort with Spain and Belgium. This is a more BoDY D MENs oNs:6 x 3.7 x '
I rrtlr's atmosphere, observing ozone, chlorofluorocarbons,
background and the
3.4 m(19.7 x 12.1x 11.2 ft) carbon dioxide,
advanced version derived from the SPOT 5 platform, PAYLoAD: Very Hlgh Resolution rrr,l rnethane.
with greatly improved maneuverability. A single (VHR) imaglng system; Wide
MSX comprises an instrument section,
Angle (WA) imaging system a truss structure, and an
solar array provides 2.9 kV/ ofpower. The new- r lr rronics
' section' Instruments account for about half
generation Helios 2 offer spatial resolution of of its totar mass. The
rl tr ument section houses 1l optical senso$, which
are precisely aligned
about 0.5 m (1.6 ft), infrared capability (for night ,, tlr;rt target activity can be viewed
simultaneously by multiple sensors. The
observation), greater imaging capacity with I )( sensors are the first hyperspectral imagers flown
1,.

simultaneous imaging in several modes, and in space and cover the


l,' r lrum from the far ultraviolet to the veryJong_wave infrared.
shorter image-transmission times. I he infrared sensors were cooled
to tt_fZ f by a solid hydrogen
Helios carries a VHR imaging system oper- , r i, r',lat. The cryogen mission phase ended on February
ating in the visible and infrared and a WA instru- 26, 1997 ,but the
,,tlr r sensors remained operational.
InJuly 1999, MSX was used to observe
ment that is similar to the SPOT 5 system. In addition Ir ,I Ilc thruster firings on STS_93.
Air Force Space Command took over
to a day/night intelligence capability, Helios 2 is ,,r ,crship in October 2000. Today,
the Space_Based Visible Sensor, operated
used for targeting, guidance, mission planning, and l,f i,.4J'f, is the only sensor in use. It is the
command,s only space-based
combat damage verification. Helios 28 is expected rrvcillance instrument able to provide
full metric and identification
to be launched in 2008. Design life is five years. ,
',,.'t lag€ of objects in geosynchronous orbit around the Earth.

224
22s
Milstar usa Molniya nussrr
Communications ,
' ,l urrl rrrilitary communications

SPECIFICATION
(Milstar 6): SPECIFICATION
(Molniya 3-53):
MANUFACTuRER: Lockheed Martin
LAUNcH DArE: April 8,2001 MANUFAcTURER: NpO,pM/
oRBrr: 89.8" W (cEO) NPO Reshetnev
LAUNcH srrE: Cape Canaveral, LAUNcH DATE: June 19, 2001
Florida oRBrr:651 x 39,70i km
TAUNcHER: Titan lV/Centaur (404 x24,670 mi),62.9"
LAUNCH MAss:4536 kg(9979 lb) incl nation
i

BoDY DrMENsroNs:15.5 m !auNcH srrE: plesetsk, Russia


(s0.7 ft) length LAUNcHER: Molniya
PAYroao: Low data rate (LDR) LAUNcH MAss: 1740 kg (3828 lb)
communications system; BoDY DrMENstoNs: \.6 x 4.2 m
Medium data rate (MDR) (5.2 x 13.8 ft)
communications system PAYLoAD: Three 4-6 GH7
transponders

lrl"lrriya (Lightning) was the first soviet communications


satetite network.
It rr,r,; designed to provide communications
for the northern regions of the
lrrli( country from highly inclined, elliptical
orbits. However, the importance
,'l tlrr,sc satellites decreased as more GEO
Comsats were launched.
l he satellites are based on the
cyrindrical MUR-2 bus, with a domed end
rrr,l r,ix solar arrays in windmill configuration,
providing 1.2 kW of power.
Milstar provides the US DOD and operational forces with secure, jam-proof I lrr, irst successful Molniya
f
launch took place on April 23, Ig6l,relaying
communications between fixed, mobile, and portable terminals. It is the first TV
lr rr,rnissions and two_waytelephone
and telegraph communications. One
satellite communications system to use signal-processing algorithms on the lr rrr,,ponder was probably dedicated for
military/government use.
satellites, allowing service commanders to establish customized networks
Molniya lT was used almost exclusively fo. military
within minutes. The satellites are connected in a ring configuration communications.
\t'rrtlr Molniya r-rt in 1969, the number of saterites above the horizon
encircling the Earth. The first Milstar was launched by a Titan IV on February at any
I r r r. r"y2s increased
r
from two to three by reducing the equatorial
7,1994. Since then, five more have been launched, though Milstar 3 was ,)t)
spacing to
placed in the wrong orbit and is nonoperational. The current constellation 'l'he Molniya
3 series first flew in November r974 and
comprises five operational spacecraft. Two ofthese are the first-generation was used to create
llrr'O1l;1" communications system for northern
Block I design, with an LDR payload built by TRW and two crosslink regions of the USSR. The
Al,lrriya I and 3 satellites were placed in
eight orbiial planes at 45" intervars.
antennas built by Boeing Satellite Systems. I rlly five Molniya 3 sate,ites
have been raunched. Design life is three
The first successful launch of the upgraded Milstar II was in February years.
I lrr' latest version is the Molniya
3K, first launched on juty 20, 200I. After
2001. The Block II series (Milstar 3-6) offer added security through specially a
I rrrrrch failure inJuly 2005, it
was announced that Molniya 3K will cease
designed antennas and faster data-rate transmissions via the Boeing-built luction.
l,r , rr

MDR payload that has 32 channels and can process data at 1.5 Mbits per
second. The MDR also includes two nulling spot antennas that can identify
and pinpoint the location of a jammer and electronically isolate its signal.
Two solar arrays provide 5 kW of power. The last Milstar was launched in
April 2003. Design life is 10 years. Milstar will be replaced by AEHF.

226
227
Ofeq ,t*or. oko (US-KS) nussn
lmagcry intelligence l', I tr, rlissile earlywarning

SPECIFICATION
(Kosmos-2422):
MANUFAcTURER: NpO L,rvor ltkrrr
LAUNcH oArE:
July 21, 2006
oRBrr:519 x J9,570 km
(135 x 24,588 mi),62.9.
jnclination (semi
synchronor.,)
LAUNcH srrE: Plesetsk. Russir
LAUNcHER: Molniya M
LAUNcH MAss: Approy. 7400 I'l
(s280 tb)
BoDY DlMENstoNs:2 x 1.7 m
(6.6 x s.6 ft)
eavroeo: 50 cm (19.7 rn)
telescope; visible/r nfra red
sensorS

t tl ,, (liye) is a series
of Russian missile early warning satellites, with some
rr r rr I ities to the American DSp program. This
rr
systlm was built to detect
I
'r,r' Ircs of ballistic missires from the uS and western Europe and cannot
t( ( I missiles launched from
Ofeq (Horizon|-also known as Ofek-is Israel's SPECIFICATION '1, sea or other regions. The first test
launch
(ofeq rI ,, ,ot 520) took place in September 1972,
home-grown optical reconnaissance satellite pro- 7): s 1
but the system only became fully
,,J,, r rt ional in 1987,
gram. The first Ofeq was launched on September MANUFAcTuRER: lsrael Aerospace after many years of development. Onty
seven of the first
I ndustries
I I rtcllites worked more than 100
19, 1988. Since then, there have been five LAUNcH DATE: June 10, 2007 days. Until 19g3, they carried a self_
successful launches and two failures. The satellites
oRBrr:340 x 575 km (211 x lr r r r rct system that was activated if the satenite rost
357 mi), 141.8" inclination
'
communication with
are launched towards the west to avoid dropping LAUNcH srrE: Palmachim, lsrael I'r,, llld control.
LAUNcHER: Shavit-2 t) ko consists of three main sections:
stages on Israel's Arab neighbors. The east-to-west LAUNcH MAss: 150 kg (770 lb) an engine block, a payload section,
BoDY DrMENsroNs: 1.2 x 3.6 m rrr'l 'rr opticar section. It has a cylindricar bus ,'"ith t*o solar
orbit at 38" inclination is phased to give optimal (1.9 x 11.8 ft) arrays. There are
l,,rrr liquid-fuel orbit_correction engines
daylight coverage of the Middle East. PAYLoAD: Panchromatic imaging and 16 liquid_fuel engines for
camera rrrrr rrration and stab'ization. The first-generation oko
Ofeq is based on the same IAI bus as the has a s0 cm (1g.7 in)
,lr rrncter telescope and an infrared
EROS civil remote sensing satellite. The lightweight, solid_state sensor to detect heat from
rll iles. Several smaller tel
three-axis-stabilized spacecraft has a rapid body-
pointing capability of 45' from nadir in all
Ittrrr.
c d an d vi s ibre
0
",,,
J;::;:ffi :,-* :::* ;u: :1.o ::.::
jl
directions. It carries two solar arrays and improved
'Ihe Okos follow overlapping, highly
digital cameras, produced by Israel's Elbit Systems, elliptical orbits with apogees over
\r,/, tr:rn Europe and the pacific. Each
that provide ground resolution of0.4 m (I.3 ft), views ICBM sites in the US for 5_6 h
compared with 0.8 m (2.6 ft) for Ofeq 5. The Ofeq 6 ;,' r rcvolution (12 h daily). A full system requires nine
satellites
operating
It,0 lpin apart. By September 2007,
satellite was lost in a Shavit launch failure in only Kosmos_2422 was operational.
September 2004. The latest addition, Ofeq 7,
ensured continuation ofthe program alongside
the five-year-old Ofeq 5. Design life is four years.

228
229
Orbital Express (ASTRO and NextSat) usr
Arrlorrorr roLrs rcndezvous and docking

',r't , ll ICATtON
SPECIFICATION
,^"Ilr()) (NextSat, shown below):
;rrr n: Boeing phantom MANUFACTURER: Ball Aerospace e
Technologies
. i r.i l : March g, 2007 rauNcH DArE: March 9,2007
r ,(l r 498 km (104 x oRBrr:490 x 498 km (104 x
trt inclination 309 mi), 46' inclination
', r lr:CapeCanaveral, TAUNcH strE: Cape Canaveral,
Florida
Atlas V 401 LAUNcHER: Atlas V 401
. , ri^(,5: t09t kg (2400 tb) LAUNCH MAss: 227 kg(500 lb)
', , rr N5toNs: 1.8 x l.g m BoDyDtMENstoNs:1xlm
lr) (3.3 x 3.1 ft)
'. I Autonomous PAYLoAD: Passive capture
' , .,,rr.;nd capture sensors; mechanism; sensor system
,t r ill)lystem; manipulator targets; cross-link communi-
l r, ill cation; fluid transfer subsystem

Orbital Express was part of a Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency


(DARPA) program to demonstrate fully autonomous on-orbit satellite sewicing
capabilities. Using autonomous software provided by NASA-Marshall, its main
objectives were to demonstrate fully autonomous rendezvous out to 7 km
(4.3 mi); soft capture and autonomous station-keeping at submeter range;
and on-orbit refueling and component replacement. Orbital Express
comprised two satellites: the Autonomous Space Transport Robotic
Operations (ASTRO) service vehicle, and the Next-generation Serviceable
Satellite (NextSat). They were launched together on an Atlas V.
Despite problems with ASTRO's attitude-control system and flight software,
Orbital Express completed several hydrazine transfers and robotic-arm
demonstrations, including transfers of the battery orbital replacement unit
using ASTRO's robotic arm. ASTRO was able to move up to 6 km (3.7 mi) from
NextSat and then reestablish tracking using its infrared camera and laser
range-finder at 3 km (1.9 mi). The final demonstration, which began on July
16, involved separating the satellites so that ASTRO lost sensor contact. With
input fiom the ground-based Space Surveillance Network, it was able to approach
NextSat again, switching to its onboard sensors to complete the rendezvous.
Mission lifetime was expected to be three months, but operations
continued for four and a half months. OnJuly 21, NextSat's solar arrays were
turned away from the Sun and the satellite shut down. ASTRO's surplus fuel
was dumped soon after, and it also was decommissioned.

230
Parus (Tsikada-M) *rss,r t,Alt Lupe cERMANy
N,rvrli.rtiorr/store-dump communications .I
' ,r r11t ry intelligence

SPECIFICATION:
(Kosmos-2429)
MANUFACTURER: NPO.PM,
NPO Reshetnev
',A LAUNcH DATE: September 11,
)007
_l oRBir: 943 x 1008 km (586 x
626 mi), 83" inclination
LAUNcH strE: Plesetsk, Russia

T
LAUNcHER: Kosmos-3N4
LAUNcH MAss:825 kg (1818 lb)
BoDYDtMENstoNs:2x3m
(6.7 x9.8ft)
PAYLoAD: VHF navigation
system; store and forward
communications relay system

'.r\li I rrpe is a radar reconnaissance system for use


SPECIFICATION:
lry tlr German FederalArmed Forces. Germany,s MANUFAcTURER: OHB_System
lrr.l ,, rlcllite reconnaissance system, it consists LAUNcH DATE: December 19,
of 2006
lrv, rlt:ntical satellites, to be launched at intervals oRBrr:468 x 505 km (291 x
,,1 rr rnonths. The spacecraft fly in three 114 mi), 98.2" inclination
different (3 planes)
',rl,rl.rl planes, which enables them to observe the LAUNCH MAss: 770 kg(1694 lb)
BoDy DrMENsroNs: Approx.4 x
I rrtlr's surface between gO.N and g0"S. x2m(13.1x9.8x6.6ft)
3

:jAR-Lupe has a fixed, dual_use, parabolic LAUNcH strE: plesetsk, Russia

Parus (Sail), sometimes referred to as Tsikada LAUNcHERt Kosmos-3M


Military (Tsikada-M), provides rrrt, rrna for radar observations
and communications, PAYLoAD: Synthetic Aperture
specialized naviga-tion data and store-dump radio communications for rrr,i ,r side-mounted solar array. In high-resolution Radar (5AR); intersatellite S-bend
transmiiter; X-bend transmitter
Russian naval forces and ballistic missile sub-marines. The first test flights r r r,,, lt', the synthetic
aperture radar (SAR) can
began with Kosmos-7O0 in I974, and the system became operational ,1, t, t t objects as small
as 50 cm (I9.7 in) in
in I976. One satellite is launched each year. rlr rrrrcter. It can also scan larger
swaths at lower
The rylindrical Parus spacecraft uses the KAUR-I bus and is almost r' .rrlutions, providing a repetitive worldwide
identical to the Tsikada/Nadezdha used for civil navigation. The exterior is , , , rnnaissance
r capability in all conditions. SAR
coated with solar cells providing about 200 W of power. The payload and ,l rl r are transmilted on X-band frequencies,
and
telemetry antennas are attached to the bottom (Earth-facing) side. Each
' rypted S-band is used for telemetry and
rr,
satellite transmits timing signals at two frequencies, enabling a receiving , rnand transmissions direct to ground stations.
, , , r
'
station to determine its location from the Doppler shift of the signal 'fhe first launch was
in December 2006, using
frequency. The constellation has at r liosmos-3M with modified fairings
to accom_
in orbital planes 30" apart. There is a unique frequency for
least six spacecraft rrr,,rlate the large antennas. The second
satellite
each plane and frequencies are different from the civil system. The high- l,,ilowed onJuly 2, 2007.The project
sponsors are
inclination orbits provide global navigation suppoft, although there is often ll'. German Ministry of Defense and the Federal
no satellite above the horizon and long gaps in coverage. t tllice of Defense Technoiogy
and procurement.

732
233
SBI RS (Space-Based lnfrared System) USA
rrlt t.ll rrarv
Ballistic missile early warning

SPECIFICATION
(sBrRS GEO-r):
MANUFACTuRER: Lockheed MarliI
Space Systems
LAUNcH DATE:20091
oRsrr: GEO
LAUNcH strE: Cape Canaveral,
Florida
LAUNcHER: Atlas Vl
LAUNcH MAss:4900 kg
(10,780 lb)?
rrvroro: Scanning infrared
sensor; staring infrared sensor

',r, r rl I is Italy's first military satellite and part of a SPECIFICATION


tlr, '. nation contribution to provide telecommuni- (Sicral I):
, rtr,rrrs to NATO. It is designed to operate for 10 MANUFAcTuRER: Alenia Spazio,
FiatAvio, Telespazio
y, ,r , providing communications to fixed and LAUNcH oATE: February 7,200I
Developed for the US Air Force Space and Missile Systems Center, SBIRS is oRBrr: 16.2" E (cEO)
rrr,,l,rlt,terminals operated by Italian and allied LAUNcH strE: Kourou, French
the replacement for the US DSP early-warning satellites. It was originally
t"r, , ,r, including fighter aircraft. Sicral (Sistema Guiana
intended to comprise satellites in both LEO and GEO. SBIRS-Low was later LAUNcHER: Ariene 44L
lt rlr r)o per Comunicazioni Riservate ed Allarmi) LAUNcH MAss:2596 kg (5711 lb)
renamed the Space Tracking and Surveillance System (STSS). SBIRS-High BoDY orMENstoNs:2.8 x 3.4 x
r , l, r,,t:d on the Alenia Spazio (now Thales Alenia)
remained simply SBIRS. Technical and funding issues have caused delays and 4.9 m (9) x 11.3 x 16.2 ft)
r ,,r,llus/Italsat bus. It is Europe's first spacecraft to PAYLoAD:9 SHF, UHF, and EHF
reluctance to go ahead with the fu11 system.
r' , , xtremely high frequency (EHF) broadcast band transponders

The SBIRS spacecraft is based on Lockheed Martin's A2100 bus. Up to


l1
' , lrrcncies. The three-axis-stabilized spacecraft
four SBIRS satellites are pianned for GEO, together with sensors carried as
, .r r r( s two solar arrays that provide 3.28 kW of
secondary payloads on two classified NRO satellites in highly elliptical orbits
|,,ql1 1. I{ing transponders transmit in the
(HEO). From HEO, the infrared sensor will be able to detect missile and ,,rr1,,r high frequency, ultrahigh frequency and
rocket launches at high latitudes.
I I 1l; l;ands, with the capability to switch bands
The first HEO sensor (HEO-I) was launched aboard a classified NRO
,,rri,olrd the satellite-a world first-to promote
satellite (USA 184) on June 28,2006, by a Delta IV from Vandenberg. Testing 'r r ruc Cornrrrutications. The satellite has
ofthe sensor and related systems should be completed in 2008, before the
' r operability with US and other European
rr rt
launch of the second HEO payload. The GEO payloads feature a scanning
' Ilite systems. Design life is I0 years.
rtr
sensor that enables short revisit times over its full field ofview and a staring 'I'he Italian Defense Ministry
lost control of
sensor that can be tasked for step-stare or dedicated-stare operations over ',r, r,rl I in October 2006-possibly due to solar
smaller areas. Communications from the infrared payload are protected by
r, lrvity-and was forced to allow it to drift
an antijamming system. , r tward before it returned to its orbital position
r r i )ccember. Sicral 1B is due to be launched
r
in
1,il /008.

234 235
Skynet 5 ux \p,rce Tracking and Surveillance System
Communications
(\ tsS, SBTRS-Low) usr
SPECIFICATION ll r I r r, iltissile early warning
(Skynet 5A):
MANUFACTURER: EADS Astrium SPECIFICATION:
LAUNcH DArE: March 11,2007
MANUFAcTURER: Northrop
oRBrr: 1'W (cEO)
G rumman
LAUNcH strE: Kourou, French
LAUNcH oATE:2008?
Guiana
oRBrr: LEO
LAUNcHER: Ariane 5 ECA
LruNcu srre: Cape Canaveral,
LAUNcH MAss:4515 kg
Florida
(10,218 lb)
LAUNcHER: Delta ll 7920
BoDY DrMENsloNs: 4.5 x 2.9 x
pnvroro: lnfrared acquisition
3.7 m (14.8 x 9.5 x 12.1 ft)
sensor; missile track sensor
PAYLoAD: 15 SHF-band channels;
9 UHF-band channels

Skynet 5 is the successor to the UK Defense Ministry's Skynet 4 constellation.


It is used by the UK and NATO allies for secure, reliable military and
government communications. Astrium Satellites is prime contractor for
three Skynet 5 satellites through its subsidiary, paradigm Secure ', I ';s was previously known as Brilliant Eyes and then as SBIRS_Low.
in
Communications. Paradigm holds a f3.6 billion (USD 7.4 billion) contract 'ttr)./, the program was restructured by the US Missile Defense
Agency and
with the UK Ministry of Defense for the provision of secure milsatcoms ll rrned. STSS is designed as a constellation
ofsatellites in LEO, equipped
until 2020. r" r I I r infrared and visible sensors that
can acquire and track ballistic missires.
Skynet 5 offers a significant increase in capacity and performance over iJnder the current plan, two Block 2006 research
and development
Skynet 4.It features nulling antennas for increased resistance to jamming, '' rrr'llites will be launched into
LEo by a single Derta II raunch vehicre. They
and hardening against nuclear radiation and laser attack. The three-axis- r.'rll r rrry two sensors, one for acquisition
and another for
tracking. fhey witt
stabilized satellite is based on Astrium's high-power Eurostar E3000 platform, t r t t he key functions of a space_based sensor,
,
passing short_ and long_range
with a 34 m (fI1.5 ft) solar array span that provides 6 kW ofpower. l, rllrstic-missile tracking data to ground
operators to enable intercepts of
The Communication Module carries two helicoidal UHF antennas and rrr ';ile targets. srsst sensors wir be abre to track and discriminate missiles
a central S-band telemetry and telecommand mast antenna. Skynet 54 has rrr rrridcourse; report on post-boost vehicle maneuvers, reentry_vehicle
multiple steerable spot beams and was the most powerful X-band satellite ,lr ployments, and the use ofvarious
types ofdecoys; and provide hit/kill
ever placed in orbit. A liquid propellant apogee engine (LAE) is used for orbit l r :;sment. Design life is four years.
circularization. Its design lifetime is 15 years. At least two more in the series 'fhe data obtained
from these tests will be fed into the design ofthe
are to be launched in 2007-8. The last ofthe Skynet 4 satellites will be placed , , ond-generation operational
satellites, which are not expected to be
in a graveyard orbit by 20I3-I4. I rrrrrched until 2016. A network of
30 advanced STSSs would be able to
',,rrrultaneously detect and track more than 100 objects in real
time and
,lrllcrentiate missiles and warheads from
decoys, debris, clutter, and noise.
t lrL y will carry two sensors, one
with a wide-field view to capture the launch
I,L rse and a cryogenically cooled narrow_field sensor for tracking
purposes.
236
237
Strela nussra trlr.lCUS€ FRANcE
Commrrnications , ilrrrcationS

SPECIFICATION
SPECIFICATION
(Strel a-3):
(Syracuse 3 B):
MANUFACTURER: NPO-PM
MANUFACTURER: Alcatel Alenia
LAUNcH oarE: January 15, 1985
Space (now Thales Alenia)
oRBLr: 1440 x 1450 km (894.8 x
LAUNcH DATE: August 11,2006
901 mi), 82.5' lnclination
oRBrr: 5'W (cEO)
LAUNcH srrE: Plesetsk, Russia
lAUNcH strE: Kourou, French
raurcnen: Tsyklon-3 or
G u iane
Kosmos 3M
LAUNcHER: Ariane 5 ECA
LAUNcH MAss: ))t kg(495 lb)
LAUNcH MAss: 1750 kg (8250 lb)
BoDY DlMENstoNs: 1.5 xI m
BoDY DtMENstoNs:4 x 2.1 x
(a.e x 3.3 ft)
2.3 m (13.1 x7.5 x7.5 ft)
PAYLoaD: VHF/UHF data-relay
PAYLoAD:9 SHF and 6 EHF
system
ch a n nels

/r

h
Strela (Arrow) is the name given to a series of military store-dump satellites
used to relay messages to mobile users and the intelligence community. ', r ( use is a French advanced
system for defense communications that
The system was developed in the 1960s, with 26 flights ofthe Strela-l from ,
' rrrcs globai voice and secure data links. It
was originally developed in a
August 18, 1964 to September 18, 1965. Strela-1 provided VHF/UHF , ,ll rboration between the French
Ministry of Defense and CNES. Syracuse I
medium-range links between armed forces. These I m (3.3 ft) diameter, rrr,l .) consisted of a military communications
band onboard seven French
61 kg (13a lb) satellites were launched in groups of eight by Kosmos from
',' lrrn Telecom I and 2 satellites. Syracuse I became operational in 19g4,
,
Plesetsk into 1500 km (932 mi) circular orbits at 74" inclination. l"ll'rrvcd by Syracuse 2inr9g7.The syracuse 3
series ofdedicated sateilites is
The Strela-2 series conducted longer-range communications using three , l'
lr,ngcl to deliver higher data throughput, operational
flexibility, and resis_
875 kg (1925 lb) satellites built by AKO Polyot for NPO-PM. These flew in I to countermeasures and attack. Based onAlcatel,s Spacebus
''1..rre platform,
786-810 km (488-503 mi) orbits at 74" inclination, spaced 120' apart. tl" y hardened to resist nucrear attack in compriance with NATo specifi-
The Strela-3 series began operations in I985, when Kosmos 1617-162) , , rons. Their communications payload operates in two frequen.y b".rds. Th.
were launched by Tsyklon-3 from Plesetsk. Twelve spacecraft made up the ' i i l; band has four spot beams,
one global beam, and one beam for metropolitan
operational constellation. The cylindrical spacecralt is stabilized using a I rrrce. The EHF band has two spot beams and one global beam.
The
gravity-gradient boom. It has 12 MB of onboard storage with a transmission I' , rable spot beams and global beams provide
a large selection of footprints.
tale of 2.4 kB/sec. Since 2002, when the Russian armed forces stopped using Syracuse 34 was launched on October 13, 2005,
and was followed by
the Ukrainian-developed Tsyklon, Strela has been launched in pairs by the ,r I rcuse 38 in 2006. Syracuse
34 operates from4To E. NATO chose the
smaller Kosmos-3M. Some repofis suggest that the most recent launch, ' I r rcuse 3 system
for its Satcom post 2000 project. This project aims to pool
Kosmos-2416 on December 2I,2005, involved a new-generation Strela I i ,
Syracuse, Skynet, and Sicral satellite resources,
so they can be shared with
replacement known as Rodnik. t rir l O allies. Design life is 12 years.

228
239
UHF Follow-On (UFO) usr Wr<lcband Global SATCOM (WGS, Wideband
Communications
Gapfi ller
',.rlcllite) usa
SPECIFICATION ., rrrrcltions
',
(uHF-Frr):
MANUFACTuRER: Boeing SPECIFICATION
LAUNcH DATE: December 17,
(wGS-r):
2003
oRErr: 172' E (GEO) MANUFAcTURER: Boeing Space
LAUNcH srrE: Cape Canaveral, b ,nd lntellrgence Systems
Florida ( LAUNcH DATE: October 10,2007
LAUNcHER: Atlas lllB oRBtr: GEO
LA!NcH MAss: Approx. 1164 kg LAUNcH strE: Cape Canaveral,
,t Florida
(3000 rb)
BoDY D MENsroNs: 1.4 x J.2 x
3.4 m (ll
x 10.5 x ll.L ft) F"' LAUNcHER: Atlas V
LAUNcH MAss: Approx.5909 kg
(1r,000 ib)
PAYLoAD: IJHF communications
payload; EHF communications BoDy DrMENsroNs:7.1 x 3.9 x
payload fr 3.4 m (23.9 x 12.5 x il.2 ft)

ll eavrono: 8 X-band beams;


l(a band beams
l0

h:, *t
t
"*l I
&

UHF Follow-On was built for the US Navy's Space and Naval Warfare l l" WGS satellites of USAF Space Command
are the key elements in a new
Systems Command in San Diego, replacing the Fleet Satellite Communi- l r rl'l r r upacity communications system for the US armed forces.
The L3 kW
cations (FLTSATCOM) and the Hughes-built Leasat spacecraft, its ultrahigh \.'"'r ,1, satellites are based on Boeing,s 702 satellite
bus. They will take over
frequency (UHF) satellite communications network. They support the Navy's ., l, rrrrl communications
provided by DSCS and
the one-way Ka_band service
global communications network, serving ships at sea as well as other US by the Global Broadcast Service on uHF
Fonow-on saterites. wGS
military fixed and mobile terminals. The first satellite, built by Hughes Space 'ri'|!r(lcd
r, rll rlso provide a new two_way l(a_band service.
and Communications Company (now Boeing), was launched in March 1993. ir;rch WGS can route 2.1 to 3.6
Gbps of data, providing more than l0
The UFO series is based on the three-axis-stabilized Hughes 60I bus. Irrrrr', the communications capacity
of the DSCS 3 satellite. The WGS payload
The first seven satellites and FII measure more than 18 m (60 ft) across the , rr lilter and route 4.g75 GHz of instantaneous
bandwidth. It has eight
two three-panel solar arrays. Each array on F8-F10 has four solar panels, so t, ' i,rble and shapeable X-band beams
formed by separate transmit and
the spacecraft is 22.9 m (75 ft) tip to tip. These arrays generate 2.5 krV of r, , ,.rvc phased arrays, and 10 Ka_band
beams served by independently
power on Fl-F3, 2.8 kW for F4-F7 and FlI, and 3.0 kW for FB-FIO. F8-F10 .1, L1bls, diplexed antennas.
' Using reconfigurable antennas and a digital
include a high-power, high-speed Global Broadcast Seruice (GBS) payload to ,lrrrrrelizer,WGS offers added flexibilityof
area coverage and is capable of
replaced the SHF payload. The first GBS payload was put into service in 1998. ,,,rrrrr:ctingX-band and Ka_band users
anywhere within its field of view
it included four I30 W, 24 Mbps Ka-band transponders with three steerable 'l lrree
Block i satellites will operate over the pacific,
Indian, and Atrantic
downlink spot-beam antennas, plus one steerable and one fixed uplink , ,
', r.s. They will be launched at six-monthly intervals. Two Block
II satellites
antenna. This resulted in a 96 Mbps capability per satellite. FII carries a new lr ,,., been contracted. These
will have a radio frequency bypass capability for
ultrahigh frequency digital receiver with greater channel capacity than rr rr lligence and surve'lance platforms
requiring ultrahigh bandwidth and
previous UFOs. Three spacecraft give near-globa1 coverage. ,l ,t r rates-for example, unmanned
aerial vehicles. Design life is 14 years.

240
247
Worldview usa Xl.rr Eur usA,/spArN
r,,', ,
Military and commercial imagery ', rrl rnd military communications
SPECIFICATION:
MANuFACTuRER: Ball Aerospace
LAUNcH DATE: September 18,
2007
onerr:493 km (306 mi),
97.5' inclination (Sun-
synchronous)
uulcn srre: Vandenberg,
Californ ia
LAUNcHER: Delta ll 7920
LAUNcH MAss: 2500 kg (5500 lb)
BoDY DrMENsroNs: 3.6 x 2.5 fr
(11-8 x 8.2 ft)
pnvrono: WorldView-60 camera
(wv60)

.r rr trrrr is the world's first satellite developed SPECIFICATION:


, .r lrr rvcly for commercial X-band services. The MANUFACTURER: Space

l"rrt vltture between Loral Space ft Communi_ Systems/Loral


LAUNcH DATE: February 12,2005
, rtr,,rr'; ;rnd Spanish company HISDESAT will oRBrr: 29'E (cEO)
LAUNcH strE: Kourou, Ftench
;,r,,vr,lt, steerable X-Band capacity for US, Spanish, Guiana
rllicd military and government applications. uurcsEn: Ariane 5 ECA
'l,l LAUNcH MAss: 3630 kg (7986 lb)
\t,rr-Eur is three-axis controlled and based on BoDY DtMENsroNs: 5.4 x 7.8 x

','./l I i00 platform. power output is 5773W. 2.2m(I7.7 x9.2x7.2ft)


", PAYLoAD: l2 X-band
',r rrrorr-keeping and orbital stability are transponders
Worldview I was developed by DigitalGlobe, 1TT, and Ball Aerospace with the rrr.rrrrl,rined
with bipropellant propulsion and
help of $500 million of funding from the US Defense Department's National rrr,'rrrlntum-b as systems. It carries I2 wideband,
Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA). Under this arrangement, the NGA is lr1,lr lrower X-band transponders. Onboard
the main customer, but DigitalGlobe can sell images commercially as long urrt,lring and multiple steerable beams allow
as their resolution is no sharper than 0.5 m (I.6 ft). The spacecraft is the first n r r', ;rccess to X-band capacity anywhere within
element in the NextView reconnaissance satellite program, which combines tl . lootprint.
commercial and defense imagery with the help of DOD funding. l lrc satellite provides X-band coverage from
The three-axis-stabilized spacecraft is based on the Ball Commercial r r,,tr.rn Brazil and the Atlantic Ocean, across
Platform BCP-5000. It has twin solar arrays that provide 3.2 kW of power. I rrr , ,Jrc, Africa, and the Middle East, as far east
as
Onboard data storage is 2199 Gb with X-band data downiink at 800 Mbps. ',rrl,,rpore. It offers critical X-band services when
Highest resolution for commercial use is 45 cm (I7 .7 in) panchromatic at , ,'rrvt ntional military X-band systems
are
nadir, with a 16 km (10 mi) wide imaging swath, and 51 cm (20.1 in) at lrr ,1rrr:ntly at full capacity. Service began in April
20" off-nadir. Imagery must be resampled to 50 cm (I9.7 in) for non-US 'r)o',. The Spanish Ministry of Defense was Xtar,s
government customers. I r '.I ( ustomer, leasing
r
238 MHz of X_band
Equatorial crossing is at 10.30 am local time on the descending node, r r1r.11 i{y until its primary satellite, Spainsat,
with an average revisit time of 1.7 days. Rapid image-taking offers stereo r rrtr r cd serice, after which time Xtar provided
capability. Images are used for precise map creation, detection of surface 1,.r, i up capacity.
changes, and in-depth image analysis. Design life is at least seven years.

242
)43
Scientific
Sstellites:
Astronomg
AGILE (Astrorivelatore Gamma ad lmmagini Leggero) Ak.r r i (Astro-F, lRlS-lnfrared lmaging
,,t, I r.tronomyobseruatory Surveyor) 1aon,u
ITALY
Gamma-ray obsenatory

SPECIFICATION:
MANUFACTuRER: Carlo Gavazzi
Space/OHB System
LAUNcH DArE: April )3, 2007
oRBrr:550 km (341.8 mi),2.5.
inclination
LAUNcH MAss: 355 kg (780 lb)
LAUNcH srrE: Sriharikota, lndia
LAUNcHER: PSLV
DTMENS oNs: Ll x 1.7 x2.6 m
(5.5 x 5.5 x 8.6 ft) with solar
panel
PAYLoAD: Gamma-ray Imaging
Detector (GRID); Hard X-ray
lmaging Detector (SuperAGlLE);
Mini Calorimeter (MC)

1l rr I ight) was
Japan,s first infrared_ray astro_
1
SPECIFICATION:
'r,'11111 1lsatellite to perform an all_sky survey
at MANUFAcTURER: NEC Toshiba
rrrlr r, rl wavelengths. Its instruments
have much
TAUNCH oATE: February )1,2006

.r sgpsifiyity oRBrr: 695 x 7i0 km (431.9 x


1, r r rI r
and higher resolution than 441.2 mi), 98.2. inclination
t I r', .' rr.hieved by the Infrared Astronomy
Satellite
(Sun-synchronous)
LAUNCH MAss: 952 kg(2094 lb)
lltii',) lt has a 6g.5 cm (27 in) telescope coojed LAUNcH srrE: Uchinoura,
to Japan
',1 i /r,7oC), and
observes in the wavelength range
TAUNcHER: M-V-8
BoDy DrMENstoNs: 3.7 x 5.5 m
tr,,,t LJ (near-infrared) to I80 (far_infrared) (i2.1 x 18 ft)w;th solar oanel
p. Tie deployed
lrl,lrrur ight, silicon carbide primarymirror
is PAYroAo: Fer-lnfrJred Survevor
AGILE is the first satellite in an Italian Space Agency (ASI) program of small
1,',1, I r oated. Akari,s lifetime is based
(Fl5); lnlrared Camera (tRC)
on the supply
scientific satellites. The mission is devoted to gamma-ray astrophysics, with ,l lr,lrrid helium stored in a
cryosat to cool the
the scientific and programmatic coparticipation of the Italian Institute of tr lr r ol)e and science
instruments. The 170 I
Astrophysics (INAF) and the Italian Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN). , t I ,. r l) of liquid helium ran out on
1
August 26,
The hexagonal satellite has a fixed gallium arsenide solar panel attached 'rrl)/ ( rrding far-infrared and mid_infrared
to one side. The necessity of constant exposure to the Sun imposes some ,,1, , rv;itions.
constraints on the pointing strategy and sky survey. A three-axis stabilization I lrc all-sky survey observations
began in May
system allows satellite pointing to 0.5-Io and star sensors allow pointing to 'll{Ji,, ,rnd the first survey was completed in
an accuracy of about I arcmin. A GPS transceiver ensures onboard timing r1,,,.', 1y1b91 2006, covering about g0%
of the sky.
accuracy within l-2 microsec. llr, r,cond mission phase was dedicated
to
The onboard scientific instruments have optimal imaging capabilities
t",rrrlr cl observations, as well as gap-filling
in both the gamma-ray and hard X-ray energy ranges. The lightweight ,1, , r v,rtions
,
for the all-sky survey. Alari is a
instruments are based on solid-state silicon detectors developed by INFN. JAXA
,' rr rorr carried out with numerous partners.
It can detect and monitor gamma-ray sources in a region covering more than
20%o of the s\. Over its two-year mission, AGILE will perform a complete s\
survey of gamma-ray and hard X-ray sources.
246
247
Chandra X-Ray Observator] usr ( ( )llOT (COnvection,
X-ray observatory
ROtation, and planetary
lr.rrrsits) FRANcE/EURopE
' , ,rrrology/exoplanetstudies
"

Chandra (formerly known as the Advanced X-ray SPECIFICATION:


Astrophysics Facility) is the third in NASA's series MANUFACTuRER: TRW Space and
Electronics Group r r )li( ) l'is an astronomical mission to study
of "Great Observatories," named in honor of the LAUNcH DArE: July 21, 1999
the SPECIFICATION:
r rl, structure of stars and seek out planets
rr r rl
oRB r:9977 km x 138,400 km
Nobel Prize-winning astrophysicist, Subrah- verurrcrunen: Thales Alenia
(6170 x 86,000 ml), 28.5' r , r r (l nearby stars. It will
, LAUNcH DATE: December
manyan Chandrasekhar. It was designed to study inclination
spend nearlf three 27,
2006
y, rr . :;tudying the slight variations
the composition of galaxies, stellar objects and
LAUNcH MAss:4800 kg in the light oRBrr:895 x 906 J.m (556 r
(10,560 lb)
',rrt1,rrt ofabout I20,000 stars. The variations 563 mi), 90. inclination
interstellar phenomena as well as basic issues in LAUNcH 5rrE: Kennedy Space LAUNcH MAss: 610 kg (1386
Center, Florida , rrr , ri by inlglnal stellar vibrations Lrurucn stre: Baikonur,
lb)
theoretical physics. Its highly elliptical orbit has a LAUNcHER: Space Shuttle
will provide
l rt r on Kazakhstan
Columbio (STS-93)/lUS
,
their internal structure, age, and
period of 64 h, carrying it far outside Earth's LAUNcHER: Soyuz 2_lb
DrMENsroNs: Solar arrays ,, rr rrposition-known as stellar seismology. BoDy DlMENstoNs: 4.1 x 2 m
radiation belts, allowing 55 h ofuninterrupted deployed,13.8 x 19.5 m (45.3 x (13.5 x 6.s ft)
r OROT is a CNESJed mission
observations during each orbit.
64 ft) with ESA eavLoao: Telescope; CCD camera
ervroro: Advanced Charged
I' rrtrr rpation; the otherinternationalpartners
Chandra has eight times greater resolution Couple lmaglng Spectrometer are
(ACIS); High-Resolution Camera A r r' Belgium, Brazil, Germany, and
Ir r;r,
and is able to detect sources more than 20 times Spain. The
(HRC); High'Energy Trans-
mission Grating (HETG); Low-
rlrrr r
;11is-sl2fjlized spacecraft is derivejfrom
fainter than any previous X-ray telescope. The the
Energy Transmission Grating I rr rrr 11 p1o1.ur bus and
consists ofa 30 cm (1 ft)
telescope has four pairs of nearly cylindrical (LETG)
l' l, ,{ ope and a 4-CCD can
"nested" mirrors, ranging from 1.4 m to 0.68 m t-t
(4.6 to 2.2 ft) in diameter.
v rr rrions in the light,,.J;;:?:;::L'-
',r ience observations began
The spacecraft is three-axis stabilized, with six on February 3,
'(rr)i. fhe first observational phase, facing
reaction wheels and four gyros. Two solar arrays away
lr,r;11 lls center ofour
galaxy, lasted untiiepriiZ.
generate over 2 kW of power. Two 1.8 Gb solid- ',rrrr rllumination conditions meant
state recorders can store 18.8 h of data each. Some the spacecraft
lr r, I tr>be rotated lg0o to start observinglhe
loss of sensitivity in the CCDs on the ACIS instru-
r rr ( I of the
,
Millcy Way. On May 3, it was reported
ment caused early concern. However, NASA decided .,
tlr rr (jOROT had obtained
in 2001 to extend the mission from the first i_rg. of ,
5 years to I0.
1,r rrrt planet orbiting a star in another solar system.

248
249
FUSE (Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer) usr ('Al.EX (Galaxy Evolution Explorer) USA
Far-ultraviolet space obseruatory rlr, , ,l(.t space obseruatory

SPECIFICATION:
MANUFAcTuRER: Orbital Sciences
Corporation
LAUNcH oArE: April 28,2001
oRBrr: 694 x 700 km (431.2 x
415 mi), 28.99. inclinetion
LAUNcH MAss: 280 kg (617 lb)
LAUNcH strE: Cape Canaveral,
Florida (air launch)
LAUNcHER: Pegasus XL
BoDy DtMENstoNs: I x 2.5 m
(3 x 6.a ft)
PAyLoAD: Ielescope with 2
ultraviolet detectors

FUSE is a NASA Origins mission developed and SPECIFICATION:


operated by Johns Hopkins University in uaruucruarn: Johns Hopkins
University Applied Physics
collaboration with NASA Goddard Space Flight Laboratory
Center, CNES, the Canadian Space Agency, the LAUNcH DATE: June 24, 1999
oRBrr:745 x 750 km (463 x
University of Colorado, and the University of 47 2 mi), )5' i nclination
LAUNcH MAss: 1360 kg (2992 lb)
California, Berkeley. It is the first large-scale space LAUNcH srrE: Cape Canaveral,
mission to be fully planned and operated by an Florida r,Al lrX is a NASA Small Explorer-class mission. The orbiting space
LAUNcHER: Delta ll 7320 telescope
academic department of a university. Its three- goov oruersrons: 0.9 x 0.9 x r,,1, il3nedtoobserveamilliondistantgalaxiesinultravioletlightinorder
year prime mission was to obtain high-resolution 1.3m(3x3x4.3ft)
PAYLoaD: FUSE spectrograph
t,
' rrr rrlcrstand how the galaxies evolve. Led by the California Institute of
spectra offaint galactic and extra-galactic objects ; , r i r r r ology, GALEX is conducting several unique sky surveys, including an
at far-ultraviolet wavelengths. The box-shaped bus , .tr rrt:rlactic, ultraviolet all-s\ survey. During its 29-month prime mission, it
carries two solar arrays. Most ofthe spacecraft is the first comprehensive map of galaxies . By
l,r , ', lrrr:ed 2007 , it had sent back
taken up by a single instrument, mounted on top tlr,)r ilnds of ultraviolet images.
ofthe spacecraft, which contains four aligned lrc spacecraft is a cylinder composed primarily of aluminium. The
I
telescopes. Light is focused by four curved mirrors tlri ( rxis-stabilized spacecraft carries two gyroscope systems, four reaction
onto four spectrograph gratings. In December
',,'lr, ' ls, 2n6 magnetic torquer bars and coil. pointing is determined using a
200I, two reaction wheels failed in quick ',rr'( nsor and a startracker.Two fixed gallium arsenide solar arrays
succession, leaving the satellitein safe mode. Full 1,r r r 1;lls 290 W of power.
science operations resumed in March 2002 after i\ll science observations are made when the satellite is within Earth,s
modification of flight-control software. A third lr.r,iow; thc spacecraft recharges its batteries and communicates with ground
reaction wheel was lost in 2004, but full I rt rons during the daylight passes. Mission operations are conducted from a
operations resumed in January 2006. It also ,, r rr r iD Dulles,Virginia, managed by Orbital Sciences Corporation.
survived an anomaly with the only surviving
reaction wheel in May 2007. The mission ended on
October 18,2007.
250 251
GLAST (Gamma-Ray Large Area Space Telescope) usn (rr.rvitf Probe B usa
Gamma-ray space obsewatory r I r ir .t( irr's general theory ofrelativity
SPECIFICATION:
SPECIFICATION:
ullurrcrunec: General
Dynamics C4 Systems (formerly mrruuracrunrn: Stanford
Spectrum Astro) university
LAUNcH oArE:.January 31, 2008) LAUNcH oarE: April 20,2004
oRBrr: 555 km (350 mi),28.50 onar: 640 x 646 km (390 x
inclination 401 mi), 90. inclination
LAUNcH MAss:4277 kg (9a29 lb) LAUNcH MAss: lt45 kg (6913 lb)
LAUNcH srrE: Cape Canaveral, rqurucs srrr: Vandenbers.
Florida Calrfor nia
LAUNcNER: Delta 2920H,10 TAUNCHER: Delta ll 7920
soDY DrMENsroNs:2.8 x 2.5 m BoDy DlMENstoNs:6.4 x 2.6 m
(e.2 x 8.2 ft) (2r x 8.7 ft)
PAYLoAD: Large-Area Telescope PAyLoAD: Gp-B telescope
(LAT); GLAST Burst Monitor
(GBM)

GI.AST is a NASA astronomical satellite thatwill observe the universe in


gamma rays. It has been developed in collaboration with the US Department ,,r rrrty l)robe B was a
NASA/Stanford University experimentto
of Energy and institutions in France, Germany, Japan, Italy, and Sweden. test two
1,r,,1r, trons of Einstein,s general theory of relativity_warping
GI.AST will obserue in the energy range 10 keV-300 GeV. The main t tt t l
of space and
r lr rc to the presence
of the Earth, and,,frame iragging,,
instrument, the LAT, operates like a particle detector rather than a of space_time
'lrrr r'r lhe Earth's rotation by measuring tiny
changes in the direction of spin
conventional telescope. With its very large field ofview, the LAT sees about ,,1 l,iL[ (,yroscopeS.
20V" of the sky at any time. In sky-survey mode, the LAT will cover the entire llrc spacecraft
is built around a dewar filled
with liquid helium. Along
sky every three hours. It is 30 times more sensitive than any telescope in rlrr ri.tv:tr'scentralaxisistheprobe,acanisterthatcontainsheat-absorbing
previous missions, enabling it to detect thousands of new gamma-ray ' il,1,)\vs, a cryopump, and
the science instrument assembly (SiA).
sources. The LAT is expected to detect thousands of extremely bright \'.tlrcn each niobium_coated gyroscope
rotates, a small magnetic field
quasars (blazers), accurately measuring their locations and the energy of
'|r
|
'j'r)ds it' By monitoring the axis of this magnetic fierd, the
'I
direction the
their gamma rays. i t r, t ope's spin axis is pointing can be determined.
The gyroscopes were so
The other instrument, the GBM, will detect roughly 200 gamma-ray rr,, I r orl disturbance that they
provided an almost perfect space_time
bursts per year. The GBM will have a field ofview several times larger than rr lr rr rrce system. Science
operations began onAugust 2S, 2004,and
the l"{T and will provide spectral coverage of gamma-ray bursts from the ,
'r,t rr rrrcd for 50 weeks. The spacecraft transmiteJ
more than a terabyte of
lower limit of the LAT down to 8 keV. The prime mission is five years, with a , .1,, rn)cntal data. Data
collection ended on September 29,2lll,when
goal of 10 years of operations. 1,,;rr ,i lrclium was the
exhausted. First results,... lr.r.d
April2007.
252
253
Herschel EURoPE I ll I I -2 (High-Energy Transient Explorer-2) usa
lnfrared obseruatory llrrst space obseruatory

Herschel (formerly called Far-Infrared and Sub- SPECIFICATION: t ll I L) is the result of an internatlonal collabor_ SPECIFICATION:
millimeter Teiescope, or FIRST) is an ESA infrared MANUFAcTuRER: Alcatel Alenia ,t r', r r rr,lween the US, France, and
Japan. It replaced
i MANUFAcTURER: Massachusetts
LAUNcH DArE: July 20081
mission. Its 3.5 m (11.5 ft) mirror is the largest oRBrT: L2 Lagrange point, tlr, ,,r rllinal HETE spacecraft that was lost in a I nstitute of Technology (M tT)

lauNcH oArE: October 9,2000


Lissajous
ever built for a space telescope. It will collect long- lrlrr, lr Iailure in November 1996. The first mission oRBrr: 598 x 641 km (172 x
LAUNcH MAss: 3300 kg (7260 lb)
199 mi), 1.95o inclination
wavelength radiation from some of the coidest LAUNcH strE: Koutou, French ,lr v'l.rl to gamma-ray bursts, HETE-2 was LAUNCH MAss: 124 kg(273 lb)
G u iana
and most distant objects in the universe. LAUNcHER: Ariane 5 ECA
I rrrrr, lrt d from the Kwajalein Missile Range in the LAUNcH strE: Kwajalein, Marshall
lslands
The service module contains the avionics, BoDY DrMENsroNs: 7.5 x 4 x 4 m r.l rr'lr rll Islands by a pegasus dropped from an LAUNcHER: Pegasus
(24.6 x i3.1 x 13.r ft)
power distribution, communication, attitude PAYtoAD: Heterodyne lnstrumenl I loli;lircraft. BoDY DtMENsroNs:0.9 m x 0.7 m
(2.9 x 2.2 ft)
for the Far lnfrared (HlFl);
control, and propulsion subsystems. On top is the I lliIE-2 has three main instruments sensitive elvroro: French Gamma
Photodetector Array Camera
Telescope (FREGATE); wide-fi eld
payload module containing the liquid helium (PAC); Spectral and Photometric r,, I' uurna and X-radiation; these share a common
X-ray monitor; soft X-ray camera;
lmaging Receiver (SPIRE)
cryostat, science instruments, and telescope. lrr l,l oI view. Within seconds of a burst, HETE_2 Radiation Belt Monitor (RBM);
Global Positioning System (GpS)
Herschel will launch on an Ariane 5 together , rrr , rlculate the precise location
ofa radiation receiver
with ESAs Planck spacecraft. The two spacecraft l,rrr.,t. On
the ground, a dedicated network of l2
will separate after launch and be directly injected lr t, r r only burst-alert stations relays the data to
towards the second Lagrange point ofthe tlrr ir4iT control center. From there, information
Sun-Earth system. Between 4 and 6 months after r I r.r r,;mitted to the Gamma Ray
r
Burst Coordinate
launch, Herschel will be injected into a large I tr',trrlrution Network at NASA Goddard Space
Lissajous orbit around the L2 point at a distance I lrl l I Center, which can send the information
r
to
of around 1.5 million km (932,000 mi) from Earth. , ,tlrr r observatories worldwide in lG-20 sec. HETE_2
No insertion maneuver is needed. The orbit will rll,,r.',; 25119tro-ers to see a burst while it is still
be adjusted roughly once a month. Commission- ,,r , rrr ing and to study its development
at various
ing will take about six months. The nominal ,,.' ri ,.lt,ngths. By March 2007, the reduced
efficiency
operational mission will last three years. ,,1 I lrr, NiCd batteries was limiting operations.

254
255
Hubble Space Telescope (HST) usa,/runope Inh.rrcd Space Observatory (lSO)
Visible-infrared-ultraviolet space obseruatory EURopE
i,,r' il! I .lr,r(c observatory

SPECIFICATION:
MANUFAcTURER: Aerospatiale
LAUNcH oATE: November 17,
1995
oRBrr: 1038 x 70,578 [m (645
x
43,856 mr), 5.2o incljnatron
uurcs vess:2498 kg (5aS6 lb)
LAUNcH strE: Kourou, French
Guiana
TAUNcHER: Ariane 44p
BoDy DrMENsroNs: 5.1 x 3.6 x
2.8 m (f7.4 x lt.S x 9.2 ft)
PAyLoAD: ISO Crmera (ISOCAM)i
ISO Photometer (tSOpHOl:
Short Wave jength Spectrometer
(SWS)i Long Waveiength
Spectrometer (LWS)

HST is a joint NASA-ESA project. It was designed SPECIFICATION:


for a 15-year lifetime, with periodic maintenance urlurlcruptn: Lockheed
LAUNcH DArE: April 24,1990
visits from Shuttle astronauts. The 2.a m (7 .5 ft) oRBrr: 613 x 620 km (381 x
primary mirror collects light from distant objects, 385 mi), 28.5o inclination
LAUNcH MAss:10,843 kg
which is sent to various instruments. Fine (23,855 rb)
guidance sensors lock onto guide stars to ensure LAUNcH strE: Kennedy Space
Center, Florida
extremely high pointing accuracy. LAUNcHER: Space Shuttle
Discouery (STS-31)
Poor images obtained after launch were due BoDY otMENstoNs: I3.3 x 4.'1 m I ',n 1y,,. an ESA
infrared observatory with instruments
to a slightly misshapen mirror. This was corrected (43.6 x 15.4 ft) built by teams led
PAYLoAo: Cosmic Origins lr,r111 lllc UK, Germany, France, and the
during Servicing Mission I (SMl) in December Spectrograph (COS), 2008; Widc.
Netherlands. Operating at wave_
l, rrlltlr,; from 2.Sto 240 p,
1993. Since then, there have been three more field Camera 3 (WFC3),2003; itwas the most sensitive infrared satellite ever
Advanced Camera for Surveys lrrrrr, lrt'd and made studies
servicing missions (SM2, February I997; SM3A, (ACS), 2002; Near lnfrared
of the cool and arrtyr.gi;r* of the universe
,r'; of planets and comets. as
Ca mera/l\,4 u lti-Object 'v,.ll
December 1999; SM3B, March 2002) to replace Spectromeier (NICMOS), 1997;
I lr(r
sateliite comprised a large liquid-helium
instruments, gyros, solar panels, etc. Space Telescope lmaging .
It lr",r opa and
cryostat to cool the
Spectrograph (STIS), 1997; instruments to l.g K (_271.C), two
HST has been operating on two of its four Wide-field Planetary Camera 2 fixed solar arrays that
rlrr r,rt lcd as themal shields,
gyroscopes since August 2005. The STIS failed in (WFPC2), 1993-2008; Correctivc a 0.6 m (2R; t.t.r.op.,
four scientific
Optics Space Telescope Axial lr,,lrrrurents, "nd
2004. Most of the ACS failed in January 2007. A Replacement (COSTAR), 1993-
2008; Wide'fi eld/Planetary Aftcr launch, ISO,s hydrazine
fifth and final SM (4) is planned for September thrusters raised the perigee from
Camera (WF/PC), 1990-1993; , 1.t.t rrri) 5lg km
to 1038 km (6a5 mi). Inside the Van
2008, when astronauts will install two new Goddard High-Resolution Allen belis, ISO,s detectors were
Spectrograph (cHRS), 1990- ,rrrrr',.r1lle; observations
instruments and repair STIS. They wili also attach were possibje almost l7 h a day
1997; Faint Object Spectrograph outside them. The
t,l,rrrrr.r.l lifetime was 20 months, but the
a docking ring to the aft end ofthe telescope for a (FOS), 1990-1997; Faint Object hetirm .ool"nt Iasted until April g,
Ca mera (FOC), 1,990-2002; l',',li A few ofthe detectors in the SWS
future deorbit motor. In 16 years, HST has taken Hi gh-Speed Photometer (HSP), were used for 150 h afterthis,
roughiy 750,000 exposures and studied about 1990- 1993; Fine cuidance ' rrrlrrrl; on May 10. ISo's final orbit was changed so
tt at it wiil burn up in
Sensors (FGS) rlr,,rt,norpn... after 20_30 years.
24,000 celestial objects. By May I99g, ISO had made
,, rr,r I ific observations,
nearly 30,000
r

256
2s7
I ntegra | (l ntern ationa I Gam ma- Ray Astrophysics frttrcs Webb Space Telescope UWST) usA./EURoeE/CANADA
t, rr, I prrcc obsewatory
Laboratory) .r*or.
Gamma-ray space observatory

l,,rrrr, rly known as the Next Generation Space SPECIFICATION:


t, lr ',r o1;e,
JWST is named after a former NASA MANUFACTURER: TRW (now
Northrop Grumman)
,, I rr rr r r r,;trator. It involves international cooperation
LAUNcH DATE:2013?
Integral is a medium-class ESA science mission. SPECIFICATION: r', t!./, , n NASA, ESA, and the Canadian Space oRBrr: L2 Lagrange point, halo
MANUFAcTuRER: Alenia Spazio rauNcH MAss:6200 kg
It is the first space observatory to simultaneously raurucs orre: October 17.200/ i1,, rr, y (CSA), and its mission is to investigate (13,640 lb)
observe celestial objects in gamma-rays, X-rays, oRBrr:9050 x I53,657 km rlr ()r rllin and evolution of galaxies, stars, and LAUNcH srrE: Kourou, French
(5Q4 x 95,480 ml), 52.25' Guiana
and visible light. Its primary goals include incli nation 1,1 rrrr l,rry systems. JWST is considered to be the LAUNcHER: Ariane 5 ECA
eooy orurrsrous: Sunshield,
mapping the remains of exploded stars and LAUNcH MAss: 3958 kg (8708 lb)
,rr ( ( ,sor of the Hubble Space Telescope. It is due
r aurucs stte: Baikonur. 22xI)m(72x39ft)
detecting matter-antimatter collisions. PAY!oAD: Mid-lnfr:red
Kazakhstan
LAUNcHER: Proton
r,,
')l)late for at least five years.
lnstrument (MlRl); Near-lnfrared
Launched into a highly eccentric orbit by AIler launch and transfer,JWST will operate at Camera (NlRCam); Near-lnfrared
BoDY DrMENsroNs: 5 x 3.7 m
Proton K, Integral's thrusters were used to reach (16.4 x t2.l ft) rlr' | .) Lagrange point, I.5 million km (932,000 mi) spectrograph (NlRSpec); Fine
eevroro: lmager on Board thc Guidance Sensor/Tuneable Filter
its operational 72-hour orbit on November l, lntegral Satelllte (lBlS); rv.ry on the night side of the Earth. It has a 6.5 m Imager (FGS[Fl)
2002. Orbit perigee will evolve over five years to Spectrometer on lntegral (5Pl);
'l 1 ll)primary mirror made of silicon carbide.
Joint European X-ray Monitor
12,500 km (77 67 ml) and an inclination of 87o. IEM X); Optical Monitoring r r1,lrl r,; fed to three instruments with superb
Camera (OMC)
Integral carries two main instruments (IBIS and rr rlinrg capability at visible and infrared wave-
SPI) for gamma-ray astrophysics (20 keV-10 MeV)' !, r'lllrs (0.6-28 p). The observatory is always
plus two monitors (JEM-X and OMC) for X-ray rlrl,rrr rl so that the Sun, Earth, and Moon are on
and optical counterparts. IBIS is equipped with the tl', i,rrs side.
first uncooled semiconductor gamma-ray camera. t.JASA is responsible for overall mission manage-
AII instruments observe the same region of the rl ;rnd operations, including construction. It
rrrr
sky simultaneously. Integral was the first .rll Ll,;o provide NIRCam via the University of
observatory to show that most of the diffuse glow \r r, will provide the launch and NIRSpec.
,rua. ESA
of gamma rays in the center of our galaxy is I I is being built by a European consortium and
II li
produced by about 100 individual sources. The I lA',4. FGS/TFI will be provided by the CSA.
mission has been extended until December 2008.

258
)59
Kepler usr I l',A l)athfinder (Laser lnterFerometer Space Antenna)
Search for exoplanets . , ,1r, ,1 1 /11q4

, ,r rr ,rr rl wave technology demonstration

Kepler is a NASA Discovery-class mission designed SPECIFICATION:


to survey our region of the Milky Way galaxy to MANUFAcTuRER: Ball Aerospace
t l',A l',rtlrfinder is the name given to
LAUNcH oArE: February 20091 ESA,s SPECIFICATION:
detect and characterize hundreds of Earth-size oRBrr: Earth-tralling heliocentric r.lA lr |/ spacecraft. It will pave the way for the MANUFAcTURER: EADS Astrium
LAUNcH MAss: 1019 kg (2286 lb)
and smaller planets. The spacecraft is based on the | ',4 I lAs^A LISA
mission by flight-testing two com_
LAUNcH DATE:20101
LAUNcH srrE: Cape Canaveral,
oRBrr: Ll Lagrange point,
design used for Deep Impact. Pointing at a single Florida
i , trrl, ( oncepts for gravitational wave detection. Lissajous orbit
LAUNcHER: Delta-ll 2925-101
group of stars for the entire mission greatly inc- BoDY orMENsroNs: a.7 m (15.a fi) I lrr satellite comprises a science module and
LAUNcH MAss: f900 kg (4180 lb)
LAUNcH srrE: Baikonur,
reases the photometric stability and simplifies the from separation plane to top of
sunshade;2.7 rrr (8.9 ft) max. ' 1,r,,1,rr1:;ion module. The science spacecraft, with Kazakhstan ?
LAUNcHER: Rockotl
spacecraft design. The spacecraft must be rolled diameter of spacecraft bus , rrr r. , ol'420 kg (92a lb), contains the BoDY DrMENstoNs:2.1 x 1.0 m
PAYLoAo: Photometer
90o about the optical axis every three months to .r, trrrrrrt,nts and is covered with a single fixed (6.9 x 1.3 ft)
PAYLoAo: L{SA Technology
keep the solar array aligned with the Sun.
'l rr .rrr;ry. Once in space, the test masses-two Package (LTP); Disturbance

Kepler will operate from an Earth-trailing ,rr rll , rrbes, each 5 cm (2 in) across and made
Reduction System (DRS)
of
heliocentric orbit with a period of 372.5 deys, r',1, I I platinum alloy-will
rr rr
fl oat freely within
meaning it slowly drifts away from the Earth and ,1,' ccraft. When subtle gravitational forces
,1, rr
will be at a distance of up to 74.8 million km ', I r ,11 | l1srn, a laser beam will detect the way they
(46.5 million mi) after four years.