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I. Consult your dictionary for the stress in the following words and try to
remember their translation:

 Vigour [ˈvɪgə] – сила, мощь;

 Inherent [ɪnˈhɪərənt] – присущий;

 Catastrophe [kəˈtæstrəfɪ] – катастрофа;

 Catastrophic [kætəˈstrɒfɪk] – катастрофический, ужасный;

 Conflict [ˈkɒnflɪkt] – конфликт;

 Array [əˈreɪ] – массив, совокупность;

 an impact [ˈɪmpækt] – влияние;

 to impact [ɪmp’ækt] – влиять;

 endeavour [ɪnˈdevə] – стремление, попытка;

 mandate [ˈmændeɪt] – мандат.

II. Translate the following words and word-combinations into Russian:

 Conciliator – посредник, миротворец;

 to wield – обладать (чем-то);

 good offices – добрые услуги;

 mediator – медиатор, посредник;

 to entail – повлечь за собой;

 to hold office – занимать должность;

 sweeping reform package - пакет радикальных реформ;

 rigorous efforts – скрупулезные, энергичные, активные усилия;

 to enhance – усилить, укрепить, повысить;

 to oversee - осуществлять надзор;

 drug trafficking - незаконный оборот наркотиков;

 gross national product - валовой национальный продукт;

 appropriation – апроприация, присвоение;

 as of 15 June - по состоянию на 15 июня;

 reimbursement – возмещение, возвращение;

 logistical – логистический.

III. Find in the text English equivalents to the following:

1. воплощенный – embodied;

2. предотвратить конфликт – to prevent conflict;

3. угрожать – to threaten;

4. модернизация – modernization;

5. строгий – rigorous;

6. внедрение – implementation;

7. прочный – solid;

8. одобрять – to approve;

9. множество – array;

10.неустойчивый – unstable;

11.дефицит – deficiency;

12.добровольный – voluntary;

13.специализированное учреждение – specialized agency;

14.взнос – contribution;

IV. Explain in English and give synonyms to:

1. vigour - strength, energy, power, enthusiasm

Physical or mental energy and enthusiasm.

2. Tenacious - stubborn, persistent

Holding tightly onto something, or keeping an opinion in a determined way.

3. to stem from – originate from

To start or develop as the result of something.

4. entail - cause , imply, involve

To make something necessary, or to involve something.

5. priority – prime concern

Something that is very important and must be dealt with before other things.

6. long-standing – durable, abiding

Having existed for a long time

7. due - proper, appropriate

Fitting or proper.

8. to upgrade - modernize, improve

To improve the quality or usefulness of something, or change it for something

newer or of a better standard.

9. scale - scope, size

A set of numbers, amounts, etc., used to measure or compare the level of


10. to total - amount to, number, come to

To have as a complete amount, or to calculate this.

11. to amount - equal, total, constitute

To total.

12. to finance – to fund, to pay for

To provide the money needed for something to happen.

13. to provide - ensure, supply

To give something to a person, company, or organization, or to make it

available for them to use.

14. to authorize – empower

To give official permission for something to happen, or to give someone official

permission to do something.

15. to foster – promote, encourage

To encourage the development or growth of ideas or feelings

V. Give antonyms to the following:

 creative – uncreative, uninventive

 to fail – to succeed, to win

 resignation – appointment

 concern – indifference

 to escalate – to mitigate

 contemporary – outdated

 to enhance – to diminish

VI. Give derivatives of the following words and translate them into

 to accelerate (ускорять) – acceleration (ускорение), accelerated

(ускоренный), accelerator (ускоритель), acelerant (ускоритель),
accelerative (ускоряющий)
 solid (основательный) – solidarity (солидарность, единство), solidity
(основательность), solidification (отвердевание), solidify (застывать,
укреплять), solidly (твёрдо)

 to mediate (посредничать) – mediation (посредничество, медиация),

mediator (медиация)

 justicе (юстиция, правосудие) – justify (оправдывать,

подтверждать), justification (оправдание), justified (оправданный,
обоснованный), justifiable (законный, могущий быть оправданным),
justifiably (оправданно, законно), justiciability (возможность
рассмотрения в судебном порядке), justiciable (подсудный)

 drama (драматическое событие, драма) – dramatic (драматичный,

впечатляющий, эффектный), dramatically (резко, явно, наглядно),
dramatize (преувеличивать, инсценировать), dramatist (драматург),
dramatization (инсценировка)

 threat (угроза) – threaten (угрожать), threatened (находящийся под

угрозой), threatening (угрожающий)

 image (образ, имидж) – imagery (изображение, образ), imageable,

(вообразимый), imagine (воображать), imagination (воображение),
imaginary (мнимый), imaginable (воображаемый), imaginative
(одарённый воображением)

VII. Explain in English the following word-combinations and expressions:

1. speak and act for peace – to express the thoughts or opinions and to do
something aimed at establishing the state in which there is no war

2. to take account of the concerns – to consider matters of importance

3. large-scale death and destruction – unusually large in scope event of

dying and demolition

4. to outline priorities – to highlight/summarize primary issues

5. to foster partnership – to encourage cooperation

6. to further the goals and mandates of the UN – to help to progress aims

and long-term international UN missions

7. decades ahead – in the next decades

XI. Fill in the blanks with the given terms from the text.

sensitize, enhance, good offices, empowers, drug-abuse, mediating,

impartiality, long-standing, preventive, stand-off, authority, to threaten.

1. The duties of the Secretariat range from administering peacekeeping

operation to mediating international disputes.
2. Secretariat staff also sensitize and inform the world’s communications
media about the work of the UN.
3. The UN Office in Vienna is the headquarters for United Nations activities
in the fields of international drug-abuse control.
4. They and the Secretary-General take an oath not to seek or receive
instructions from any Government or outside authority.
5. The Secretary-General can influence the international events through his
6. In February 1998 Mr. Kofi Annan went to Baghdad amidst stand-off
between the Security Council and Iraq over weapons inspections.
7. The UN Charter empowers the Secretary-General to bring to the
attention of the Security Council any matter which appears to threaten
international peace and security.
8. To revive the peace process the Secretary-General Kofi Annan has made
use of his good offices in a number of long-standing disputes.
9. The Secretary-General’s stature and impartiality should be used in the
interests of preventive diplomacy.
10.The changes have already had an impact on the Organisation and will
enhance policy-making and coordination throughout the system.

XII. Answer the following questions

1. Name the duties of the Secretariat.
The Secretariat services the other principal organs of the United Nations and
administers the programmes and policies established by them.
 The duties extend from peacekeeping operations mediating international
disputes and organizing humanitarian relief programmes to surveying
economic and social trends, preparing studies on human rights and
sustainable development and laying the groundwork for international
 Secretariat staff also inform the world—the media, governments, NGOs,
research and academic networks and the general public—about the work
of the United Nations.
 They organize international conferences on issues of global significance;
interpret speeches and translate documents into the Organization’s
official languages; and establish clearing-houses of information, making
possible international collaboration in all areas of science and technology,
as well as cultural, economic and social activities.
2. Who is at the head of the Secretariat?
At its head is the Secretary-General, who is appointed by the General Assembly
on the recommendation of the Security Council for a renewable five-year term.
3. What can you say about the staff of the Secretariat?
The UN Secretariat consists of 44,000 staff members all nationalities working in
duty stations around the world.
4. Who do they answer to for their activities?
As international civil servants, staff members and the Secretary-General answer
to the United Nations alone for their activities, not to any member state or other
organization, even as they serve the community of nations.
5. The United Nations Headquarters is situated in New York only, isn’t it?
The United Nations headquartered in New York.
6. How is the Secretary-General described by the Charter?
The Charter describes the Secretary-General as “chief administrative officer” of
the Organization, who acts in that capacity and performs such other functions as
are entrusted to him or her by the Security Council, General Assembly,
Economic and Social Council and other United Nations organs.
7. What does the task demand in real life?
Creative tension accompanies the Secretary-General throughout each day—in
attendance at sessions of United Nations bodies as well as consultations with
world leaders, government officials, civil society representatives, members of
the private sector and private individuals—and drives the search for solutions to
problems that acknowledge the perspective of individual member states in the
context of the needs of the world at large. At the same time, the travels of the
Secretary-General allow him to keep in touch with the citizens of member states
and be informed at first-hand about how issues occupying the international
agenda concretely affect the lives of people everywhere.
8. Why is the person defined both as Secretary and General?
The Secretary-General is equal parts diplomat and advocate, civil servant and
chief executive officer.
9. Whose concerns should the Secretary-General take careful account of?
The Secretary-General should take careful account of the needs and concerns of
individual member states, but he should also uphold the values and moral
authority of the United Nations and speak and act independently for peace.
10. What did Mr Kofi Annan do in 1998 to demonstrate the extraordinary
influence the Secretary-General has on international events?
In 1998 Kofi Annan raised the question, whether the international community
should intervene in a country to stop gross, systematic and widespread
violations of human rights.
Mr. Annan undertook wide-ranging diplomatic initiatives. In 1998, he helped to
ease the transition to civilian rule in Nigeria. Also that year, he visited Iraq in an
effort to resolve an impasse between that country and the Security Council over
compliance with resolutions involving weapons inspections and other matters -
an effort that helped to avoid an outbreak of hostilities, which was imminent at
that time.
11. What does the Charter empower the Secretary-General to do?
The Charter also empowers the Secretary-General to bring to the attention of
the Security Council any matter which might threaten the maintenance of
international peace and security.
12. The Secretary-General’s work entails a lot of duties. Speak on them.
 The Secretary-General attends sessions of United Nations bodies as well
as consultations with world leaders, government officials, civil society
representatives, members of the private sector and private individuals
 The Secretary-General brings to the attention of the Security Council any
matter which might threaten the maintenance of international peace and
 The Secretary-General issues an annual report on the work of the
Organization that appraises its activities and outlines future priorities.
 The Secretary-General drives the search for solutions to problems that
acknowledge the perspective of individual member states in the context
of the needs of the world at large
13. Dwell on the “good offices” of the Secretary-General.
One of the most vital roles played by the Secretary-General, however, is the use
of his good offices—steps taken publicly and in private, drawing upon his
independence, impartiality and integrity—to prevent international disputes from
arising, escalating or spreading. Over the years, the good offices of the
Secretary-General—including the work of his special and personal
representatives and envoys—have proven beneficial in a wide range of
situations, including those involving Cyprus, East Timor, Iraq, Libya, the
Middle East, Nigeria and Western Sahara.
14. What has Mr. Kofi Annan made a priority?
As Secretary-General, Mr. Annan has given priority to revitalizing the UN
through a comprehensive programme of reform; strengthening the
Organization’s traditional work in the areas of development and the
maintenance of international peace and security; advocating human rights, the
rule of law and the universal values of equality, tolerance and human dignity;
restoring public confidence in the Organization by reaching out to new partners
and, in his words, by “bringing the United Nations closer to the people”. The
Secretary-General has also taken a leading role in mobilizing the international
community in the battle against HIV/AIDS, and more recently against the
global terrorist threat.
15. When did Mr. Annan present a sweeping reform package?
In March 2005, Annan presented his most comprehensive reform and policy
agenda to date. His report "In Larger Freedom" addressed issues such as
terrorism, financing for development, enlarging the Security Council and
replacing the Human Rights Commission. It also asked for the creation of a new
Human Rights Council, and proposed reforms for the UN Secretariat.
16. Was it adopted by the General Assembly and did it have an impact on the
The establishment of the Human Rights Council was part of a comprehensive
UN reform effort by former Secretary-General Kofi Annan outlined in his 2005
report, ‘In Larger Freedom: Towards Development, Security, and Human
Rights for All’. But in general reform package wasn’t adopted. After several
months of negotiation, the United States demanded hundreds of line-by-line
revisions just three weeks before the Summit. As a result, other states proposed
new amendments of their own and the negotiating consensus unraveled.
Eventually, when world leaders assembled in New York, the text had been
reduced to a set of vague generalities.
17. Why was a new post of Deputy Secretary-General created?
The post of Deputy Secretary-General was established by the General Assembly
at the end of 1997 as part of the reform of the United Nations, to help manage
Secretariat operations and to ensure coherence of activities and programmes.
18. What measures have been taken to consolidate programmes relating to
development, human rights, etc.?
 The United Nations Peacebuilding Commission supports peace efforts in
countries emerging from conflict. 
 The United Nations has devoted its attention and resources to promoting
living standards and human skills and potential throughout the world.
Since 2000, this work has been guided by the Millennium Development
 Since the General Assembly adopted the Universal Declaration of Human
Rights in 1948, the United Nations has helped to enact dozens of legally
binding agreements on political, civil, economic, social and cultural
19. Who made a $ 1 billion contribution to the UN in 1997 and what do you
know about the man?

CNN founder and Time Warner vice chairman Ted Turner announced on 19 th
September 1997 that he will donate $1 billion over the next decade to United
Nations programs.

XIII. Are the following statements true or false?

1. The Secretariat carries out the diverse day-to-day work of the UN

Organisation. (True)

2. The Secretariat is an international staff working in New York, Geneva and

Vienna. (False)

3. The Secretary-General who is appointed for a four-year term is at the head of

the Secretariat. (False)

4. The duties carried out by the Secretariat are not as varied as the problems
dealt with by the United Nations. (False)

5. The UN Office in Geneva is a centre for conference diplomacy. (True)

6. The Secretary-General is much more than “chief administrative officer”.

7. Mr. Kofi Annan is the present Secretary-General who took the office on 1
January 1996. (False)

8. The extraordinary influence Mr. Kofi Annan can wield over international
events is demonstrated very often. (True)

9. Each year the Secretary-General issues a report on the work of the Security
Council. (False)

10. Mr. Kofi Annan has made reform of the Court of Justice a priority of his
administration. (False)

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