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МИНИСТЕРСТВО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ РЕСПУБЛИКИ БЕЛАРУСЬ

М.В. Койрович, Т.Н. Яковчиц

MASS MEDIA VOCABULARY COURSE

ЛЕКСИКА СРЕДСТВ МАССОВОЙ ИНФОРМАЦИИ

Минск 2010

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Предисловие
Предлагаемое пособие адресовано студентам, продолжающим изучать
английский язык. Оно дает возможность развить и совершенствовать навыки
чтения и понимания оригинальных текстов общественно-политического
характера, выработать навыки устной речи на базе общественно-политической
лексики. Цель пособия – формирование лексических и коммуникативных
навыков, получение студентами так называемых фоновых знаний (знаний об
общественно-политических, социальных и культурных реалиях).
Цель пособия определила содержание его разделов, выбор учебных
текстов, разработку тренировочных упражнений. Пособие состоит из семи
разделов, отражающих основную общественно-политическую тематику
современных средств массовой информации. Условно в этих разделах можно
выделить два блока: глобально-международная тематика (международные
отношения, официальные визиты, переговоры, международные конфликты и
процесс мирного урегулирования, права человека) и общественно-политическая
тематика, актуальная для англоязычных стран (работа и занятость, безработица и
социальное обеспечение, выборы). Таким образом, охватываются все важнейшие
общественно-политические темы, которые освещаются в СМИ.
Основная масса упражнений посвящена расширению и активизации
лексического запаса студентов, что согласуется с общей направленностью
пособия. Упражнения отличаются разнообразием, новая лексика получает выход
в коммуникацию посредством соответствующих упражнений. Темы, о которых
шла речь в текстах, находят своё развитие в дискуссиях, что требует от
студентов знаний текущих событий, освещаемых в СМИ, и, в свою очередь,
способствует повышению общего уровня владения языком.
Данное пособие многофункционально и может быть успешно
использовано как для аудиторной, так и для самостоятельной работы.

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CONTENTS

Предисловие 2

Unit 1. EMPLOYMENT. WORK. JOBS. 4


Unit 2. UNEMPLOYMENT. WELFARE. 25
Unit 3. ELECTIONS. 41
Unit 4. DIPLOMACY. 57
Unit 5. VISITS. TALKS. AGREEMENTS. 85
Unit 6. WAR CONFLICTS AND PEACE PROCESS 103
Unit 7. HUMAN RIGHTS. 126

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UNIT 1. EMPLOYMENT. WORK. JOBS
VOCABULARY
Study the meaning of the following words and word-combinations, give their Russian equivalents.

work
backbreaking work; exhausting/tiring work; shoddy/slipshod/sloppy work;
undercover work; paper/clerical work; to work hard/strenuously; to work like a
horse /dog /beaver /slave; to work one's tail off/to work double tides; to work
overtime/to be on overtime
job
to get/land/take a job; to hunt for/look for a job; to give up a job/to quit a job;
cushy job; full-time job; part-time job; flexible working hours/flexitime; job-
sharing; nine-to-five job; odd job; apply for a job; bonus job; hour job; job
creation; overseas job vacancies
discrimination
to practice discrimination; age/religious/sexual/racial/race/employment/wage/
job discrimination; complaint/grievance
career
brilliant/distinguished career; promising career; turbulent career; academic/
diplomatic/literary/military/political/public/stage career; make a career for; to
carve out a career as a diplomat; to enter on a career/to launch a career; to
abandon/give up one's career
strike, walkout, industrial action, stoppage
to call/organize a strike; to go on strike; to avert a strike; to break (up) a strike;
to conduct/stage a strike; to be on strike; call off a strike; strike ballot; labour
union/trade union; hunger strike; general strike; quickie strike; sit-down strike;
sympathy strike; wildcat strike; cripple; halt/standstill; give in to demand; back
down/climb down; escalate/step up; blackleg/scab/strikebreaker; picket; picket
line; reach a settlement; arbitrator/mediator; to mediate/to arbitrate

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pay
salary; to attach smb's salary; to boost/raise salaries; to
command/draw/earn/get/ receive a salary; to cut/reduce/slash salaries; to
negotiate a salary; to pay a salary; annual salary; handsome salary;
meager/modest salary; fixed salary; wages; to draw/earn a wage;
living/decent/minimum wage; wage scale; remuneration; income; gross
income/net income; earnings; payment; fee; pension; sick pay; grant;
commission; well-paid/to have a high income/to earn a lot; poorly-paid/badly-
paid; a pay/salary/wage increase; pay/wage rise; a pay cut; a reduction in pay;
pay-day; payslip; pay packet; take-home pay; benefits package; fringe benefits/
perks; headhunt
giving smb a job
position/post; vacancy; to take smth/to accept smth; to turn smth down; to
employ smb as smth/to take smb on/to recruit smb; to hire smb; to appoint smb
to smth; freelance; self-employed

Exercise 1. Match the terms to their definitions.


To hire, gross income, sick pay, payslip, salary, fee, deduction, vacancy, freelance,
take-home pay, pay, pay packet, wages, commission, payment
1. Money that you get regularly for work you have done. 2. Money which is paid
monthly into your bank account. 3. Money which is paid daily or weekly in cash. 4.
Money for work that is done only once, or which is not done regularly. 5. Money that
is received for professional work, for example by a lawyer or doctor. 6. Money that is
given to a person who is ill and unable to work. 7. Money that is paid to sb for selling
sth. 8. The piece of paper which shows how much you are being paid. 9. The envelope
containing a person's wages. 10. Money taken away from your pay, for example for
tax. 11. The amount of money you have left after tax, etc has been taken away. 12.
Your total income, before tax, etc is taken away. 13. A job or a post that is not
occupied. 14. To give sb a job for a short time. 15. To do work for different employers
and to be paid separately for each piece of work.

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Exercise 2. Give terms to the following definitions (using your active vocabulary).
a. 1. An arrangement by which two people both work part-time doing the same job. 2
A system in which people work a particular number of hours each week or month, but
can change the times at which they start and finish each day. 3. Someone who has a …
job works for only part of each day or week. 4. Time that you spend working at your
job after you have worked the normal hours. 5. To damage something severely, or to
prevent it from working properly. 6. Something that you get legally from your work in
addition to your wages, such as goods, meals, or a car. 7. Someone who finds people
with the right skills and experience to do particular jobs, and who tries to persuade
them to leave their present jobs. 8. To treat a person or group differently from another
in an unfair way. 9. Unfair treatment of people because they are old. 10. To stop
something that you are doing or planning to do. 11. A period of time when a group of
workers deliberately stop working because of a disagreement about pay, working
conditions etc.
b. 12. An organization, usually in a particular trade or profession that represents
workers, especially in meetings with employers. 13. A situation in which there is no
movement or activity at all. 14. To make something unable to operate normally. 15. To
accept that you are defeated in a game, fight, competition etc. 16. If fighting, violence,
or a bad situation … it becomes much worse. 17. Someone who continues to work
when other workers are on strike. 18. When a group of people stand or march in front
of a shop, factory, government building etc to protest about something. 19. To prevent
something unpleasant from happening. 20. To officially decide that something should
be stopped after it has already started. 21. A person or organization that tries to end a
quarrel between two people, groups, countries etc by discussion.

Exercise 3. Fill in the gaps with the necessary words from the box.
avert, picket, commute, paralyse, part-time, job-sharing, perks, standstill,
headhunters, discriminating, grievance, strike, ageism, labour union, escalating,
arbitrate

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1. Kendall … to work into the city every day from Waltham. 2. She wants to work …
after she's had the baby. 3. Posts which can not be filled should be considered as to
their suitability for a … arrangement. 4. One of the … of working for a fashion
designer is that you get to wear lots of nice clothes. 5. Do you ever ask … to recruit a
whole team? 6. A test is useful for … those students who have reached a higher level
from those at a lower level. 7. Even staff as young as 40 are victims of … by ambitious
newcomers trying to take over their jobs. 8. And Mr Arbor has another … against the
Merc. 9. When union bosses called a … in protest over low pay, the response was
overwhelming. 10. Some workers refused to join the … . 11. Strike action has … the
region's public transport system. 12. If the electric power could be cut, industry
everywhere would be brought to a … . 13. The fighting on the border is … . 14. There
was a mass … by students outside the main office of the university. 15. Talks will be
held today in a final attempt to … strike action. 16. A local magistrate has been asked
to … between farmers and conservationist groups.

Exercise 4. Give synonyms to the underlined words using your active vocabulary.
1. A competitive salary with fringe benefits will be offered. 2. Teachers went on strike
last week to demand job security. 3. The farm worker has himself contributed, though
as often as not by leaving the industry rather than by joining a trade union. 4. And Mr
Arbor has another complaint against the Merc. 5. The carpenter I hired did such a
sloppy job that I finally had to fix the roof myself. 6. Discrimination was highest for
male, junior clerical jobs, management trainees and accountants, and lowest for female
clerical jobs. 7. He gave up his career of a lawyer. 8. He launched his career of a
doctor. 9. Strikers brought production to a standstill. 10. We do not want to escalate
the war. 11. Picketing gave way to marches through factories, when workers would
chase blacklegs and occasionally kidnap managers. 12. A committee will arbitrate
between management and unions. 13. He had a brilliant career of a teacher. 14. She got
a job as a secretary. 15. She has been looking for a job for more than a year.

Exercise 5. Give antonyms to the underlined words using your active vocabulary.

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1. She's a part-time bartender. 2. They refused to obey the court's order to call off the
strike. 3. He had a cushy job. 4. She got a job as a secretary. 5. I don’t want a boring
nine-to-five job. 6. He gave up his career of a lawyer.
Exercise 6. Give English equivalents.
Скользящий график, разделенная ставка, неполный рабочий день,
дополнительные льготы, подбирать высококвалифицированные кадры, выходное
пособие, расовая дискриминация, забастовка, объявить забастовку, голосование
за проведение забастовки, профсоюз, наносить ущерб, остановка, уступать
требованиям, обострять, штрейкбрехер, предотвратить забастовку, прекратить
забастовку, прийти к соглашению, посредник, посредничать, тяжелый труд,
недобросовестный труд, шпионская деятельность, получить работу, искать
работу, непыльная работенка, блестящая карьера, начать подъем по служебной
лестнице, подавлять забастовку, спонтанная забастовка, стихийная забастовка.

Exercise 7. Give Russian equivalents.


Nine-to-five job, flexitime, job-sharing, commute, teleworker, benefits package, fringe
benefits, perks, headhunter, golden handshake, ageism, sexual harassment, grievance,
settlement, cripple, halt, paralyse, complete standstill, give in to demands, back down,
climbdown, step up a strike, picket line, scab, avert a strike, call off a strike, reach a
settlement, arbitrator, mediate.

Exercise 8. Choose the correct answer to complete the following sentences.


1. I couldn’t live on my salary alone. I rely on … from the sales I make.
1) tips b) fringe benefits c) commission
2. He … last week in protest at the way the management handled the takeover bid.
a) resigned b) fired c) sacked
3. She earns £ 40,000 a year as a lawyer but also has investments, so her total …
exceeds £ 60,000 p.a.
4. As a nurse or a pilot you have to be prepared to work …
a) part-time b) freelance c) shifts
5. Most of the workforce were … last week as orders for cars fell to an all-time low.
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a) given the sack b) made redundant c) laid off
6. In order to satisfy increased demand, the staff … .
a) overworked b) worked over c) worked overtime
7. Jack lost his job last month and is now … .
a) on strike b) on the dole c) unemployed
8. I am an electrician and I am my own boss. I am … .
a) an employee b) an employer c) self-employed
9. It must be very soul destroying to work in a dead-end job where there is no chance
of … .
a) job satisfaction b) promotion c) working conditions
10. It is important that the people should receive the right … for the jobs of the future.
a) training b) apprenticeship c) qualifications
11. Trade union leaders and management are negotiating about the possibility of a 35-
hour … .
a) work week b) time at work c) working week

Exercise 9. Fill in the gaps with the following words:


a) salary, wage, income, fee.
1. Dr Allison charges a … of $90 for a consultation. 2. The amount of tax you have to
pay depends on your … . 3. Elvina earns an hourly … of $11. 4. Johansen reportedly
earns an annual … of $4 million. 5. Most of the new jobs in the area only pay the
minimum … . 6. Braund's annual … is just over $40,000. 7. Richard has a comfortable
… from his salary and his investments.
b) job, work, career
1. I wanted to find out more about … in publishing. 2. He's been out of … for two
years. 3. Do you enjoy your …? 4. … prospects within the company are excellent. 5.
Eventually, Mary got a … as a waitress. 6. I'm looking for a new …. Eventually, 7.
There isn't a lot of … at this time of the year. 8. Daniel starts his new … on Monday.
9. My … as an English teacher didn't last long. 10. Alexander commutes 30 miles to
… each day. 11. The scandal destroyed his … as a politician. 12. Dad's at … right
now.
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c) earn, make, gain
1. His one aim in life was to … money. 2. He … nearly £20,000 a year. 3. I have … a
lot of useful experience. 4. He soon … the respect of the players. 5. Her problems
seem to have … her more support from the public. 6. She was … good money at the
bank. 7. His ideas are … a lot of support. 8. He did all sorts of jobs to … a living. 9.
He's … a fortune selling computers on the Internet.10. Ella … a lot of money.
d) business, job, living, work
1. Jack makes his … working as a journalist. 2. She has just left to go to …, I’m afraid.
3. They worked very hard to have their own … . 4. There are still nearly two million
people without … . 5. The cost of … has risen greatly over recent years. 6. Stop
interfering! It’s none of your … . 7. Lucy has a very good … in an international
company. 8. I can’t come out tonight. I’ve got too much … to do. 9. Some … - men
came and dug a hole in the road outside. 10. An early … by Picasso was sold for
$2,000,000.

Exercise 10. Choose the most suitable word or phrase underlined in each sentence.
1. The building workers were paid their income/salary/wages every Friday. 2. She’s
only here for three weeks. It’s a/an full-time/overtime/temporary job. 3. When he
retired he received a monthly bonus/pension/reward. 4. Apparently she
earns/gains/wins over $20,000 a year. 5. While the boss is away, Sue will be in
charge/in control/in place of the office. 6. Could I have two days away/off/out next
week to visit my mother? 7. When I left the job, I had to hand in my
application/dismissal/notice three weeks beforehand. 8. How much exactly do you
do/make/take in your new job? 9. If you have to travel on company business, we will
pay costs/expenses/needs.

Exercise 11. Translate into English using your active vocabulary.


1. У нее двое детей, но она работает полный рабочий день. 2. Она хочет
вернуться на работу на неполный рабочий день. 3. Следует поощрять желание
работников работать по скользящему графику. 4. Мой отец жил в пригороде в
собственном доме, и каждый день ездил в город в офис. 5. Комитет заслушал
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жалобу. 6. Электрики объявили забастовку и не прекратят ее до тех пор, пока их
требования не будут удовлетворены. 7. Работа совсем остановилась. 8. Слова
докладчика заставили его оппонента отступить. 9. Работа стюардессы это
тяжелый труд, но мы получаем хорошие дополнительные льготы. 10.
Иммигранты столкнулись с сексуальной агрессией и расовой дискриминацией.
11. Лидеры профсоюзов и руководство компании встречаются завтра, чтобы
прийти к соглашению. 12. Учителя объявили забастовку и потребовали
увеличения зарплаты. 13. Рабочие бастуют уже 8 месяцев. 14. Они отказались
подчиниться постановлению суда прекратить забастовку. 15. Всеобщая
забастовка водителей парализовала систему общественного транспорта. 16.
Правительство отказалось уступить их требованиям. 17. Более 1200 учителей
пикетировали здание мерии в тот день. 18. Очень мало рабочих изъявили
желание пересечь заслон пикетчиков. 19. Сегодня будут вестись переговоры по
предотвращению еще одной забастовки. 20. Он занимался шпионской
деятельностью для полиции.

Task 1. Read the following texts and answer the questions that follow. Explain the
meaning of the words and expressions in bold. Use them in the discussion of the
texts.
WORK AND EMPLOYMENT
When we speak about employment we usually mean paid work done by a person or a
group of people. Labour, in its turn, refers to the routine work that people do in their
jobs, whether it is performing manual labour, managing employees, or providing
skilled professional services. Manual labour usually refers to physical work that
requires little formal education or training, such as shoveling dirt or moving furniture.
Managers include those who supervise other workers. Examples of skilled
professionals include doctors, lawyers, and dentists. Very often managers and skilled
professionals are called white collar workers, as their job does not involve manual
labour.
The main goal of economic and social reforms of the 19th and 20th centuries
was full employment, that is availability of living-wage jobs for all employable
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citizens. But still many people work part-time, that is performing their professional
duties only a part of the regular working time. With growing number of people out of
work job sharing becomes more and more popular. This is the practice of dividing a
full time job between two people so that each works for half the time. There also exists
informal employment, or paid work on a casual basis. Jobs are irregular, and workers
are often self-employed without earning pensions and without paying taxes. This sort
of employment is common in the urban areas of developing countries; for example, in
Mexico City. It may involve service jobs of the lower industrial sector-cleaning shoes
or selling bottled water as well as craft industries. Informal employment also includes
illegal activities such as theft, prostitution, and selling drugs.
With technological advances, more and more people resort to telecommuting.
They work away from the employer's office building, often at home, but maintain
close contact with coworkers and managers through electronic mail, telephone, and
facsimile transmission. In some situations, telecommuting can increase an employee's
productivity; it also decreases time spent driving to and from the office and decreases
pollution from automobiles. Some managers feel uncomfortable with the lack of direct
supervision they have over their telecommuting employees, and some employees may
dislike telecommuting because of the isolation from coworkers.
The total number of people a company employs is the payroll or the workforce.
If there are too many employees the company is overstaffed and it has to let its
employees go. In this case we are talking about downsizing, or rightsizing. When the
employees have no choice the redundancies are compulsory. But when the employees
can choose to leave, the redundancies are voluntary. The payroll can also be reduced
by natural wastage, with employees leaving over a period of time for usual reasons.
1. What do we mean when we speak about labour and employment?
2. What is the difference between manual labour and white collar workers?
3. What are the different types of employment mentioned in the text? Speak on
each of them. Can you add any other types of employment?
4. What are the new types of employment? What are their advantages and
disadvantages both for the employer and employee?
5. When do we observe downsizing or rightsizing?
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WAGES
Wages, in economic theory, are the price paid for labour. Wages consist of all
payments that compensate individuals for time and effort spent in the production of
economic goods and services. The payments include not only wages in the ordinary,
narrow sense-the earnings, computed generally on an hourly, daily, weekly, or output
basis, of manual and clerical workers but also weekly, monthly, or annual salaries of
professional and supervisory personnel; bonuses added to regular earnings;
premiums for night or holiday work or for work exceeding stated norms of quantity
and quality; fees and retainers for professional services; and that part of the income of
business owners that compensates them for time devoted to business.
Wages may be reckoned at time rates, piece rates, or incentive rates. Wage
earners on time rates may be docked for days, hours, or even minutes of absence or
idleness, but salaried workers usually receive fixed sums for each pay period, whether
or not they are continuously on the job. Workers on piece rates are remunerated
uniformly for each unit output. Those receiving incentive wages are paid according to
formulas relating output to earnings in ways designed to induce higher production.
A high rate of pay does not ensure large annual earnings. Construction workers
are paid relatively high hourly rates, but their annual income often is low because of
the irregularity of their employment. In addition, nominal wages do not reflect real
earnings accurately. During a period of inflation the real value of wages may fall
although nominal wages rise, because the cost of living rises more rapidly than
monetary earnings. Deductions from wages for income taxes, social security taxes,
pension payments, union dues, insurance premiums, and other charges further
reduce the worker's take-home pay.
Apart from the salary or wages, employers may offer non-financial reward,
containing a number of fringe benefits or more informally perks, such as company
cars, free private medical care, and free pension entitlement. However, an employee
may be rewarded, for example, by being given a better office or a bigger budget to
control, or by being given the choice of where to take a posting in a company. Perks
are used to motivate staff. But nonfinancial rewards can be very cost-effective for
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companies because, in contrast with a pay increase, little, or no income tax or national
insurance contributions are paid.
1. Give the definition of wages. What is the difference between wages and
salaries?
2. How can wages be reckoned?
3. Do nominal wages reflect real earnings accurately? What deductions are made
from wages?
4. What is take-home pay?
5. How can employers motivate their staff?

LABOUR RELATIONS
Labour Relations include, broadly, all dealings, transactions, and activities
affecting the determination and enforcement of the terms and conditions of
employment. The association of workers established to improve their economic and
social conditions is a trade union. This organization represents its members in
determining wages and· working conditions through the process of collective
bargaining with the employer. Collective bargaining, in labour relations, refers to
negotiations between employers and employees (who are usually represented by a
labour union) about terms and conditions of employment. The bargaining process is
concerned with wages, working hours, fringe benefits, job security, safety, and
other matters relating to working conditions. Any or all of these may be the subject of
consideration. Besides representatives of management and unions, private mediators
and government officials sometimes participate, especially when a major or vital
industry is involved. Collective bargaining, which began in Britain in the 19th century,
is now a crucial part of the labour union movement and an accepted practice in many
industrial nations. In many countries a union is the economic arm of a broad labour
movement that may include a political party and a cooperative organization. In the
United States and other nations where no such formal ties exist, unions themselves
may engage in political activities, including lobbying for legislation and supporting
political candidates favourable to labour. Many unions also provide employment
services, insurance protection, and other benefits to members and their families.
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The goals and activities of European trade unions differ considerably from those
of trade unions in the U.S. In Europe customs and laws bearing on labour relations are
often basically dissimilar even in neighboring countries. European trade unions are
primarily national organizations allied closely with political movements and parties.
By contrast, the trade union movement in the U.S. developed with a marked degree
of uniformity. The typical U.S. trade union is primarily a local organization devoted to
the advancement and protection of the economic interests of its members. It usually
has national and statewide affiliations but no loyalty to a particular political ideology.
The larger employers of labour now have labour relations, or industrial
relations, departments dealing with problems in the negotiation and administration of
agreements. Such departments are usually divided into two branches, one responsible
for day-to-day administration of agreements relating to wages and salaries, the other
responsible for such matters as assignments to work, schedules of work, layoffs,
promotions, discipline, grievances, and arbitration.
Many international unions adapted their organizational structures to those of the
principal companies with which they deal. These unions have specialists trained and
assigned to deal with management specialists in matters relating to negotiations,
grievances, arbitration, legal services, social security and welfare services, industrial
engineering, economics, and public relations.
Dealings between most modern-day representatives of management and unions
have been characterized by mutual respect, the product of years of negotiation and
joint administration of agreements.
This attitude of mutual confidence has fostered more cooperative labour relations
than formerly prevailed. Labour-management arbitration has also contributed to
industrial peace because it substituted the binding award of a respected neutral for the
exertion of economic force during the term of a collective agreement. Although labour
and management continue to differ on various economic problems, they generally
realize that neither group can reach its goals without the assistance of the other.
By the mid-1980s the power of organized labour had decreased markedly. With
more and more people employed in service occupations rather than in manufacturing,

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union membership declined and so did union strength in labour negotiations. This
process was exacerbated by other economic and political factors.
1. What is meant by labour relations?
2. Name all the participants of labour relations.
3. What are the functions of trade unions?
4. Speak on the process of collective bargaining.
5. What is the difference in the goals and activities of European and US trade
unions?

Task 2. The following extract is from a report by British Telecom, who have set up a
project team to evaluate the development of teleworking in Britain. Look first at these
section headings, which are out of order. There are three extra headings which do not
belong to the report. Predict what is discussed in paragraphs with these headings.
Now read the report attentively and match the headings to their correct sections.

16
a. Teleworking and Social Contact f. The Problems of Teleworking
b. The Development of Teleworking g. The Benefits of Teleworking
c. Current Trends in Society h. Career Opportunities in Teleworking
d. A Definition of Teleworking i. Teleworking and Employment Issues
e. The Technology of Teleworking

17
AN OVERVIEW OF TELEWORKING
1. Teleworking encapsulates a whole range of work activities, all of which
entail working remotely from an employer, or normally expected place of work, on
either a full-time or a part-time basis. The work generally involves the electronic
processing of information, the results of which are communicated remotely to the
employer, usually by a telecommunications link.
2. Many informal activities have always been undertaken in the home, the work
of housewives being the most important area. Also, a certain amount of generally
low-skilled formal employment in the home has continued. People involved in this
type of work are referred to as traditional homeworkers. There are also a number of
professional jobs that have traditionally been carried out in the home, including
writing and illustrating.
The advances in computer technology since the early sixties has led to the rise of
new homeworkers. These are, typically, computing professionals, such as systems
analysts and programmers, who work at home. The convergence of computer
technology and communications technology over the past three decades to form
information technology has made it possible to decentralise many types of work
involving the electronic processing of information.
Remote areas of Britain are now seeing the development of teleservice centres
(informally known as telecottages). The idea for these rural work centres comes
originally from Sweden, where they have been developed as community assets to
overcome the problems of rural isolation. The basic aim of a teleservice centre is to
provide access to computers and telecommunications equipment. British Telecom is
supporting the development of such centres in Derbyshire and the Highlands and
Islands of Scotland

3. Not all jobs are suitable for teleworking. Those that depend on personal “face
to face” contact or that require “hands on” operation cannot be done by a teleworker.
This includes jobs such as receptionist, counter clerk and makers of goods that
require complex machinery to produce.

18
Jobs suitable for teleworking are mostly those that are primarily concerned
with the handling, processing, transforming and dissemination of information. The
number of people employed in this type of information intensive job is growing
significantly as a proportion of the workforce. Information intensive functions can be
broadly split into two types: high level and clerical. High level information intensive
individuals are professional people who process information as a major part of their
job. Examples include systems analysts, accountants and specialist consultants.
Clerical information operatives process information in a very simple way. Tasks
include input and manipulation of information (e.g. processing forms). Desk top
computers and reliable data communications services have allowed the development
of this type of work.
4. The future of teleworking will be dependent on two sets of forces: economic
and social. Economic forces are the result of technical developments that not only
make teleworking possible, but also in certain circumstances make it an economic
benefit to employers and the country at large.
Social forces are the result of changes in employees’ lifestyles and aspirations
coupled with other changes in society. Changes in the age profile of the population
will cause demand for skilled workers to exceed supply. Many people unable to work
in the traditional way (e.g. disabled and handicapped) will be able to take up jobs for
the first time because of teleworking. This will help to overcome the skills shortage.
5. The chief advantage to employees is that less time, money and effort are spent
on travelling to and from the workplace. For city-based workers who commute daily,
this represents a major saving. Related to this is the wider choice of areas to live in
once the constraint of travel is removed.
The flexibility that teleworking will give over hours of work will be a great
advantage to parents with young children. It will also attract those who care for
elderly or disabled relatives. Retired people may also use teleworking as a way of
working part-time.
The employer can benefit from teleworking in three main ways: increased
productivity, reduced costs and a wider pool of potential employees. Since people are

19
generally happier in their jobs, it is easier for the employer to attract and retain
employees.
6. Teleworking could give rise to a number of unwelcome complications for the
employee and the employer. The impact of these has yet to be assessed but there will
obviously be a trade-off between the advantages and the disadvantages of
teleworking.
A major concern for any employee is the possibility of having a lower profile as
a teleworker within an organisation. Since a teleworker is not physically present in
the employing organisation, he or she may not be seen as an equal to the on-site
employees. The consequences of this could be lack of promotion opportunities.
Some teleworkers may miss the interaction of the workplace. The daily interaction
with other people is a major reason for many in going out to work. If the interaction is
removed, the job may no longer seem worthwhile.
There are many financial costs associated with teleworking. These may well
increase the cost of living for the teleworker, although they must be balanced
against the savings that were highlighted in the sections above.

1. Here are some statements from the conclusion of the report:


a) Many factors suggest that teleworking could become a major trend in
employment in the late 1990s.
b) People are increasingly looking for a better quality of life. Work needs
to become a more integrated part of an individual's life.

c) Teleworking is an idea whose time has come.


2. Do you agree or disagree with these statements? Discuss your views on the
future of teleworking with another student.
3. Make your own statements about teleworking. Speak on advantages and
disadvantages of teleworking mentioned in the text. Think of other
advantages and disadvantages (for employer, teleworker ,their
families).Would you be able to work from home? Why?
4. Explain the meaning of the words and phrases in bold.

20
5. In each paragraph of the text define the sentences that can be omitted without
damaging much the content of the text.

Task 3. Read the article, answer the questions following it. Explain the meaning of
the words and phrases in bold. Make a summary of the text using these words.
Toiling from there to here
From The Economist print edition
Man’s work has changed utterly: after a half-century of horrors, for the better
NOTHING in human life has changed more in ten centuries than the world of work.
Most trades now practised in rich countries did not exist 250 years ago. If work
makes the man, we are a new race.
The obvious symbol of that is the shift from farming, most dramatic in 19th-
century Britain, but huge everywhere. Not that farm work is unchanged, but other
trades mechanised faster and further. Yet mechanisation is not the biggest change,
nor advances like the development of the typewriter or the silicon chip, that almost
created trades of their own. The greatest change is that there is a “world of work”,
distinct from the home, at all.
In 1200, 1500, indeed 1700, for nearly all - the merchant, the craftsman, the
employed “journeyman”, the apprentice, the domestic
servant - work was where the household was; soldiers and
sailors were the odd men out. Then, around 1770 - one or
two even earlier - the factory was born; and with it a new
world of mass wage employment.
Marx, for once, was right about this: the relationships
of the past had been torn up. Where two or three, maybe 12 or 13, had worked
together, 200 or 300, 2,000 or 3,000 did. The merchant by 1970 was a sales
executive; the apprentice worked in the stores or the typing pool; the journeyman,
instead of living in his master’s household, as many had, drove to the assembly line
and left it, forgotten, when the shift ended; the servant was dishing out in the works

21
canteen. Though mechanised, farming was one of the few trades where old
relationships survived.
The old world was not always better, often far worse. The typing pool or
today’s call centre may be misery, but at least the “apprentice” is allowed, and can
afford, to go clubbing. And the 1990s are reinventing the past, as the assembly line
slims and the consultancy of half-a-dozen people multiplies. But that past was indeed
another country.

1. What are the basic changes described in the article? What means does the
author use to describe these changes?

2. Can you add any other to this ‘list’?

3. What impact did they have on the society as a whole?

4. Find words in the article that mean: a young person who works for an
employer for a fixed period of time in order to learn the particular skills
needed in their job; to serve food onto plates for a meal.

5. Look up the meanings of the verb to toil in the dictionary and explain the play
of words (to be more precise – meanings of words) in the title.

Task 4. Read the headline and the subtitle of the article. Can you predict its main
idea (ideas)? Read the article. Render it in English in 10-15 sentences. What words
or phrases were the most difficult to render in English? Why?

РАБОТА ДОЛЖНА БЫТЬ В КАЙФ!


В чем заключается национальная бизнес-идея
Сергей ПЯТЕНКО, гендиректор Экономико-правовой школы ФБК
Подобно счастливым семьям, все счастливые компании похожи друг на
друга. Чем? Кайфом! Успешные компании управляют не качеством товаров и
услуг, а уровнем удовольствия, получаемого сотрудниками от работы.
Возможно, эта формула может стать основой для формирования российской
модели бизнеса. Бизнес в мировом масштабе конкурентоспособен, только если
он соответствует национальному характеру. Как, например, японская
склонность к проработке мельчайших деталей сделала успешным производство

22
телевизоров и прочей электроники. Даже в футболе при наличии единых
правил успех приходит к тем, кто находит свой бразильский или немецкий
стиль. Соответственно, формула успеха для нас - это поиск российской модели
бизнеса, опирающейся на мировые законы менеджмента, сильные стороны
нашего народа и одновременно нивелирующей наши слабости.
В чем заключается "изюминка", суть национальных особенностей
рабочей силы в России? Россияне не склонны к методичной рутинной работе, а
культура массового производства с трудом переносится на нашу почву. Запад и
прогрессивный Восток обладают преимуществом в технологичности бизнеса,
разработанности методик и оказываются значительно сильнее в стандартных
ситуациях. Но традиционные западные специалисты в любых ситуациях
тяготеют к использованию стандартных методик и рекомендаций. Поэтому
россияне заметно эффективнее в сферах, требующих оригинальных решений и
нешаблонной оценки конкретного положения дел. Наши черты - глубокое
проникновение в суть вещей и творческий подход к решению любых проблем.
При этом качество персонала определяется тремя параметрами:
квалификация, креативность и надежность. Квалификация работников в России
примерно такая же, как в других странах аналогичного уровня развития.
Креативность специалистов заметно больше, а надежность - меньше. И как
показывает практика, наш сотрудник-разгильдяй может значительно повысить
свою надежность, если работа ему в удовольствие. Кореец, немец, китаец или
американец более надежны. Кто по своей природе, кто от более осознанной
любви к деньгам. А нам нужно что-то еще. Например, ощущение удовольствия
от работы.
Сознательно или подсознательно к пониманию этих особенностей
россиян приходит растущая часть отечественного бизнеса. Бизнесмены ловят
кайф сами и по мере возможностей создают условия для кайфа сотрудникам.
Все больше наших успешных компаний приходят к тому, что делать бизнес
надо в удовольствие. Успешно-счастливые компании управляют не качеством
товаров и услуг, а уровнем удовольствия, получаемого от работы. "Бизнес в
кайф" вполне может быть нашей национальной бизнес-идеей, а "работающие с
23
удовольствием" - главными авторами того, что потомки, несомненно, назовут
"русским чудом".
DISCUSSION
1. The basic patterns of employment are constantly changing. Name and analyse the
changes that employment has undergone in recent years (e.g. teleworking,
outsourcing, etc.). How do you think employment will change in future?
2. Telecommuting is becoming more and more popular. What are its advantages and
disadvantages? What do people like and dislike about teleworking? Are all jobs
suitable for teleworking? Which are not? How do people organize themselves for
working at home? What are the consequences for the family?
3. Describe the most common methods that companies use to recruit people in your
country. What makes them effective?
4. How do companies 'fire' people? Is it ‘easy’ for companies to do so and what
rights do employees have? What is the role of trade unions in this situation?
Compare the situation in your country with the situations in European countries,
the USA.
5. Trade unions play a very important role in many countries. How powerful are
trade unions in your country? Speak on their functions.
6. Describe how the aims and functions of trade unions have changed since the time
they appeared.
7. What types of discrimination exist in your country? On the grounds of sex, ethnic
group, age, disability? Are there laws against discrimination? How effective are
they? For what kind of discrimination is the metaphor glass ceiling used?
8. Prepare a short report on one of the issues discussed in this unit using newspaper
or magazine articles (use not less than 2 articles). Explain why you have chosen
those very articles. What are their main ideas? In what way do they look at the
problems you discussed?
9. Comment on the following quotations:
 Choose a job you love, and you will never have to work a day in your life. –
Confucius.

24
 Commuter – one who spends his life
In riding to and from his wife;
A man who shaves and takes a train,
And then rides back to shave again. – E.B. White, "The Commuter", 1982.
 The closest to perfection a person ever comes is when he fills out a job
application form. – Stanley J. Randall.
 If you don't like your job you don't strike. You just go in every day and do it
really half-assed. – Homer Simpson, The Simpsons.

UNIT 2. UNEMPLOYMENT. WELFARE


VOCABULARY
Study the meaning of the following words and word-combinations, give their Russian equivalents.

unemployment
to eliminate unemployment; to reduce/alleviate unemployment; to bring down
unemployment from … to …; high unemployment; low unemployment; seasonal
unemployment; mass unemployment; unemployment high; unemployment relief; to
cause/to create unemployment; unemployment/labour exchange; hold the spread of
unemployment/check the growth of unemployment; to combat/fight (against)
unemployment; natural rate of unemployment; concealed/hidden unemployment;
long-term unemployment

leave; quit; resign; retire; fire/dismiss/sack/lay off; mass layoffs; unjust/unfair


dismissal; redundant; to make redundant; compulsory/voluntary redundancies;
suspend; dole/ jobless benefit/unemployment benefit; dole queue; on the dole;
downsizing/rightsizing; overstaffed; payroll/workforce; axe; natural wastage;
redundancy payment/payoff/payout; severance payment; unemployed/out of work/
out of a job/jobless; job-seeker/job hunter
welfare
welfare expenditure; public welfare programme; welfare state; crack down;
25
scrounger; work on one's own account; welfare payment; welfare recipient; to
be/go/live/depend on welfare; collect/receive welfare; welfare check; giro;
workfare; to dismantle

Exercise 1. Give terms to the following definitions (using your active vocabulary).
a. 1. To remove someone from their job. 2. An occasion when an employer
ends a worker's employment for a temporary period of time because there is not
enough work. 3. If you are …, your employer no longer has a job for you. 4. A
reduction in the number of people employed by an organization, which happens when
people leave their jobs and the jobs are not given to anyone else. 5. Money you get
from your employer when you are made redundant. 6. If a company or organization
… , it reduces the number of people it employs in order to reduce costs. 7. An …
company, organization etc has more workers than it needs. 8. All the people who
work in a particular industry or company, or are available to work in a particular
country or area. 9. To suddenly dismiss someone from their job. 10. Without a job.
b. 11. Money given by the government in Britain to people who are
unemployed. 12. The number of people who are unemployed and claiming money
from the government, or a line of people waiting to claim this money each week. 13.
Someone who does not have a job and is looking for one. 14. To stop working,
usually because you have reached a certain age. 15. To officially announce that you
have decided to leave your job or an organization. 16. To make someone leave their
school or job for a short time, especially because they have broken the rules. 17. Help
that is provided for people who have personal or social problems. 18. A country with
a system in which the government provides money, free medical care etc for people
who are unemployed, ill, or too old to work. 19. A cheque paid by the government to
someone who is unemployed. 20. A system in which unemployed people have to
work before they are given money for food, rent etc by the government. 21. To
gradually get rid of a system or organization. 22. People who are getting
unemployment benefit but shouldn’t be getting it.

Exercise 2. Fill in the gaps with the necessary words from the box.

26
job-seeker, tribunal, suspend, resign, unemployed, dole queue, fire, dole, downsize,
natural wastage, axe, workforce, sue, redundant, welfare, retire, giro

1. The Police Department has … six officers from duty while they investigate claims
of fraud and corruption. 2. She … from the board after profits fell by a further 3%. 3.
Most people … at 65. 4. Miller was on the phone right away and offered to meet with
the … personally later in the week to. 5. As two factories closed today, 500 people
joined the … . 6. I was on the … then, getting £5.50 a week and the rent was £2.50. 7.
They were glad to be working, especially in these years of drought when so many
people were …. 8. Voluntary redundancies and … are expected instead of sackings.
9. There are plans to … 2600 staff. 10. Women now represent almost 50% of the …
11. The airline has … its workforce by 30%. 12. He took his case to an industrial …
which was due to resume next week. 13. If the builders don't fulfill their side of the
contract, we'll … . 14. Seventy factory workers were made … in the resulting cuts.
15. The airline … him for being drunk. 16. The amount of money that the
government spends on … has halved in the past decade. 17. Trying to manage on
your … ?

Exercise 3. Give synonyms to the underlined words using your active vocabulary.
1. The airline has downsized its workforce by 30%. 2. Anyone who believes they
have been subject to unjust dismissal can complain to an industrial tribunal. 3. He
was just impossible to work with, and in the end they fired him. 4. They couldn't sack
me - I'd done nothing wrong. 5. Cook began his cost-cutting campaign by getting rid
of a third of his workforce. 6. To add insult to injury, Alan's not even entitled to
unemployment benefit. 7. His vision included slum brigades, lodging houses, eating
houses, legal aid and the first labour exchange. 8. The government tried to hold the
spread of unemployment. 9. I've just been fired from my job, and I don't know what
to do. 10. Businesses are closing and making people redundant. 11. His redundancy
pay and bar work supported him while he did this. 12. Fifty per cent of the men in
this town are unemployed. 13. That makes her wonder if the job–hunter pays
attention to detail. 14. At first he has no money, until he collects his giro.
27
Exercise 4. Give antonyms to the underlined words using your active vocabulary.
1. Areas of high unemployment. 2. Rising unemployment has been the price we've
had to pay for getting inflation down. 3. It has been the largest sustained fall in
unemployment in the history of this country. 4. He was sacked from every other job
he had. 5. The ailing motor manufacturer wanted 820 voluntary redundancies.

Exercise 5. Give English equivalents.


Увольнять, возбуждать дело, суд, сокращение штатов, переукомплектованный,
рабочая сила, резкое сокращение, текучка кадров, выходное пособие при
увольнении, безработный, пособие по безработице, армия безработных,
ликвидировать безработицу, сократить безработицу, высокий уровень
безработицы, биржа труда, остановить рост безработицы, увольнять, уходить в
отставку, выходить на пенсию, временно отстранять, социальное обеспечение,
социально-ориентированное государство, чек на получение пособия, хапуга.

Exercise 6. Give Russian equivalents.


Jobless, job-seeker, dole, dole queue, severance payment, redundancy payoff, get the
axe, mass layoffs, natural wastage, voluntary redundancies, workforce, payroll,
overstaffed, make redundant, rightsize, tribunal, sue, sack, dismissal, eliminate
unemployment, low unemployment, unemployment relief, labour exchange, check
the growth of unemployment, natural rate of unemployment, resign, retire, suspend,
scrounger, workfare, welfare check, giro, welfare state.

Exercise 7. Match the terms in the box with the definitions below.
Classical unemployment Seasonal unemployment
Cyclical unemployment Structural unemployment
Frictional unemployment Voluntary unemployment

1. … exists in trades or occupations where work fluctuates according to the time of


the year.

28
2. … exists when people choose not to work, often because they cannot find jobs that
pay enough money (e.g. more than social security benefits)
3. … is temporary unemployment that arises when people voluntarily leave a job to
look for another one.
4. … is the loss of jobs caused when wages are too high.
5. … occurs during recessions, when the overall demand for labour declines.
6. … occurs when the skills of available workers do not match the jobs vacant.

Exercise 8. Fill in the gaps with suitable words and explain the difference in
meaning:
a) quit, resign, retire, leave.
1. I've had enough of the way I'm treated here – I …! 2. I … my last job because I
couldn't get along with my boss. 3. If you … at 50, you won't get your full pension. 4.
Nixon was the first US President to … before the end of his term of office. 5. After
… the Navy, he started a new career in journalism. 6. The manager was forced to …
his post after allegations of corruption. 7. She … her job and went traveling in South
America.
b) fire, sack, lay off, suspend.
1. He was … for being drunk in the office. 2. 3000 car workers have been … at the
factory in Cleveland. 3. A London barrister has been … for nine months. 4. He was
just impossible to work with, and in the end they … him. 5. We can't really give him
the … just because he's unpopular. 6. A New York art teacher who refused to take
part in the daily flag ceremony was .. from her post. 7. She was … for serious
professional misconduct. 8. You're …!

Exercise 9. Translate into English using your active vocabulary.


1. Рабочего уволили за лень. 2. Она преследовала его судебным порядком из-за
крупной суммы денег. 3. Офицер был отстранен от службы до тех пор, пока не
кончится разбирательство по его делу. 4. После 40 лет работы в этой компании
он решил уйти в отставку. 5. В 75 лет Стивенс не планирует уходить на пенсию.
6. Слишком много молодых людей все еще получают пособие по безработице.
29
7. Армия безработных значительно пополнилась после экономического
кризиса. 8. Правительство не делает достаточно для того, чтобы помочь
безработным. 9. Он не был против текучки кадров. 10. Руководство компании
планирует сократить 3000 рабочих. 11. Женщины составляют 41% рабочей
силы. 12. Компания уволила его за участие в незаконных финансовых
операциях. 13. Главным вопросом на повестке дня было поиск путей
сокращения роста безработицы. 14. Уровень безработицы постоянно растет. 15.
Это самое большое сокращение безработицы в истории этой страны. 16. Такие
штаты как Мичиган и Массачусетс резко уменьшают затраты на социальное
обеспечение.

Task 1. Read the following text and answer the questions that follow. Explain the
meaning of the words and expressions in bold. Use them in the discussion of the
texts.

Make a tree-diagram of the text. Compare it with your partner’s one. Summarize
the text using this tree-diagram.
UNEMPLOYMENT
Unemployment is the state of a person who is out of work and actively
looking for a job. The term does not refer to people who are not seeking work because
of age, illness, or a mental or physical disability. Nor does it refer to people who are
attending school or keeping house. Such people are classified as out of the labour
force rather than unemployed.
Measuring unemployment. The Bureau of the Census in the Department of
Commerce collects and tabulates unemployment statistics in the United States. The
Bureau of Labour Statistics in the Department of Labour analyzes and publishes the
statistics. Every month, agents visit a certain number of households in all parts of the
country. They ask whether the members of each household who are 16 or older have
jobs or are looking for work. The answers provide the basis for a monthly estimate of
the nation's total labour force. The labour force consists of all people who are either
employed or unemployed. The bureau also reports the unemployment rate, the
percentage of the total labour force that is unemployed. If 95 million people were

30
employed and 5 million were unemployed, the bureau would report a total labour
force of 100 million and an unemployment rate of 5 per cent. Business executives,
economists, and government officials study the reports for indications of the nation’s
economic wealth.
The unemployment rate varies greatly among different groups. It tends to be
several times as high for teenaged workers as for older people. Unskilled people
experience about three times as much unemployment as do white-collar workers. The
unemployment rate among blacks is typically at least twice that among whites.
Economists disagree on the meaning of the unemployment rate. Some believe the rate
exaggerates the problem because it includes some people who want only part-time
jobs and some who are not making serious efforts to find a job. Others argue that it
underestimates the problem because it does not include discouraged workers who
have stopped looking for jobs or workers who have taken jobs below their skill level.
Costs
Joblessness can hit individual job-seekers hard. Lacking a job often means
lacking social contact with fellow employees, a purpose for many hours of the day,
lack of self-esteem, mental stress and illness, and of course, the ability to pay bills
and to purchase both necessities and luxuries. This last is especially serious for those
with family obligations, debts, and/or medical costs, especially in a country such as
the U.S., where the availability of health insurance is often linked to holding a job.
Increasing unemployment raises the crime rate, the suicide rate, and encourages bad
health. Because unemployment insurance in the U.S. typically does not even replace
50 percent of the income one received on the job (and one cannot receive it forever),
the unemployed often end up tapping welfare programs such as Food Stamps — or
accumulating debt, both formal debt to banks and informal debt to friends and
relatives.
Some hold that many of the low-income jobs aren't really a better option than
unemployment with a welfare state (with its unemployment insurance benefits). But
since it is difficult or impossible to get unemployment insurance benefits without
having worked in the past, these jobs and unemployment are more complementary
than they are substitutes. (These jobs are often held short-term, either by students or
31
by those trying to gain experience). Unemployment insurance keeps an available
supply of workers for, while the employers' choice of management techniques (low
wages and benefits, few chances for advancement) is made with the existence of
unemployment insurance in mind. This combination promotes the existence of one
kind of unemployment, frictional unemployment. Another cost for the unemployed
is that the combination of unemployment, lack of financial resources, and social
responsibilities may push unemployed workers to take jobs that do not fit their skills
or allow them to use their talents. That is, unemployment can cause
underemployment. This is one of the economic arguments in favour of having
unemployment insurance. Second, unemployment makes the employed workers more
insecure in their jobs, worrying about being replaced. This feared cost of job loss can
spur psychological anxiety, weaken labour unions and their members' sense of
solidarity, encourage greater work-effort and lower wage demands, and/or abet
protectionism. This last means efforts to preserve existing jobs (of the "insiders") via
barriers to entry against "outsiders" who want jobs, legal obstacles to immigration,
and/or tariffs and similar trade barriers against foreign competitors. Finally, the
existence of significant unemployment raises the monopoly power of one's employer:
that raises the cost of quitting one's job and lowers the probability of finding a new
source of livelihood. Finally, high unemployment implies low real Gross Domestic
Product: we are not using our resources as completely as possible and are thus
wasting our opportunities to produce goods and services that allow people to survive
and to enjoy life. Much unemployment — called deficient-demand or cyclical
unemployment — thus represents a profound form of inefficiency.
Types of unemployment, their causes and remedies.
Type Description Cause Remedy
Frictional Workers temporarily Delays in applying Improve job info-
between jobs interviewing and rmation, e.g. compu-
accepting terized job centres
Structural Workers have the Declining industries Subsidies and im-
wrong skills in the and the immobility prove the mobility of
wrong place of labour labour

32
Cyclical All firms need fewer Low total demand in Increased gove-
workers the economy rnment spending or
lower taxes
Technolog Overseas firms re- High-priced/low- Tariffs quotas or cur-
ical place local producers quality local goods rency depreciation
Regional High unemployment Local concentration Regional aid, e.g.
in the area of declining indu- relocation grants
stries
Seasonal Unemployment for Seasonal variation in Retraining
part of the year demand
Voluntary Workers choose to More money “on the Remove the low-paid
remain unemployed dole” than from from the liability to
working pay income tax
Government Involvement

The government of any country takes certain steps to alleviate


unemployment. Some jobs are provided by public works and other special programs.
The federal agencies are established to carry out these programs, for example, the
Civilian Conservation Corps and the National Youth Administration, which employs
young workers on a wide variety of projects; and the Work Projects Administration,
which embarks on a broad program involving both public-works construction and
cultural and recreational activities.
Unemployment insurance policy has been introduced. Unemployment
Insurance is a form of social insurance designed to provide income to people who
have lost their jobs. Unemployment insurance is wage related and is payable as a
matter of right to any insured eligible worker. The system has two main goals: to
prevent unemployed persons from undergoing severe hardships and to get the
unemployed back to work. Unemployment compensation benefits account for
approximately 1 percent of personal Income in most developed Western nations. By
maintaining the workers' purchasing power, unemployment insurance reduces
cyclical swings in demand, thus helping trade and industry.
Various laws have been enacted aimed at reviving business and industrial
activity that resulted in a substantial improvement in economic conditions and a
33
decline in unemployment. For example, the Employment Act of 1946 proclaimed that
the federal government of the USA would take the responsibility for maintaining high
employments levels, economic stability and growth that is, the government would
coordinate its economic policies (such as those on taxation, expenditures, foreign
trade, and control of money, credit, and banking) in such a way as to prevent serious
depressions.
Fears that the introduction of automation and other labour-saving technology
would increase unemployment have led some workers to oppose such changes.
Labour-saving methods however, increase output per worker and make possible
rising levels of worker income. In order to deal with the effects of technological
change, the U.S. government passed several acts to set up programs designed to train
the unemployed in those skills in which there was employment opportunity.

In developing nations in Asia, Africa, and Latin America a much more serious and
widespread problem is underemployment – that is, people are employed only part
time or at work that is inefficient or unproductive, with a correspondingly low
income that is insufficient to meet their needs. Much of the unemployment and
underemployment in developing nations has accompanied migration from rural to
larger urban centers.
In industrialized countries, with unemployment insurance and other forms of
income maintenance, unemployment does not cause as great a hardship as it once
did. Measures to stabilize the economy have made economic downturns briefer and
less severe, workers are still threatened by long periods of unemployment, however,
and some workers bear a disproportionate burden. The problem of modern
governments is how to get the benefits of economic flexibility and rising productivity
while reducing the number of unemployed workers, keeping their spells or
joblessness short, maintaining their income, and helping them return to work with
viable skills.
1. What groups of people are considered to be unemployed?
2. What does labour force consist of?
3. Between what age groups is unemployment higher? Why?
4. What are the costs of unemployment?
34
5. Speak on the types of unemployment, their causes and remedies.
6. What is the role of government in fighting unemployment?
7. Speak on underemployment.

Task 2. Read the following text and answer the questions that follow. Explain the
meaning of the words and expressions in bold. Use them in the discussion of the
texts. Summarize the text in 15-20 sentences.

WELFARE
Welfare embraces various programs aimed at helping people unable to support
themselves fully or earn a living. Welfare recipients include elderly people, people
with mental or physical disabilities, and those needing help to support dependent
children. People in the United States most commonly use the term welfare to refer to
government-funded programs that provide economic support, goods and services to
unemployed and underemployed people. Professionals in the field public policy and
social work use the term social welfare to describe a broader range of programs, both
privately and publicly funded. Social welfare programs are structured to help a broad
range of people – not only the unemployed or underemployed – to function more
fully in society.
Welfare is provided in a number of basic ways. Some programs distribute
direct cash assistance that recipients may spend as they choose. Other programs
provide specific goods, such as public housing; or the means to obtain them, such as
subsidized rents, vouchers, to offset private housing costs, or coupons to purchase
food. Still others provide services or the means to obtain services. Welfare services
include health care, childcare, and help coping with drug or alcohol dependency.
Goods and services, as opposed to direct cash assistance, are known as in-kind
benefits. Other welfare programs create or subsidize lobs for the unemployed. In
addition, the U.S. government also provides a tax discount to the poor, known as an
Earned Income credit (EIC), which some people consider a welfare program. If
calculated as an expenditure – although it is actually money the government does not
collect – EIC is one of the more costly U.S. welfare programs.

35
In virtually all cash welfare programs, benefits rapidly fall as a recipient's
income increases. These programs are said to be targeted, or restricted, to people with
little or no income and few assets. Some programs further restrict benefits to those
meeting additional, nonincome requirements, known as categorical targets. For
example, benefits might depend on a recipient being a single parent with / dependent
children or a juvenile in foster care.
Eligibility for certain forms of welfare is based on membership in specific
groups. The elderly and people with mental or physical disabilities, for example,
receive several types of support that the government provides specifically to them.
Eligibility for social insurance programs, meanwhile, depends upon individuals
having made prior financial contributions to a fund, which can be drawn on later. The
most prominent examples of this form of welfare in the United States are social
security programs. These programs provide support to workers and their families
when they lose employment, retire, or become disabled.
In theory, welfare targets make sense, since they direct support to those most in
need. Targeting, however, creates problematic incentives. For example, if welfare
recipients begin to earn money, or more money that they had been earning, their
benefits may fall and their taxes rise. This can be a powerful incentive for recipients
to remain on welfare and not seek work. In effect, this situation creates a penalty for
welfare recipients who take work, especially in any of the many low-wage jobs
typically available to them. Working at a minimal wage, minus taxes, often cannot
offset the loss of welfare benefits. Targeting welfare benefits to certain groups also
creates incentives for people to change their behavior in order to become eligible for
benefits. A young parent may be less inclined to marry or stay married if single
parenthood makes it easier to claim welfare benefits. The dilemma of balancing
compassion for the poor with a desire to promote socially approved behaviours –
work and marriage, for example – has defined public policy debates over welfare for
several centuries.
1. Give the definition of welfare. Who can receive welfare?
2. In what ways is welfare provided?
3. What problems can welfare create?
36
Task 3. Read the article and make a summary using the words and expressions in
bold. What changes in the welfare system were put forward? Comment on the title of
the article.

Welfare reform
Evolution, not revolution
From The Economist print edition
Promising changes to out-of-work benefits, though not radical ones
FEW causes animate Gordon Brown more than getting more Britons into jobs. A
notorious workaholic, he often extols the dignity of labour. His efforts in
government go back to the portentously titled New Deal, a workfare scheme for
young people he started as chancellor in 1998. But the launch of a new round of
welfare reform on July 21st by James Purnell, the work and pensions secretary, is a
tacit admission that Labour has achieved too little in its decade of power.

True, the number of people claiming jobseeker’s allowance (JSA), the main
unemployment benefit, has roughly halved since 1997. But the decline was steeper
towards the end of the last Conservative government and the number of those
claiming incapacity benefit (IB), the benefit for those unable to work, has remained
broadly steady at 2.5 m.

Mr Purnell has got some new ideas for JSA claimants. Those still on the benefit after
a year will be transferred from the government’s job-finding agency to a private or
voluntary specialist, who would be paid only if their charges found work and kept it.
Long-term jobless will also have to do community work.

But incapacity claimants are the main target of the reforms. It has been obvious that
many are capable of working since the 1980s, when the Tories shifted the victims of
deindustrialization on to the benefit as a ploy to keep the jobless rolls down. David
Freud, a former banker who conducted a review of welfare policy for the government
in 2007, implied in an interview this year that as many as 2m may be claiming IB
unnecessarily.

37
Here, Mr Purnell’s ambitions are grand. He wants all IB claimants to be medically
reassessed by 2013. The incapacity benefit will be replaced by an employment-and-
support allowance, which will take two forms. Those capable of eventually working
will get bespoke help to do so, again from a range of providers. The rest will get a
more generous benefit than IB offers. …

Task 4. Read the article. Define its key words or phrases. Find English equivalents
for them. Use them to summarize the text in English (make a summary of 10-15
sentences).

Жизнь за чертой
Россияне и европейцы по-разному понимают бедность
ЕВГЕНИЯ ЗУБЧЕНКО
К бедным могут себя причислить 87 млн. европейцев (17%). Самый высокий
уровень бедности был зафиксирован в Латвии (26% жителей), Румынии (23%),
Болгарии (21%) и Литве (20%). Схожая ситуация наблюдается в Греции.
Меньше всего нуждающихся оказалось в Чехии – всего 9%. Показатели
Германии (15%) оказались выше, чем у политически и экономически схожих
Австрии, Дании и Швеции (по 12%).

Однако любая статистика, как известно, относительна. Находящимися под


угрозой бедности в ЕС принято считать тех, чей доход составляет менее 60% от
среднего показателя в стране проживания, при этом учитываются также и все
социальные выплаты. Государством с самым высоким прожиточным
минимумом оказался Люксембург – находящимся на грани бедности там может
считать себя тот, кто зарабатывает 18 тыс. 550 евро в год. Далее следуют Дания
(14 497 евро), Ирландия (13 760), Великобритания (13 119), Швеция (12 178),
Финляндия (11 800), Нидерланды (11694) и Австрия (11 406 евро). В Германии
этот показатель равен 10 тыс. 953 евро в год. Россиянам такой прожиточный
минимум и не снился, у нас он в среднем за месяц составляет 5153 руб. За год
«набегает» без малого 62 тыс. руб., а это даже по нынешнему сильно
пошатнувшемуся курсу единой валюты меньше 1 тыс. 600 евро. …

38
Разница в оценке минимально необходимых денег определяет и различия в
понимании материальной нужды как таковой. По информации Росстата, на
сегодняшний день бедными можно назвать 13,1% россиян. Это те, чьи доходы
ниже прожиточного минимума, а таких 18,5 млн. человек. При этом наши
власти считают, что количество бедняков в нашей стране резко сокращается. С
этим соглашаются в принципе и социологи. «Тот уровень бедности, который
был у нас к концу 90-х (а он превышал 60%), действительно сейчас близок к
10%, – рассказал «НИ» ведущий сотрудник Института социологии Леонтий
Бызов. – За последние 10 лет в России стандарты жизни существенно выросли,
поменялась и структура бедности. Сейчас бедными является меньшинство
людей, в то время как в те годы это были люди массовых профессий: учителя,
врачи, медсестры, рабочие невысокой квалификации, даже военнослужащие.
Сегодня это в основном одинокие пенсионеры, безработные, больные. Иными
словами, бедность не результат низких доходов, а результат того, что люди в
силу каких-то обстоятельств не могут сами заработать денег вообще. Те же
учителя и врачи пусть получают не так много, но все же это не уровень
бедности».

Главная же проблема в том, что именно этому уровню соответствует. По


последним данным ВЦИОМ, 54% россиян могут себе позволить лишь покупку
еды и одежды, то есть обеспечивают себе физиологическое выживание, а на
прочее средств просто нет. Каждый четвертый все, что зарабатывает, тратит
исключительно на продукты питания, а еще 7% не хватает и на это. При этом
средний доход нашего гражданина находится на уровне от 10 до 15 тыс. руб.
Получается, что бедных у нас статистически меньше, чем в Европе, а живем мы
в целом плохо.

По словам Леонтия Бызова, во-первых, европейцы используют другие


методики для составления такого рода статистических данных, а во-вторых, у
нас совершенно разные жизненные стандарты. «Тот уровень, который в Европе
39
считается бедностью, у нас считается признаком среднего класса, – пояснил
эксперт. – Например, европейские пособия по безработице превышают
среднюю заработную плату в России, которая во многих регионах считается
очень хорошей. Там совершенно другая структура расходов. Бедности в
российском понимании этого слова в Европе нет вообще».

Ученый поясняет: в России, в отличие от Европы, бедняк отказывается не от


каких-то деликатесов, а от мясных, молочных продуктов и прочих жизненно
необходимых продуктов. «В ЕС таких проявлений бедности не существует в
принципе. А если они и есть, то это признак социальной девиации, отклонений
от норм. Там тоже есть бомжи, больные, наркоманы, которые свои доходы
тратят на наркотики, поэтому не могут себе позволить элементарных продуктов
питания. Но это уже не бедность как таковая, а скорее социальная патология. В
России бедные, которые соответствуют европейским представлениям, – это
люди среднего класса, их у нас 20–25%. А в целом граждан, которые у нас
живут на уровне нижнего среднего класса, – 70%. Это то, что соответствует
европейским представлениям о бедности», – подчеркнул г-н Бызов.
НОВЫЕ ИЗВЕСТИЯ.

DISCUSSION

1. Speak on the possible causes of unemployment. What measures can


governments take to eliminate each of them?
2. Unemployment does not only mean the loss of income. It’s a great
psychological blow to a person’s self-esteem. What are the psychological
consequences of unemployment?

3. Explain the difference between welfare and workfare.

4. What ideas (philosophic, economic, moral, etc.) underlie the welfare system?

5. Explain what welfare state is. What are its main principles? Give examples of
the states that can be called welfare states. What does it take to create such a
40
state? Prepare a project on one of these states describing their welfare system,
problems they encounter, programmes they implement, etc.

6. Describe the welfare system in your country. In what way is it different from
other countries? What common features with other countries does it have?

7. Speak on the causes of the welfare reforms that a number of countries undergo.
Which of them is urgent for your country? Explain why.

8. Look through a number of newspapers and magazines. What issues connected


with unemployment and welfare are discussed? Prepare a summary of an
article to your choice.

9. Comment on the following quotations:

 You take my life when you take the means whereby I live. – William
Shakespeare, The Merchant of Venice.
 Unemployment insurance is a pre-paid vacation for freeloaders. – Ronald
Reagan.
 The best social program is a good job. – Bill Clinton.
 I do not believe we can repair the basic fabric of society until people who are
willing to work have work. Work organizes life. It gives structure and
discipline to life. – Bill Clinton.
 Better wear out shoes than sheets. – English proverb.

41
UNIT 3. ELECTIONS
VOCABULARY
Study the meaning of the following words and word-combinations, give their Russian equivalents.

election
win an election; concede election/lose an election; decide/swing an election; rig
an election/fix an election; hold an election; schedule an election; general
election/national elections; local election; primary election; special election;
watershed election; to call election; re-election; run-off election; run-up to the
election; to beat smb in an election; election/electoral campaign; parliamentary
elections; presidential election; election observer; election officer; electoral code;
electoral district; electorate
elect
to elect unanimously; to elect by a relative/overwhelming majority
vote
vote for (pro)/ against (con) a candidate; vote down; vote through; vote by ballot;
vote by show of hands; to be elected by popular vote; affirmative vote/negative;
casting vote; to get/win … % of vote; vote of confidence; floating voter
run
to run for parliament; to run for a seat in the parliament/in the lower (upper)
chamber; to run for presidency; to run for election/re-election; to run/campaign
for a public office
ballot/ballot paper/voting paper/ slip

42
on the ballot; to get a ballot; to cast ballots; to count ballots; balloting; the
first/second round of balloting; ballot-box
candidate
a candidate for the presidency; a candidate for parliament
polls (voting process)
to go to the polls; at the polls
poll
the candidate polled … votes; a light/heavy poll; polling day; polling office;
polling booth; polling official;
nomination
to seek the republican nomination; contested nomination; nominee; list/panel of
nominees; to support/second a nominee
incumbent; constituency; representation; suffrage; universal suffrage;
impeachment; office; hold office/ be in office; resign from office; to give up/
renounce the office of; resignation; to accept smb's resignation; to hand in/offer/
submit/tender one's resignation; to reject/withdraw smb.'s resignation; to
send/hand/give in one's resignation.

Exercise 1. Give terms to the following definitions (using your active vocabulary).
a. 1. When people vote to choose someone for an official position. 2. An election in
which all the people in a country who can vote elect a government. 3. An election in
the US at which people vote to decide who will be a party's candidate for a political
position in the main election. 4. To dishonestly arrange the result of an election or
competition before it happens. 5. To elect someone again. 6. An event or time when
important changes happen in history or in your life. 7. Someone who regularly
watches or pays attention to particular things, events, situations etc. 8. All the people
in a country who have the right to vote. 9. To show by marking a paper, raising your
hand etc which person you want to elect. 10. To defeat a plan, law etc by voting. 11.
The vote of the person in charge of a meeting, which can be used to make a decision
when there is an equal number of votes supporting and opposing a proposal. 12.
Someone who does not always vote for the same political party at elections.

43
b. 13. To try to be elected in an election. 14. A piece of paper on which you make a
secret vote. 15. Someone who is being considered for a job or is competing in an
election. 16. To vote in an election. 17. A small partly enclosed place in a polling
station where you can vote secretly in an election. 18. The act of officially suggesting
someone or something for a position, duty, or prize, or the fact of being suggested for
it. 19. Someone who has been officially suggested for an important position, duty, or
prize. 20. Someone who has been elected to an official position, especially in politics,
and who is doing that job at the present time. 21. An area of a country that elects a
representative to a parliament.

Exercise 2. Fill in the gaps with the necessary words from the box.
unanimous, polls, impeached, election, resignation, abstain, floating, win, ballots,
suffrage, nominees, incumbent, casting
1. This year's presidential … will take place on November 4. 2. The Labour Party …
the 2001 election by a huge majority. 3. But 26m voters, or 69 % of the electorate,
…. 4. Mr Harada was elected by a … vote. 5. Only 22% of voters cast their …. 6.
The Chair has the … vote in the case of a tie. 7. Mr. Ewing I am delighted to learn
that you are a … voter, Mr. Speaker. 8. 10 million voters went to the … . 9. In their
day, presidential … were chosen by members of Congress meeting in caucus. 10. In
the June elections, Morris easily defeated the … , Tom Smith. 11. Even now, not
every country in Europe has universal … . 12. The governor was … for using state
funds improperly. 13. Wong's sudden … was announced at the meeting.

Exercise 3. Give synonyms to the underlined words.


1. She was celebrating ten years in office. 2. She toyed uncertainly with the idea of
handing in her resignation today. 3. The voters are capable of taking a long range
outlook when they consider initiatives on the ballot. 4. Salinas is running for a second
term as President. 5. After the 1987 general election, Gould was considered
Kinnock's natural successor. 6. Some international observers have claimed the
election was rigged.

44
Exercise 4. Give English equivalents.
Пост, отставка, подготовка к выборам, член избирательной комиссии, выбирать
единогласно, голосовать против, голос за, кабина для голосования, вести
подсчет голосов, баллотироваться на пост президента, проголосовать, список
кандидатур, занимающий пост, вотум доверия, дополнительные выборы.

Exercise 5. Give Russian equivalents.


Primary election, election campaign, electoral code, vote by ballot, lower chamber, to
get the ballot, at the polls, polling office, contested nomination, watershed election,
election observer, to second a nominee, balloting, incumbent.

Exercise 6. Translate into English using your active vocabulary.


1. В палате демократы имеют незначительное большинство. 2. Четверг
традиционно является днем, когда жители Британии идут на выборы. 3. Вы не
можете просто отправить свое предложение в Совет: оно должно пройти через
голосование во всех промежуточных инстанциях. 4. Только 60% избирателей
приняли участие в голосовании. 5. Избиратели не пришли на избирательные
участки из-за плохой погоды. 6. В США на пост президента может
баллотироваться только тот, кому исполнилось 35 лет. 7. Выборы президента
проводятся каждые четыре года. 8. Большое количество денег тратится на
предвыборную кампанию, во время которой кандидаты принимают участие в
дискуссиях, проводят собрания и выступают с речью. 9. В день выборов
избиратели идут на избирательные участки и отдают свои голос за кандидата.
10. Повторные выборы были назначены на ноябрь. 11. Явка избирателей на
президентских выборах была высокой. 12. Она подала в отставку после того,
как возникли разногласия по поводу политики компании.

45
Task 1. Read the following text and answer the questions that follow. Explain the
meaning of the words and expressions in bold. Use them in the discussion of the
texts.
ELECTIONS
An election is a decision-making process by which a population chooses an
individual to hold formal office. This is the usual mechanism by which modern
democracy fills offices in the legislature, sometimes in the executive and judiciary,
and for regional and local government. This process is also used in many other
private and business organizations, from clubs to voluntary associations and
corporations. Electoral reform describes the process of introducing fair electoral
systems where they are not in place, or improving the fairness or effectiveness of
existing systems. Psephology is the study of results and other statistics relating to
elections (especially with a view to predicting future results).
The question of who may vote is a central issue in elections. The electorate
does not generally include the entire population; for example, many countries
prohibit those judged mentally incompetent from voting, and all jurisdictions require
a minimum age for voting.
Historically, other groups of people have also been excluded from voting. For
instance, the democracy of ancient Athens did not allow women, foreigners, or slaves
to vote, and the original United States Constitution left the topic of suffrage to the
states; usually only white male property owners were able to vote. Much of the
history of elections involves the effort to promote suffrage for excluded groups. The
women's suffrage movement gave women in many countries the right to vote, and
securing the right to vote freely was a major goal of the American civil rights
movement. Extending the right to vote to other groups which remain excluded in
some places (such as convicted felons, members of certain minorities, and the
economically disadvantaged) continues to be a significant goal of voting rights
advocates.
Suffrage is typically only for citizens of the country. Further limits may be
imposed: for example, in Kuwait, only people who have been citizens since 1920 or
their descendants are allowed to vote, a condition that the majority of residents do not
46
fulfill. However, in the European Union, one can vote in municipal elections if one
lives in the municipality and is an EU citizen; the nationality of the country of
residence is not required.
In some countries, voting is required by law; if an eligible voter does not cast
a vote, he or she may be subject to punitive measures such as a small fine.
Nomination
Non-partisan systems tend to differ from partisan systems as concerns
nominations. In a direct democracy, one type of non-partisan democracy, any
eligible person can be nominated. In some non-partisan representative systems no
nominations (or campaigning, electioneering, etc.) take place at all, with voters free
to choose any person at the time of voting – with some possible exceptions such as
through a minimum age requirement – in the jurisdiction. In such cases, it is not
required (or even possible) that the members of the electorate be familiar with all of
the eligible persons, though such systems may involve indirect elections at larger
geographic levels to ensure that some first-hand familiarity among potential electees
can exist at these levels (i.e., among the elected delegates).
As far as partisan systems, in some countries, only members of a particular
political party can be nominated. Or, an eligible person can be nominated through a
petition; thus allowing him or her to be listed on a ballot.
Who is elected
The government positions for which elections are held vary depending on the
locale. In a representative democracy, such as the United States, some positions are
not filled through elections, especially those which are seen as requiring a certain
competency or excellence. For example, judges are usually appointed rather than
elected to help protect their impartiality. There are exceptions to this practice,
however; some judges in the United States are elected, and in ancient Athens military
generals were elected.
Types of elections
In most democratic political systems, there are a range of different types of
election, corresponding to different layers of public governance or geographical
jurisdiction. Some common types of election are:
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 Presidential election  By-election
 General election  Local election
 Primary election  Co-option
A referendum (plural referendums or referenda) is a democratic tool related
to elections in which the electorate votes for or against a specific proposal, law or
policy, rather than for a general policy or a particular candidate or party.
Referendums may be added to an election ballot or held separately and may be either
binding or consultative, usually depending on the constitution. Referendums are
usually called by governments via the legislature, however many democracies allow
citizens to petition for referendums directly, called initiatives.
Electoral systems
Electoral systems refer to the detailed constitutional arrangements and voting
systems which convert the vote into a determination of which individuals and
political parties are elected to positions of power.
The first step is to tally the votes, for which various different vote counting
systems and ballot types are used. Voting systems then determine the result on the
basis of the tally. Most systems can be categorized as either proportional or
majoritarian. Among the former are party-list proportional representation and
additional member system. Among the latter are First Past the Post (FPP) (relative
majority) and absolute majority. Many countries have growing electoral reform
movements, which advocate systems such as approval voting, single transferable
vote, instant runoff voting or a Condorcet method; these methods are also gaining
popularity for lesser elections in some countries where more important elections still
use more traditional counting methods.
While openness and accountability are usually considered cornerstones of a
democratic system, the act of casting a vote and the content of a voter's ballot are
usually an important exception. The secret ballot is a relatively modern
development, but it is now considered crucial in most free and fair elections, as it
limits the effectiveness of intimidation.

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Scheduling
The nature of democracy is that elected officials are accountable to the
people, and they must return to the voters at prescribed intervals to seek their
mandate to continue in office. For that reason most democratic constitutions provide
that elections are held at fixed regular intervals. In the United States, elections are
held between every three and six years in most states, with exceptions such as the
U.S. House of Representatives, which stands for election every two years. There is a
variety of schedules, for example presidents: the President of Ireland is elected every
seven years, the President of Finland every six years, the President of France every
five years, the President of Russia and President of United States every four years.
Pre-determined or fixed election dates have the advantage of fairness and
predictability. However, they tend to greatly lengthen campaigns, and make
dissolving the legislature (parliamentary system) more problematic if the date
should happen to fall at time when dissolution is inconvenient (e.g. when war breaks
out). Other states (e.g., the United Kingdom) only set maximum time in office, and
the executive decides exactly when within that limit it will actually go to the polls. In
practice, this means the government will remain in power for close to its full term,
and choose an election date which it calculates to be in its best interests (unless
something special happens, such as a motion of no-confidence). This calculation
depends on a number of variables, such as its performance in opinion polls and the
size of its majority.
Elections are usually held on one day. There are also advance polls and
absentee voting, which have a more flexible schedule. In Europe, a substantial
proportion of votes are cast in advance voting.
1. Give the definition of elections. What are the characteristics of elections?
2. Describe the process of nomination.
3. What are the different types of elections? Speak on each of them.
4. Speak on the electoral systems.

Task 2. Read the following text. Explain the meaning of the words and expressions
in bold. Summarize the text in 10-15 sentences using them.

49
ELECTION CAMPAIGNS
When elections are called, politicians and their supporters attempt to
influence policy by competing directly for the votes of constituents in what are called
campaigns. Supporters for a campaign can be either formally organized or loosely
affiliated, and frequently utilize campaign advertising. It is common for political
scientists to attempt to predict elections via Political Forecasting methods.
Difficulties with elections
In many countries with weak rule of law, the most common reason why
elections do not meet international standards of being "free and fair" is interference
from the incumbent government. Dictators may use the powers of the executive
(police, martial law, censorship, physical implementation of the election mechanism,
etc.) to remain in power despite popular opinion in favour of removal. Members of a
particular faction in a legislature may use the power of the majority or supermajority
(passing criminal laws, defining the electoral mechanisms including eligibility and
district boundaries) to prevent the balance of power in the body from shifting to a
rival faction due to an election.
Non-governmental entities can also interfere with elections, through physical
force, verbal intimidation, or fraud which results in improper casting or counting of
votes. Monitoring for and minimizing electoral fraud is also an ongoing task in
countries with strong traditions of free and fair elections. Problems which prevent an
election from being "free and fair" can occur at several different stages:
 Lack of open political debate or an informed electorate. The electorate may be
poorly informed about issues or candidates due to lack of freedom of the press, lack
of objectivity in the press due to state control, or lack of access to news and political
media. Freedom of speech may be curtailed by the state, favouring certain viewpoints
or state propaganda.
 Unfair rules. Gerrymandering, exclusion of opposition candidates from
eligibility for office, and manipulating thresholds for electoral success are among
some of the ways that the structure of an election can be changed to favour a specific
faction or candidate.

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 Interference with campaigns. Arresting or assassinating candidates for office,
suppressing campaign actions (speeches, posters, broadcast advertisements),
closing campaign headquarters, criminalizing campaigning, harassing or beating
campaign workers. Intimidating voters with threats of or actual violence.
 Tampering with the election mechanism. Confusing or misleading voters about
how to vote, violation of the secret ballot, ballot stuffing, tampering with voting
machines, destruction of legitimately cast ballots, voter suppression, fraudulent
tabulation of results, and use of physical force or verbal intimation at polling places.

Task 3. Read the article. Answer the questions that follow. Summarize each
paragraph of the article in one sentence. Now make a summary of the whole article.

The youth vote


The Economist, from the print edition
One of the striking stories of the 2008 election cycle was the emergence of the
next generation of American voters. Uninspired in 2000, unenthused in 2004, they
turned out in droves as the presidential primaries began in 2008, travelling all over
the country to knock on doors and make phone calls for Barack Obama. The
campaign, for its part, responded adroitly, rallying at college campuses and building a
dominating online infrastructure. Mr Obama promised to end the war in Iraq, to
reform student loans and to fix health care, and spoke of a new “Joshua generation”
that would complete the work its parents had begun. In the end, exit polls found that
18% of the vote had come from young people, up from 16% in 2004. And they
supported Mr Obama by a 2-1 margin.

With the mid-term elections less than a week away, Democrats are looking for help
from the young voters, aged 18 to 29. But the party has lost some ground with them
since then. The Pew Research Centre found that before the 2008 election, 62% of the
under-30s identified with the Democrats, and only 30% favoured Republicans. In this
year’s polls, the gap has narrowed, to 56-36%. At a recent voter-registration rally at
the University of Texas, Jessica Laberge, who was staffing a table on behalf of the
College Republicans, said that she voted for Mr Obama in 2008. “I don’t think that

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my values have changed a lot since the last election, but what I’m concerned about
has,” she explained, pointing to the staggering youth unemployment rate – almost
20% for those aged 16-24.

This time around, pollsters expect the youth vote to be a smaller share of the overall
electorate, perhaps 10%-12%, roughly in keeping with the 2006 election. This is
typical of mid-term elections, which generate less interest than presidential contests,
and therefore draw more heavily from the reliable oldsters. Even in 2008 young
voters under-represented themselves.

Michael Dimock, the associate director of research for the Pew Centre, says that the
biggest problem for the Democrats is the “engagement gap”, which is evident across
all age groups, but most pronounced among the young. In an October poll only 31%
of people younger than 30 said they were paying close attention to the mid-terms,
compared to 53% of the older age groups. And even among the young, Republicans
are more fired up than their Democratic peers.

So young people could do with a bit more courting. The Obama campaign solicited
these voters brilliantly, and was repaid accordingly. “I don’t believe that it was a lot
of young people rising up organically in the last election,” said Jimmy Talarico, a
University of Texas undergraduate who co-ordinated the rally there. Rather, he said,
the Obama campaign worked to foster a two-way connection.

This year’s candidates have not made such a robust effort. They should; it might
prove fruitful. Mr Dimock points out that a big difference between the youth vote and
other age categories is that a majority of young Americans still have faith in
government to fix things.

And young voters remain bullish about Mr Obama. He passed student-loan reform
earlier this year, and his health-care plan now lets people stay on their parents’
health-care insurance until they are 26. But Mr Obama is not, of course, running in
2010, although he has recently stepped up his efforts to rally the students, making

52
speeches at a series of universities and even taking to the pages of Rolling Stone to
scold apathetic liberals.

That should help Democrats a bit. Young people could prove decisive in states like
Wisconsin, where the Democratic senator Russ Feingold is flailing for re-election,
and where 26,000 students and other residents recently massed to see Mr Obama in
Madison, the state capital and a big university town. They might matter in districts
like Ohio’s 15th, which covers part of Columbus, a big university town, and where
the Republican candidate currently leads the Democrat who narrowly defeated him in
2008. Banking on the youngest voters is not much of a winning strategy. But ignoring
them may be a losing one.

1. What role do young people play in elections? What is the difference between
the youth vote and other age categories?
2. What do you think can motivate young voters?

3. Find words in the article that mean: a) a large number of people or animals,
often moving or doing smth as a group; b) a person who makes or asks the
questions in an opinion poll; c) a person who is the same age or who has the
same social status as you; d) to ask smb for smth, such as support, money, or
information; to try to get smth or persuade smb to do smth; e) a large public
meeting, especially one held to support a particular idea or political party; f)
feeling confident and positive about the future.

Task 4. Read the headline of the article. Work with a partner and make a list of
predictions about what is discussed in it. Compare your list with other pairs. Now
read the article and say which of your predictions have been confirmed. Answer the
questions that follow.

История выборов от Рюрика до Обамы

Об истории западной и отечественной избирательной демократии, их плюсах и


минусах в интервью "Итогам" рассуждает глава ЦИК РФ Владимир Чуров.

53
- Владимир Евгеньевич, мы встречаемся накануне президентских выборов в
США...
- Вы неправильно формулируете вопрос. Мы встречаемся в момент, когда в
России началась подготовка к единому дню голосования 1 марта 2009 года и
когда у наших американских коллег завершается подготовка к их единому дню
голосования 4 ноября. Российский Центризбирком, как и наших коллег за
рубежом, в первую очередь волнует подготовка к выборам.

- Насколько я знаю, в июле ЦИК решил ответить взаимностью на


пристальное внимание американцев к нашим выборам: изучить все плюсы и
минусы избирательной системы США. Желание контролировать заокеанских
коллег сохранилось?
- Наблюдать за американскими выборами от нас будут два сотрудника аппарата
Центризбиркома в составе миссии наблюдения БДИПЧ ОБСЕ. Они, кстати, уже
находятся в Соединенных Штатах. Причем если изначально речь шла в целом о
семидесяти наблюдателях, то в итоге американская сторона сократила число
контролеров до сорока восьми. Это меньше, чем число штатов страны!

- В отчете российского Центра обучения избирательным технологиям при


ЦИК говорится об освещении выборов в американских СМИ: "...телеканалы
довольно искусно завуалированно поддерживают позицию Барака Обамы" и
предоставляют ему "скрытое преимущество" перед Маккейном. Наш ответ
Чемберлену?
- Нет. Мы констатируем только факт. В США законодательство не запрещает
СМИ объявлять о поддержке того или иного кандидата.

- Вы можете представить, что подобное когда-нибудь будет и на нашем


телевидении?
- У нас другая система выборов. Приведу очень характерные особенности, нас
отличающие. Как и в ряде европейских государств, мы запрещаем публиковать
результаты досрочного голосования до завершения основного. В США этого
54
правила нет, и уже до дня выборов объявляется, например, как проголосовал
действующий президент. Кроме того, там нет так называемого дня тишины.

- Стоит ли обращать внимание на такие недоработки, если России пеняют на


то, что оппозиция у нас ни разу не приходила к власти мирным путем?
- Признаком демократии победа оппозиции на выборах не является. В ряде
стран оппозиция приходит к власти недемократическим путем... Мы
приветствуем наблюдение за нашими выборами. Как говорится, спасибо за
внимание. Благодаря ему совершенствуется наша выборная система.
Избирательные системы, за которыми не наблюдают, к которым относятся без
критики, не развиваются и порой находятся в состоянии застоя.

- Но при этом ЦИК не раз утверждал, что его не устраивает кое-что в


действиях западных контролеров. Что именно?
- Три основных момента: прозрачность формирования команды, прозрачность
наблюдения, прозрачность составления отчета. Простой пример. Можно ли
опросить несколько сотен наблюдателей об их впечатлениях о выборах, затем
моментально оценить их мнения и выдать заключение о демократичности или
недемократичности процедур к утру следующего дня после выборов? Мне
кажется, что это физически невозможно, но такова практика. Нас это не
устраивает. …

- Когда мы просим Запад не учить нас демократии, часто ссылаемся на


историю. В частности, вы говорите, что выборы в России имеют более чем
тысячелетнюю историю и что даже Рюрик занял пост первого русского князя
"по итогам второго тура"?
- Да. Не надо этому удивляться. Аналогичные выборы племенных вождей
происходили во всех европейских странах и примерно по одинаковой
процедуре.

55
- По вашим словам, речь о победе Рюрика с использованием бюллетеней.
Откуда эти данные?
- Они есть во многих летописных источниках. Что касается бюллетеней, то на
раскопках в Ладоге были найдены два предмета, которые могли бы служить
избирательными бюллетенями. Это деревянные палочки с насечками, а также
белые и черные камушки - баллотировочные шары, что восходит к традициям
голосования в Древней Греции. …

- Как бы там ни было, следующие "демократические" выборы прошли уже в


эпоху Земских соборов XVI-XVII веков. Считаете ли вы, что русский Собор и
английский парламент тех веков - это одно и то же?
- В чем-то Собор и парламент схожи, в чем-то нет. Скажем, Земские соборы
были в каком-то смысле демократичнее английского парламента. Там было
представлено большее количество сословий.

- Но членов Собора нельзя назвать оппозицией в отличие от английского


парламента, где можно было перечить монарху и влиять на его политику.
- Да. Оппозиция Ее или Его Величества там была. Но и в Соборах было место
для различных точек зрения.

- Можно ли говорить о многовековой демократической процедуре в нашей


стране, если она на века прерывалась?
- Конечно. Стоит помнить и о проектах демократических преобразований
Екатерины II, и о несостоявшейся Конституции при Александре I. Это очень
интересно, в том числе в связи с выборами в США. Отцы-основатели
американского государства были хорошо знакомы с трудами наших
реформаторов. По ряду причин эти проекты у нас были реализованы частично.
И хотя вся дореволюционная Россия так и осталась без Конституции, в
Финляндии и Польше Основной закон был принят в рамках Российской
империи. …

56
1. What are the differences between the Russian and American elections systems?
What do you think are the common features?
2. Can you explain the meaning of the phrases in bold? Give their English
equivalents

DISCUSSION
1. Speak on different types of elections. Which of them attract the most of public
and mass media attention and why?
2. Explain what an election campaign is. Why do countries have laws that
regulate election campaigns? Do you think it is the most important part in
running for presidency, for example?
3. Make a short report on recent election campaigns using the material from mass
media sources. What kinds of elections are described? What election strategies
are used by the candidates? How effective are they?
4. What are the basic rules of the voting process?
5. What do you think of compulsory voting that exists in some countries
(Australia, for example)? Give argument for and against this system.
6. At what age do you think people should be given the right to vote? Explain
why.
7. What elections laws and regulations do you know?
8. Speak on the measures taken to prevent rigging the elections.
9. What kind of voting is a referendum? What issues are usually taken to
referendum? Have you ever participated in referendums? What about your
parents? What questions were put forward?
10. Comment on the ideas expressed in the following quotation:
 People often say that, in a democracy, decisions are made by a majority of
the people. Of course, that is not true. Decisions are made by a majority of
those who make themselves heard and who vote – a very different thing. –
Walter H. Judd.
 If we got one-tenth of what was promised to us in these acceptance speeches
there wouldn't be any inducement to go to heaven. – Will Rogers.
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 In order to become the master, the politician poses as the servant. – Charles
de Gaulle.
 Mankind will never see an end of trouble until... lovers of wisdom come to
hold political power, or the holders of power... become lovers of wisdom. –
Plato.

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UNIT 4. DIPLOMACY
VOCABULARY
Study the meaning of the following words and word-combinations, give their Russian equivalents.

diplomacy
require/use/conduct diplomacy; to rely on diplomacy/resort to diplomacy; shuttle
diplomacy; diplomat; embassy; a foreign embassy; ambassador; consul;
consulate; immunity; diplomatic immunity; negotiator; negotiable; to mediate;
mediator; mediation; bargain; compromise; to reach a compromise; to make
compromises; concession
meeting
to arrange/hold/organize a meeting; to chair/conduct/preside over a meeting; to
adjourn/to break up meeting; to call/convene a meeting; to call off/cancel a
meeting; clandestine meeting; private meeting; intervene
United Nations
(dis)armament
armaments drive/race; regulate armaments; rush of armaments; the arms race;
multilateral disarmament; general/universal disarmament; govern disarmament;
disarmament conference; disarmament talks; to disarm
assistance
assist smb. in smth; assistance; economic/financial assistance; to render/give/
offer/provide assistance; humanitarian assistance
attain
attainment; attain common ends
cease-fire
violate the ceasefire; ceasefire agreement; temporary cease-fire; to declare cease-
fire; to sign cease-fire; to honor/observe a cease-fire; to break/violate a cease-fire
charter
under the charter; draw up the un charter; to nullify the charter; to review the
charter
convention
sign a convention; to abide by the terms of the convention; to adhere to a

59
convention; to be a party to a convention; to enter into a convention; to work out
a convention; article of convention
dispute
settle/arbitrate a dispute; investigate a dispute; heated/sharp dispute; to adjust
disputes; to give rise to a dispute; to intercede diplomatically into a dispute; to
mediate a dispute; to take sides in a dispute between;
embargo
to impose/put/lay/place an embargo against/on; to remove/lift/raise an embargo;
trade embargo; to break an economic embargo; to drop an embargo; to end one's
embargo on smth;
force
peacekeeping force; un emergency force; to apply/resort to/use force; authorize
the establishment of a peace-keeping force
headquarters
to set up headquarters
conflict
armed conflict; to come into a conflict with; to provoke a conflict; conflict of
interests; to resolve a conflict; to prevent a conflict; to avert a conflict; to be
drawn into a conflict; to defuse a conflict; to fuel a conflict
promote
to promote respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms; promotion of
human rights; to reduce tension
sanction
to apply/impose sanctions; to confront economic sanctions; to employ economic
sanctions (against); to lift sanctions; to maintain sanctions; to oppose sanctions
session
to hold a session; special session; working session; to call a session; to fix the
date and place of the next session; to go into an emergency session;
veto
to put /set a veto on; to have the right of veto; to exercise/impose/use a veto; to
override/to overrule/to overturn/to reject smb's veto;
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vote
to bring/put a question to a vote; open vote; secret vote; casting vote; cast vote

Exercise 1. Give terms to the following definitions (using your active vocabulary).
1. The job or activity of managing the relationships between countries. 2. Someone
who officially represents their government in a foreign country. 3. A government
official who is sent to live in a foreign city in order to help people from his or her
own country who are living or staying there. 4. A diplomat's special rights in the
country where they are working, which protect them from local taxes and
prosecution. 5. Official discussions between the representatives of opposing groups
who are trying to reach an agreement, especially in business or politics. 6. A formal
written agreement between two or more countries or governments. 7. An event at
which people meet to discuss and decide things. 8. A situation in which a
disagreement cannot be settled. 9. Done or kept secret. 10. To become involved in an
argument, fight, or other difficult situation in order to change what happen. 11. To try
to end a quarrel between two people, groups, countries etc. 12. The main building or
offices used by a large company or organization. 13. An official order to stop trade
with another country. 14. A serious argument or disagreement. 15. When a country
reduces the number of weapons it has, or the size of its army, navy etc. 16. A formal
agreement, especially between countries, about particular rules or behavior. 17. A
statement of the principles, duties, and purposes of an organization. 18. An agreement
to stop fighting for a period of time, especially so that a more permanent agreement
can be made. 19. A state of disagreement or argument between people, groups,
countries etc. 20. To cause a reaction or feeling, especially a sudden one. 21. To help
something to develop or increase. 22. Official orders or laws stopping trade,
communication etc with another country, as a way of forcing its leaders to make
political changes. 23. A refusal to give official permission for something, or the right
to refuse to give such permission. 24. The vote of the person in charge of a meeting,
which can be used to make a decision when there is an equal number of votes
supporting and opposing a proposal.
Exercise 2. Give synonyms to the underlined words.

61
1. Many people now rely on diplomacy. 2. The talks have reached a complete
deadlock . 3. The minister has called an emergency meeting. 4. Myers' staff has also
organized more than 1, 000 round-table meetings with women across the country. 5. I
shall be pleased to preside at your meetings. 6. I'm afraid I'll have to cancel our
meeting tomorrow. 7. an obligation to render assistance to those in need 8. Rodman
met with Kreeger to try and settle the dispute over his contract. 9. This was a great
mistake, because in 1973 the Arabs did impose an embargo and made it stick.

Exercise 3. Give English equivalents.


Вмешиваться, тайное собрание, созывать собрание, председательствовать на
собрании, переговоры зашли в тупик, переговоры на высшем уровне, вступать в
переговоры, вести переговоры, проект договора, положение договора,
ратифицировать договор, дипломатическая неприкосновенность, зарубежное
посольство, челночная дипломатия, гонка вооружений, достижение,
соглашение о прекращении огня, разоружение, разрешать конфликт, снимать
запрет, миротворческие силы, посредничать, спровоцировать конфликт,
ослабить напряженность, налагать санкции, внеочередная сессия, иметь право
вето, поставить вопрос на голосование, решающий голос.

Exercise 4. Give Russian equivalents.


To come into conflict with smb, resolve a conflict, prevent a conflict, promotion of
human rights, apply sanction, hold a session, working session, set a veto on, casting
vote, mediation, headquarters, authorize the establishment of a peace-keeping force,
UN emergency force, remove an embargo, investigate a dispute, govern
disarmament, under the Charter, violate the ceasefire, attain common ends,
humanitarian assistance, regulate armaments, clandestine meeting, break up a
meeting, adjourn a meeting, negotiations reached stalemate, enter into negotiations,
provisions of the treaty, renounce a treaty, conclude a treaty, immunity

Exercise 5. Translate into English using your active vocabulary.

62
1. Они подписали договор о решении всех пограничных конфликтов через
арбитраж. 2. Тут председатель решил, что пришел момент вмешаться в спор
двух членов комитета. 3. Было решено оказать экономическую помощь
развивающимся странам. 4. Мы не готовы разоружиться для того, чтобы им
было легче нас убить. 5. Для переговоров между работодателями и лидерами
профсоюза был назначен известный адвокат. 6. Парламент преодолел
президентское вето. 7. Вашингтон наложил вето только на два законопроекта.
8. Они порвали дипломатические отношения и закрыли посольства в своих
странах. 9. Правительство согласилось снять запрет, наложенный десять лет
назад. 10. Министерство обороны имеет право вето на экспорт оружия. 11.
Конфликт между двумя странами может легко распространиться по всему
региону. 12. Правительство готово оказать помощь жертвам наводнения.

Task 1. Read the following text. Explain the meaning of the words and expressions
in bold. Answer the questions that follow. Make a tree-diagram of the text. Use it
to summarize it.
DIPLOMACY
Diplomacy can be defined as the activity of managing relations between
different countries and the skill in doing this. Those who carry out diplomacy are,
naturally, called diplomats. Their duty is to pursue, gain, and maintain as much
peace and harmony for the countries they serve as a given situation will permit. As
President Lyndon Johnson once said of politics, diplomacy is “the art of the
possible”.
Diplomacy is usually conducted by a state to further its interests. There are
other actors, such as international organizations, that also engage in significant
diplomacy. Still, the state remains the main actor. The national diplomacy focuses on
the means (tools, instruments) that states use to achieve their ends (goals). Before
examining the intricacies of national diplomacy, it is important to understand its
scope. We often think of diplomacy in stereotypic terms. There is an image of
somber negotiations over highly polished wooden tables in ornate rooms. Modern
diplomacy is much more than that. It is best to think expansively of diplomacy as

63
communications, a process that extends to include the entire range of
communications between two or more governments.
There are two major f o r m s o f d i p l o m a c y . The simplest and the
oldest is bilateral diplomacy between two states. Bilateral diplomacy is still
common with many treaties between two states (e.g. the Canadian-American Free
Trade Agreement), and it is the main concern of embassies and state visits. The other
form of diplomacy involves many states. Formal multilateral diplomacy is normally
dated to the Congress of Vienna in the nineteenth century. Since then, multilateralism
has grown in importance. Today most trade treaties, such as the WTO and FTAA,
arms control agreements, such as the Partial Test Ban Treaty and Comprehensive
Test Ban Treaty, and environmental agreements, such as the Kyoto Accord, are
multilateral. The United Nations is the most important institution of multilateral
diplomacy.
There is a form of diplomacy, a variant of multilateral diplomacy called
regional diplomacy; that is, multilateral diplomacy that is practiced within a closed
circle of geographic neighbors. Since neighborhood is a fact of life, regional
diplomacy involves a close blend of the bilateral and the limited group multilateral
methods in pursuit of mutual interests.
As a communications process, diplomacy has t h r e e elements:
negotiation, signaling, and public diplomacy. N e g o t i a t i o n occurs when two or
more parties are talking with one another, either directly or through an intermediary.
S i g n a l i n g entails saying or doing something with the intent of sending a
message to another government. When leaders make bellicose or conciliatory
speeches, when military forces are deployed or even used, when trade privileges are
granted or sanctions invoked, or when diplomatic recognition is extended or relations
are broken, these actions are, or at least should be, signals of attitude and intent to
another country. P u b l i c d i p l o m a c y moves away from its traditional mode of
government-to-government communication. Instead, public diplomacy involves the
more modern practice of trying to influence a wider audience, including public
opinion in another country or throughout the world. This is akin to propaganda.

64
Public diplomacy, however, involves what is actually said and done by political
figures, while propaganda includes the follow-up messages put out by information
agencies interpreting events and statements by leaders. In practice, as we shall see,
propaganda and public diplomacy overlap substantially.
F u n c t i o n s o f d i p l o m a t s . Diplomacy is carried on by a variety of
officials with titles such as president, prime minister, ambassador, special envoy, and
it is worthwhile to explore the roles that these officials and other diplomats play.
One role is observer and reporter. A primary diplomatic role has always been
to gather information and impressions and to analyze and report these back to the
home office. This mostly includes routine activity, such as reading newspapers and
reporting observations. Many embassies also contain a considerable contingent of
intelligence officers who are technically attached to the diplomatic service but who
are in reality a part of their country's intelligence service. Whatever the method, it is
important for policy makers to know both the facts and the mood of foreign capitals,
and the embassy is a primary source.
Even in less critical times, the day-to-day contacts that an ambassador has
may be important, and the knowledge that a diplomat gains from being present in a
country and interacting regularly with its leaders and people may be better than the
secondhand knowledge of more distant experts and centers of analysis. On-scene
diplomatic reporting remains important to keep track of such intangibles as the mood
of a country and to ascertain and analyze a country's economics and culture as well as
its politics.
For all of this continued value, it is also the case that the importance of the
ambassador as an observer and reporter has declined. High-level policy makers are
more likely to visit countries themselves, and they also bring back and share valuable
insights and information. Countries are also far less isolated from one another than
they once were, and there are many new ways using advanced technology to gather
information about other countries. The result is that diplomatic reports compete with
many other sources of information. This reality of rapid alternative sources frustrates
diplomats. As one U.S. official put it, “There is a diminished value in classical diplo-

65
matic reporting. If you had a choice between reading the [diplomatic] cables in your
box and tuning in to CNN three times a day, you'd tune in to CNN.”
Negotiator is a second important role of a diplomat. Negotiation is a combi-
nation of art and technical skill that attempts to find a common ground among two
or more divergent positions. For all of the public attention given meetings between
national leaders, the vast bulk of negotiating is done by ambassadors and other such
personnel. The officials who prepare summits, for example, are often referred to as
sherpas – originally the name of members of a Himalayan people, who often guide
people in the mountains, sometimes carrying their bags, etc.
Substantive and symbolic representative is a third role of a diplomat.
Substantive representation includes explaining and defending the policies of the
diplomat’s country. Misperception is dangerous in world politics, and the role that
diplomats play in explaining their countries’ actions and statements to friends and
foes alike is vital to accurate communications. Diplomats, to a degree, also personify,
and thus symbolically represent, their countries. Ambassadors who speak the
language and respect the customs of the country to which they are accredited, who
are intelligent, dignified, tactful, charming, and discreet, and have integrity and
patience, are apt to make a good impression that enhances the image of their country.
Reverse characteristics can quickly alienate people.
Diplomats can sometimes intervene to tell a weaker country what to do.
Though equality of countries is sometimes proclaimed, we have to agree that
“throughout history, few principles of international affairs apply generally. One is the
maxim of Thucydides that the strong do as they wish while the weak suffer as they
must”1.
Finally, diplomacy is also sometimes conducted for its propaganda value.
Even where there is little hope for settlement, it may benefit a country's image to
appear reasonable or to make opponents seem stubborn.
1. Give the definition of diplomacy. Who are diplomats? Who is diplomacy
conducted by?
2. What are the forms of diplomacy?

1
Noam Chomsky – a famous American linguist, thinker and activist.
66
3. What are the elements of diplomacy?
4. Speak on the functions of diplomats.

Task 2. Read the following text. Explain the meaning of the words and expressions
in bold. Answer the questions that follow.
THE FOREIGN SERVICE
In the 19th century, steps were taken in most countries to establish and
maintain a professional corps of Foreign Service officers. A person hired is generally
commissioned as a Foreign Service officer and classified into an established grade
that determines salary. Promotion to the level of ambassador, however, is usually by
appointment of the head of government.
In she United Stales an ambassador must be appointed by the president and
receive the approval of the Senate. Ambassadors need not be trained in the Foreign
Service. In the United Stales, for instance, many ambassadors are appointed because
of political loyalty and support; they may have no diplomatic training whatsoever.
The modem Foreign Service officer is usually a university graduate with an
education in languages, history, law, and economics along with studies in foreign
affairs. Officers often find it useful to specialize in certain areas of the world, making
necessary in-depth study of the economics, politics, and culture of a region or
country.
Diplomats and diplomatic m i s s i o n s . A diplomat is
someone involved in diplomacy; the collective term for a group of diplomats from a
single country is a diplomatic mission. An ambassador is the most senior diplomatic
rank; a diplomatic mission headed by an ambassador is known as an embassy. The
collective body of all diplomats resident in a particular country is called a
diplomatic corps.
E m b a s s i e s a n d C o n s u l a t e s . The headquarters of a permanent
mission established in a foreign capital is called an embassy. An embassy consists of
one or more buildings where the Foreign Service staff does its work and where the
ambassador has an office. Permanent missions may also be set up in the vicinity of

67
an intergovernmental agency. There are many permanent missions, for example, in
New York City near the United Nations headquarters.
A consul is not a diplomat but a public officer authorised by a government to
establish an office in another country to protect the interests of fellow nationals who
may be in that country. This includes fellow citizens engaged in business there. While
there can only be one embassy of a given nation in another capital city, there may be
several consulates distributed in major cities throughout a country. Consulates handle
routine tasks such as renewing passports. They also issue visas to citizens of the
county in which they are located who may went to travel to the nation, represented by
the consulate. Americas: wishing to travel to Japan, for example, get visas permitting
them to do so from the nearest Japanese consulate.
Diplomatic r a n k . Until the early 19th Century, each European
nation had its own system of diplomatic rank. The relative ranks of diplomats from
different nations had been a source of considerable dispute, made more so by the
insistence of major nations to have their diplomats ranked higher than those of minor
nations, to be reflected in table seatings etc. In an attempt to resolve the problem, the
Congress of Vienna of 1815 formally established an international system of
diplomatic ranks. The four ranks within the system were:
1. Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary, or simply Ambassador. A
diplomatic mission headed by an ambassador would be known as an Embassy.
2. Minister Plenipotentiary (in full Envoy Extraordinary and Minister
Plenipotentiary), or simply Envoy. Usually just referred to as a Minister, an envoy is
a diplomatic representative with plenipotentiary powers (i.e. full
authority to represent the head of state), but ranking below an Ambassador.
3. Minister Resident or Resident Minister, or simply Minister, is the, now
extremely rare, lowest rank of full diplomatic mission chief, only above Chargé
d'affaires (who is considered an extraordinary substitute). A diplomatic mission
headed by either type of Minister would be called a Legation.
4. Chargé d'affaires, or simply Chargé. As the French title suggests, a chargé
d'affaires would be in charge of an embassy's or a legation's affairs in the (usually
temporary) absence of a more senior diplomat.
68
D i p l o m a t i c I m m u n i t y . According to the Vienna Convention on
Diplomatic Relations of 1961, diplomats are immune, from the jurisdiction of the
nation in which they are living. This means that they and their families are not
subject to the criminal laws of the host state, nor with some exceptions to the civil
law. When travelling from place to place, their luggage may not be searched. Should
they be guilty of flagrant violation of the law or other unseemly behavior, however,
they may be expelled from the host country.
Foreign embassies are similarly protected. Under a principle called
extraterritoriality, an embassy and its grounds are considered not to be within the
territory of the host stale but within the territory of the stare represented by the
embassy. The embassy may not be entered by anyone without the permission of the
head of the mission. If, for instance, a Chinese citizen who wishes to leave his
country takes refuge in the American embassy in Beijing, no officials of China are
permitted to follow and apprehend him. Because diplomatic immunity is an
arrangement between nations, most nations respect it. Some few countries, however,
have openly violated this principle in recent years.
How fragile the concept of diplomatic immunity has become was
demonstrated early in 1984. On April 17, during demonstrations against the Libyan
regime outside the Libyan embassy in London, shots were fired from the building,
killing an English policewoman and wounding ten demonstrators.
British authorities cordoned off the building but did not enter it. Great Britain
broke diplomatic relations with Libya over the incident but allowed the embassy staff
to leave the country. Those who fired the shots escaped because the British
government insisted on complying with international law concerning diplomatic
immunity. This incident, along with others, has led some governments to consider
revising the whole concept.
1. What are the roles of embassies and consulates?
2. Speak on the diplomatic rank.
3. What is meant by diplomatic immunity?

Task 3. Read the following text. Explain the meaning of the words and expressions
in bold. Answer the questions that follow.
69
THE WORLD OF MODERN DIPLOMACY
The issues discussed by diplomats are far-reaching. Nations negotiate with
one another on a wide array of issues, ranging from serious problems of war, peace,
and disarmament to the more ordinary matters of boundary disputes, fishing rights,
foreign aid, immigration quotas, and international trade. The issues themselves have
remained fairly constant over the centuries, but the environment of diplomacy is quite
different from what it was before World War II.
Since 1945 some conditions emerged that bore heavily on the conduct of
diplomacy. One of them is the great improvements in communication and
transportation have, in effect, shrunk the size of the world. Events almost anywhere
are known almost everywhere else virtually immediately, and reaction time is
therefore much shorter than it was formerly. An ambassador can convey news to a
home government instantly and receive a policy directive without delay.
Then, during the cold war diplomacy everywhere was executed under the
shadow of this bipolarization. Even with the relaxation of this tension in the late
1980s and early 1990s and the collapse of the Soviet Union, the loyalties of the
world's nations remained divided to an extent.
Another factor is that there are many more nations in the world now than
there were in 1945. The colonial empires have disappeared, and dozens of new
nation-slates have emerged in Asia and Africa. Each wishes to make its voice heard
in the international forum. These nations are in competition with one another and
with the great powers, and they frequently succeed in playing the great powers
against each other to gain favour with one or another. Many of these countries are
poor and underdeveloped, constituting what has been called the Third World. Their
problems place a burden on the diplomacy of the industrialized nations; many of
these countries have great natural resources, but many also have unstable
governments.
The next factor is the nuclear weapons. During the Cold War the possession
of vast arsenals of nuclear weapons by the United States and the Soviet Union created
a balance of terror, a situation in which world war was supposedly unthinkable.
70
Today the alleged possession of nuclear weapons by other nations leads to instability
and causes new problems that should be addressed by the world community (take the
situation with Iran or North Korea, for example).
Although nuclear war is unthinkable, conventional war is not. There have
been more than 40 conventional wars since 1945. The contemporary world is
saturated with hot spots, such as Central America, the Middle East, the Far East,
portions of South America, South Africa, Central Asia. In addition to trouble spots,
there is a tendency of many nations to interfere in the affairs of other countries in
order to destabilize their governments for economic or political advantage.
At last the existence of the United Nations and other international organiza-
tions are also factors affecting modern diplomacy. These organizations have not
replaced bilateral diplomacy, but they have created larger forums for the airing of
national points of view.
The growing number of independent nations has led to increased
interdependence in the world as a whole. Especially significant is economic
interdependence. A singular example was the influence that huge increases in the
price of petroleum had on the economies of ail nations in the 1970s.
E x t r a o r d i n a r y D i p l o m a c y . The ordinary matters of foreign policy are
carried out in the day-to-day business at embassies around the world. But the critical
issues of disarmament, economics, and conventional war trouble spots have called
forth some bolder and more imaginative ways of carrying out international
negotiation.
S u m m i t m e e t i n g s . In August 1941, a few months before the United
States entered World War II, President Franklin D. Roosevelt and British prime
minister Winston Churchill met on board ship in the North Atlantic. This was the first
modern summit meeting between heads of government. This summit was followed by
others during the war, the most famous of which was at Yalta in 1945 in the Soviet
Union between Roosevelt, Churchill, and Joseph Stalin. Shortly before the war
ended, another summit was held at Potsdam, near Berlin between President Harry S.
Truman, Churchill, and Stalin.

71
One of the most notable and successful summit meetings of the postwar era
took place in 1977 when Egyptian president Anwar el-Sadat traveled to Israel to
obtain a peace settlement with Israeli prime minister Menachem Begin. Out of this
trip came the Camp David talks, arranged and hosted by United Slates president
Jimmy Carter in 1978, from which came the Camp David Accords outlining the
principles for peace in the Middle East.
The improvement of relations between the United States and the Soviet
Union in the late 1980s permitted their leaders to hold more constructive summits. In
September 1990 President Bush and Soviet president Mikhail Gorbachev met in
Helsinki, Finland, to discuss the Persian Gulf crisis caused by Iraq's invasion of
Kuwait in August of that year. In a state of agreement not often seen before, the two
issued a joint statement pledging action to resolve the crisis.
S h u t t l e d i p l o m a c y . In diplomacy and international relations, shuttle
diplomacy is the use of a third party to serve as an intermediary or mediator between
two parties who do not talk directly. The third party travels frequently back and forth
(that is, "shuttles") between the two primary parties. Shuttle diplomacy is often used
when the two primary parties do not formally recognize each other but still want to
negotiate.
The term shuttle diplomacy became widespread following Henry Kissinger's
term as United States Secretary of State. Kissinger participated in shuttle diplomacy
in the Middle East and in the People's Republic of China. It was Henry Kissinger who
made such shuttle diplomacy a basic tool in the conduct of foreign relations. He
traveled hundreds of thousands of miles on diplomatic missions to all parts of the
globe during the administrations of Presidents Nixon and Ford. Sometimes special
envoys are used for shuttle diplomacy. In 1982 President Reagan sent Philip Habib
and other negotiators to the Middle East to try to settle the crisis over Lebanon that
had arisen from Israel's invasion of that country in June 1982.
1. What are the conditions that bore heavily on the conduct of diplomacy?
2. What is the role of shuttle diplomacy?
3. What is meant by summit diplomacy? What advantages and disadvantages
does it have?
72
Task 4. Read the article, answer the questions following it. Explain the meaning of
the words and expressions in bold. Think of a situation where you could use them.
Make a summary using the words and expressions in bold. Think of another headline
for the story; compare it with your group mates’ variants. Choose the best headline.
Cultural diplomacy
Soft power and a rapturous ovation
PYONGYANG
From The Economist print edition
North Koreans listened to music they had never heard before – Gershwin, Dvorak
and the “Star-Spangled Banner” – in an historic first visit by an American orchestra.
FOR at least 90 minutes in a theatre in Pyongyang it was possible for those attending
a concert by the New York Philharmonic Orchestra to believe that 55 years of cold-
war hostility were coming to an end. North Koreans said they were impressed by the
music of their foe. Their American guests, astonished to be there at all, spoke of a
thaw beginning.

On the eve of the orchestra's visit the North Korean media were still warning, as they
had done since most of those attending the concert were born, of the immediate
danger of an American-provoked war. But at the East Pyongyang Grand Theatre
history was made on February 26th. On either side of the stage the American and
North Korean flags were suspended on silver poles. Not since the 1950-53 Korean
war has the Stars and Stripes been so publicly displayed in North Korea.

Most of the music was unfamiliar to North Koreans, who would never have been to
a performance that did not include some adulatory reference to the Workers' Party, its
founder Kim Il Sung and his son and successor as supreme leader, Kim Jong II.
Western classical music is permitted, but in limited doses.

The Philharmonic's programme had a propaganda twist to it …. It began on neutral


ground with the boisterous prelude to Act III of Richard Wagner's “Lohengrin”. Then
followed two pieces showcasing America's classical-music heritage: Antonin
73
Dvorak's “New World Symphony” (though a Czech, Dvorak composed it in
America) and George Gershwin's “An American in Paris”. The encores … began
with Georges Bizet's brassy “L'Arlésienne” suite. … The climax was saved for last.
As the first notes of “Arirang”, a Korean folk song, were played murmurs rippled
across the hall. The tune is familiar to Koreans on both sides of the demilitarised zone
that divides the peninsula. It has become an undeclared anthem of longing for
unification. North Korea stages an “Arirang” festival every year in which 100,000
people perform a series of mass callisthenics.

The orchestra received a rapturous standing ovation. The Americans were overjoyed.
“To say I am over the moon tonight is an understatement,” Zarin Mehta, president of
the orchestra, told the players at a celebratory banquet back at the Yanggakdo hotel.
Mr Maazel told reporters that the Philharmonic had not been given such an
enthusiastic reception in a long time. “They could have played ‘Chopsticks’ and it
wouldn't have mattered,” said a Pyongyang-based diplomat in the audience. That it
happened at all was what delighted the North Koreans.

The State Department was an enthusiastic backer of the visit. When the orchestra
received the invitation by fax from Pyongyang last August, it turned to the
government for advice. Christopher Hill, America's top negotiator with North Korea,
encouraged the orchestra to accept. Tensions between the two countries over North
Korea's nuclear programme were beginning to ease. North Korea had shut down its
nuclear reactor in Yongbyon in July. In June Mr Hill had paid the first visit to North
Korea by an American official since President Bush had described the country in
2002 as part of an “axis of evil” along with Iran and Iraq.
Classical diplomacy
Orchestras have long acted as goodwill ambassadors during political stand-offs. In
1956 the Boston Symphony Orchestra became the first prominent American
ensemble to play in the Soviet Union. The Philharmonic itself, then under Bernstein,
followed three years later. In 1973 the Philadelphia Orchestra performed in Beijing,
an event that symbolised a sea change in America's relations with China following
President Nixon's visit there a year earlier. “Our small symphony is a giant leap,”
74
said Mr Mehta when he announced the Pyongyang visit last December. “What
follows from that is up to the diplomats to deal with. All we can do is show the way
that music can unite people.”

… For all the hoopla, North Korea's main state newspaper, Rodong Sinmun, relegated
news of the performance to a dry piece at the bottom of page four (a story about
flowers sent by Kim Jong II to Cuba's new president, Raúl Castro, dominated the
front page). If nothing else, the impact might simply be cultural. One official brought
up on a diet of revolutionary tunes said he knew nothing before about classical music
from the West. Emerging from the East Pyongyang Grand Theatre he admitted,
“Now I like it.” The Philharmonic did achieve something.

1. The event in the article is described as an example of «cultural diplomacy».


What idea did the organizers bear in mind? What ‘tactics’ did they use to make
this idea work?
2. To what type of diplomacy would you refer cultural diplomacy? How powerful
this diplomacy is?
3. Find words and phrases in the text that mean: a) a strong and noticeable change
in situation; b) informal excitement about sth which gets a lot of public
attention; c) a sudden large change or increase in sth; d) a situation in which no
agreement can be reached; e) a statement that makes sth seem less important,
serious, etc. than it really is; f) a situation in which the relations between two
enemy countries become more friendly.
4. What do you think the words in italics mean?

Task 5. Read the text. Answer the questions that follow. Explain the meaning of the
words and expressions in bold. Make a tree-diagram of the text. Use it to make its
summary.

INTERNATIONAL ORGANISATIONS
One sign of the changing international system is this century's rapid rise in
the number of international organizations. Current international organization is the
product of three lines of development: the idea that humans should live in peace and
75
mutual support, the idea that the big powers have a special responsibility for
maintaining order, and the growth of specialized international organizations to deal
with narrow nonpolitical issues. The rapid growth of all types of international or-
ganizations also stems from increased international contact among states and people,
increased economic interdependence, the growing importance of transnational issues
and political movements, and the inadequacy of the state-centered system for dealing
with world problems.
What organizations operate in the system, and what impact do they have on
the course of international relations? We can answer these questions by dividing
actors into three general categories: national actors, supranational actors, and
transnational actors.
N a t i o n a l A c t o r s . States are the principal actors on the world stage. The
leading role that states play in the international system derives from their sovereignty,
their status as the primary focus of people's political loyalty, and their command of
the preponderance of economic and military power. States dominate the action and
act with independence. Yet it is also true that states are not the only actors and that
there are significant centralizing forces in the system.
S u p r a n a t i o n a l A c t o r s . One centralizing force in the international
system is supranational organizations. The distinguishing characteristics of such an
organization are that: (1) it has individual countries as members, and (2) some aspects
of the organization's authority at least theoretically supersede the sovereignty of its
individual members. Many view a system dominated by supranational organizations
as a "higher," more desirable form of international order. Some theorists even en-
vision a United States of the World in which countries have surrendered all or part
of their sovereignty to the global authority. There are several types of supranational
organizations. In brief, they are the following:
General-Purpose, Universal Organizations. The United
Nations is the only existing general-purpose worldwide organization that, in theory,
has some supranational characteristics. Almost every country is a member. The UN
also has a life and an authority beyond the wishes of its individual members, and in

76
theory member states are bound to follow UN policy in many areas. However, there
is a substantial gap between the ideal and the reality.
R e g i o n a l O r g a n i z a t i o n s . A wide variety of regional organizations
exist today. As their name implies, they are multipurpose (some combination of
military, economic, social, and political) organizations centered in a given region of
the world. The Organization of American States (OAS) and the European Union (EU)
are just two of the many major regional organizations. Furthermore, many political
scientists believe that without the restraints of the cold war, regionalism will flourish
in the developing international system. This view is supported by early signs of
regional growth (such as the North American Free Trade Agreement) and the
continued integration of existing regional organizations, especially the EU.
A l l i a n c e s . Most alliances are treaties, but a few defensive associations
that stress military cooperation are also a form of supranational organization.
Member nations are expected to come to the aid of the collective and thus have, in
theory, surrendered a part of their independence. The North Atlantic Treaty
Organization (NATO) is the leading example of a multinational alliance that has an
organizational structure and some other limited functions.
Alliances form for several reasons. Alliances can be based on a desire to
dominate, as a defensive reaction to specific threat, to block the hegemony of
another alliance or specific country, or on common attributes or good feelings
without specific goals. Alliances can also be based on a geostrategic desire to have
access to another country's political or economic resources as well .
Because alliances can evolve, they sometimes survive even after the reason
for their formation has been eliminated. For example, NATO is struggling to evolve
beyond its origins in 1949 as an anticommunist, anti-Soviet military alliance toward a
pan-European peacekeeping organization.
T r a n s n a t i o n a l A c t o r s . Transnational organizations constitute a third
category of actors in the international system. There are both intergovernmental
organizations (IGOs) and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) that qualify as
transnational actors insofar as they share three identifying characteristics:

77
(1) They are organized, usually with identified leaders and a bureaucratic
structure.
(2) They are specialized, performing a limited number of defined tasks or
functions. This functional perspective distinguishes transnational IGOs from
multifunctional, supranational IGOs.
(3) They operate across international boundaries and have an orientation or
allegiance that is, at least in part, not bound to the views or interests of any individual
state.
The number of both IGOs and NGOs has grown tremendously during the
twentieth century. In 1900 there were 30 IGOs and 69 NGOs. Since then the number
of IGOs has grown nine fold, and the number of NGOs has expanded seventy fold.
Furthermore, the influence and range of activities of transnational actors are growing
as their numbers increase and as technological advances allow them to operate and
communicate more effectively across political boundaries.
I n t e r g o v e r n m e n t a l O r g a n i z a t i o n s . The IGOs perform a wide
variety of functional, or nonpolitical, tasks in the world today. Many are economic in
nature. One example, the International Monetary Fund (IMF), has full and associated
member countries and functions to keep world currencies stable. Other transnational
organizations concentrate on social functions. The World Health Organization
(WHO) is an example. You should note the wide range of IGOs’ activities, the di-
versity of the locations of their headquarters, and the various nationalities of the
administrators who head these IGOs.
N o n g o v e r n m e n t a l O r g a n i z a t i o n s . Intergovernmental organizations
perform a wide variety of functional, or nonpolitical, tasks in the world today,
whether they concern themselves with catching criminals, regulating civil aviation,
or promoting health. The number of private organizations that operate internationally
has grown phenomenally in the recent past. Like IGOs, they are involved in a wide
spectrum of activities.
R e l i g i o u s o r g a n i z a t i o n s are widespread and active in world politics.
The World Evangelical Alliance, founded in 1846, is an early example of a Protestant

78
IGO. The Roman Catholic Church is by far the largest and most influential of current
religion-based NGOs. The Vatican itself is a state, and the pope is a secular as well as
a spiritual leader. The political influence of Roman Catholicism, however, extends far
beyond the Vatican.
More recently, the Church sparked international controversy when John Paul
II took issue with the draft document being circulated for debate at the September
1994 meeting of the UN-sponsored International Conference on Population and
Development (ICPD). The pontiff, supported by the vote of 114 cardinals,
condemned many aspects of the draft, including what they saw as its anti-family tone
and its advocacy of abortion.
1. What are the types of international organizations existing today? What are the
differences between them?
2. Speak on the functions international organizations perform? What do you think
are the most important and acute?
3. Give your own examples to each type of IGO and INGO. Speak on their
functions and activities.

Task 6. Read the article. Answer the questions that follow. Summarize the article in
10-15 sentences.
The Red Cross movement
How much evil can you not see?
Impartiality is still the best policy, a giant humanitarian network says
NAIROBI
From The Economist print edition

AS EVERY student of warfare knows, the International Committee of the Red Cross
(ICRC) is staunchly, and at times controversially, neutral. Its work as a guardian of
the laws governing conflict has obliged it to deal with all manner of bad people,
including the Nazis.

Less well known, probably, is the neutral tradition of the other wing of the Red Cross
movement, which is much larger: the network of humanitarian volunteers in 186
79
countries which offers medical aid and practical help to victims of disaster, both
natural and man-made. But the International Federation of Red Cross and Red
Crescent Societies (IFRC), whose leaders met in Nairobi last month, is adamant that
impartiality has served it well, and worked to the advantage of the people it
succours.

In the world of aid agencies, this notion has been hotly contested. A new kind of
NGO – of which the best example is Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF), at least in its
initial, combative mode – emerged in the 1970s after French doctors working in
Biafra protested against the silence of the Red Cross in the face of atrocities by
Nigerian forces subduing the rebel province. The founders of MSF, including
Bernard Kouchner who is now France’s foreign minister, said aid agencies’ duties
included “witnessing” against perpetrators of evil.

But Tadateru Konoe, the IFRC’s Japanese president, retorts that neutrality is still an
entry ticket to many disaster zones. He recalls that when Cyclone Nargis hit
Myanmar in 2008, killing about 140,000 people, the federation was able to mobilise
local volunteers and bring in equipment before any other aid organisation arrived.
The reason: “the generals trusted us.”

In a similar way, the Red Cross and its affiliates did good work in Iran following the
Bam earthquake in 2003. And in countries ravaged by war where little else works,
the local Red Cross society is often resilient. In recent days, the Congolese Red Cross
was first on the scene after a ferry sank; and the Somali Red Crescent is helping
victims of the growing mayhem, despite threats from jihadist1 groups.

The very fact that these chaotic places possess local Red Cross or Red Crescent
societies (the latter title is preferred in many Muslim countries) reflects the theory
which underpins the movement. It is not a vertical, global hierarchy but an
association of voluntary bodies, which are separately organised in each state. When a
rich country’s Red Cross offers help to a poor country, it is – in theory – just an act of

1
Jihad - Islamic campaign against nonbelievers.

80
solidarity between colleagues, rather than a condescending intervention from “on
high” which can ruffle local feathers.

There are limits to the credibility of that principle. Many wonder, for instance, what
concessions the IFRC makes to remain active in North Korea. The North Korean Red
Cross claims 100,000 active local volunteers and 300,000 youth members. It is hard
to believe (though the IFRC officially claims to) that these “volunteers” are free from
infiltration by North Korean secret police. And impartiality does not always
guarantee access. Eritrea has refused to recognise its national Red Cross society,
disputing its claim to neutrality.

Still, veterans of the Red Cross movement can take quiet satisfaction in the fact that
the more militant brand of NGO, including MSF itself, has moved closer to the Red
Cross ethos of political caution. MSF learned some hard lessons during the 1994
genocide in Rwanda: it was forced to pool its efforts with the Red Cross and both
bodies saw many staff members killed.

While the MSF’s early rhetoric of political engagement has been tempered by
reality, the Red Cross’s practice of discreet silence, even in the face of terrible
atrocities, has also become harder to maintain. As the head of MSF, Christophe
Fournier, points out, there is now an almost uncontrollable information flow even in
the world’s direst backwaters. That makes a “see no evil” policy tougher; it also
complicates life for noisy advocates.

The regime in Pyongyang provides a big test case for aid agencies of any ideological
persuasion. MSF has been forced out for being too outspoken, while the Red Cross
remains – but at what price?

1. What are the two wings of the Red Cross? What principle do they share?
2. Explain what ‘impartiality’ in this context means.
3. What do think about the “see no evil” policy? Is it justified? sensible?
unscrupulous? Can you give this policy another name?

81
4. Find words in the article that mean: a) to help sb who is suffering or having
problems; b) a person who commits a crime or does sth that is wrong or evil; c) to
bring sb/sth under control, especially by using force; d) a company, an organization,
etc. that is connected with or controlled by another larger one; e) able to feel better
quickly after sth unpleasant such as shock, injury, etc.; f) confusion and fear, usually
caused by violent behaviour or by some sudden shocking event; g) a cruel and violent
act, especially in a war; h) a person who supports or speaks in favour of sb or of a
public plan or action.
5. Explain the meaning of the phrases in bold.
6. What is the main idea of the text? Find statements in the text that support your
opinion about the main idea. Give your own comments.

Task 7. Read the article. Find key phrases or sentences in each paragraph, translate
them into English. Summarize the article in English in 10-15 sentences using these
sentences. Give English equivalents to the words in bold.

Кризис в отношениях с Западом: какой кризис?


Министр иностранных дел Сергей Лавров недавно ответил на вопросы
Русской службы Би-би-си.

В целом мы удовлетворены итогами Лондонского саммита "группы двадцати".


Принятые на нем решения развивают вашингтонские договоренности прошлого
года и сфокусированы на достижение практических результатов в преодолении
кризиса и "перезагрузке" мировой экономики. ...

Что касается финансового кризиса, то он действительно может способствовать


улучшению отношений России с Западом и США, прежде всего помочь США и
Западу перевести отношения с Россией в более конструктивное русло. Такое
сотрудничество не только формирует позитивную общую повестку дня, но и
помогает наработать необходимые взаимное доверие, навыки и культуру
диалога и взаимодействия. И здесь нет никакого парадокса – напротив, здравый
смысл подсказывает, что во время кризиса искусственно политизированные

82
вопросы отходят на второй план и все стороны признают наличие общих
интересов, в особенности когда речь идет о действительно насущных
вопросах. ...
Выход из кризиса: война, как и в 30-е годы XX века?
Такие предположения отдельных экспертов настораживают, но в целом, думаю,
они безосновательны. Ошибка тех, кто проводит аналогии между нынешним
глобальным кризисом и Великой депрессией, заключается в том, что они не
учитывают принципиальных отличий между двумя эпохами. Главное – то, что
мы живем в эпоху глобализации, когда есть широкое понимание, что ни одно
государство, ни какая-либо группа или объединение государств не в состоянии
самостоятельно решить ни одну из актуальных международных проблем,
которые к тому же не имеют силовых решений. ...

Это, конечно, не означает, что мир застрахован от вооруженных конфликтов в


принципе. Нельзя исключать, что у некоторых стран может возникнуть соблазн
применения "военного допинга" для того, чтобы заново "завести" свою
экономику. Сейчас никто не знает, какой будет технологическая основа
следующего этапа развития глобальной экономики, но не думаю, что
милитаризация здесь скажет решающее слово. Просто перед всеми стоят
совершенно другие задачи, во многом определяемые идеей устойчивого
развития. Мы переживаем системный кризис глобального управления, и для
экономики нужны комплексные оздоровительные средства, а не опасные
стимуляторы. ...

О долгосрочных союзниках

Россия, как и большинство государств, проводит многовекторную внешнюю


политику. Масштабы России, ее особая роль в обеспечении международной
безопасности, наличие у нашей страны глобальных интересов предопределяют
то, что с подавляющим большинством государств у нас складываются
партнерские отношения.

83
К тому же современная международная жизнь с ее возросшей сложностью и
динамикой требует творческих решений, которые легче находить в рамках
сетевой дипломатии, а не громоздких военно-политических союзов прошлого
с их обременительными жесткими обязательствами. Речь сегодня должна идти
о партнерах, преследующих те или иные совпадающие интересы, а не
объединяющихся против каких-то других стран. В целом считаем, что после
окончания холодной войны исчезли основания для блоковой политики, больше
не срабатывают попытки навязать всем принцип "или с нами, или против
нас". ...Свою эффективность сегодня доказывают такие механизмы
взаимодействия с участием России, как ОДКБ, ЕврАзЭС, ШОС, БРИК, СНГ,
финансовая "двадцатка", "группа восьми", многосторонние форматы
урегулирования ситуации вокруг иранской ядерной программы и решения
ядерной проблемы Корейского полуострова. Примеров масса. Так что Россия
играет активную и конструктивную роль в международных делах. ...

"Помогите разобраться в западных ценностях"

Глубоко убежден, что существуют непреходящие ценности, на которых,


собственно, и основана человеческая цивилизация. Их нельзя разделить на
западные и восточные, африканские, азиатские или европейские. Они – общие.
Если хотите, это нравственная основа жизни современного общества, тот
"цемент", который должен скреплять все нации, народы и этнические группы.
Имею в виду так называемые традиционные ценности, которые прививаются
каждому человеку, всеми мировыми религиями: честность, чувство
собственного достоинства, сознание стыда, ответственность перед близкими,
трудолюбие. По-моему, весьма точное определение этому набору ценностей
дал великий английский писатель Джордж Оруэлл, назвав его common decency.

Мы не удивились, когда премьер-министр Великобритании Гордон Браун,


выступая 31 марта, накануне саммита "двадцатки", заговорил о традиционных
ценностях как о "спасательном круге", с помощью которого сможет выплыть,
по его словам, лишенная морали глобальная рыночная экономика. Для нас эта

84
мысль не нова. Россия давно отстаивает необходимость укрепления
нравственных начал в международных отношениях, добиваясь отказа от
двойных стандартов. ...

Секретные тюрьмы, Гуантанамо, натовские бомбежки Сербии, война против


Ирака под лозунгом ликвидации несуществующего ядерного оружия (и, кстати,
отказ рассекретить документы о подготовке той войны), "цветные" революции
на постсоветском пространстве – все это не просто примеры грубейших
нарушений прав человека, но и попрания норм нравственности и морали. ... Эти
явления опасны тем, что порождают цепную реакцию: можно одним – значит,
можно и другим. Начали переписывать историю, героизировать нацистов,
очернять освободителей Европы от фашизма – то есть делать вещи, вообще
стоящие по ту сторону добра и зла.

Россия уже инициировала дискуссию о неразрывной связи традиционных


ценностей и прав человека в рамках международных организаций. Мы
надеемся, что обсуждение этой темы, вызвавшей заинтересованный отклик у
многих государств, продолжится на сессиях Совета ООН по правам человека, в
ЮНЕСКО, Совете Европы.
«ИЗВЕСТИЯ».
DISCUSSION
1. Speak on the functions of diplomats (observer and reporter, negotiator,
substantive and symbolic representative). How do you think they change with
time?
2. Diplomacy is an activity that involves different kinds of actors – from
individuals to international organisations. Speak on the roles each of these
actors play. How important do you think is the role of an individual in carrying
out diplomacy?
3. Explain the principle of diplomatic immunity. Why do you think such
privileges are justifiable?
4. Discuss the events that affected modern diplomacy (recent times).

85
5. Prepare a short report on a great or influential diplomat and his/her
contribution to the international relations. Use newspaper and magazine
articles (you may use the articles from the internet archives).
6. Speak on characteristic features of the 20th century international relations.
7. What is the role of international organizations in international relations?
Prepare projects on the major international organisations: their aims, areas of
interest, members, and activities. What kind of international organization
would you create? (consider all the above-mentioned points).
8. Why do you think the United Nations called a ‘toothless’ organisation? What
are the prospects of its development?
9. Explain the notion of public diplomacy. How important is it today?
10.Some observers argue that international organizations are best suited to
promoting cooperation among states rather than trying to replace the state-
centered system. What point of view do you support and why?
11.Scan the available papers and magazines in English to find information on the
issues discussed in the unit. Compare several articles highlighting the
following points: a) the issues put forward; b) the manner of presentation; c)
arguments and evidence given; d) the author’s point of view; e) conclusions.
Which of the articles do you like best and why?
12.Comment on the ideas revealed in the following quotations:
 Diplomacy is more than saying or doing the right things at the right time, it is
avoiding saying or doing the wrong things at any time. – Bo Bennett.
 Diplomacy: the art of restraining power. – Henry A. Kissinger.
 You cannot shake hands with a clenched fist. – Attributed to both Golda Meir
and Indira Gandhi.

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UNIT 5. VISITS. TALKS. AGREEMENTS.
VOCABULARY
Study the meaning of the following words and word-combinations, give their Russian
equivalents.
visit

an official visit; a friendly visit; a working visit; a forthcoming visit; a return


visit; a goodwill visit; a brief visit; to go on a visit; to pay a visit; to cancel a
visit; to be on a visit; to arrive in some place on a visit; to arrive at the invitation
of; to convey an invitation on behalf of smb; a distinguished guest; in honour of
the distinguished guest; the distinguished guest and his party
delegation
a government delegation; a trade delegation; a delegation headed by smb; to give
a warm reception to smb; at the farewell reception; a summit
meeting/conference; meeting participants; to consider a question; to go off in a
friendly/businesslike atmosphere; to declare; to present a mutual interest; to meet
the interests; to head/lead a delegation; delegate; counterpart/opposite number;
agenda
to adopt the agenda; to include an item in the agenda; the subject topping the
agenda
conflict
armed conflict; to come into conflict with; to provoke a conflict; to resolve a
conflict; to avert a conflict
talks
multilateral talks; summit /top-level talks; to hold/conduct talks; to hold talks in a
friendly/cordial/businesslike atmosphere; the talks went off; to delay talks; to
suspend talks; to upgrade talks; talks are scheduled to start; talks collapsed
/broke down; to torpedo talks; breakthrough in the talks; to resume talks; talks on
limiting strategic armaments; readiness to talks on issues of peace and security;
to founder; brinkmanship; to scupper/torpedo talks;
agreement
a draft agreement; an interim agreement; a long-term agreement; to come to

87
/reach an agreement; to strike an agreement; to annul an agreement; to enter into
agreement; an agreement for … years; disarmament agreement; agreements for
consolidating friendship, cooperation and mutual assistance; a genuine desire to
reach agreements on a just and mutually acceptable basis; to clear the hurdles to
the agreement; broad agreement; stumbling block; accord; deal;
treaty
to sign a treaty; to conclude a treaty; to observe a treaty; to ratify a treaty; to
renounce a treaty; to violate a treaty; provisions of the treaty; draft treaty
cooperation
all round cooperation; bilateral cooperation; businesslike cooperation; mutually
beneficial/advantageous cooperation; to establish cooperation;
deep/narrowing/widening differences; confidence
issue
to bring up issue/to raise an issue; to bring an issue to a close; to settle an issue;
parties at issue; topical issue; to be at issue
negotiations
conduct negotiations; enter into negotiations; negotiations for; top-level
negotiations; negotiations collapsed; negotiations were deadlocked/reached
stalemate; impasse; communiqué; declaration; tough/aggressive stance;
concession; compromise; veto; deadlock; impasse; loggerheads
conference
to attend a conference; a forthcoming conference; to fix a date for a conference;
to hold a conference; to preside at a conference; a summit/top level conference;
to summon/ call/ convene a conference; to torpedo a conference
concession
by mutual concession; make concessions;
resolution
adopt/pass a resolution; draft resolution; turn down/ throw out a resolution; to
amend a resolution; to move a resolution;
to proceed in an atmosphere of trust; to proceed in a businesslike and comradely
atmosphere; to hold common or close positions on the fundamental problems of
88
our time
relations
bilateral relations; good-neighbourhood relations; strained/tense/frosty relations;
normalization of relations between …; to establish diplomatic relations; to
sever/break off diplomatic relations; to sour/dog relations; to
strengthen/improve/promote relations/ties; to have/maintain relations; to
normalize relations; to renew relations; to restore relations; sanctions; trade
sanctions; embargo; economic embargo
view
to exchange views on smth; to express/present/put forward/voice a view;
unanimity of views; to be of the view; the policy aimed at healthier international
atmosphere; current international situation; abating/relaxation of tension in the
world; the search for mutual understanding

Exercise 1. Give terms to the following definitions (using your active vocabulary).
a) 1. Formal discussions between governments, organizations etc. 2.
Someone who has been elected or chosen to speak, vote, or take decisions for a
group. 3. Someone or something that has the same job or purpose as someone or
something else in a different place. 4. An important meeting or set of meetings
between the leaders of several governments. 5. An official report or announcement. 6.
An arrangement or promise to do something, made by two or more people,
companies, organizations etc. 7. A problem or difficulty that stops you from
achieving something. 8. Something that you allow someone to have in order to end an
argument or a disagreement. 9. An agreement that is achieved after everyone
involved accepts less than what they wanted at first, or the act of making this
agreement. 10. A refusal to give official permission for something, or the right to
refuse to give such permission. 11. A situation in which a disagreement cannot be
settled. 12. A method of gaining political advantage by pretending that you are
willing to do something very dangerous.
b) 13. An important new discovery in something you are studying,
especially one made after trying for a long time. 14. To make a written agreement

89
official by signing it. 15. Official orders or laws stopping trade, communication etc
with another country, as a way of forcing its leaders to make political changes. 16.
An official order to stop trade with another country. 17. A list of the subjects to be
discussed at a meeting. 18. A large formal meeting where a lot of people discuss
important matters such as business, politics, or science, especially for several days.
19. The feeling that you can trust someone or something to be good, work well, or
produce good results. 20. A state of disagreement or argument between people,
groups, countries etc. 21. When you work with someone to achieve something that
you both want. 22. A group of people who represent a company, organization etc. 23.
A problem or difficulty that you must deal with before you can achieve something.
24. A subject or problem that is often discussed or argued about, especially a social or
political matter that affects the interests of a lot of people. 25. A formal decision or
statement agreed on by a group of people, especially after a vote. 26. A formal
written agreement between two or more countries or governments

Exercise 2. Fill in the gaps with the necessary words from the box.
delegate, summit, treaty, hurdle, resolution, deadlock, sanctions, counterparts,
cooperation, concessions, conference, agenda, veto, ratify

1. Both sides have agreed to sign the … . 2. Finding enough money for the project
was the first … . 3. Southern … to the Continental Congress expressed unwillingness
to use their militias outside their own borders. 4. In such cases the company's
directors pass a … that the company be wound up. 5. The talks have reached a
complete … . 6. NATO leaders are preparing for a … conference to decide the future
of the alliance. 7. The UN security council may impose economic … . 8. With the
need for international … more urgent than ever, there were still as many frontiers as
in any earlier age. 9. Belgian officials are discussing this with their French … . 10.
Both sides made various … , but neither would back down on the crucial points. 11.
The fuel crisis will be at the top of the … for today's board meeting. 12. The
president, with his … power, blocked these reactionary schemes. 13. We hope that

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the republics will be willing to … the treaty. 14. Representatives from over 100
countries attended the International Peace … in Geneva.

Exercise 3. Give synonyms to the underlined words.


1. The president held talks with Chinese officials. 2. A communiqué was issued by
NATO Defence Ministers. 3. The President has adopted a tough stance on terrorism.
4. Negotiations ended in deadlock. 5. a high-level conference on arms control 6.
Haydon came to an agreement with his creditors. 7. He summoned a conference of
business leaders. 8. The president held talks with Chinese officials. 9. We should
raise the issue of discrimination with the council. 10. The UN passed a Human Rights
resolution by a vote of 130-2. 11. The two countries severed diplomatic relations. 12.
The global trend towards higher taxation on fuel consumption is souring relations
with leading oil-producing states. 13. A lot depends on building and maintaining a
good relationship with your customers. 14. The views expressed in this book are
purely those of the author. 15. He was leading a delegation of remarkable size: no
less than seven members of the Cabinet made the six-week trip.

Exercise 4. Give English equivalents.


Единство взглядов, камень преткновения, уступка, прибыть с визитом, визит
доброй воли, ввести санкции, проект договора, положения договора, соблюдать
договор, прорыв в переговорах, переговоры провалились, проводить
переговоры, многосторонние переговоры, наладить сотрудничество,
двустороннее сотрудничество, сорвать конференцию, конференция на высшем
уровне, созвать конференцию, назначить срок конференции, аннулировать
соглашение, временное соглашение, утверждать повестку дня, принять
резолюцию, выдвинуть резолюцию, проект резолюции, укрепить отношения,
добрососедские отношения, переговоры зашли в тупик, решить проблему,
актуальная проблема, по приглашению, отвечать интересам, высокий гость,
принимать делегацию.

Exercise 5. Give Russian equivalents.


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To head a delegation, in honour of the distinguished guest, to present a mutual
interest, to convey an invitation on behalf of smb, parties at issue, to be at issue,
negotiations collapsed, establish diplomatic relations, to sever diplomatic relations, to
dig relations, to amend a resolution, a joint resolution, the subject topping the agenda,
a forthcoming conference, to preside at a conference, to avert a conflict, all round
cooperation, mutually beneficial cooperation, counterpart, summit talks, to delay
talks, to upgrade talks, to torpedo talks, to conclude a treaty, to renounce a treaty, to
violate a treaty, a return visit, to pay a visit.

Exercise 6. Translate into English using your active vocabulary.


1. Центральный вопрос повестки дня будет обсуждение мер по борьбе с
терроризмом. 2. Мы разработали предварительный вариант соглашения. 3.
Участники переговоров приняли решение о выводе войск. 4. Представители
более чем 100 стран приняли участие в работе конференции в Женеве. 5.
Президенты двух стран, находящихся в добрососедских отношениях
согласились провести конференцию весной этого года. 6. Новые угрозы
насилия сорвали мирные переговоры. 7. Резолюция была принята единогласно.
8. после нескольких месяцев переговоров его убедили подписать мирный
договор. 9. Они подписали договор о решении всех пограничных конфликтов
через арбитраж. 10. Ни одна из сторон не была готова идти на уступки. 11.
Президент прибыл с двухдневным визитом в Мексику. 12. Президент занят
жесткую позицию в вопросе терроризма. 13. Совет безопасности ООН может
ввести экономические санкции. 14. Любые переговоры о снятии санкций
преждевременны. 15. Переговоры между двумя странам были приостановлены.

Task 1. Read the following text. Answer the questions that follow. Explain the
meaning of the words and expressions in bold. Make a tree-diagram of the text,
compare it with your partner’s one. Summarize the text using the diagram.

NEGOTIATIONS
Negotiation is the process whereby macropolitical actors interact in order to
effect a number of goals that can only, or most effectively, be realized by joint

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agreement. If an actor has the capability and the willingness to effect an outcome
independently then no negotiation is required. To this extent entering into the
negotiating process is a tacit recognition by the parties that their interests are
complementary. It is possible to establish analytical categories when looking for
reasons why actors negotiate:
First, in order to extend an agreement that is already in force between them
where the original understanding had a time limit. Second, to normalize
relationships as when two actors re-establish diplomatic relations. Third, to carry
out a redistribution agreement which involves situations where parties agree to
change a particular status quo. Redistribution agreements are common after the
ending of a war situation. The parties to the conflict may make such arrangements.
Fourth, innovation agreements may be reached to establish new actors. The
San Francisco Conference approved the establishment of the UN. The Balfour
Declaration viewed with favour the establishment of a home for the Jews in Palestine
in 1917.
Finally, negotiations may be entered into for the so-called 'side-benefits'.
Parties may negotiate simply in order to establish a clearer perception of each other's
goals, and to make propaganda for themselves and their position.
These categories may be combined. Thus a cease-fire agreement can be said
to normalize a situation. However, to the extent that during such armistice
negotiations the acceptance of a cease-fire line involves a change of territory, then
redistribution has taken place. Equally it is possible for parties renewing an
agreement to introduce new clauses thus innovating. It is also possible to redistribute
values when renegotiating agreements. This is particularly likely when actors are
involved in tariff bargaining; the essence being to renew an agreed tariff position
but to redistribute at the same time. The process of negotiating for side benefits may
be implicit in any of the other four processes.
Formal negotiating begins with the statement of positions by the parties.
Sometimes these formalities are preceded by negotiations about who are to be
included as parties and even about the physical arrangements for the meetings. Once

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all sides are in possession of the other's demands then three basic choices are
available:
 to accept agreement on the available terms, that is to say upon the terms
other parties put forward;
 to attempt to improve the available terms by bargaining;
 to break off negotiations because neither of the previous choices are
acceptable.
The essential tactic in negotiation is for a party to convince all others that its
current offer is the best available and that there is no point in bargaining around the
terms in order to improve them. The actual behaviour whereby terms are modified
and outcomes evolved is the essence of the bargaining process. There are a variety of
strategies that parties can use to reach the bargain. It may be possible to reach
agreement by setting a deadline or dateline for the terms offered or by giving the
impression that these terms may harden if agreement is not reached.
An essential variable in the process of negotiation will be the way the issues
are defined by the parties. This perception of the issues can determine the likelihood
of negotiations ever taking place, let alone whether they succeed or not. As a general
rule the smaller the issue difference the greater the chance of negotiations succeeding.
Conversely, the more issues are seen as fundamental matters of principle, the harder
compromise becomes. Sometimes parties deliberately manipulate the issues to make
agreement easier or harder, the deliberate widening of issues into matters of principle
being the most obvious. If all parties can agree in principle at the outset, that
impediment is removed and details can be filled in during the bargaining.
Sometimes parties will couple issues together. This may be done in order to be
constructive, for example by offering to reciprocate concessions, or it might be
destructive, widening the agenda of discussion in order to exert pressure. The way in
which issues are perceived by the parties is likely then to have an important bearing
upon the outcome of the negotiations. The broader the structure of the issue area the
smaller the chances of success but the greater the pay-offs if the negotiations do
succeed. Conversely reducing the issue area increases the chances of success but
reduces the significance of what is agreed. If the negotiations fail in the latter case,
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the chances of reviving the negotiations at some later date are almost certain to be
greater.
The whole question of the relationship between capability and negotiation is a
complex one. It is sometimes simplified into the aphorism that parties should seek to
‘negotiate from strength’. On the face of it this view is valid and appears to be
intuitively sound. Upon closer examination, however, the injunction looks flawed.
Some political scientists have observed that parties 'dictate' rather than negotiate from
positions of strength. A position of parity is more likely to be conducive to success in
negotiations than great diversity in strength.
It is often necessary to differentiate between amity and enmity as background
conditions in negotiations. Whereas accommodation between friends is likely to be
the outcome, at least in part, of positive values between the parties, accommodation
between foes is more likely to be dictated by expediency. In particular, negotiations
between friends are more likely to evince the attitude of negotiating ‘in good faith'. In
essence it means to negotiate with a real desire to reach agreement rather than to
negotiate for 'side-benefits'. More specifically, 'negotiating in good faith' involves not
maintaining a dogmatic position that precludes agreement and accepting the principal
rule of accommodation, which is the willingness to make concessions in order to
secure agreement.
Agreements are most usually reached through compromise if negotiations are
not to break down. In order to compromise parties agree to a partial withdrawal
from their initial positions. This withdrawal need not be symmetrical. The essential
point about compromise is that all parties must appreciate that the price of continued
conflict is higher than the costs of reducing demands. Compromise is, in fact, a two-
step process, the first being that all sides withdraw some of their demands in
preference for a continuation of the status quo and, having made this move, the
bargaining for the actual terms of the compromise can take place. These two stages
can be termed 'the commitment to compromise' and the 'compromise bargain',
respectively.
The physical environment against which negotiations take place can be
significant. Such factors as the venue, the number of parties and the degree of
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secrecy or openness can be significant. The choice of venue will often be dominated
by considerations of neutrality. Other considerations may be good access to
communications and the nature of the issues to be negotiated. Bilateral negotiations
are, for obvious reasons, more manageable but ran the risk that by excluding third
parties, important interests will not be consulted and will therefore not feel
constrained to support any agreement. Multilateral negotiations are more unwieldy
but have the advantage of allowing all parties to be represented.
The debate between open and secret negotiations is an old problem about
which strong views were held by both idealists and realists. No contemporary
negotiation is completely open or secret. In this respect the open/secret categories
mark the ends of a continuum between which actual negotiations can be ranged.
Factors that are likely to affect the movement towards one end or the other will
include: the level of amity/enmity between the parties, the reasons for the
negotiations and the perceived need for public support during the process itself.

1. What is negotiation? What are the reasons actors negotiate?


2. What does negotiating begin with?
3. What is the essential tactic in negotiation?
4. What can parties use to reach the bargain?
5. How can the perception of the issues determine the likelihood of negotiations?
6. How are agreements most often reached?
7. Why is compromise a two-step process?
8. What role does physical environment play in negotiations?

Task 2. During negotiating process the parties may resort to different types of
negotiating strategies and tactics. Modes of resolving disputes are also different.
Read about them and answer the questions that follow.
Accommodation refers to the process whereby actors in conflict agree to recognize
some of the others' claims while not sacrificing their basic interests. The source of
conflict is not removed but the aggression that it often generates is. It assumes that
the gain of one party is not automatically the loss of the other. It also assumes that
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total harmony of interests does not prevail. Thus, it can be described as a halfway
house (place of 'accommodation') between confrontation and harmony.

Coercion is a form of power relationship. Like all such relationships it depends first
upon a capability that can be converted into policy instruments for making threats.
When considering coercive behaviour most people think first of military capabilities
and the making of punitive threats. However, economic instruments of policy can
also be highly coercive. Economic sanctions should be included in the repertoire of
coercive strategies. An actor seeking to impose its will upon a unruly target will
often hope that the mere threat of coercion is enough to secure compliance. If this is
not the case, the imposer has to face the difficult decision of whether to carry through
with the threat or not. Such decisions will often hinge upon considerations of
credibility and reputation.

Brinkmanship is a strategy adopted during a crisis to coerce one's adversary into


making a conciliatory move. The essence of the strategy is to manipulate the shared
risks of violence - which it is assumed that neither party wants - to get the other to
'back down'. Brinkmanship is clearly a high-risk strategy which depends for its
successful outcome on the mutual recognition of parties that war would be clearly
the worst outcome.

Compromise A form of conflict settlement involving mutual - although not


necessarily balanced - concessions by parties who are engaged in negotiations.
Before a compromise settlement can be reached the parties must agree in principle
that they will settle their differences in this manner. Having made this commitment
they can then commence the substantive bargaining aimed at achieving a sufficient
modification of the other's position to make a settlement possible. Each party will
normally have a clear perception of how far they are willing to go to make
concessions and this may be termed the maximum concession point.

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Third-party mediation is often necessary to reach a compromise. The mediator
may suggest a settlement within the maximum concession points of the parties. The
mediator may offer to supervise the implementation of the settlement. Mediation is
likely to be more successful between parties willing to see their relations in
cooperative terms. Provided that the parties can trust each other to keep their
commitments, compromise settlements can produce positive feedback and lead to a
general improvement in relations.

Conciliation A form of third party intervention in conflict situations. In the case of


conciliation, the third party activity is non-partisan, neutral and mediatory. The
primary aim of conciliation is to restore communication between the parties and to
assist them to reach a better understanding of each other's position. If a conflict has a
long history of mistrust, conciliation may begin with the two parties refusing to
discuss their seeing of the situation in the presence of the other. The parties should
come to see that a solution to their differences is available to them via the conciliation
process without feeling that in any way the solution has been imposed. In this respect
conciliation is one of the least intrusive modes of conflict resolution.
1. Speak on the possible options for the parties to conduct negotiations.
2. What are the reasons parties choose this or that way to get what they want?
3. What is the role of a third party in resolving a conflict?
4. Give examples of the above discussed strategies and tactics from recent or from
worldwide known historically important negotiations.
5. Explain the meaning of the words and expressions in bold.

Task 3. Read the following text. Answer the questions that follow. Explain the
meaning of the words and expressions in bold. Make an outline of the text. Compare
it with your partner’s outline. Use your partner’s outline to summarize the text.
TREATIES AND AGREEMENTS
Treaty is a written contract or agreement between two or more parties which is
considered binding in international law. Parties to treaties may be states, heads of
states, governments or international organizations. They are normally negotiated by
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plenipotentiaries on behalf of governments and are usually subject to ratification
which is an executive act. Oral agreements are not treaties though verbal
undertakings are sometimes claimed to have the same validity. The term is an
elastic one but generally its use is confined to more formal agreements concerning
fundamental relations. Other terms denoting agreement which bear a family
resemblance to 'treaty' are protocol, agreement, arrangement, accord, act, general
act, declaration, compromise and charter. Treaty is the most formal and highest
instrument of agreement on this list. It is a moot point whether 'exchanges of notes', a
common diplomatic practice, actually constitutes a treaty.
Treaties can be multilateral or bilateral, can involve a definite transaction or
seek to establish general rules of conduct. Usually they are binding only on
signatories but there are exceptions to this rule. Sometimes treaties establish regimes
which are considered objectively valid for non-signatory third parties. For example,
multilateral agreements made under the auspices of the UN and its agencies dealing
with matters of common interest (such as diplomatic immunity or the law of the sea)
create obligations and duties for non-members like Switzerland. In cases of this kind,
the notion of 'consent' is implied thus safeguarding the rights of sovereignty upon
which the international system is built. Besides multilateral and bilateral treaties
(which are sometimes called 'treaty contracts' to distinguish them from the more
general kind), treaties can be political (e.g. peace or disarmament), commercial (e.g.
tariffs or fisheries), constitutional or administrative (e.g. UN Charter and agencies) or
legal (e.g. extradition, laws of war). They are usually constructed to a set pattern
involving a preamble, specific articles, a time-scale, ratification procedure, signatures
and added articles (Kant wrote Perpetual Peace in treaty form - even adding a 'secret
article' according to normal eighteenth century diplomatic practice).
Treaties are considered binding but may lapse naturally, through war or by
denunciation. Some international lawyers argue that all treaties are subject to the
principle of rebus sic stantibus; that is, that the treaty ceases to be binding when a
fundamental change of circumstance has occurred. The doctrine of changed
circumstance is not generally applied to fundamental treaties of communal
application such as the UN Charter, the Geneva Convention or the Vienna
99
Conventions. A further point of legal dispute is whether the treaty itself constitutes
the agreement or whether it is merely the instrument that records it. The latter appears
more sensible and is in fact the common view. Treaties are an important and
recognized source of international law, the others being custom, general principles of
law recognized by civilized nations and judicial decisions and teachings.
1. Define the term “treaty”. What other terms have synonymous meaning? What
is the difference between them?
2. What types of treaties do you know?
3. Make small reports on the UN Charter, the Geneva Convention and the Vienna
Conventions. What fundamental role do they play in international law?

Task 4. Read the article. Explain the meaning of the words and phrases in bold.
Make a list of words and phrases specific for the topic of negotiations. Think of their
Russian equivalents. Using these words and phrases summarize the article
highlighting the following points: parties to the negotiations, their expectations and
the results of the talks. Your summary shouldn’t be more than 15 sentences.

Climate Talks End With Modest Deal on Emissions


JOHN M. BRODER
Herald Tribune
CANCÚN, Mexico – The United Nations climate change conference began with
modest aims and ended early Saturday with modest achievements. But while the
measures adopted here may have scant near-term impact on the warming of the
planet, the international process for dealing with the issue got a significant vote of
confidence. The agreement fell well short of the broad changes scientists say are
needed to avoid dangerous climate change in coming decades. But it lays the
groundwork for stronger measures in the future, if nations are able to overcome the
emotional arguments that have crippled climate change negotiations in recent years.

The package known as the Cancún Agreements gives the more than 190 countries
participating in the conference another year to decide whether to extend the frayed
Kyoto Protocol, the 1997 agreement that requires most wealthy nations to trim their

100
emissions while providing assistance to developing countries to pursue a cleaner
energy future.

The agreement is not a legally binding treaty, but the success of these talks allows
the process to seek a more robust accord at next year’s climate conference in Durban,
South Africa. The agreement sets up a new fund to help poor countries adapt to
climate changes, creates new mechanisms for transfer of clean energy technology,
provides compensation for the preservation of tropical forests and strengthens the
emissions reductions pledges that came out of the last United Nations climate change
meeting in Copenhagen last year.

The conference approved the package over the objections of Bolivia, which
condemned the pact as too weak. But his protests did not block acceptance of the
package. Delegates from island states and the least-developed countries warmly
welcomed the pact because it would start the flow of billions of dollars to assist them
to adopt cleaner energy systems and adapt to inevitable changes in the climate, like
sea rise and drought. But it left unresolved where the $100 billion in annual climate-
related aid that the wealthy nations have promised to provide would come from. Todd
Stern, the American climate envoy, said the package achieved much of what he had
hoped, including a more solid commitment by all nations to take steps to reduce
their greenhouse gas emissions and a more formalized international program of
reporting and verification of reductions. It adds needed specifics to the fuzzy
promises of last year’s Copenhagen Accord, he said.

“This is a significant step forward that builds on the progress made in Copenhagen,”
he said in a news conference after the package was adopted. “It successfully anchors
mitigation pledges of the Copenhagen Accord and builds on the transparency
element of the accord with substantial detail and content.”

Mr. Stern had been particularly insistent that the agreement include a consistent
formula for countries to disclose their emissions, report on the measures they are
taking to reduce them and provide detailed statements of economic assumptions and
methodology. Although a number of large developing nations like China, Brazil and
101
South Africa balked at the intrusiveness of the system, Mr. Stern helped devise a
compromise they could live with.

Yvo de Boer, who stepped down this year after four years as executive secretary of
the United Nations climate office, said that the success of this year’s conference was
in large measure attributable to the modesty of its goals. “This process has never been
characterized by leaps and bounds,” he said in an interview. “It has been
characterized by small steps. And I’d rather see this small step here in Cancún than
the international community tripping over itself in an effort to make a large leap.”

Task 5. Read the article. Make a list of words and phrases specific for the topic of
negotiations. Think of their English equivalents. Using these words and phrases
summarize the article in English in not more than 15 sentences.

Израиль и Палестина обсудили подготовку к переговорам

AММАН, 31 августа. Министр обороны Израиля Эхуд Барак провел встречу


с главой палестинской администрации Махмудом Аббасом (Абу-Мазеном)
после его встречи с королем Иордании Абдаллой II.

Как сообщает izrus.co.il, по возвращении Барака в Израиль из Аммана, он


проинформировал премьер-министра Нетаниягу о результатах встречи
с иорданским монархом, после чего повторно вылетел в Амман, где встретился
с главой палестинской администрации.

NEWSru.co.il пишет, что встреча прошла в одном из частных домов иорданской


столицы. С израильской стороны в ней принимал участие также координатор
ЦАХАЛа на Западном берегу генерал-майор Эйтан Дангот. По информации
местных СМИ, в ходе встречи обсуждались ситуация в сфере безопасности
в Иудее и Самарии и подготовка к переговорам.

Политические обозреватели уверены, что иорданские власти намерены играть


центральную роль в ходе палестино-израильских переговоров, часть которых,
с высокой долей вероятности, будет проходить на территории королевства.
102
В четверг, 2 сентября, в Вашингтоне должны возобновиться прямые
израильско-палестинские переговоры. Помимо Нетаньяху в них примут участие
глава Палестинской автономии Махмуд Аббас и президент США Барак Обама,
сообщает радио «Свобода».

Палестинские представители предупреждают, что покинут переговоры, если


Израиль возобновит строительство в еврейских поселениях на Западном берегу
Иордана. Мораторий на строительство истек 26 августа.

Напомним, Израиль и Палестина согласились возобновить прямые переговоры,


прерванные в конце 2008 года после того, как Израиль начал проведение
военной операции «Литой свинец» в секторе Газа. Лидеры двух стран
встретятся 2 сентября 2010 года в Вашингтоне впервые за 20 месяцев.
«Переговоры помогут уладить все вопросы относительно статуса Палестины,
и могут быть завершены в течение 1 года», – заявила госсекретарь США
Хиллари Клинтон, получив подтверждение обеих сторон.

«ИЗВЕСТИЯ».

DISCUSSION
1. Explain why negotiating as a major function of diplomacy. In what way is it
different from other functions?
2. Speak on the reasons to negotiate. Do you think these reasons have changed
since states began to negotiate? In what way?
3. Look through a number of newspaper or magazines issues to find out what
negotiations are under way now? Summarize a number of articles (or an article)
that report international talks paying attention to the parties involved, venue of
talks, aim(s) of talks, strategies implemented and results gained.
4. Speak on different types of international visits and negotiations. Which of them
receive more attention of the press? Why?
5. Discuss the factors influencing the way negotiations are held (relations
between the parties/countries, etc.)
103
6. What does the work of preparing negotiations involve?
7. Speak on different strategies of the participants during negotiations. What does
the choice of the strategy depend on?
8. Some of the negotiating strategies put the whole idea of talks at risk. Why do
you think parties use them?
9. There are some international meetings, negotiations, treaties that were so
important for the world’s history that have entered the course books on diplomacy
(during the Caribbean crisis, for example). Choose one of such diplomatic
milestones and speak on it.
10. Most people get their information about international affairs from the mass
media. What is the impact of media on international relations? Give examples how
one and the same event is described in different sources.
11. Comment on the following quotations:
 All diplomacy is a continuation of war by other means. – Zhou Enlai
 The principle of give and take is the principle of diplomacy – give one and take
ten. – Mark Twain.
 There are few ironclad rules of diplomacy but to one there is no exception.
When an official reports that talks were useful, it can safely be concluded that
nothing was accomplished. – John Kenneth Galbraith.
 Negotiation in the classic diplomatic sense assumes parties more anxious to
agree than to disagree. – Dean Acheson.

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UNIT 6. WAR CONFLICTS AND PEACE PROCESS
VOCABULARY
Study the meaning of the following words and word-combinations, give their Russian equivalents.

war
all-out war; civil war; cold war; conventional war; full-scale war; global war;
nuclear war; total war; to ban war/outlaw war; to conduct war/fight war; to end a
war; to escalate a war/to step up a war; to levy war on smb.; to lose war; to make/
wage war on/against smb; to win war; declare war on; enemy/adversary/foe
assistance
to render/give/offer/provide/assistance; economic/financial assistance; technical
assistance; humanitarian assistance
cease-fire
to declare cease-fire; to sign cease-fire; to honor/observe a cease-fire; to break/
violate a cease-fire; temporary cease-fire
disarmament
multilateral disarmament; nuclear disarmament; unilateral disarmament; to
disarm
force
forces; a peace-keeping force; un emergency force; to use force against smb.; to
authorize the establishment of a peace-keeping force; peacemaker/peacekeeper;
to withdraw forces; to expand one's armed forces; to improve the safety of the
UN forces; to put the armed forces on full alert;
hostility
to display/show/express hostility; bitter/deep/profound hostility; open hostility;
to suspend hostilities; to cease hostilities; to end hostilities; hostilities break out;
an outbreak of hostility
casualties
to incur/suffer/take casualty; to inflict heavy casualty on the enemy; heavy
casualty/serious casualty; light casualty; civilian casualties; military casualties; to
sustain casualties; casualty rate; to minimize civilian casualties
fighting

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bitter/fierce/hard/heavy fighting; fighting breaks out/rages; lull; skirmish
victim
to fall a victim to; evacuee/refugee
peace
make peace; peace treaty; peace negotiations/talks; to negotiate (a) peace with; to
break/disturb/shatter the peace; to achieve peace/to bring about peace; to impose
a peace on; to keep the peace; peace campaigner; peace movement; peace-
keeping forces; peacekeeper/peacemaker; UN peacekeepers; peace envoy;
truce
to agree on/arrange/call/work out a truce; to violate a truce; to break (off) the
truce; to negotiate a truce; to observe a truce

Exercise 1. Match the terms to their definitions.


Reinforcements, to retreat, battle, to counter-attack, to massacre, wartime, pacifism,
tactics, front, to lay down your arms, air raid, conscientious objector, to slaughter, to
besiege a place
1. A period when there is a war. 2. A fight between armies during a war. 3. A line or
area where fighting takes place during a war. 4. An attack by warplanes. 5. To attack
the enemy after the enemy has attacked you. 6. The skilful use of your army to win a
battle. 7. To surround a place with an army. 8. Extra soldiers, etc that are sent to
make an army stronger. 9. To kill a large number of people. 10. To kill a large
number of people, especially in a cruel way. 11. To move away in order to leave a
battle. 12. To stop fighting and admit that you have lost. 13. A person who refuses to
join the army because he/she believes that war and fighting are wrong. 14. The belief
that all wars are wrong and you should not fight in them.

Exercise 2. Give terms to the following definitions (using your active vocabulary).
a) 1. When there is fighting between two or more countries or between opposing
groups within a country, involving large numbers of soldiers and weapons. 2. A war
in which opposing groups of people from the same country fight each other in order
to gain political control. 3. An unfriendly political relationship between two countries

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who do not actually fight each other. 4. To state officially that you are at war with
another country. 5. To be involved in a war against someone, or a fight against
something. 6. If fighting, violence, or a bad situation…., or if someone escalates it, it
becomes much worse. 7. Help or support. 8. An agreement to stop fighting for a
period of time, especially so that a more permanent agreement can be made. 9. When
a country reduces the number of weapons it has, or the size of its army, navy etc. 10.
A group of soldiers who are sent to a place in order to stop two opposing groups from
fighting each other. 11. If an army …, it leaves a place.
b) 12. Someone who tries to persuade other people or countries to stop fighting. 13.
When someone is unfriendly and full of anger towards another person. 14. Someone
who is hurt or killed in an accident or war. 15. When people or groups fight each
other in a war, in the street etc. 16. Someone who has been attacked, robbed, or
murdered. 17. A situation in which there is no war or fighting. 18. An agreement
between enemies to stop fighting or arguing for a short time, or the period for which
this is arranged. 19. A country or person you are fighting or competing against. 20. A
short period of time when there is less activity or less noise than usual. 21. A fight
between small groups of soldiers, ships etc, especially one that happens away from
the main part of a battle. 22. Someone who has been forced to leave their country,
especially during a war, or for political or religious reasons.

Exercise 3. Fill in the gaps with the necessary words from the box.
treaty, civilian, negotiations, hostility, truce, casualties, peace, peacekeeping, victim,
fighting, assistance, rate, force, ceasefire, disarmament
1. Both sides agreed on a … during New Year celebrations. 2. In the spring of 1950
decisions were reached in Washington that at last pointed the way forward towards a
peace….. 3. The move was conceivably intended to thwart peace … conducted by the
archbishop of Canterbury. 4. France and Spain made … in 1659 after a war lasting 25
years. 5. So far no one has violated the three-day…. . 6. One theory is that the
hostages fell … to bandits. 7. He said fierce … was taking place near Bahdu and
insisted I would need at least a hundred soldiers if I went there. 8. The rebels claim to
have inflicted heavy…. . 9. Even in the days of precision strikes, attacks from the air
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would risk …casualties. 10. Furthermore, it is clear from the accident records that the
casualty … is higher in each age group. 11. The announcement was greeted with ….
from some employees. 12. The United Nations has decided to send a … force into the
area. 13. The police have recently had to defend their policy of using … against
rioters. 14. Throughout the world they are the banner bearers of the struggles for
unilateral nuclear… . 15. In addition there is selective financial … under the Industry
Acts.

Exercise 4. Give synonyms to the underlined words.


1. Neither country is capable of fighting a long war . 2. We do not want to escalate
the war. 3. The police are waging war on drug pushers in the city. 4. We offer
financial assistance to students. 5. So far the ceasefire has been observed by both
sides. 6. So far no one has violated the three-day ceasefire. 7. The US sees itself as a
peacemaker in the region. 8. Why should their disciples attack a Church which
showed so little hostility to them? 9. The rebels claim to have inflicted heavy
casualties. 10. As a result they suffered many casualties. 11. heavy fighting between
government and rebel forces. 12. Fighting broke out in the crowds. 13. She promised
herself never again to disturb the peace of this man's life. 14. Why don't we call a
truce, start again?

Exercise 5. Give antonyms to the underlined words.


1. The plot concerns a strategy conceived and agreed by the women of the world to
end all wars. 2. The dynamite was split between Eta, then nominally observing a
unilateral ceasefire, and the Bretons. 3. If we go along with the present approach we
shall have unilateral economic disarmament and many crucial matters will be decided
elsewhere. 4. The rebels claim to have inflicted heavy casualties. 5. The rebels claim
to have inflicted heavy casualties. 6. One outstanding feature of that war was how
few civilian casualties there were. 7. They agreed to call a truce.

Exercise 6. Give English equivalents.

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Санкционировать создание миротворческих сил, приостанавливать военные
действия, наносить тяжелые потери силам врага, вступать в войну с к-л,
полномасштабная война, временное прекращение огня, ядерное разоружение,
силы особого назначения, запрещать военные действия, незначительные
потери, потери среди военнослужащих, вести мирные переговоры, нарушить
перемирие, подписать соглашение о прекращении огня, наращивать военные
действия.

Exercise 7. Give Russian equivalents.


All-out war, hostilities break out, withdraw forces, negotiate a peace with, disarm, a
peace-keeping force, declare cease-fire, win war, open hostility, fighting breaks out,
profound hostility, outlaw war, sustain casualties, casualty rate, wage war on smb,
display hostility, work out a truce, an outbreak of hostility

Exercise 8. Translate into English using your active vocabulary.


1. Много лет они вели войны с населением соседних островов. 2. США с
Мексикой вели войну за приграничные территории. 3. Он не нарушит мирный
договор, который еще его предки заключили с малакийскими христианами. 4.
Он навещал родителей в Турине когда объявили войну. 5. Гуманитарная
помощь начинает поступать к беженцам. 6. Пока еще никто не нарушил
трехдневное соглашение о прекращении огня. 7. Франция и Испания заключили
мир в 1659 году после войны, продолжавшейся 25 лет. 8. Наши войска начали
решительное наступление на позиции врага. 9. В конце концов, угонщики
сдались полиции. 10. Партизаны нанесли серьезный урон местному населению.
11. Наконец мы заставили врага отступить из города. 12. Партизаны сбили один
самолёт и взяли в плен лётчика. 13. Толпа была очень большая и было вызвано
полицейское подкрепление. 14. Наши войска атаковали неприятеля. 15. Он был
ранен на поле боя. 16. Много лет они вели войны с населением соседних
островов. 17. Пограничные стычки между Индией и Пакистаном были
обычным явлением. 18. Ни в одной из этих деревень я не нашел следов
немецких злодеяний.
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Task 1. Read the following text. Explain the meaning of the words and expressions
in bold. Answer the questions that follow.
WAR
War is direct use of force between state actors. Wars occur when states in a
situation of social conflict and opposition find that the pursuit of incompatible or
exclusive goals cannot be confined to non-violent modes. As a form of direct
violence, war occurs in different forms within social systems. Thus gang war, range
war, class war, civil or internal war are distinguishable types. Analytically separate,
these levels can interact and produce complex feedback loops. Civil war can become
internationalized through intervention into inter-state war. The various levels at
which violence occurs can influence the occurrence of violence at other levels.
Scientists examine the phenomenon of war from different levels, e.g. the levels
of individual theories, societal theories and structural theories. Academically,
therefore, a psychologist might be interested in war as a function of perception, an
anthropologist in why certain cultures seem to foster aggression. Sociology has
drawn attention to the positive functions that violence can play within and between
systems. Economists have, for instance, applied game theory concepts to the analysis
of conflict, while political scientists have sought through policy analysis and systems
analysis to examine both the micro and macro aspects of war.
Taking up the point attributed above to sociology, war should not necessarily
be regarded as dysfunctional. War in the international system is not necessarily like
disease in the biological system. Conflict and the fear of war have often been used to
integrate states. In such circumstances the search for enemies assists in maintaining
or increasing group solidarity. The threat of war can be used by groups within states
to extend their control over the political and economic life of the state. Violence can
even be used to create states. In the nineteenth century German unification was
achieved via the defeat of such neighbouring states as Denmark, Austria and France.
Marxist theories of the twentieth century regard wars of national liberation as
serving specific functional purposes.
The forms of violence may change – under the influence of technology, for
instance. The scope of violence may differ as the actors in the system change. If
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violence and war have long been recognized as regular occurrences in the world
system, it is still the case that their intensity has increased. The two World Wars
(1914-18 and 1939-45) killed over sixty million persons among the major
participants. More than eight million soldiers and one million civilians were killed in
the first instance, while almost seventeen million soldiers and thirty-five million
civilians were killed in the second. Significant advances in medical technology
notwithstanding, it would seem that the intensity of violence is considerable.
While intensity has increased, frequency of inter-state war has decreased – at
least in Europe. European evidence seems to show that wars are more concentrated
and destructive but less frequent. In the earlier period European states were more
often at war than not, by the twentieth they spent less than one-fifth of their time at
war.
Violence among states has given rise to the international laws of war.
Traditional international law did little to outlaw war, but rather to reduce its worst
excesses and, as far as possible limit the disruption and damage to third parties.
Although the United Nations system has introduced some further restrictions upon
the use of force, it is still permitted under the doctrine of self-defence. Under Article
51 of the UN Charter, states can effect self-defence measures unless and until the
Security Council can agree upon a collective response to any breach of the peace.
Alliance formation among states appears to be related generally to recognition
of the intrinsically violent nature of the system. The First World War was preceded
by the formation of rival alliances in the Triple Alliance of 1882 and the Triple
entente of 1907. The outbreak of hostilities further expanded these alliances with
Turkey and Bulgaria joining one side and Italy the other. Following the establishment
of the League of Nations, the alliances disintegrated but during the 1930s a new axis
emerged between Germany, Italy and Japan. After the Second World War alliance
formation resumed, with NATO and the Warsaw Pact being leading instances.
During the nineteenth century states formed an alliance about every other year. In the
twentieth the rate increased more than four-fold to more than two new alliances per
year.

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Arms races have followed the same pattern as alliances, since the dynamic for
the arms race is at least initially perception of external threat and general instability in
the system. States arm themselves to provide a margin of equivalent or superior
capability in comparison with an adversary, according to worst case thinking. There
is a strong correlation between the activity of arms racing and ally-seeking by states
and increases in international tension and hostility.
War, violence, ally-seeking and arms racing increase the level of military
expenditures within states. Within societies the military mobilizes enormous
resources and organizes such complex tasks as research, development, production
and maintenance of the military capability of the state. The existence of what some
have identified as military-industrial complexes implies a strong interest in the
continuation of a perceived level of hostility and tension between states. More
generally there is a tendency for societies frequently threatened with violent conflict
to become militarized. The military may eventually take over political leadership
roles from civilians if this militarization persists.
Any attempt at ameliorating violence, conflict management and/or resolution
must first identify who the parties are and what the issues dividing them consist of.
This preliminary inquiry will precede any type of third party intervention in the
violence. There is often a tendency within diplomacy to seek short-term palliatives
through management techniques and instruments. Thus UN peacekeeping has
sometimes been held up as an example of this concentration on the short-term need to
end direct violence without always addressing the underlying issues in conflict
between the parties.
C o n v e n t i o n s o n t h e r u l e s o f w a r f a r e . Rules relating to conduct
during armed conflict were, until the mid-nineteenth century, part of customary
international law. Since then there have been a number of attempts to codify the rules
of warfare in a succession of multilateral international conventions. These are
commonly referred to as the 'law of Geneva' and the 'law of the Hague'. The law of
Geneva dealt mainly with the rights and protection of those who took no direct part in
the fighting and the law of the Hague was concerned with the rights and duties of the
actual belligerents. The Geneva conventions took place as follows:
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1864 and 1907 – humane treatment of the wounded and sick in battle;
1929 – wounded and sick plus treatment of prisoners of war;
1949 – wounded, sick and shipwrecked, prisoners of war and protection of civilians
in wartime;
1977 – additional protocols dealing with more extensive non-combatant protection
and with problems arising from internal wars.
As well as these codified rules, which of course lack effective sanctions,
belligerents, whether or not they are party to the conventions, are bound by
customary international humanitarian law which forbids unnecessary cruelty or
wanton behaviour. From 1864 onwards, these conventions have been associated
with the activities of the international Red Cross movement (initially known as the
International Committee for aid to wounded soldiers) which was founded in
Switzerland in 1863, and which in 1949 formally extended its brief to protect
civilians caught up in armed conflict.
1. Give the definition of war. Why and when do wars occur? What different types
of war can you name?
2. Are the ways and tactics of fighting wars in the 21 st century different from
those fought previously? In what way? In what ways are they similar?
3. Speak on the causes and threats of war. Who are usually the victims/casualties
of war?
4. Speak on the rules of warfare. What issues do they cover? Using the internet
resources and reference books find out what the conventions prescribe.

Task 2. Read the following text. Answer the questions that follow. Summarize the
text in not more than 10 sentences.
ETHNIC CLEANSING
Ethnic cleansing is a modern euphemism for the systematic, deliberate and
often brutal forced removal of members of one or more ethnic groups from territory
claimed by another ethnic group. In theory, it can be distinguished from genocide,
which is the deliberate and systematic extermination of a national or racial group, but
in practice the two are often indistinguishable. Other concepts associated with the
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term are 'communal conflict', 'cultural conflict' and 'ethno-national conflict', all
of which are said to be variants of racism based on the ideology of nationalism. From
1992 to 1996 in the former Yugoslavia, ethnic cleansing was practised by Serbs and
Croats against each other, and more especially against Bosnian Muslims. The
standard operational procedure was the organized use of intimidation, terror, rape,
starvation and murder to effect forced removals. This extreme form of human
rights abuse has been designated a war crime and apprehended parties have been
tried by the International Court of Justice at the Hague.
Ethnic cleansing is regarded as a species of 'postmodern war' where conflict
between estates has been replaced by conflict between rival militias, factions and
other informal ethnic groupings. The victims are overwhelmingly civilians who are
often slaughtered without mercy by their former neighbours and compatriots. Recent
examples besides Bosnia, include Liberia, Rwanda, Sri Lanka, Sierra Leone,
Somalia, Sudan, Haiti, Cambodia, Zaire and Afghanistan.
According to Robert Kaplan (1994) postmodern war, genocide and ethnic
cleansing are products of the post Cold War phenomenon of failed nation-states
which have witnessed 'the withering away of central governments, the rise of tribal
and regional domains, the unchecked spread of disease and the growing
pervasiveness of war.' The removal of superpower competition, and with it economic
and military assistance and control, has brought simmering local rivalries and
hatreds to the fore in many multi-ethnic states and regions of the world previously
under the tutelage of one or other of the superpowers. Ethno-national clashes differ
greatly from the anticolonial, secessionist and separatist movements of the past which
in the main were conducted within the juridical framework of the persistence of a
system of sovereign territorial states. The international community has far not been
able to develop a coherent response to this phenomenon.
1. What is ethnic cleansing? In what way is it different from/similar to war?
2. Explain the notion of a ‘post-modern war’.
3. Explain the meaning of the words and expressions in bold.

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Task 3. Read the article. Answer the questions that follow. Find key sentences in
each paragraph of the article. Compare your sentences with your partner’s.
Summarize the article in 15-20 sentences.

Behavior: The Case for War


TIME, Sept., 1970
War is the supreme test of man, in which he rises to heights never approached in any
other activity. – General George S. Patton

The arguments against war are too familiar to need repeating. In the dream of peace,
they have been steadily heard along every step of mankind's bloody and belligerent
course. And yet war, not peace, has been mankind's most faithful companion. In 35
centuries of recorded history, only one year out of 15 has not been drenched by the
blood of the battlefield. Today, a world that presumably cherishes peace as fervently
as ever nevertheless keeps 22 million men under arms – many of them, as in Viet
Nam and the Middle East, actively engaged in combat. Is there something in what
Patton says? In short, can a case be made for war1?

The distressing answer is yes; civilization itself is inconceivable without it. This, at
any rate, is the conviction of British Sociologist Stanislav Andreski 2, one of a number
of scientists who are willing to play the devil's advocate for Mars. Such agencies as
the Rand Corp., the Hudson Institute and others annually spend millions exploring
Andreski's thesis. For war is group rather than individual behavior; and since it is
undeniably a fixture of human society, the question that Andreski implies begs for an
answer: What purposes can war possibly serve?

"It is an unpleasant truth," Andreski writes, "that, human nature being what it is,
without war civilization would still be divided into small bands wandering in the
forests and jungles." He contends that "advanced civilization with extensive division
of labor can only arise within a large and fairly dense population engaged in peaceful
1
a case for/against – a set of facts or arguments that support one side in a trial, a discussion, etc.
2 A conviction for which he owes much to such 19th century sociologists as Herbert Spencer and Ludwig Gurnplowicz, both of whom, without

espousing war, recognized its value in shaping human civilization. "Conquest and the satisfaction of needs through the labor of the conquered,"
Gurnplowicz wrote, "is the great theme of human history."

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exchange of goods and services. There could be only one way in which small tribes
could be welded into states and small states into large ones: namely, conquest."

Moreover, he credits war with producing, or contributing to many of civilization's


most treasured fruits. Among them:

INDUSTRIALIZATION. "If we look at the spread of industrial civilization


throughout the world, we find that its chief cause was the overwhelming military
superiority of the industrialized over unindustrialized states."

CIVIL GOVERNMENT. Except for the hunt, intertribal warfare was mankind's first
significantly large collective action. In this respect, Andreski says, the organization
required to set up armies served as a useful model for government. Individual force
was pooled into collective force.

DEMOCRACY. War is a great leveler. "Under certain circumstances," says


Andreski. "the impact of war undermines hereditary privileges, which lower the
efficiency of the armed forces, and thus diminishes inequality between classes." In
Prussia, that bellicose 19th century European state, "the introduction of general
military service led to the abolition of serfdom: later to the establishment of a
parliament, and eventually to the setting up of the first scheme of industrial insurance
in the world." Andreski also maintains, though less persuasively, that universal
suffrage was one of the products of the First World War

NATIONALISM. Conquest, says Andreski, not only demolishes states but also
builds them. All of today's large states were traced by war – and are maintained by
military strength. No really independent state has ever long survived without military
power and a willingness to use it.

CULTURE AND THE ARTS. "At all times," says Andreski, "weapons were the most
advanced gadgets which any civilization has possessed." More important, states
swollen by conquest can support a leisure class without which, the author maintains,
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science and the arts might never have arisen. He points out that technological
progress makes its greatest strides under the prod3 of war, from the stirrup designed
by 2nd century Asian warrior horsemen to the sophisticated creations of the last two
world wars.

From the 1916 tank evolved the bulldozing tractor. World War II was a veritable
cornucopia: the first aerosol bomb, radar, the jet aircraft engine, and the ballistic
missiles that, a scant generation later, took man to the moon. And of course that
dubious bequest, thermonuclear energy leashed in the Bomb. That weapon redefined
war. For the first time, man held in his hands a weapon that could destroy the earth
and all living things upon it – a weapon so powerful that human reason would refuse
to wield it. So, in any event, goes the argument of those who see in the H-bomb
mankind's first true hope of peace. But Andreski and others are gloomy about its
potential as a deterrent. As men and weapons have multiplied, so have wars. "Our
own century," writes Andreski, "has so far been much more warlike than its
predecessor." The evidence bears him out: since 1900, almost a 100 million men have
died in 100 wars – compared with 3,845,000 in the 19th century.

Johns Hopkins Psychiatrist Jerome D. Frank, who shares many of Andreski's views,
is convinced that a major nuclear exchange is inevitable unless nations stop building
nuclear arsenals. "Nothing is more certain and inexorable than the law of chance,"
Frank writes in ‘Sanity & Survival’, his recent study of human aggression. "Present
policies involve a continuing risk of nuclear war; the longer the risk continues, the
greater the probability of war; and if the probability continues long enough, it
approaches certainty."

F u t u r e L i k e t h e P a s t . After 30 years of studying war and its causes, Gaston


Bouthoul, director of Paris' Institut Francais de Polémologie (from the Greek polemos
or war, and logos, study), confesses that he is no nearer an understanding of it than
when he began. What he sees in the future is a repetition of the past. Bouthoul
foresees war over Siberia, for example, as China increasingly competes with Russia

3
prod – (informal) an act of encouraging smb or of reminding smb to do smth.
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for one of the world's last unexploited land masses; or in the mystifying
"encirclement psychosis," as he calls it, manifested by the world's three powers: the
Soviet Union, the United States and Communist China.

Why do such men as Andreski, Frank and Bouthoul present the case for war? Not
because they believe in war – certainly none of them do – but because they entertain
the view that war is an inevitable adjunct, and in many ways the architect, of the
civilization that man has built. When asked if he really believes that war is beneficial,
Andreski replies: "That depends on whether you think technological civilization is
beneficial. Personally, I like it, but I'm not convinced it is a viable creation. It may
destroy itself." Destruction was the first and still remains the cardinal function of war
as such – and therein lies the true motive of these devil's advocates. By stating the
case for war, they are stating the case against mankind.

1. Why do you think the authors quoted in the article are called devil’s
advocates? Do you agree with the idea that the world has been shaped by
war/wars?
2. If you read the article in one of today’s newspapers, would you understand that
it is more than 40 years old? What suggests that it is so ‘old’: the ideas or the
facts/names in it? Do you find in it any ideas that sound outdated or, perhaps,
that can be revived today?

3. What is the role of the atomic bomb creation according to the article?

4. Find words in the article that mean: a) something that is or contains a large
supply of good things; b) to say that smth is true, especially in an argument; c)
a collection of weapons such as guns and explosives; d) to love smb/smth very
much and want to protect them or it; e) a person who expresses an opinion that
they do not really hold in order to encourage a discussion about a subject; f) an
event or a situation that makes everyone equal whatever their age, importance,
etc.; g) the right of all adults (men and women) to vote.

5. What do the words in bold mean?


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Task 4. Read the article and answer the questions that follow. Make an outline of the
article.

The Roerich Pact and Banner of Peace through Culture

  The devastation that wars bring to humanity can hardly be expressed in


financial terms only. Many things are ruled out of this “calculation”. Apart from
human sufferings, the value of the lost spiritual treasures is too difficult to count. The
world community was shocked by the destruction of the city of Dresden in 1944 and
the explosion of the giant Buddha monuments by the Taliban in Afghanistan. The
world news discusses the destruction and plunder of archeological sites and looting
of the National Museum in Iraq. The examples are numerous. Human cultural
heritage of priceless value becomes one of the first targets of war. The recognition of
the necessity for its protection doesn’t have a long history.

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One of the first international treaties on the matter was signed by the
states of Americas in Washington in 1935. It was initiated by the Russian artist
and humanitarian Nicolas Roerich and acquired his name – the Roerich Peace
Pact. The Treaty reads: “the historic monuments, museums, scientific, artistic,
educational and cultural institutions shall be considered as neutral and as such
respected and protected by belligerents. The same respect and protection shall be due
to the personnel of the institutions mentioned above. The same respect and protection
shall be accorded to the historic monuments, museums, scientific, artistic, educational
and cultural institutions in time of peace as well as in war. …In order to identify the
monuments and institutions mentioned in article I, use may be made of a distinctive
flag”.
The flag, the Banner of Peace, designed for this project has three spheres
within a circle on a white ground, symbol of eternity and unity. It has ancient
origins. Perhaps, its earliest known example appears on Stone Age amulets:
three dots, without the enclosing circle. Roerich came across numerous later
examples of various times and in various parts of the world – this symbol turned
out to be universal in human culture. Thus, it was the best to serve the declared
aim. This symbol has many interpretations: the circle of eternity unites past,
present and future, or religion, science and art. Each of the explanations and all
of them together reflect the idea underlying the Banner.

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The signing of the document was preceded by years of preparation that
involved work and support of many people around the world: artists,
composers, writers, scientists, lawyers and politicians. American newspapers
wrote in 1934: “such an idea seems simple enough, and yet it was left to
Professor Roerich to make the suggestion and to take the necessary steps to
ensure that the idea should materialize. So long ago as 1904, in an address to the
secretary of Architect Artists in St. Petersburg, he outlined this idea. Again in
1914, when numerous irreparable historical monuments perished, he made a
similar proposal to the late Emperor Nicholas II and to the late Russian
Commander-in-Chief, the Grand Duke Nickolas. Both proposals met with great
sympathy and it was only the war that prevented the immediate development of
the scheme. Later, in 1929, this proposal was made public in the U.S.A. through
the New York Times and in the same year the draft of the document was
prepared by international lawyers. The Pact was submitted in 1929 and
unanimously approved by the Museum’s Committee of the League of Nations.
Committees on the Roerich Banner of Peace were founded in New York and in
Paris. The next year saw the foundation of the Union Internationale pour le Pact
Roerich with its seat at Bruges and under the Protectorship of the President of
the Hague Court of International Justice. Three international conferences were
held. Enthusiastic response came from different parts of the world. …

Although this idea has been welcomed in the highest quarters, and its
practicability endorsed by competent military authorities, there are still skeptics
who express their doubts as to the possibility of respecting such a flag in modern
warfare. Similar doubts were expressed in the past with regard to the Red Cross
and yet we must admit that, in spite of regrettable accidents, the Red Cross has
been respected and that it has proved an inestimable blessing to all the nations.
… if nations can agree on not to use soft-nosed bullets and to conform to other
agreed rules for the conduct of warfare there is no reason why they shouldn’t
agree to preserve from destruction those edifices which can be regarded as
international treasures or which are for lasting benefit of humanity.”

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On April 15, 1935 the Roerich Pact was agreed to by twenty-one nations of
the Americas and signed as a treaty in the White House, in the presence of
President Franklin Delano Roosevelt, who said: “This Treaty possesses a spiritual
significance far deeper than the text of the instrument itself.” Later, in 1950, the
New-York Pact Committee submitted the documents on the Pact to UNESCO which
used them in the creation of the Hague Convention for the Protection of Cultural
Property in the Event of Armed Conflict, signed in 1956 by 56 nations (75 of them by
1996).

The main aim of the Roerich Pact goes beyond the protection of cultural sites.
Roerich believed that the treaty should become a step towards peace: “When we
affirmed our motto: ‘Peace through Culture’ we didn’t have in view any hazy
abstraction, but expressed the conviction that this is the only working principle of
peace. If Culture is the accumulation of all highest achievements, then truly such a
beautiful pavement can lead to the stronghold Peace. Really it is imperative to take
immediate measures to preserve the noble heritage of our past for a glorious
posterity. This can only come if all countries pledge themselves to protect the
creations of culture, which, after all, belong to no one nation but to the world. In
this way we may create the next vital step for a universal culture and peace. …
Although I do not know when this banner may wave above all the world’s
cultural institutions, the seed is already sown. Already it has attracted many
great minds and travels from heart to heart spreading once again peace and
good-will among men”.

1. What is the aim of the Roerich Peace Pact? How was it created?

2. What do you think of the ideas expressed in the Pact?

3. Why is the Banner of Peace compared to the Red Cross? Why do you
think the Red Cross has become more known in the world?

4. Explain the meaning of the words and phrases in bold.

5. Compare the ideas of the Pact with the ideas expressed in the article in Task 3
in terms of the attitude to war.

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Task 5. Read the article. Answer the questions that follow. Define the key ideas of the
article, write them down and compare to your partner’s variant. How can you
describe the style of the article? Support your opinion using the text. Summarize the
article in 10-15 sentences expressing your opinion on the matter.

Fighting for Iraq’s Culture


By MATTHEW BOGDANOS1
New York Times, published: March 6, 2007

WITH the situation in Iraq growing seemingly graver by the day, Americans are
increasingly reluctant to risk American blood to save Iraqi lives. So it’s a pretty
tough sell to ask people to care about a bunch of old rocks with funny writing.

But what if they understood that the plunder of Iraq’s 10,000 poorly guarded
archaeological sites not only deprives future generations of incomparable works of
art, but also finances the insurgents? Having led the United States investigation into
the looting of the Iraq National Museum in 2003, I know that millions of dollars’
worth of antiquities flow out of the country each year. And it would be naïve to think
the insurgents aren’t getting a major share of the loot.

And what if Americans understood that our failure to appreciate the importance Iraqis
place on their history has added to the chaos faced by our troops? Four years after the
initial looting – and despite having recovered almost 6,000 antiquities – we cannot
keep pace with the artifacts being stolen every day. This continued failure to protect
an artistic heritage going back to the dawn of civilization has convinced many in Iraq
and the Middle East that we do not care about any culture other than our own.

It’s worth pointing out that the failure to safeguard Iraqi antiquities does not rest
solely with the United States. While the United Nations and NATO took the lead in
providing security for cultural artifacts in postwar situations in Bosnia, Cyprus and
elsewhere, neither seems much interested in rectifying the situation in Iraq. NATO

1
Matthew Bogdanos, a colonel in the Marine Reserves and an assistant district attorney in Manhattan, is the author,
with William Patrick, of “Thieves of Baghdad.”

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opened a training center for security officers outside Baghdad in 2005, but none of
the Iraqis trained have been assigned to archaeological sites. The United Nations says
that it has no mandate to train guards and that the level of violence does not permit its
involvement.

So who might act? In the past, most archaeological digs in Iraq have had foreign
sponsorship – the Germans at Babylon and Uruk, the British at Ur and Nimrud, the
French at Kish and Lagash, the Italians at Hatra, and the Americans at Nippur. Given
that background, it would make sense for each of these countries to “adopt” the sites
its scholars have been studying.

Each of the foreign nations would provide guards around the perimeter and around
the clock. (Obviously, this would entail getting permission from the Iraqi government
and help from the American military.) Ideally, these foreign forces would also be
assigned a group of Iraqi recruits to train. Once the Iraqis were mission-capable – it
should take only six months or so if the Baghdad government supplied the manpower
– the donor nation would recall its forces.

In this way, Mesopotamia’s cultural patrimony would be safe, Al Jazeera would have
to find other ways to show TV clips of Western indifference to Arab culture, and the
terrorists would have to find another income source. One challenge has been
convincing European governments that providing coordinated site security would not
be a statement in support of the war. But surely they could be persuaded that it would
be a humanitarian effort to protect a cultural heritage rich with common ancestry
that predates the splits among Kurd, Sunni Arab and Shiite.

The lesson for the United States is that we must never again cede the moral high
ground on cultural issues like this one. In advance of any future military action, we
should assign units the task of protecting cultural property. And all troops scheduled
to deploy overseas should receive cultural awareness training; the Archaeological
Institute of America has already conducted some seminars at Camp Lejeune in North
Carolina.

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Yes, diverting resources to save cultural artifacts during a time of war may seem like
cutting funds for the police and firefighters in order to expand the public library. And
my decision to expand my team’s counterterrorist mission to investigate the looting
of the museum was characterized by many as a distraction. But some soldiers before
us have seen the wisdom of this approach. “Inevitably, in the path of our advance will
be found historical monuments and cultural centers which symbolize to the world all
that we are fighting to preserve,” said Dwight Eisenhower just before D-Day. “It is
the responsibility of every commander to protect and respect these symbols whenever
possible.”

1. List the issues highlighted by the author of the article. What does he propose to
address them?
2. Do you think that protection of human cultural heritage is an ethical problem
or a political one as selling the looted pieces of art finances terrorists?

3. Explain the meaning of the words and phrases in italics.

Task 6. Read the article and render it in English.

Вокруг Фолклендов закипает новый конфликт


Сергей ЛАВИНОВ
В очередной раз обостряются отношения между Буэнос-Айресом и Лондоном.
Президент Аргентины Кристина Киршнер подписала указ, согласно которому
все суда, проходящие через территориальные воды этой страны и
направляющиеся к Мальвинским (Фолклендским) островам, должны
заблаговременно получить разрешение Буэнос-Айреса. Это означает
фактическую блокаду островных территорий, из-за которых 28 лет назад уже
велась война, вошедшая в историю под названием Фолклендской.

Поводом к подписанию президентского указа стало намерение Лондона начать


бурение в 200-мильной экономической зоне вокруг Фолклендов, объявленных
владением британской короны еще в 1833 году. Буровая установка Ocean
Guardian, двигающаяся своим ходом из Шотландии на крайний юг Атлантики,
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должна добраться до места назначения как раз на этой неделе. Уже в конце
месяца лондонская компания Desire Petroleum намерена начать бурение
примерно в 160 км к северу от Фолклендских островов. Кстати, члены экипажа
сообщили своему руководству, что на последнем этапе плавания их
сопровождают аргентинские истребители. Аргентинские власти уже задержали
датское грузовое судно «Thor Leader», которое, как утверждают в Буэнос-
Айресе, незаконно везло трубы на Фолкленды.

Отношения между двумя странами вновь начали обостряться пару лет назад,
когда в спорной морской акватории были найдены громадные запасы нефти.
Геологи оценили их в 60 млрд. баррелей. В Лондоне тогда заговорили о том,
что четыре с небольшим тысячи островитян вполне может ожидать судьба
второго Кувейта или Абу-Даби. Буэнос-Айрес не скрывает недовольства
отказом британской стороны прекратить разведку до окончательного решения
вопроса о принадлежности Фолклендских островов, которые аргентинцы по-
прежнему именуют Мальвинскими. Британского посла уже вызывали в МИД
Аргентины, где ему объявили, что этот вопрос будет вынесен на рассмотрение
ООН.

Напомним, что Фолклендская война 1982 года продолжалась 74 дня и привела к


гибели 255 британских военных и 649 аргентинцев. После того как к берегам
Фолклендов подошла британская эскадра, 4-тысячный аргентинский гарнизон
поднял белый флаг.

DISCUSSION

1. Speak on different types of war (e.g. recourse wars, conventional war vs.
nuclear or biological war, civil war, cold war, total war, etc.) from the
historical perspective.
2. Discuss the causes of war. Can you provide a classification of them? What
criteria do you use?
3. Speak on the role of international law in war conflicts. What does it regulate?
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4. What role can non-governmental organizations or individuals play in the
movement of war prevention or in creating laws to regulate warfare? Give
examples (you can find many in mass media).
5. What is the role of mass media in forming the public opinion of war conflicts?
6. What kind of crimes are war crimes? In what way are they different from other
crimes?
7. What role do different international organisations have in war conflicts? Give
examples of their activities from mass media.
8. Speak on the problems that are caused by war. What spheres of life are they
connected with? Find mass media article(s) to support your answer.
9. A German proverb says: a great war leaves the country with three armies – an
army of cripples, an army of mourners, and an army of thieves. Do you think
you can add any other points to this ‘list’? Speak on the consequences of war.
Which of them are the gravest (hidden, prolonged, intangible)?
10.Discuss the ways and measures to prevent war.
11.Scan the available papers and magazines in English to find information on such
a problem as the humanitarian intervention. Make a presentation of the topic as
it is covered by mass media. Explain what makes this issue controversial.
Express you own opinion.
12.Comment on the ideas revealed in the following quotations:
 The release of atom power has changed everything except our way
of thinking... the solution to this problem lies in the heart of mankind. If only I
had known, I should have become a watchmaker. – Albert Einstein.
 If we do not end war – war will end us. Everybody says that,
millions of people believe it, and nobody does anything. – H.G. Wells.
 This world in arms is not spending money alone. It is spending the
sweat of its laborers, the genius of its scientists, the hopes of its children. –
Dwight D. Eisenhower.
 Never think that war, no matter how necessary, nor how justified, is
not a crime. – Ernest Hemingway
 When the rich wage war, it's the poor who die. – Jean-Paul Sartre.
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 War is only a cowardly escape from the problems of peace. –
Thomas Mann.
 We have failed to grasp the fact that mankind is becoming a single
unit, and that for a unit to fight against itself is suicide. – Havelock Ellis.
 There is nothing that war has ever achieved that we could not better
achieve without it. – Havelock Ellis.
 War is not an adventure. It is a disease. It is like typhus. – Antoine
de Saint-Exupery.

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UNIT 7. HUMAN RIGHTS
VOCABULARY
Study the meaning of the following words and word-combinations, give their Russian equivalents.

liberty
to gain liberty; liberty of the press; liberty of speech; liberty of conscience;
liberty of discussion; individual/personal liberty; civil liberties; political liberty;
religious liberty; economic liberties; human liberties; ordered liberty; private
liberty; public liberties
right
to abdicate/relinquish/renounce/sign away/waive a right; to achieve/gain a right;
to achieve full civil rights; to assert/claim a right; to deny (smb.) a right; to
enjoy/exercise a right; to protect/safeguard smb.'s rights; infringe the rights;
infringe on the rights; political rights; property rights; intellectual property rights;
voting rights; inherent right; legal right; natural right; sole right; civil rights;
human rights; individual rights; to right a wrong; right to be confronted with
witness; right to counsel; right to education; right to jury trial; right to keep and
bear arms; right to maintenance in old age; right to privacy; right to rest and
leisure; right to self-determination; right to silence; right to social insurance;
right to work; right of access to courts; right of assembly; right of asylum/right of
sanctuary; right of choice; right of court; right of establishment; rights of legal
person; right of ownership; right of property; author's right; electoral rights;
enacted right; equal rights; fundamental rights; neighbouring rights; individual
rights; right for safe and humane working conditions; right to self-determination
discrimination
age discrimination; religious discrimination; sex discrimination; racial
discrimination; employment discrimination; wage discrimination; reverse
discrimination; to practice discrimination; to eliminate discrimination based on
race and gender; segregation
penalty
to impose /inflict a penalty; severe/stiff/strict penalty; to assess the penalty;
ruling

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conclusive ruling; court ruling; definitive/ final ruling; judge's ruling;
freedom
political freedom; religious freedom/freedom of faith; freedom of speech/
discussion; freedom of assembly; freedom of association; freedom of conscience;
democratic freedoms; fundamental freedoms; suffer inhuman treatment;
discriminatory treatment; to eliminate discrimination; to protect the rights of
minority groups;

Exercise 1. Give terms to the following definitions (using your active vocabulary).
2. The right of all citizens to be free to do whatever they want while respecting the
rights of other people. 2. Something that you are morally, legally, or officially
allowed to do or have. 3. Having the same rights, opportunities etc as everyone else,
whatever your race, religion, or sex. 4. To do something that is against a law or
someone's legal rights. 5. To use a power, right, or quality that you have. 6. The
practice of giving unfair treatment to a group of people who usually have advantages,
in order to be fair to the group of people who were unfairly treated in the past. 7. The
practice of treating one person or group differently from another in an unfair way. 8.
Unfair treatment of people because they are old. 9. The practice of giving a particular
number of jobs, places at university etc to people who are often treated unfairly
because of their race, sex etc. 10. Treating people unfairly because they are women,
or because they are men. 11. A punishment for breaking a law, rule, or legal
agreement. 12. An official decision, especially one made by a court. 13. The right to
do what you want without being controlled or restricted by anyone. 14. More
important or necessary than anything else – use this especially about things such as
principles, duties, or beliefs. 15. To completely get rid of something that is
unnecessary or unwanted. 16. Protection given to someone by a government because
they have escaped from fighting or political trouble in their own country.

Exercise 2. Fill in the gaps with the necessary words from the box.
sex, religious, age, right, reverse, infringe, positive, treatment, violates, impose,
court

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1. The refugees had suffered degrading and inhuman…. 2. Many women still face …
discrimination in the military. 3. The most common victims of … discrimination are
employees in their mid-50s. 4. White-male fears of … discrimination have been
widely exaggerated. 5. This suggests … discrimination in favour of older people. 6.
Women all over the world fought long and hard for the … to vote. 7. Some one who
knowingly touches another without his consent … this personal right as surely as if
he had taken his property. 8. A backup copy of a computer program does not …
copyright. 9. Many federal contracts, for example, … penalties when the government
does not pay promptly. 10. Mr Bush continues to oppose him, encouraged by this
week's … rulings in his favour. 11. They would know the real meaning of religious
freedom, something which has never really existed throughout … history.

Exercise 3. Give synonyms to the underlined words.


1. It remains the duty of governments to protect the rights of their citizens but this is
evidently not enough. 2. On its face this seems to require the seller to exercise all
three rights together. 3. Mrs Armitage's heir is already asserting his rights in the
matter but that is not my concern. 4. But the central principles for us are individual
liberty and personal fulfilment. 5. Everybody has the right of asylum. 6. He says what
Oxford Crown Court did was impose a much lesser penalty. 7. Neglect of their duty
involved severe penalties. 8. This pioneering plea for religious freedom called
diversity not a curse but a glory. 9. The First Amendment guarantees freedom of
speech.

Exercise 4. Translate the following phrases using the words in bold.


discrimination
дискриминация при найме на работу, расовая дискриминация, искоренить
дискриминацию по признаку пола
liberty
обрести, получить свободу, личная свобода, лишение свободы
right

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передавать к-л права, отказать к-л в праве, лишение гражданских прав, посягать
на ч-л права, право на неприкосновенность частной жизни, получать все права
гражданина, защищать чьи-л. права, пользоваться правом
treatment
бесчеловечное, бессердечное обращение; грубое обращение с заключенными,
справедливое обращение, гуманное, человечное обращение, хорошее, доброе,
мягкое обращение, несправедливое отношение

Exercise 5. Give Russian equivalents.


Public liberties, to deny (smb.) a right, inherent right, right to keep and bear arms,
right to privacy, right of access to courts, right of choice, fundamental rights, reverse
discrimination, to practice discrimination, to assess the penalty, right for safe and
humane working conditions, freedom of assembly, fundamental freedoms, suffer
inhuman treatment, to eliminate discrimination.

Exercise 6. Translate into English using your active vocabulary.


1. Такие права, как право граждан носить и хранить оружие и право на
материальное обеспечение в старости, не нашли своего отражения в
Конституции. 2. Положение дел с соблюдением авторских и смежных прав в
странах бывшего Союза, в частности России и Беларуси, оставляет желать
лучшего. 3. Часто при найме на работу женщины сталкиваются с
дискриминацией по признаку пола. Такое положение вещей привело в ряде
стран к проявлению так называемой “дискриминации наоборот”, когда при
найме на работу предпочтение отдается слабому полу. 4. Как отмечает
организация “Эмнести Интернешнл”, экономический прогресс в Китае не
сопровождается улучшением ситуации в области соблюдения
фундаментальных прав и свобод. 5. Правительство разработало программу
реформ, которая обеспечит уважение прав человека в будущем. 6. Гражданские
права включают в себя свободу, равенство перед законом и право голоса. 7.
Многие стали жертвами нападений расистов. 8. Тяжело избавиться от старых

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предрассудков. 9. Расовая сегрегация в школах США является незаконной. 10.
Каждый человек должен иметь свободу выбора.

Task 1. Read the following texts and answer the questions that follow. Explain the
meaning of the words and phrases in bold.
HUMAN RIGHTS
Human rights are defined by the Britannica Encyclopedia as follows: “rights
that belong to an individual as a consequence of being human.
The term came into wide use after World War II, replacing the earlier phrase
“natural rights,” which had been associated with the Greco-Roman concept of
natural law since the end of the Middle Ages. As understood today, human rights
refer to a wide variety of values and capabilities reflecting the diversity of human
circumstances and history. They are conceived of as universal, applying to all human
beings everywhere, and as fundamental, referring to essential or basic human needs.
Human rights have been classified historically in terms of the notion of three
“generations” of human rights.
The first generation of civil and political rights, associated with the
Enlightenment and the English, American, and French revolutions, includes the rights
to life and liberty and the rights to freedom of speech and worship. The second
generation of economic, social, and cultural rights, associated with revolts against the
predations of unregulated capitalism from the mid-19th century, includes the right to
work and the right to an education. Finally, the third generation of solidarity rights,
associated with the political and economic aspirations of developing and newly
decolonized countries after World War II, includes the collective rights to political
self-determination and economic development. Since the adoption of the Universal
Declaration of Human Rights in 1948, many treaties and agreements for the
protection of human rights have been concluded through the auspices of the United
Nations, and several regional systems of human rights law have been established. In
the late 20th century ad hoc international criminal tribunals were convened to
prosecute serious human rights violations and other crimes in the former Yugoslavia
and Rwanda. The International Criminal Court, which came into existence in

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2002, is empowered to prosecute crimes against humanity, crimes of genocide, and
war crimes”.
The notion of human rights has a lot in common with the notions of civil rights
and civil liberties. Civil rights are the freedoms and rights that a person may have as
a member of a community, state, or nation. Civil rights include freedom of speech,
of the press, and of religion. Among others are the right to own property and receive
fair and equal treatment from government, other persons, and private-groups.
In democratic countries, a person’s civil rights are protected by law and
custom. The constitutions of many democracies have bills of rights that describe
basic liberties and rights.
Some people draw sharp distinctions between civil liberties and civil rights.
Civil rights is used to imply that the state has a positive role in ensuring all citizens
equal protection under law and equal opportunity to exercise the privileges of
citizenship and otherwise to participate fully in national life, regardless of race,
religion, sex, or other characteristics unrelated to the worth of the individual. The
term civil liberties is used to refer to guarantees of freedom of speech, press, or
religion; due process of law; and other limitations on the power of the state to restrain
or dictate the actions of individuals. The two concepts of equality and liberty are
overlapping and interacting; equality implies the ordering of liberty within society so
that the freedom of one person does not infringe on the rights of others.
The civil rights and liberties of U.S. citizens are embodied in the Bill of Rights,
the first ten amendments to the Constitution. The 1st Amendment guarantees freedom
of speech, press, assembly, and religious exercise as well as separation of church and
state. The 4th Amendment protects the privacy and security of the home and personal
effects and prohibits unreasonable searches and seizures. The 5th through 8th
amendments protect persons accused of crime; they guarantee, for example, the right
to trial by jury, the right to confront hostile witnesses and to have legal counsel, and
the privilege of not testifying against oneself. The 5th Amendment also contains the
general guarantee that no one shall be deprived of life, liberty, or property without
due process of law. Originally these amendments were binding only on the federal
government, but U.S. Supreme Court decisions in the 20th century have held that the
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due-process clause of the 14th Amendment (ratified in 1868) extends the Bill of
Rights to actions by state and local governments.
Limits of civil rights
All civil rights have limits, even in democratic countries. For example, a
person may be denied freedom of speech in a democracy if it can be shown that his or
her speech might lead to the overthrow of the government. A person may not use
civil rights to justify actions that might seriously harm the health, welfare, safety, or
morals of others.
A person may be denied a civil right if that right is used to violate other
people's rights. Freedom of expression, for example, does not permit a person to tell
lies that ruin another person's reputation. Property owners have the right to do what
they choose with their property. However, this right may not allow a person legally to
refuse to sell property to a person of a certain race or religion. This is because the
property owner would be denying the other person equal freedom of choice.
The specific limits of civil rights vary with the times. In time of war, a
government may restrict personal freedoms to safeguard the country. Changing social
and economic conditions also cause changes in the importance that people give
certain rights. During the late 1800's, most people in the United States valued
property rights more than personal freedoms. But since the late 1930's, most
Americans have shown greater concern for personal freedoms and equality of
opportunity.
Major changes in the field of civil rights in the USA occurred during the
1970's. Earlier civil rights efforts had involved lawsuits and other attempts to protect
individual rights. In the 1970’s, the emphasis shifted from individual rights to group
rights.
The federal government began to enact laws designed to assure rights for
groups that formerly had suffered discrimination. For example, the government
began a program of affirmative action. Affirmative action consists of efforts to
counteract past discrimination by giving special help to disadvantaged groups.
Typical measures included recruiting drives among women and minority groups, and
special training programs for minority workers. The government required such plans
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to be set up by businesses that had government contracts, by many other employers,
and by all schools receiving federal funds.
Efforts to help groups that had suffered discrimination raised a number of new
civil rights issues. Many people felt the government violated the principle of
equality under the law by giving preference to certain groups at the expense of
others. Some white men complained of reverse discrimination, saying they were
treated unfairly because of their race and sex. Other individuals believed such efforts
were necessary to help the disadvantaged overcome past discrimination and
eventually compete on an equal basis with white males.
In 1990, Congress passed the Americans with Disabilities Act to protect
handicapped people from discrimination by private employers. The law also requires
that public buildings and mass transportation systems be accessible to disabled
people. In addition, the act orders telephone companies to provide telephone relay
services that enable people with speech or hearing disorders to make and receive
calls.
The Civil Rights Act of 1991 made it easier for workers to win job
discrimination suits. Under this law, if an employer's hiring or promotion practices
seem fair but result in discrimination, the employer must prove the practices are
necessary to his or her business. Such practices may include tests of strength or of
education. The law also gave victims the right to sue for money damages – in
addition to back pay and lost benefits – in cases of intentional job discrimination
based on sex, religion, national origin, or disability. Previously, such additional
damages were awarded only to victims of racial discrimination.
1. Give the definition of Human Rights.
2. What is the difference between civil rights and civil liberties? What liberties and
rights can citizens have?
3. Are there any limits to civil rights? Provide examples.

Task 2. Read the following texts and answer the questions that follow. Explain the
meaning of the words and phrases in bold.
HUMAN RIGHTS VIOLATIONS
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There is now near-universal consensus that all individuals are entitled to
certain basic rights under any circumstances. These include certain civil liberties and
political rights, the most fundamental of which is the right to life and physical safety.
Human rights are the articulation of the need for justice, tolerance, mutual respect,
and human dignity in all of our activity. Speaking of rights allows us to express the
idea that all individuals are part of the scope of morality and justice.
To protect human rights is to ensure that people receive some degree of
decent, humane treatment. To violate the most basic human rights, on the other hand,
is to deny individuals their fundamental moral entitlements. It is, in a sense, to treat
them as if they are less than human and undeserving of respect and dignity. Examples
are acts typically deemed "crimes against humanity," including genocide, torture,
slavery, rape, enforced sterilization or medical experimentation, and deliberate
starvation. Because these policies are sometimes implemented by governments,
limiting the unrestrained power of the state is an important part of international law.
Underlying laws that prohibit the various "crimes against humanity" is the principle
of nondiscrimination and the notion that certain basic rights apply universally.
The Various Types of Violations
The number of deaths related to combat and the collateral damage caused by
warfare are only a small part of the tremendous amount of suffering and devastation
caused by conflicts. Over the course of protracted conflict, assaults on political
rights and the fundamental right to life are typically widespread. Some of the gravest
violations of the right to life are massacres, the starvation of entire populations, and
genocide. Genocide is commonly understood as the intentional extermination of a
single ethnic, racial, or religious group. Killing group members, causing them serious
bodily or mental harm, imposing measures to prevent birth, or forcibly transferring
children are all ways to bring about the destruction of a group. Genocide is often
regarded as the most offensive crime against humanity.
The term "war crime" refers to a violation of the rules of justice in war by
any individual, whether military or civilian. The laws of armed conflict prohibit
attacks on civilians and the use of weapons that cause unnecessary suffering or long-
term environmental damage. Other war crimes include taking hostages, firing on
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localities that are undefended and without military significance, such as hospitals or
schools, inhuman treatment of prisoners, including biological experiments, and the
pillage or purposeless destruction of property. Although clearly outlawed by
international law, such war crimes are common. According to Kofi Annan,
Secretary-General of the United Nations, it is increasingly true that "the main aim...
[of conflicts]... is the destruction not of armies but of civilians and entire ethnic
groups.
Rather than simply killing off whole populations, government forces may
carry out programs of torture. Torture can be either physical or psychological, and
aims at the humiliation or annihilation of the dignity of the person. Physical torture
might include mutilation, beatings, and electric shocks to lips, gums, and genitals. In
psychological torture, detainees are sometimes deprived of food and water for long
periods, kept standing upright for hours, deprived of sleep, or tormented by high-level
noise.
Torture is used in some cases as a way to carry out interrogations and extract
confessions or information. Today, it is increasingly used as a means of suppressing
political and ideological dissent, or for punishing political opponents who do not
share the ideology of the ruling group.
In addition to torture, tens of thousands of people detained in connection with
conflicts "disappear" each year, and are usually killed and buried in secret.
Government forces take people into custody, hold them in secret, and then refuse to
acknowledge responsibility for their whereabouts or fate. This abduction of persons is
typically intended to secure information and spread terror. In most cases,
interrogations involve threats and torture, and those who are arrested are
subsequently killed. Corpses are buried in unmarked graves or left at dumpsites in an
attempt to conceal acts of torture and summary execution of those in custody.
Because people disappear without any trace, families do not know whether their
loved ones are alive or dead.
Various lesser forms of political oppression are often enacted as well.
Individuals who pose a threat to those in power or do not share their political views
may be arbitrarily imprisoned, and either never brought to trial or subject to grossly
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unfair trial procedures. Mass groups of people may be denied the right to vote or
excluded from all forms of political participation. Or, measures restricting people's
freedom of movement may be enforced. These include forcible relocations, mass
expulsions, and denials of the right to seek asylum or return to one's home.
Political oppression may also take the form of discrimination. When this
occurs, basic rights may be denied on the basis of religion, ethnicity, race, or gender.
Apartheid, which denies political rights on the basis of race, is perhaps one of the
most severe forms of discrimination. The system of apartheid in South Africa
institutionalized extreme racial segregation that involved laws against interracial
marriage or sexual relations and requirements for the races to live in different
territorial areas. Certain individuals were held to be inferior by definition, and not
regarded as full human beings under the law. The laws established under this system
aimed at social control, and brought about a society divided along racial lines and
characterized by a systematic disregard for human rights.
In addition, women are uniquely vulnerable to certain types of human rights
abuses – in addition to the sexual abuse mentioned above, entrenched discrimination
against women is prevalent in many parts of the world and leads to various forms of
political and social oppression. This includes strict dress codes and harsh
punishments for sexual "transgressions," which impose severe limitations on
women's basic liberties. In addition, women in some regions (Africa, for example)
suffer greater poverty than men and are denied political influence, education, and job
training.
1. Provide historical outlook of Human Rights violations.
2. What does it mean to violate Human Rights?
3. Describe the types of human rights violations? Which of them are the most
serious?

Task 3. Read the following texts and answer the questions that follow. Explain the
meaning of the words and phrases in bold.
HUMAN RIGHTS VIOLATIONS AND INTRCTABLE CONFLICT
Many have noted the strong interdependence between human rights
violations and intractable conflict. Abuse of human rights often leads to conflict, and
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conflict typically results in human rights violations. It is not surprising, then, that
human rights abuses are often at the center of wars and that protection of human
rights is central to conflict resolution.
Violations of political and economic rights are the root causes of many
crises. When rights to adequate food, housing, employment, and cultural life are
denied, and large groups of people are excluded from the society's decision-making
processes, there is likely to be great social unrest. Such conditions often give rise to
justice conflicts, in which parties demand that their basic needs be met.
Indeed, many conflicts are sparked or spread by violations of human rights.
For example, massacres or torture may inflame hatred and strengthen an adversary's
determination to continue fighting. Violations may also lead to further violence from
the other side and can contribute to a conflict's spiraling out of control.
On the flip side, armed conflict often leads to the breakdown of
infrastructure and civic institutions, which in turn undermines a broad range of rights.
When hospitals and schools are closed, rights to adequate health and education are
threatened. The collapse of economic infrastructure often results in pollution, food
shortages, and overall poverty. These various forms of economic breakdown and
oppression violate rights to self-determination and often contribute to further human
tragedy in the form of sickness, starvation, and lack of basic shelter. The breakdown
of government institutions results in denials of civil rights, including the rights to
privacy, fair trial, and freedom of movement. In many cases, the government is
increasingly militarized, and police and judicial systems are corrupted. Abductions,
arbitrary arrests, detentions without trial, political executions, assassinations, and
torture often follow.
In cases where extreme violations of human rights have occurred,
reconciliation and peacebuilding become much more difficult. Unresolved human
rights issues can serve as obstacles to peace negotiations. This is because it is
difficult for parties to move toward conflict transformation and forgiveness when
memories of severe violence and atrocity are still primary in their minds.
There is much disagreement about when and to what extent outside countries
can engage in humanitarian intervention. More specifically, there is debate about
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the efficacy of using military force to protect the human rights of individuals in other
nations. This sort of debate stems largely from a tension between state sovereignty
and the rights of individuals.
Some defend the principles of state sovereignty and nonintervention, and
argue that other states must be permitted to determine their own course. It is thought
that states have diverse conceptions of justice, and international coexistence depends
on a pluralist ethic whereby each state can uphold its own conception of the good.
Among many, there is "a profound skepticism about the possibilities of realizing
notions of universal justice”. States that presume to judge what counts as a violation
of human rights in another nation interfere with that nation's right to self-
determination. In addition, requiring some country to respect human rights is liable
to cause friction and can lead to far-reaching disagreements. Thus, acts of
intervention may disrupt interstate order and lead to further conflict.
Others think, ‘Only the vigilant eye of the international community can
ensure the proper observance of international standards, in the interest not of one
state or another but of the individuals themselves.’ They maintain that massive
violations of human rights, such as genocide and crimes against humanity, warrant
intervention, even if it causes some tension or disagreement. Certain rights are
inalienable and universal, and taking basic rights seriously means taking
responsibility for their protection everywhere. If, through its atrocious actions, a state
destroys the lives and rights of its citizens, it temporarily forfeits its claims to
legitimacy and sovereignty. Outside governments then have a positive duty to take
steps to protect human rights and preserve life. In addition, it is thought that political
systems that protect human rights reduce the threat of world conflict. Thus,
intervention might also be justified on the ground of preserving international security.
Nevertheless, governments are often reluctant to commit military forces and
resources to defend human rights in other states. In addition, the use of violence to
end human rights violations poses a moral dilemma insofar as such interventions may
lead to further loss of innocent lives. It is imperative that the least amount of force
necessary to achieve humanitarian objectives be used, and that intervention not do
more harm than good. Lastly, there is a need to ensure that intervention is legitimate,
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and motivated by genuine humanitarian concerns. The purposes of intervention must
be apolitical and disinterested. However, if risks and costs of intervention are high, it
is unlikely that states will intervene unless their direct interests are involved.
Many note that in order to truly address human rights violations, we must
strive to understand the underlying causes of these breaches. These causes have to
do with underdevelopment, economic pressures, various social problems, and
international conditions. Indeed, the roots of repression, discrimination, and other
denials of human rights stem from deeper and more complex political, social, and
economic problems. It is only by understanding and ameliorating these root causes
and strengthening civil society that we can truly protect human rights.
4. What is the connection between Human Rights violations and intractable conflict?
5. What are the pros and cons of intervention?

Task 4. Read the article, answer the questions following it. Make a summary using
the words and expressions in bold.
Religious freedom
Too many chains
Two centuries after the French and American revolutions, and 20 years after Soviet
communism’s fall, liberty of conscience may be receding again
From The Economist print edition
THE Universal Declaration of Human Rights, one of the great moral statements of
the 20th century, could not be clearer. It says that “everyone has the right to freedom
of thought, conscience and religion,” including the right to change religion and to
“manifest his religion in teaching, practice, worship and observance”.

America’s Founding Fathers, albeit living in a world where most people were
assumed to be theists and Christians, used finer prose to affirm their belief in liberty.
Given that God had endowed the human mind with freedom, said Thomas Jefferson,
“all attempts to influence it by temporal punishments, or by civil incapacitations 1,
tend only to beget habits of hypocrisy and meanness.”

1
Поражение в правах.
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... A report by the Pew Forum on Religion and Public Life, published this week,
found that nearly 70% of the world’s 6.8 billion people live in countries with “high
restrictions” on religion. This refers both to official curbs on faith and to the hostility
that believers endure at the hands of fellow citizens.

As the research group, based in Washington, DC, rightly notes, the two forms of
oppression sometimes go hand and hand, and sometimes diverge completely. For
example, Saudi Arabia, Pakistan and Iran are countries where religious minorities
face both sorts of persecution. In Vietnam and China religious communities are not
too badly treated by their compatriots but are restricted by the state; and in Nigeria
and Bangladesh practitioners of faith are more likely to suffer at the hands of fellow
citizens than the government.

The report is a reminder of the paradoxical relations in many parts of the world
between majoritarian democracy and personal freedom. For example, Syria’s
authoritarian rulers deal harshly with political dissent from any quarter, but it is
easier to be a Christian there than in many neighbouring countries. If a democratic
election in Syria brought Islamists to power, life would surely get worse for Syria’s
Christians. There are several other Middle Eastern countries where secular
dictatorships provide minorities with a protection of sorts. Meanwhile in India the
imposition of “anti-conversion laws” – making it hard to abandon Hinduism – is
clearly an electoral winner in some states; but it says little for the quality of Indian
democracy.

After studying 198 countries and self-ruling territories, Pew finds that in 75 of them
there is some curb by local or national authorities on efforts to persuade others to
adopt one’s faith. In 178 countries faiths are required to register with the
government, and in 117 states this obligation has caused problems for some religions.

In the United States there are two bodies with a mandate to monitor global religious
liberty: the State Department and a Commission on International Religious Freedom,
which often takes a more rigorous view. Both report that more countries are paying
lip-service to religious freedom, but in reality it is being systematically undermined,
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often by courts and local officials; across the world, “there are advances in theory,
but impediments in practice,” says the commission’s vice-chairman, Elizabeth
Prodromou.

Some countries do not respect religious freedom even in theory – in Saudi Arabia, for
instance, public prayer by non-Muslims is out of the question. The kingdom is one of
eight nations listed by the State Department as “countries of particular concern” in
respect of religious liberty, a category that normally incurs some punitive action.
However, successive American governments have let the Saudis off, exercising a
waiver on national-security grounds. The commission wishes that the Obama
administration would be more assertive.

... If any region can work out a new modus vivendi between people of different faiths,
it should be Europe. There Muslim immigrants play an active, and mostly
constructive, part in the politics of several big democracies – and many say they
prefer the liberal ethos of their adopted countries to their authoritarian homelands.

Unfortunately, the Open Society Institute had some rather mixed news on that front
this week. After interviewing Muslims in 11 European cities, it found that big
majorities wanted to be involved in local politics and had no wish to cut themselves
off from society. But they feel unloved. Nearly 70% said they faced more religious
discrimination today than they did five years ago.

1. What types of oppression are described in the article?


2. What is referred to as paradoxical relations?

3. Why are the news from Europe mixed?

4. Find words in the article that mean: a) the moral ideas and attitudes that belong
to a particular group or society; b) be closely connected; c) say that one approves of
sb/sth or supports them/it, without proving their support by what they actually do; d)
to experience and deal with sth that is painful or unpleasant, especially without
complaining; e) not connected with spiritual or religious matters; f) to be different; g)
something that delays or stops the progress of sth.
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5. Explain the meaning of the words and expressions in bold.

Task 5. Read the article, make its summary in English.


Права человека и 10 заповедей
Борис Клин
Необходимость выработки позиции по стандартам прав человека владыка
Кирилл объяснил тем, что с начала 90-х годов, когда нормы либерального
гуманизма стали реализовываться на практике, возникли проблемы. "Христиане
не столь радикальны, как наши братья - мусульмане. Когда в Москве
издевались над религиозными ценностями, это вызвало, конечно, возмущение
верующих, но ведь тут же нашлись так называемые правозащитники", -
напомнил владыка Кирилл. По его мнению, недавний скандал с
опубликованными в Дании карикатурами - это не конфликт между исламом и
христианством, это конфликт между секулярным либеральным гуманизмом и
религией.

Среди других разногласий в этой области владыка Кирилл назвал резолюцию


Совета Европы "О женщинах и религии". "Отказ рукополагать женщин в сан
епископа, с точки зрения Европарламента, нарушает права женщин, но
навязывание силой государства иной позиции грубо нарушает права
верующих", - говорит митрополит.

- Шведского пастора, назвавшего гомосексуализм грехом, отправили в


училище, Европарламент принимает резолюцию, осуждающую гомофобию,
требует воспитания "терпимости к гомосексуалистам в школах", и это
становится фактически пропагандой, - заявил митрополит Кирилл. Он
подчеркнул, что не призывает вернуться к уголовному преследованию
гомосексуалистов, но считает недопустимым рекламировать подобный образ
жизни. Владыка отметил, что в рамках 10 заповедей принципы всех
традиционных религий совпадают.

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- Эвтаназия, аборты, гомосексуализм, издевательство над святынями не могут
быть поддержаны, - заявил митрополит. - Не может быть поддержан и тезис о
приоритете прав личности над обществом - при таком подходе не может быть
жертвенной любви к ближнему.

- Греховно, когда человека унижает чиновник, когда в приютах притесняют


стариков и детей, когда солдат беззащитен перед сослуживцами, и я не
понимаю, как можно со ссылкой на патриотизм не говорить, что в армии
уродуют людей, - заявил митрополит.

1. What do you think is the connection between the principles of the world
religions and human rights?

DISCUSSION
1. One of the encyclopedias defines human rights as ‘freedom, justice, and
equality: the rights that are considered by most societies to belong
automatically to everyone’. Comment on each of these “components” of the
concept of human rights. Show their interdependence.
2. Examine the history of the human rights concept. Prepare a short report on it
showing the major milestones of the development of this concept on national
and international levels.
3. Speak on legal documents regulating the sphere of human rights.
4. Explain the difference between civil rights and civil liberties.
5. Speak on human rights violations. What violations do you think the world or
the national community should address first of all?
6. Discuss humanitarian intervention. What are its pros and cons?
7. Comment on the ideas expressed in the following quotations:
 Whatever career you may choose for yourself – doctor, lawyer, teacher – let
me propose an avocation to be pursued along with it. Become a dedicated
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fighter for civil rights. Make it a central part of your life. It will make you a
better doctor, a better lawyer, a better teacher. It will enrich your spirit as
nothing else possibly can. It will give you that rare sense of nobility that can
only spring from love and selflessly helping your fellow man.
Make a career of humanity. Commit yourself to the noble struggle for human
rights. You will make a greater person of yourself, a greater nation of your
country and a finer world to live in. – Martin Luther King, Jr.
 We are asking people to understand that slavery still exists today; in fact,
according to a recent New York Times article, if you count the number of
women and children in bonded labor, domestic slavery or sexual slavery
today, there are more slaves in the world than at any other time in history. –
Charlotte Bunch.
 The evolution of the human rights movement clearly illustrates humanity's
ongoing struggle toward creating a better world. – Robert Alan.
 Give to every human being every right that you claim for yourself. – Robert
Ingersoll.
 I believe in equality for everyone, except reporters and photographers. –
Gandhi.

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