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Bridge Hydraulics Overview

Hydrology & Hydraulics


for Objectives for this presentation:

Bridge Design 1 – Design discharges (Hydrology)


2 – Channel & Bridge Characteristics
3 – Hydraulic
H d li Analysis
A l i using
i HEC-RAS
HEC RAS
-- A brief overview

BRIDGES OVER WATERWAYS


Bridge Design Objectives
BRIDGE DESIGN CRITERIA:
• Provide for the safe traveling of the • Bridges should be able pass the 50 year
public across a waterway storm with 2 feet of freeboard and some
lesser freeboard for the 100 year storm
storm.
• Allowing for conveyance of storm • There should be no impact to the
discharges through the structure upstream water surface elevation and/or
without adversely impacting the floodway and floodplain widths.
traveling public, damage to properties • Bridges should be able to withstand scour
and the environment. during a 500 year storm event.

SIZING A BRIDGE WATERWAY SIZING A BRIDGE WATERWAY


OPENING OPENING
• Determine how much water (Design Discharge for • Determine Stream
a given Storm Event) will be flowing through the Width & Bed
Bridge Opening - HYDROLOGY Elevation
• Determine Low
• Determine the waterway area required to pass the Beam Elevation
design discharge without compromising the Bridge • Determine
Design Criteria using a Standard Step Backwater Roadway
Method -- HYDRAULICS
Elevation
• Waterway Area

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2 - Hydrology
The primary methods used by NYSDOT to USGS Report 2006-5112:
calculate flood discharges are:
Techniques for Estimating Flood-
• USGS Report 2006-5112 – Regression Equations Peak Discharges of Rural,
• NRCS TR 55 Unregulated Streams in New York
State

• Provides multiple-regression equations to calculate


discharges for gaged and ungaged streams
• Provides a method to adjust discharges for gaged
streams
• Contains data from streamflow gaging stations

NYS USGS Gaging Stations NYS USGS Gaging Stations

http://waterdata.usgs.gov/nwis/rt http://waterdata.usgs.gov/nwis/rt

USGS Report 2006-5112: USGS Report 2006-5112:


Regression Equations Hydrologic Regions

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USGS Report 2006-5112: USGS Report 2006-5112:
Hydrologic Regions – Buffalo DOT Region 5 Hydrologic Regions – Buffalo NYSDOT Region 5

Hydrologic Regions 5 & 6 -- Variables Hydrologic Regions 5 & 6 -- Variables


A -- Drainage area, in square miles.
SR -- Slope ratio. Ratio of main-channel slope to basin slope
L -- Main-channel stream length, in miles. within the drainage basin, computed as SL / BS

SL -- Main-channel slope, in feet per mile. Difference EL12 -- Percentage of drainage basin at or greater than
in elevation
ele ation (feet) between
bet een points 10 percent and 1 200 feet above sea level.
1,200 level
85 percent of the distance along main stream
channel ST -- Basin storage. Percentage of total drainage area shown
as lakes, ponds, and swamps
BS -- Average basin slope, in feet per mile. Measured
by contour-band method within contributing RUNF -- Mean annual runoff, in inches.
drainage area [ 3CL*CI/A ]

Main Channel Slope

Am
A
ST
L85

L10

Bridge Crossing

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Runoff (RUNF) Precipitation (P)

Watershed Basin
Plot Report

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Other Sources for Discharge Estimates
Design
• FEMA Flood Insurance Studies
Discharges
• U.S. Corps of Engineers Flood Studies
• U.S. Soil Conservation Studies
• Agencies responsible for flood control facilities
(regulated streams and dams)

Perform field bridge and channel survey


2: Channel & Bridge Characteristics
• Perform field bridge and channel survey • Alignment of bridge abutments and piers to the
• Data Requirements: existing stream alignment
– Cross section geometry • Bridge skew with respect to stream channel
-- Where are cross section required • High water marks
– Roughness values • Any signs of scour around abutments and piers
– Bridge characteristics • Stream bank and channel erosion, deposition, etc.
• Any signs of ice and/or debris problems

Perform field bridge and channel survey Perform field bridge and channel survey
• Alignment of bridge abutments and piers to the
• Alignment of bridge abutments and piers to the
existing stream alignment
existing stream alignment

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Perform field bridge and channel survey Perform field bridge and channel survey
• Alignment of bridge abutments and piers to the • Bridge skew with respect to stream channel
existing stream alignment

Perform field bridge and channel survey Perform field bridge and channel survey
• High water marks • Any signs of scour around abutments and piers

Perform field bridge and channel survey Perform field bridge and channel survey
• Stream bank and channel erosion, deposition, etc
• Any signs of scour around abutments and piers

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Perform field bridge and channel survey Perform field bridge and channel survey
• Stream bank and channel erosion, deposition, etc • Ice Problems

Perform field bridge and channel survey


• Debris Problems Where are cross section required

• Upstream and Downstream Fascia of the Bridge


-- Accurately locate streambed, low steel and
roadway elevations of the existing structure
• Centerline of Roadway across Bridge
• At toe of roadway embankment slope upstream
and downstream of existing bridge
• At one bridge length upstream of the bridge
• Channel and Floodplain Cross Sections

Bridge Cross Section Requirements Bridge Cross Section Requirements

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Where are cross section required Where are cross section required

Channel and Floodplain Cross Sections: Channel and Floodplain Cross Sections:

• Cross Sections should be taken 2000 ft., 1000 ft.,


• The width of each section should be 7 times the 500 ft., 400 ft., 300 ft., 200 ft., 100 ft., from the
channel width extending in each direction from the downstream fascia of the bridge.
centerline of the channel, or the 100 year flood
boundary, if a FEMA study is available. • C
Cross Sections
S i should
h ld be
b taken
k one bridge
b id length
l h plus
l
100 ft., 200 ft., and 500 ft., from the upstream fascia
of the bridge
• Sections are to be taken perpendicular to flow
direction within the channel and, overbank and • Cross Sections should not cross each other.
floodplain areas
• All offsets for each cross section should be taken from
left to right, looking downstream.

Where are cross section required


Hydraulic Cross Sections
ƒ From an Existing FEMA Floodplain Map
Channel and Floodplain Cross Sections:
• Any other structures located within the Downstream
and Upstream survey limits should be surveyed like
the project structure

• A
Any sharp
h bbends,
d hheadd cut,
t or significant
i ifi t changes
h in
i
the stream channel or floodplain within the survey
limits should also be surveyed.

• Channels that are flatter than 0.0004 ft/ft requires an


additional cross section at 4000 ft. downstream of the
bridge

Hydraulic Cross Sections Bridge Cross Section Requirements

Downstream toe of Upstream toe of


embankment slope embankment
slope

Downstream
Fascia of Structure One bridge length
upstream of Bridge

Upstream Fascia of
Structure

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Hydraulic Cross Sections Manning’s Roughness Coefficients
200 ft 100 ft 100+ ft
• Various sources for “n” values
• Roughness varies with season (Use worst case)

200+ ft

500 ft

1400 ft

FHWA-TS-84-204: U.S.G.S Water Supply Paper 1849


Guide for Selecting Manning's (Available online, link found in
Roughness Coefficients HEC-RAS help menu)
for Natural Channels and Flood
Plains

3 – Hydraulic Analysis
HEC-RAS Software
HEC-RAS Software – US Army Corps of Engineers
(Hydraulic Engineering Center - River Analysis System). • Software and Users Manuals are downloadable for free
from Corps of Engineers website
(www.hec.usace.army.mil)
• User inputs design flood flows, channel and structure
survey information, boundary conditions
• HEC-RAS uses the Standard Step method to compute
steady flow water surface profiles
• HEC-RAS is capable of modeling subcritical, supercritical,
and mixed flow

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Standard Step Method Standard Step Method
• Also known as the “Step Backwater Method”
• Uses the Energy Equation, Momentum and Manning’s
Equation to evaluate points along the water surface
profile.

Basic Assumptions
p
1. Steady flow
2. Flow type constant between sections
3. Normal depths considered vertical depths
4. The water level across a channel cross section is
uniform
5. Sediment and air entrainment are negligible

Cross Section Geometry Cross Section Layout

Bridge and Culvert Geometry


Bridge Cross Section

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HEC-RAS Output HEC-RAS Output

HEC-RAS Output HEC-RAS Output

HEC-RAS Output
Allowable Backwater
• In general, the bridge should be designed to clear the
design frequency flood
• Meet NFIP (National Flood Insurance Program)
requirements
• Meet Conservancy District requirements
• Limited
Li i d to 1-foot
1f raise
i ini 100-year
100 b k
backwater if outside
id
of NFIP jurisdiction
• Backwater should not be allowed to flood
“Unreasonably large areas of usable land”
• Backwater should not be increased in urban areas

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Review
ƒ What equations are used to determine
design discharges for bridge openings?
ƒ How wide should hydraulic cross sections be?
Any Questions ƒ What software is used for Bridge Hydraulics?
ƒ What hydraulic design criteria should be used
for bridge design?

Hydrology & Hydraulics


for
Bridge Design
(Part II)

Objectives for this presentation:

1. NATIONAL FLOOD INSURANCE PROGRAM – 30 min


2. SCOUR ANALYSIS & CHANNEL PROTECTION – 30 min
3. NYSDOT SUBMITTAL REQUIREMENTS – 30 min

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