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qxd 6/8/06 3:28 PM Page 46

46 Chapter 2 Kinematics of Particles

Sample Problem 2/5

The curvilinear motion of a particle is defined by vx  50  16t and y 


100  4t2, where vx is in meters per second, y is in meters, and t is in seconds.
It is also known that x  0 when t  0. Plot the path of the particle and deter-
mine its velocity and acceleration when the position y  0 is reached.

t=0
100
1 2
Solution. The x-coordinate is obtained by integrating the expression for vx,
80
and the x-component of the acceleration is obtained by differentiating vx. Thus,
3

 dx   v dt   (50  16t) dt


x t 60

y, m
x dx  x  50t  8t2 m
0 0
40
4
d
[ax  v̇ x] ax  (50  16t) ax  16 m/s2 20
dt
t=5s
The y-components of velocity and acceleration are 0
0 20 40 A 60 80
x, m
d
[vy  ẏ] vy  (100  4t2) vy  8t m/s
dt
Path Path
d
[ay  v̇ y] ay  (8t) ay  8 m/s2
dt

We now calculate corresponding values of x and y for various values of t and vx = –30 m/s ax = –16 m/s 2
plot x against y to obtain the path as shown. – A – A
θ = 53.1°
When y  0, 0  100  4t2, so t  5 s. For this value of the time, we have
a y = –8 m/s 2
vx  50  16(5)  30 m/s a = 17.89 m/s 2

vy  8(5)  40 m/s vy = –40 m/s


v = 50 m/s
v  (30)2  (40)2  50 m/s

a  (16)2  (8)2  17.89 m/s2


Helpful Hint
The velocity and acceleration components and their resultants are shown on the We observe that the velocity vector lies
separate diagrams for point A, where y  0. Thus, for this condition we may along the tangent to the path as it
write should, but that the acceleration vector
is not tangent to the path. Note espe-
v  30i  40j m/s Ans. cially that the acceleration vector has a
component that points toward the in-
a  16i  8j m/s2 Ans.
side of the curved path. We concluded
from our diagram in Fig. 2/5 that it is
impossible for the acceleration to have a
component that points toward the out-
side of the curve.
c02.qxd 6/8/06 3:29 PM Page 58

58 Chapter 2 Kinematics of Particles

Sample Problem 2/7 C


60 m
60 m
To anticipate the dip and hump in the road, the driver of a car applies her
brakes to produce a uniform deceleration. Her speed is 100 km/h at the bottom A of B 150 m
A
the dip and 50 km/h at the top C of the hump, which is 120 m along the road from
A. If the passengers experience a total acceleration of 3 m/s2 at A and if the radius of
curvature of the hump at C is 150 m, calculate (a) the radius of curvature  at A, (b)
the acceleration at the inflection point B, and (c) the total acceleration at C.

Helpful Hint
Solution. The dimensions of the car are small compared with those of the
 path, so we will treat the car as a particle. The velocities are  Actually, the radius of curvature to
the road differs by about 1 m from

vA  100
km
h  1h
3600 s 
1000
m
km 27.8 m/s that to the path followed by the cen-
ter of mass of the passengers, but we
1000 have neglected this relatively small
vC  50  13.89 m/s difference.
3600

We find the constant deceleration along the path from

 v dv   a ds   ds
vC s +n
t v dv  at
vA 0
a = 3 m/s2
an = 1.785 m/s2
1 (13.89)2  (27.8)2
at  (vC2  vA2)   2.41 m/s2 A
2s 2(120) +t
a t = –2.41 m/s 2

(a) Condition at A. With the total acceleration given and at determined, we


can easily compute an and hence  from
B +t
[a2  an2  at2] an2  32  (2.41)2  3.19 an  1.785 m/s2

[an  v2/]   v2/an  (27.8)2/1.785  432 m Ans. a = a t = –2.41 m/s 2

(b) Condition at B. Since the radius of curvature is infinite at the inflection a t = –2.41 m/s2 C
point, an  0 and +t

a  at  2.41 m/s2 Ans. an = 1.286 m/s 2


an = 2.73 m/s2

+n
(c) Condition at C. The normal acceleration becomes

[an  v2/] an  (13.89)2/150  1.286 m/s2

With unit vectors en and et in the n- and t-directions, the acceleration may be
written

a  1.286en  2.41et m/s2

where the magnitude of a is

[a  an2  at2] a  (1.286)2  (2.41)2  2.73 m/s2 Ans.

The acceleration vectors representing the conditions at each of the three


points are shown for clarification.
c02.qxd 6/8/06 3:29 PM Page 59

Article 2/5 Normal and Tangential Coordinates (n-t) 59

Sample Problem 2/8


G 20 ft /sec 2
A certain rocket maintains a horizontal attitude of its axis during the pow-
Horiz. 15° v = 12,000 mi/hr
ered phase of its flight at high altitude. The thrust imparts a horizontal compo-
nent of acceleration of 20 ft/sec2, and the downward acceleration component is t
n
the acceleration due to gravity at that altitude, which is g  30 ft/sec2. At the in-
stant represented, the velocity of the mass center G of the rocket along the 15 g = 30 ft /sec 2
direction of its trajectory is 12,000 mi/hr. For this position determine (a) the ra- ρ
dius of curvature of the flight trajectory, (b) the rate at which the speed v is in-
creasing, (c) the angular rate ˙ of the radial line from G to the center of
C
curvature C, and (d) the vector expression for the total acceleration a of the
rocket.

Solution. We observe that the radius of curvature appears in the expression


for the normal component of acceleration, so we use n- and t-coordinates to de-
Helpful Hints
scribe the motion of G. The n- and t-components of the total acceleration are ob-
 tained by resolving the given horizontal and vertical accelerations into their n-  Alternatively, we could find the re-
and t-components and then combining. From the figure we get sultant acceleration and then re-
solve it into n- and t-components.
an  30 cos 15  20 sin 15  23.8 ft/sec2

at  30 sin 15  20 cos 15  27.1 ft/sec2

(a) We may now compute the radius of curvature from


2
v2 [(12,000)(44/30)]
 [an  v2/] a   13.01(106) ft Ans.  To convert from mi/hr to ft/sec, multi-
n 23.8
5280 ft/mi 44 ft/sec
ply by  which
3600 sec/hr 30 mi/hr
is easily remembered, as 30 mi/hr is
(b) The rate at which v is increasing is simply the t-component of acceleration. the same as 44 ft/sec.

[v̇  at] v̇  27.1 ft/sec2 Ans.

˙ of line GC depends on v and  and is given by


(c) The angular rate
ax = 20 ft /sec 2
˙]
[v   ˙  v/  12,000(44/30)  13.53(104) rad/sec
Ans. 15° a = v·
x
13.01(106) t
et
v2
an = —–
ρ
(d) With unit vectors en and et for the n- and t-directions, respectively, the total
acceleration becomes en a
g = 30 ft /sec 2
a  23.8en  27.1et ft/sec2 Ans.
c02.qxd 6/8/06 3:29 PM Page 71

Article 2/6 P o l a r C o o r d i n a t e s ( r - ) 71

Sample Problem 2/9


A
Rotation of the radially slotted arm is governed by   0.2t  0.02t3, where r
 is in radians and t is in seconds. Simultaneously, the power screw in the arm
B θ
engages the slider B and controls its distance from O according to r  0.2 
O
0.04t2, where r is in meters and t is in seconds. Calculate the magnitudes of the
velocity and acceleration of the slider for the instant when t  3 s.

Solution. The coordinates and their time derivatives which appear in the ex-
v = 0.479 m /s
 pressions for velocity and acceleration in polar coordinates are obtained first and
evaluated for t  3 s.
v r = 0.24 m /s
r  0.2  0.04t2 r3  0.2  0.04(32)  0.56 m
v θ = 0.414 m /s
B
ṙ  0.08t ṙ 3  0.08(3) 0.24 m/s

r̈  0.08 r̈ 3  0.08 m/s2


r = 0.56 m
  0.2t  0.02t3 3  0.2(3)  0.02(33)  1.14 rad

or 3  1.14(180/)  65.3
θ = 65.3°
˙  0.2  0.06t2 ˙3  0.2  0.06(32)  0.74 rad/s O

¨  0.12t ¨3  0.12(3)  0.36 rad/s2


aθ = 0.557 m /s 2
The velocity components are obtained from Eq. 2/13 and for t  3 s are

[vr  ṙ] vr  0.24 m/s B

[v  r ˙] v  0.56(0.74)  0.414 m/s a = 0.601 m /s 2 ar = –0.227 m /s 2

[v  vr2  v2] v  (0.24)2  (0.414)2  0.479 m/s Ans.

The velocity and its components are shown for the specified position of the arm.
The acceleration components are obtained from Eq. 2/14 and for t  3 s are θ = 65.3°
O
[ar  r̈  r ˙2] ar  0.08  0.56(0.74)2  0.227 m/s2

[a  r ¨  2ṙ ˙ ] a  0.56(0.36)  2(0.24)(0.74)  0.557 m/s2 1

[a  ar2  a2] a  (0.227)2  (0.557)2  0.601 m/s2 Ans. t=3s

The acceleration and its components are also shown for the 65.3 po- 0.5
sition of the arm. r3
r3 = 0.56 m
Plotted in the final figure is the path of the slider B over the time y, m
θ 3 = 65.3° θ3
interval 0  t  5 s. This plot is generated by varying t in the given ex-
pressions for r and . Conversion from polar to rectangular coordinates 0
is given by
t=0
x  r cos  y  r sin  t=5s
– 0.5
–1.5 –1 – 0.5 0 0.5
Helpful Hint x, m

 We see that this problem is an example of constrained motion where the cen-
ter B of the slider is mechanically constrained by the rotation of the slotted
arm and by engagement with the turning screw.
c02.qxd 6/8/06 3:29 PM Page 72

72 Chapter 2 Kinematics of Particles

Sample Problem 2/10 +r

A tracking radar lies in the vertical plane of the path of a rocket which is
coasting in unpowered flight above the atmosphere. For the instant when  
30, the tracking data give r  25(104) ft, ṙ  4000 ft/sec, and ˙  0.80 deg/sec.
The acceleration of the rocket is due only to gravitational attraction and for its +θ
particular altitude is 31.4 ft/sec2 vertically down. For these conditions determine
the velocity v of the rocket and the values of r̈ and ¨.
r
θ

Solution. The components of velocity from Eq. 2/13 are

[vr  ṙ] vr  4000 ft/sec

 [v  r ˙] v  25(104)(0.80) 180



  3490 ft/sec v r = 4000 ft /sec
[v  vr  v ]
2 2
v  (4000)  (3490)  5310 ft/sec
2 2
Ans.
v = 5310 ft /sec
Since the total acceleration of the rocket is g  31.4 ft/sec2 down, we can
easily find its r- and -components for the given position. As shown in the figure,
they are
vθ = 3490 ft /sec

 ar  31.4 cos 30  27.2 ft/sec2

a  31.4 sin 30  15.70 ft/sec2 θ = 30°

We now equate these values to the polar-coordinate expressions for ar and a


which contain the unknowns r̈ and ¨. Thus, from Eq. 2/14
aθ = 15.70 ft /sec2
 

2
 [ar  r̈  r ˙2] 27.2  r̈  25(104) 0.80
180
ar = –27.2 ft /sec2
r̈  21.5 ft/sec2 Ans.
θ = 30°
[a  r ¨  2ṙ ˙ ] 15.70  25(104) ¨  2(4000) 0.80  
180  a = g = 31.4 ft /sec2

¨  3.84(104) rad/sec2 Ans.

Helpful Hints
 We observe that the angle  in polar
coordinates need not always be taken
positive in a counterclockwise sense.
 Note that the r-component of accel-
eration is in the negative r-direction,
so it carries a minus sign.
 We must be careful to convert ˙ from
deg/sec to rad/sec.
c02.qxd 6/8/06 3:29 PM Page 93

Article 2/8 Relative Motion (Translating Axes) 93

Sample Problem 2/13

Passengers in the jet transport A flying east at a speed of 800 km/h observe
a second jet plane B that passes under the transport in horizontal flight. Al-
though the nose of B is pointed in the 45 northeast direction, plane B appears to
the passengers in A to be moving away from the transport at the 60 angle as 60°
shown. Determine the true velocity of B. B

y
Solution. The moving reference axes x-y are attached to A, from which the rel-
ative observations are made. We write, therefore,

 vB  vA  vB/A A
45°
x
Next we identify the knowns and unknowns. The velocity vA is given in both mag-
nitude and direction. The 60 direction of vB/A, the velocity which B appears to
 have to the moving observers in A, is known, and the true velocity of B is in the
45 direction in which it is heading. The two remaining unknowns are the magni-
 tudes of vB and vB/A. We may solve the vector equation in any one of three ways.
Helpful Hints
 We treat each airplane as a particle.
(I) Graphical. We start the vector sum at some point P by drawing vA to a
 We assume no side slip due to cross
convenient scale and then construct a line through the tip of vA with the known
wind.
direction of vB/A. The known direction of vB is then drawn through P, and the in-
tersection C yields the unique solution enabling us to complete the vector trian-  Students should become familiar
gle and scale off the unknown magnitudes, which are found to be with all three solutions.

vB/A  586 km/h and vB  717 km/h Ans.

Dir. of vB/A
(II) Trigonometric. A sketch of the vector triangle is made to reveal the
trigonometry, which gives 60°
P
vB vA vA = 800 km/h
sin 60
  vB  800  717 km/h Ans.
sin 60 sin 75 sin 75
C
Dir. of vB
(III) Vector Algebra. Using unit vectors i and j, we express the velocities in
vector form as 45° 60°
P
vA
vA  800i km/h vB  (vB cos 45)i  (vB sin 45)j

vB/A  (vB/A cos 60)(i)  (vB/A sin 60)j


vB 75°
vB/A
Substituting these relations into the relative-velocity equation and solving sepa-
rately for the i and j terms give 45° 60°
(i-terms) vB cos 45  800  vB/A cos 60 vA

(j-terms) vB sin 45  vB/A sin 60


 We must be prepared to recognize
 Solving simultaneously yields the unknown velocity magnitudes the appropriate trigonometric rela-
tion, which here is the law of sines.
vB/A  586 km/h and vB  717 km/h Ans.
 We can see that the graphical or
It is worth noting the solution of this problem from the viewpoint of an observer trigonometric solution is shorter
in B. With reference axes attached to B, we would write vA  vB  vA/B. The ap- than the vector algebra solution in
parent velocity of A as observed by B is then vA/B, which is the negative of vB/A. this particular problem.
c02.qxd 6/8/06 3:29 PM Page 94

94 Chapter 2 Kinematics of Particles

Sample Problem 2/14


y

Car A is accelerating in the direction of its motion at the rate of 3 ft/sec2.


Car B is rounding a curve of 440-ft radius at a constant speed of 30 mi/hr. Deter- x
mine the velocity and acceleration which car B appears to have to an observer in A
car A if car A has reached a speed of 45 mi/hr for the positions represented.
30°

440′
n
Solution. We choose nonrotating reference axes attached to car A since the
motion of B with respect to A is desired.
B

Velocity. The relative-velocity equation is


vA = 66 ft /sec
vB  vA  vB/A θ 60°

and the velocities of A and B for the position considered have the magnitudes
v B/A v B = 44 ft/sec

5280 44 44
vA  45  45  66 ft/sec vB  30  44 ft/sec
602 30 30

The triangle of velocity vectors is drawn in the sequence required by the equa-
tion, and application of the law of cosines and the law of sines gives aB = 4.4 ft /sec2
a B/A
 vB/A  58.2 ft/sec   40.9 Ans. β 30°
aA = 3 ft /sec2

Acceleration. The relative-acceleration equation is


Helpful Hints
aB  aA  aB/A  Alternatively, we could use either
a graphical or a vector algebraic
The acceleration of A is given, and the acceleration of B is normal to the curve in solution.
the n-direction and has the magnitude
 Be careful to choose between the two
values 69.8 and 180  69.8  110.2.
[an  v /]
2
aB  (44) /440  4.4 ft/sec
2 2

Suggestion: To gain familiarity with the


The triangle of acceleration vectors is drawn in the sequence required by the
manipulation of vector equations, it is
equation as illustrated. Solving for the x- and y-components of aB/A gives us
suggested that the student rewrite the
relative-motion equations in the form
(aB/A)x  4.4 cos 30  3  0.810 ft/sec2
vB/A  vB  vA and aB/A  aB  aA and
(aB/A)y  4.4 sin 30  2.2 ft/sec2 redraw the vector polygons to conform
with these alternative relations.
from which aB/A  (0.810)2  (2.2)2  2.34 ft/sec2 Ans.
Caution: So far we are only prepared to
The direction of aB/A may be specified by the angle which, by the law of sines, handle motion relative to nonrotating
becomes axes. If we had attached the reference
axes rigidly to car B, they would rotate

2.34 0.5  110.2


4.4 2.34 4.4 with the car, and we would find that the
   sin1 Ans. velocity and acceleration terms relative
sin sin 30
to the rotating axes are not the negative
of those measured from the nonrotating
axes moving with A. Rotating axes are
treated in Art. 5/7.