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Heat Transfer Operations Processing Factors

Concentration in the liquid


• Liquid feed to an evaporator is relative dilute, so its
viscosity is low,
low similar to that of water
water, and relatively
E
Evaporation
ti high heat-transfer coefficient are obtained.
• As evaporation proceeds, the solution may become
very concentrated and quite viscous, causing the
Asst.Prof.Dr.Sirirat Wacharawichanant heat-transfer coefficient to drop markedly.
• Adequate circulation and/or turbulent must be
present to keep the coefficient from becoming too
Department of Chemical Engineering low.
Silpakorn University

Processing Factors (continue) Processing Factor (continue)

Solubility • The solubility of the


• As solutions are heated and the concentration of the salt increases with
dilute or salt increases,
increases the solubility limit of the temperature. When a
material in solution may be exceeded and crystals hot, concentrated
solution from an
may form. . evaporator is cooled
• This may limit the maximum concentration in solution to room temperature,
which can be obtained by evaporation. crystallization may
occur.

Figure 8.1-1 : Solubility curves of some typical salts in water.

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Processing Factors (continue) Processing Factors (continue)

Temperature sensitivity of materials Foaming or frothing


• Many products, especially food and other biological • In some cases materials composed of caustic solutions,
materials may be temperature-sensitive
materials, temperature sensitive and degrade food solutions such as skim milk,
milk and some fatty-acid
fatty acid
at higher temperatures or after prolonged heating. solutions form or froth during boiling.
• Such products include pharmaceutical products; food • This form accompanies the vapor coming out of the
products such as milk, orange juice, and vegetable evaporator and entrainment losses occur.
extracts; and fine organic chemicals.
• The amount of degradation is a function of the
temperature and the length of time.

Processing Factors (continue) Processing Factors (continue)

Pressure and temperature Pressure and temperature


• The boiling point of the solution is related to the • This phenomenon is called boiling-point rise or
pressure of the system.
system The higher the operating elevation.
l ti
pressure of the evaporator, the higher the temperature • To keep the temperatures low in heat-sensitive
at boiling. materials, it is often necessary to operate under 1 atm
• As the concentration of the dissolved material in pressure, that is, under vacuum.
solution increases byy evaporation,
p the temperature
p of
boiling may rise.

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Processing Factors (continue) General Types of Evaporators
Scale deposition and materials of construction • In evaporation, heat is added to a solution to
• Some solutions deposit solid materials called scale on vaporize the solvent, which is usually water.
the heating surfaces.
surfaces These could be formed by • The heat is generally provided by the condensation of
decomposition products or by decreases in solubility. a vapor such as stream on one side of a metal
• The result is that the overall heat-transfer coefficient surfaces, with the evaporating liquid on the other side.
decreases, and the evaporator must eventually be
cleaned. • The type of equipment used depends primarily on the
configuration
fi ti off theth heat-transfer
h t t f surface f andd on the
th
• The materials used in construction of the evaporator means employed to provide agitation or circulation of
should be chosen to minimize corrosion. the liquid.

General Types of Evaporators (continue) General Types of Evaporators (continue)

Open kettle or pan Horizontal-tube natural circulation evaporator


• The simplest evaporator consists of an open pan or • The horizontal bundle of heating tubes
kettle in which the liquid is boiled.
boiled is similar to the bundle of tubes in a
• The heat is supplied condensation of stream in a jacker heat exchanger.
or in coil immersed in the liquid. • The steam enters the tube, where it
condenses.
• In some cases the kettle is direct-fired. These • The steam condensate leaves at the other
evaporators are in expensive and simple to operate, end of the tubes.
but the heat economy is poor. • The boiling liquid solution covers the
• In some cases, paddles or scrapers are used for Figure 8.2-1(a) tubes.
agitation. horizontal-tube type.

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General Types of Evaporators (continue) General Types of Evaporators (continue)

Horizontal-tube natural circulation evaporator Horizontal-tube natural circulation evaporator


• The vapor leaves the liquid surface, • Since liquid circulation is poor, they are
often goes through some de de-entraining
entraining unsuitable for viscous liquids.
device such as a baffle to prevent • In almost all cases, this evaporator and
carryover of liquid droplets, and leaves the types discussed below are operated
out the top. continuously, that is, the feed enters at a
• This type of evaporator is relatively constant rate and the concentrate leaves
cheap and is used for nonviscous at a constant rate.
liquids with high heat-transfer
coefficients and liquids that do not
Figure 8.2-1(a) deposit scale. Figure 8.2-1(a)
horizontal-tube type. horizontal-tube type.

General Types of Evaporators (continue) General Types of Evaporators (continue)

Vertical-type natural circulation evaporator Vertical-type natural circulation evaporator


• This evaporator, vertical rather than • This natural circulation increases the
horizontal tubes are used; the liquid is heat-transfer
heat transfer coefficient.
inside the tubes and the steam • This type of evaporator is not used with
condenses outside the tubes. viscous liquids.
• Because of boiling and decreases in • It is often called the short-tube
density, the liquid rises in the tubes by evaporator.
natural circulation
circulation, as shown in • A variation
i ti iis th
the bbasket
k t ttype, where
h
Fig. 8.2-1b, and flows downward vertical tubes are used but the heating
Figure 8.2-1(b) vertical- through a large, central open space or Figure 8.2-1(b) vertical- element is held suspended in the body
tube type. downcomer. tube type. so there is an annular open space as the
downcomer.

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General Types of Evaporators (continue) General Types of Evaporators (continue)

Vertical-type natural circulation evaporator Long-tube vertical-type evaporator


• In this way, it differs from the vertical • Since the heat-transfer coefficient on the
natural circulation evaporator, which steam side is vary high compared to that
has a central instead of annular open on the evaporating-liquid side, high
space as the downcomer. liquid velocities are desirable.
• The basket type is widely used in the • The liquid is inside the tubes. The tubes
sugar, salt, and caustic-soda industries. are 3 to 10 m long and the formation of
vapor bubbles inside the tubes causes a
pumping action, which gives quite high
Figure 8.2-1(b) vertical- liquid velocities.
Figure 8.2-1(c) long-
tube type. tube vertical type.

General Types of Evaporators (continue) General Types of Evaporators (continue)

Long-tube vertical-type evaporator Falling-film-type evaporator


• Generally, the liquid passes through the • A variation on the long-tube-type evaporator is the
tubes only once and is not recirculated. falling film evaporation,
evaporation wherein the liquid is fed to
• Contact times can be quite low in this the top of the tubes and flows down the walls as a
type. thin film.
• In some cases, as when the ratio of feed • Vapor-liquid separation usually takes place at the
to evaporation rate is low, natural bottom. This type is widely used for concentrating
recirculation
i l ti off th the product
d t th
throughh th
the heat-sensitive materials such as orange juice and other
evaporator is effected by adding a large
pipe connection between the outlet fruit juices, because the holdup time is very small (5 to
Figure 8.2-1(c) long- concentrate line and the feed line. 10 s or more) and the heat-transfer coefficients are
tube vertical type. high.

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General Types of Evaporators (continue) General Types of Evaporators (continue)

Forced-circulation-type evaporator Forced-circulation-type evaporator


• The liquid-film heat-transfer coefficient • In the forced-circulation type, the vertical
cab be increased by pumping to cause tube are usually shorter than in the long
long-
forced circulation of the liquid inside the tube type.
tubes. • Additionally, in some cases a separate
• This could be done in the long-tube and external horizontal heat exchanger is
vertical type by adding a pipe connection used. This type of evaporator is very
shown with a ppumpp between the outlet useful for viscous liquids.
liquids
concentrate line and the feed line.
Figure 8.2-1(d) forced- Figure 8.2-1(d) forced-
circulation type. circulation type.

General Types of Evaporators (continue) General Types of Evaporators (continue)

Agitated-film evaporator Agitated-film evaporator


• The main resistance to heat transfer in an evaporator • Liquid enters at the top of the tube and as it flow
is on the liquid side.
side downward it is spread out into a turbulent film by
downward,
• One way to increase turbulence in this film, and hence the vertical agitator blades.
the heat-transfer coefficient, is by actual mechanical • The concentrated solution leaves at the bottom and
agitation of this liquid film. vapor leaves through a separator and out the top.
• This is done in a modified falling-film
g evaporator
p with • This type
yp of evaporator
p is veryy useful with highly
g y
only a single, large, jacketed tube containing an viscous materials, since the heat-transfer coefficient is
internal agitator. greater than in forced-circulation evaporators.

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General Types of Evaporators (continue) General Types of Evaporators (continue)

Agitated-film evaporator Open-pan solar evaporator


• It is used with heat-sensitive viscous materials such as • A very old yet still-used process is solar evaporation
rubber latex,
latex gelatin,
gelatin antibiotics,
antibiotics and fruit juices.
juices in open pans.
pans
• However, it has a high cost and small capacity. • Saltwater is put in shallow open pans or through and
allowed to evaporate slowly in the sun to crystallize
the salt.

Methods of Operation of Evaporators Methods of Operation of Evaporators (continue)

Single-effect evaporators Single-effect evaporators


• The feed enters at TF K and saturated steam at Ts enters the • The temperature of the vapor is also T1, since it is in
heat-exchanger
heat exchanger section. Condensed steam leaves as equilibrium with the boiling solution.
solution
condensate or drips. • The pressure is P1, which is the vapor pressure of the
• Since the solution in the
evaporator is assumed to be solution at T1.
completely mixed, the
concentrated product and • If the solution to be evaporated is assumed to be dilute
the
h solution
l i in i the
h and like water,
water the 1 kg of steam condensing will
evaporator have the same evaporate approximately 1 kg of vapor.
composition and • This will hold if the feed entering has a temperature TF
Figure 8.2-2 Simplified diagram of temperature T1, which is the
single-effect evaporator. near the boiling point.
boiling of the solution.

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Methods of Operation of Evaporators (continue) Methods of Operation of Evaporators
Single-effect evaporators Forward-feed multiple-effect evaporators
• The concept of an overall heat-transfer coefficient is • If the feed to the first effect is near the boiling point at
used in the calculation of the rate of heat transfer in the pressure in the first effect,
effect 1 kg of steam will
an evaporator. The general equation can be written evaporate almost 1 kg of water.
q = UAT = UA(Ts-T1) (8.2-1) • The first effect operates at a temperature that is high
enough that the evaporated water serves as the heating
q = the rate of heat transfer in W (btu/h) medium to the second effect.
heat transfer coefficient in W/hft2FF
U = the overall heat-transfer
A = the heat-transfer area m2 (ft2) • Here, again, almost another kg of water is evaporated,
Ts = the temperature of the condensing steam in K (F) which can then be used as the heating medium to the
T1 = the boiling point of the liquid in K (F) third effect.

Methods of Operation of Evaporators (continue) Methods of Operation of Evaporators (continue)

Forward-feed multiple-effect evaporators Forward-feed multiple-effect evaporators


• As a very rough approximation, almost 3 kg of water • Figure 8.2-3, the fresh feed is added to the first effect
will be evaporated for 1 kg of steam in a three-effect
three effect and flows to the next in the same direction as the
evaporator. vapor flow.
• Hence, the steam economy, which is kg vapor • This method of operation is used when the feed is hot
evaporated/kg steam used, is increased. or when the final concentrated product might be
• This also holds approximately for more than three damaged at high temperatures.
effects. However, the increased steam economy of a • The boiling temperatures decrease from effect to effect.
multiple-effect evaporator is gained at the expense of This means that if the first effect is at P1=1 atm abs
the original first cost of these evaporators. pressure, the last effect will be under vacuum at
pressure P3.

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Methods of Operation of Evaporators (continue) Methods of Operation of Evaporators (continue)

Forward-feed multiple-effect evaporators Forward-feed multiple-effect evaporators


• The concept of an overall heat-transfer coefficient is
used in the calculation of the rate of heat transfer in
an evaporator. The general equation can be written

Figure 8.2-3 Simplified diagram of forward-feed triple-effect evaporator.


Figure 8.2-3 Simplified diagram of forward-feed triple-effect evaporator.

Methods of Operation of Evaporators Methods of Operation of Evaporators (continue)

Backward-feed multiple-effect evaporators Backward-feed multiple-effect evaporators


• The fresh feed enters the last and coldest effect and • This method of reverse feed is advantageous when the
continues on until the concentrated pproduct leaves fresh feed is cold,
cold since a smaller amount of liquid
the first effect. must be heated to the higher temperatures in the
second and first effects.
• However, liquid pumps must be used in each effect,
since the flow is from low to high pressure.
• This reverse-feed method is also used when the
concentrated product is highly viscous. The high
temperatures in the early effects reduce the viscosity
Figure 8.2-4 Simplified diagram of backward-feed triple-effect evaporator. and give reasonable heat-transfer coefficients.

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Methods of Operation of Evaporators (continue) Calculation Methods for Single-Effect Evaporators
Parallel-feed multiple-effect evaporators Heat and Material Balances for Evaporators
• Parallel feed in multiple-effect evaporators involves • The basic equation for solving for the capacity of a
the adding of fresh feed and withdrawal of single effect evaporator is Eq.(8.2.1),
single-effect Eq (8 2 1) which can be
concentrated product from each effect. written as
• The vapor from each effect is still used to heat the next q = UAT (8.4-1)
effect. This method of operation is mainly used when
the feed is almost saturated and solid crystals
y are the Where T K(F) is the difference in temperature
product, as in the evaporation of brine to make salt. between the condensing steam and the boiling liquid
in the evaporator.

Calculation Methods for Single-Effect Evaporators Calculation Methods for Single-Effect Evaporators
(continue) (continue)
Heat and Material Balances for Evaporators Heat and Material Balances for Evaporators
• In order to solve Eq.(8.4-1) the values of q in W (btu/h) must • The steam gives off only its latent heat, , where
be determined by making a heat and material balance on the
evaporator shown in Figure 8.4-1.  = Hs-hs (8.4-2)
• Since the vapor V is in equilibrium with the liquid L,
the temperature of vapor and liquid are the same.
Also, the pressure P1 is the saturation vapor pressure
of the liquid of composition xL at its boiling point T1.
(This assume no boiling-point rise)

Figure 8.4-1 Heat and mass balance for single-effect evaporator.

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Calculation Methods for Single-Effect Evaporators Calculation Methods for Single-Effect Evaporators
(continue) (continue)
Heat and Material Balances for Evaporators Heat and Material Balances for Evaporators
• For the material balance, since we are at steady state, • For the heat balance, since the total heat entering =
the rate of mass in = rate of mass out.
out Then,
Then for a total heat leaving,
leaving heat of feed + heat of steam
total balance, =heat in concentrated liquid + heat in
F=L+V (8.4-3) vapor + heat in condensed steam (8.4-5)
• For a balance on the solute (solids) alone, • This assumes no heat lost byy radiation or convection.
FxF = LxL (8.4-4) Substituting into Eq.(8.4-5)
FhF + SHs = LhL + VHV + Shs (8.4-6)

Calculation Methods for Single-Effect Evaporators Boiling-Point Rise of Solutions


(continue)
Heat and Material Balances for Evaporators • In most cases, the thermal properties of the solution
• Substituting Eq.(8.4-2) into Eq.(8.4-6) being evaporated may differ considerably from those
of water.
water
FhF + S = LhL + VHV (8.4-7) • The concentrations of the solutions are high enough
• The heat q transferred in the evaporator is then that heat capacity and boiling point are quite different
from those for water.
( s - hs ) = S
q = S(H (8.4-8) • For strongg solutions of dissolved solutes the boiling-
g
point rise due to the solutions in the solution usually
• In Eq.(8.4-7) the latent heat  of steam at the cannot be applied.
saturation temperature Ts can be obtained from the
steam tables in Appendix A.2.

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Boiling-Point Rise of Solutions (continue) Boiling-Point Rise of Solutions (continue)

• However, a useful empirical law known as Dühring’s


rule can be applied.
• According to this rule
rule, a straight line is obtained if the
boiling point of a solution in C or F is plotted
against the boiling point of pure water at the same
pressure for a given concentration at different
pressure. A different straight line is obtained for each
given concentration.

Figure 8.4-2 : Dühring’s lines for aqueous solutions of sodium hydroxide.

Enthalpy-Concentration Charts of Solutions Enthalpy-Concentration Charts of Solutions (continue)


• If the heat of solution of the aqueous solution being
concentrated in the evaporator is large, neglecting it
could cause errors in the heat balances.
balances
• This heat-of-solution phenomena can be explained as
follows. If pellets of NaOH are dissolved in a given
amount of water, it is found that a considerable
temperature rise occur; that is, called heat of solution.
• The amount of heat evolved depends on the type of
substance and the amount of water used. Also, if a
strong solution of NaOH is diluted to a lower
concentration, heat is liberated. Figure 8.4-3 : Enthalpy-concentration chart for the system NaOH-water.

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Calculation Methods for Multiple-Effect Evaporators Calculation Methods for Multiple-Effect Evaporators
(continue)
Temperature Drops and Capacity of Multiple-Effect Temperature Drops and Capacity of Multiple-Effect
Evaporators Evaporators
• Temperature drops in multiple-effect evaporators.
evaporators The • Assuming that the solutions have no boiling-point rise
amount of heat transferred per hour in the first effect and no heat of solution and neglecting the sensible
of a triple-effect evaporator with forward feed as heat necessary to heat the feed to the boiling point,
Figure 8.2-3 will be approximately all the latent heat of the condensing
steam appears as lalent heat in the vapor.
q1 = U1A1T1 (8 5-1)
(8.5-1)
• This vapor then condense in the second effect, giving
• Where T1 is the difference between the condensing up approximately the same amount of heat:
steam and the boiling point of the liquid, Ts - T1.
q2 = U2A2T2 (8.5-2)

Calculation Methods for Multiple-Effect Evaporators Calculation Methods for Multiple-Effect Evaporators
(continue) (continue)
Temperature Drops and Capacity of Multiple-Effect Temperature Drops and Capacity of Multiple-Effect
Evaporators Evaporators
• This same reasoning holds for q3. Since q1 = q2 = q3, Hence the temperature drops T in a multiple-effect
• Hence,
then, approximately, evaporator are approximately inversely proportional
U1A1T1 = U2A2T2 = U3A3T3 (8.5-3) to the values of U, Calling  T as follows for no
boiling-point rise,
• In commercial ppractice the areas in all effects are  T = T1 + T2 + T3= Ts - T3 (8.5-5)
usually equal and
q/A = U1T1 = U2T2 = U3T3 (8.5-4) T1 =  T 1/U1 (8.5-6)
1/U1 + 1/U2 + 1/U3

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Calculation Methods for Multiple-Effect Evaporators Calculation Methods for Multiple-Effect Evaporators
Capacity of multiple-effect evaporators Capacity of multiple-effect evaporators
• A rough estimate of the capacity of a three-effect • If we make the assumptions that the value of U is the
evaporator
p compared
p to a single-effect
g can be same in each effect and that the values of A are equal,
equal
obtained by adding the value of q for each evaporator: Eq.(8.5-7) becomes
q = q1+q2+q3=U1A1T1+U2A2T2+U3A3T3 q = UA(T1 + T2 + T3) = UA T (8.5-8)
(8.5-7) • Where T =  T = T1+T2+T3 = Ts - T3
• If a single-effect evaporator is used with the same area
A, the same value of U, and the same total
temperature drop T, then
q = UA T (8.5-9)

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