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‫ﺘﺤ‬

‫ﻠﻴﺖ اﻻﻣ‬
To The Point
Final Revision
‫ﻮﻛ‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﻧﺎت‬

‫ﻗﺮﻳﺒًﺎ‬
‫ﺑ‬

en
3
‫ﺑﻨ‬
Op

B o o k ‫ﺎم‬
‫ﻈ‬
‫الصف الثالث الثانوى‬
‫‪To the Point‬‬
‫‪Final Revision‬‬

‫‪By‬‬
‫‪Mohamed Abdel Aal‬‬ ‫‪Emad Fawzy‬‬ ‫‪Yacoub Moawad‬‬

‫اﺠﺎمﺎع بﺎﺔربﺋ الﺎﺳﻂﻃ الﺎفاﺲﻂى ﻄع اﻓضﻌاء‪.‬‬


‫اﺠﺎمﺎع بﺎﺔربﺋ الﺎﺳﻂﻃ الﺎفاﺲﻂى ﻄع اﻓضﻌاء‪.‬‬

‫ﺗﺎﺑﻊ ﻣﺴﺘﻮى ﻃﻼﺑﻚ‬ ‫ﺗﺎﺑﻊ ﻣﺴﺘﻮى أوﻻدك‬ ‫اﺧﺘﺒﺎرات ﺗﻔﺎﻋﻠﻴﺔ‬


‫ﻃﻼﺑﻚ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﻮى‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼل‬ ‫ﺗﺎﺑﻊ‬
‫اﻟﺪراﺳﻰ‬ ‫أوﻻدك‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﻮى‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼل‬ ‫اﻟﺪراﺳﻰ‬ ‫ﺗﺎﺑﻊ‬ ‫ﺗﻔﺎﻋﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﺧﺘﺒﺎرات‬
‫اﻟﺪروس‬ ‫ﺷﺮح‬
‫اﻟﺪراﺳﻰ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼل‬
‫وإﺣﺼﺎﺋﻴﺎت‪.‬‬ ‫ﺗﻘﺎرﻳﺮ‬ ‫اﻟﺪراﺳﻰ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼل‬
‫وإﺣﺼﺎﺋﻴﺎت‪.‬‬ ‫ﺗﻘﺎرﻳﺮ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﺎرﻳﺮاﻟﺪروس‬
‫وإﺣﺼﺎﺋﻴﺎت‬ ‫ﺷﺮح‬
‫وإﺣﺼﺎﺋﻴﺎت‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﻣﻦ‬‫ﺗﻘﺎرﻳﺮ‬
‫ﻛﻮن‬ ‫وإﺣﺼﺎﺋﻴﺎت‪.‬‬ ‫ﺗﻘﺎرﻳﺮ ّ‬
‫ﺗﻌﺮف أﻫﻢ‬ ‫وإﺣﺼﺎﺋﻴﺎت‬ ‫ﺗﻘﺎرﻳﺮ‬
‫ﻫﺪاﻳﺎ وﻣﻜﺎﻓﺂت‬
‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ‬
‫وﺗﻮاﺻﻞ‬ ‫ﻛﻮن‬
‫ﻃﻼﺑﻚ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﺠﺪاتأﻫﻢ‬
‫اﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺮف‬
‫ّ‬ ‫وﻣﻜﺎﻓﺂت‬
‫ﻫﺪاﻳﺎا‹ﺿﻮاء‬
‫اﺳﺄل‬
‫وﺗﻮاﺻﻞ‬ ‫ﻃﻼﺑﻚ‬
‫ﻣﻌﻬﻢ‪.‬‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﺠﺪات‬
‫اﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺪىا‹ﺿﻮاء‬
‫ا‹ﺻﺪﻗﺎء‬ ‫اﺳﺄل‬
‫ﻣﻌﻬﻢ‪.‬‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺪى ا‹ﺻﺪﻗﺎء‬

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Contents

2 Part 1 Revision (1) on Units (1-8)

1 Vocabulary��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 4

2 Grammar����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 17

3 Part 2 Part 1 Revision (2) on Units (9-16)

1 Vocabulary����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 47

2 Grammar����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 57

3 Additional Notes���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 80

Part 3 Part 2 Part 1 Revision (3) The Novel Revision

- The Prisoner of Zenda����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 91

Part 4 Part 3 Part 2 Part


Skills
1
1 Reading Comprehension������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 97

2 Writing�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 115

3 Translation������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 142
Part
1

Revision (1) on Units (1-8)


(Units 1-8)

Vocabulary
Key Vocabulary

(be) about to ‫يوشك أن‬ deadline (n) )‫الموعد النهائى (المحدد‬

(be) in charge of ‫مسئول عن‬ director (n) ‫مخرج‬/‫مدير‬

account (n) ‫حساب‬ disabled (adj) ‫معاق‬

aching (adj) (n) ‫ألم‬/‫مؤلم‬ discipline (n) (v) (d) ‫يهذب‬/‫انضباط‬

alive (adj) ‫على قيد الحياة‬ distance (n) ‫مسافة‬

anniversary (n) ‫يوبيل‬/‫ذكرى سنوية‬ district (n) ‫حى‬/‫منطقة‬

appreciate (v) (d) ْ‫يـُ َقدر‬ ease (v) (d) (n) ‫إراحة‬/‫يخف‬/‫يخفف‬/‫يريح‬

argue (v) (d) ‫يجادل‬ emergency (n) ‫طوارئ‬

association (n) ‫منظمة‬/‫مؤسسة‬ establish (v) (ed) ‫يرسخ‬/‫يوطد قدمه‬

attachment (n) ‫مـُر َفق‬/‫مـُلحـَق‬ fainting (n) (adj) ‫هزيل‬/‫فقدان الوعى‬/‫إغماء‬

average (n) ‫معدل‬/‫متوسط‬ fatherly (adj) ‫أبوى‬

award (v) (ed) )‫درجة جامعية‬/‫يمنح (جائزة‬ foundation (n) ‫مؤسسة‬/‫أساس‬

balance (n) (v) (d) ‫يوازن بين‬/‫توازن‬ freelance (adj) ‫مستقل‬/‫حر‬

believer (n) ‫مؤمن‬ gain (v) (ed) ‫يكتسب‬

cancer (n) ‫سرطان‬ giant (adj) (n) ‫عمالق‬

career (n) ‫حياة مهنية‬ government (n) ‫حكومة‬

cause (n) (v) (d) ‫يسبب‬/‫سبب‬ gravity (n) ‫خطورة‬/‫جاذبية‬

challenging (adj) ‫صعب التحقيق‬/‫متحـٍّد‬ honour (n) (v) (ed) ‫يتشرف‬/‫يشرف‬/‫شرف‬

client (n) ‫عميل‬ hopeful (adj) ‫مبشر‬/‫مشجع‬

confused (adj) ‫مرتبك‬ horrible (adj) ‫فظيع‬

consultant (n) ‫مستشار‬ horrified (adj) ‫مرعوب‬/‫مذعور‬

controls (n) ‫أجهزة تشغيل وتحكم‬ illness (n) ‫مرض‬

cultural (adj) ‫ثقافى‬ importance (n) ‫أهمية‬

customs (n) ‫عادات‬ impressive (adj) ‫مؤثر‬

4
Revision (1) (Units 1-8)

in vain ‫بال جدوى‬ release (v) (d) (n) ‫إطالق‬/)‫يـُطلـِق (فى الهواء‬
influence (v) (d) (n) ‫تأثير‬/‫يؤثر على‬ remove (v) (d) ‫يزيل‬
insist (v) (ed) ‫يصر‬ representative (n) ‫ممثل‬/‫مندوب‬
install (v) (ed) )‫يركب (جهاز‬ respected (adj) ‫محترم‬
interrupt (v) ‫يعترض‬/‫يقاطع‬ responsible (adj) ‫مسئول‬
invisible (adj) ‫خفى‬/‫غير مرئى‬ robin (n) ‫عصفور أبو الحناء‬
lack (n) (v) (ed) ‫ينقصه‬/‫نقص‬ role (n) ‫دور‬
launch (v) (ed) (n) ‫إطالق‬/‫يطلق‬ routine (n) ‫روتين‬
law (n) ‫القانون‬ secretary (n) ‫سكرتير‬
layer (n) ‫طبقة‬ semicircle (n) ‫نصف دائرة‬
leak (n) (v) (ed) ‫يتسرب‬/‫تسريب‬ separate (v) (d) (adj) ‫منفصل‬/‫يفصل‬
lecture (n) (v) (d) ‫يحاضر‬/‫محاضرة‬ serious (adj) ‫خطير‬/‫جاد‬
licence (n) ‫رخصة‬ side effects (n) ‫آثار جانبية‬
limit (v) (ed) (n) ‫حد‬/‫يحدد‬ signal (n) (v) (led) ‫يرسل إشارة‬/‫إشارة‬
link (n) (v) (ed) ‫يصل‬/‫يربط‬/‫صلة‬/‫رابط‬ silence (n) (v) ‫يـُسكت‬/‫صمت‬
mast (n) )‫إذاعة‬/‫عمود (محمول‬/‫صارى‬ sociable (adj) ‫اجتماعى‬
midday (n) ‫منتصف النهار‬ solo (adj) ‫منفردا‬
ً
ministry (n) ‫وزارة‬ spin (v) ‫يدور حول محوره‬
mission (n) ‫بعثة‬/‫َمـ َهـمة‬ spoil (v) (ed) ‫يدلل‬/‫يفسد‬
moving (adj) ‫محزن‬/‫محرك للمشاعر‬ stress (n) ‫توتر‬/‫ضغط‬
nursing (n) ‫تمريض‬ stressful (adj) ‫مجهد‬
old-fashioned (adj) ‫ذو طراز قديم‬ strict (adj) ‫حازم‬/‫صارم‬
organisation (n) ‫منظمة‬ style (n) ‫أسلوب‬
physics (n) ‫الفيزياء‬ suffer (v) (ed) ‫يعانى‬
pioneers (n) ‫رواد‬ suitable (adj) ‫مناسب‬
plan (n) (v) (ned) ‫يخطط‬/‫خطة‬ take off (v) ‫يتغيب عن العمل‬
poetry (n) ‫الشعر‬ take on (v) ‫يقبل عمل‬/‫يتحمل مسئولية‬
political science (n) ‫علم السياسة‬ task (n) ‫مهمة‬
positive (adj) ‫إيجابى‬ technician (n) )‫فنى (شخص‬
pressure (n) ‫الضغط‬ threaten (v) ‫يهدد‬
process (n) ‫يعالج‬/‫يجرى عملية‬/‫عملية‬ tourism (n) ‫السياحة‬
publisher (n) ‫دار نشر‬/‫ناشر‬ weightless (adj) ‫عديم الوزن‬
radar (n) ‫جهاز رادار‬
zero-gravity (n) ‫انعدام الجاذبية‬
regular (adj) ‫منتظم‬

5
PART 1 Revision (1) (Units 1-8)

Expressions & Idioms

according to ‫طبقـًا لـ‬ give me a headache ‫يسبب لى صداعـًا‬

across the Arab world ‫عبر العالم العربى‬ give permission )‫يعطى إذنـًا (تصريحـًا‬

all over the world ‫فى كل أنحاء العالم‬ go for a walk ‫يقوم بالتمشية‬

as far as I’m concerned ‫بقدر اهتمامى‬ go on a mission ‫يذهب فى مهمة‬

ask ... for advice ‫يطلب النصيحة من‬ go on a tour ‫يذهب فى جولة‬

ask for opinion ‫يطلب رأى‬ go shopping ‫يقوم بالتسوق‬

at a height of ‫على ارتفاع‬ go wrong ‫يتعطل‬/‫يسوء‬

at a time ‫فى وقت ما‬ have a degree in ‫لديه درجة علمية فى‬

at all times ‫فى جميع األوقات‬ have a fixed routine ‫لديه روتين ثابت‬

at that time ‫فى ذلك الوقت‬ have a headache ‫يصاب بصداع‬

at the age of ‫فى سن‬ have a role in ‫لديه دور فى‬

at the end of ‫فى نهاية‬ have the honour ‫له الشرف‬

at the same time ‫فى نفس الوقت‬ in detail ‫بالتفصيل‬

born into a wealthy family ‫ولد فى أسرة ثرية‬ in fact ‫فى الواقع‬

come true ‫يصبح حقيقة‬/‫يتحقق‬ in particular ‫بشكل خاص‬

conduct a survey ‫تقييم‬/‫يجرى دراسة‬ keep fit ‫يحافظ على اللياقة‬

cool pain ‫يخفف ألمـًا‬ make a difficult decision ‫قرارا صعبـًا‬


ً ‫يتخذ‬
create (develop) a new
‫جديدا‬
ً ‫يبتكر أسلوبـًا‬ make sure ‫يتأكد‬
style
damage our health ‫يؤذى صحتنا‬ mark an event ‫يميز حدث‬

do (make) repairs ‫يقوم بإصالحات‬/‫يرمم‬ meet the deadlines ‫يلبى المواعيد النهائية‬

do a project ‫يقوم بمشروع‬ on your own ‫بمفردك‬

do space walks ‫يقوم بالسير فى الفضاء‬ over the years ‫على مر السنين‬

do weightless sports ‫يمارس رياضة انعدام الوزن‬ reach for the stars ‫تحقيق هدف صعب‬
do (carry out) an
‫يجرى تجربة على‬ stand still ‫يقف بال حراك‬
experiment on
establish him as ‫يحقق له مكانة كـ‬ take breaks ‫يأخذ فترات راحة‬

gain weight ‫يزداد فى الوزن‬ take turns ‫يتبادل األدوار‬


take up much of her ‫كبيرا من حياتها‬
ً ‫جزءا‬
ً ‫تشغل‬
give a job ‫يعطى مهمة‬
personal life ‫الشخصية‬
give advice ‫يعطى النصيحة‬ win a prize for ‫يفوز بجائزة لــ‬

give him experiences ‫تعطيه (تمنحه) الخبرات‬ work for a publisher ‫يعمل لدى ناشر‬

6
Revision (1) (Units 1-8)

Phrases & prepositions

appreciative of ‫مقدر لـ‬ lecture at ‫يحاضر فى‬

arrive in/at ‫يصل إلى‬ look after ‫يعتنى بـ‬

attached to ‫مرتبط بـ‬ look down on ‫ينظر إلى أسفل‬

available for ‫متوفر لـ‬ look forward to ‫يتطلع إلى‬

believer in ‫مؤمن بـ‬ move into ‫ينتقل إلى‬

benefit from ‫يستفيد من‬ move to ‫يتحرك إلى‬

break down ‫يتعطل‬ popular with ‫محبوب من‬

cause of ‫سبب لـ‬ release ... into ‫يطلق فى‬

compare to/with/between ‫يقارن مع‬ remind of ‫يذكر بـ‬

complain about ‫يشكو من‬ remove from ‫يزيل من‬

cure for ‫عالج لـ‬ responsible for ‫مسئول عن‬

cut into ‫يقطع إلى‬ return to ‫يعود إلى‬

depend on ‫يعتمد على‬ send to ‫يرسل إلى‬

different to/from ‫مختلف عن‬ separate from ‫يفصل عن‬

dislike about ‫يكره عن‬ similar to ‫مشابه لـ‬

dream about/of ‫يحلم بـ‬ speak to ‫يتحدث لـ‬

effect on ‫تأثير على‬ spend ... on ‫ على‬... ‫ينفق‬

expert on (in/at) ‫خبير فى‬ stay in ‫يقيم فى‬

famous for ‫مشهور بـ‬ suffer from ‫يعانى من‬

find out ‫يكتشف‬ suitable for ‫صالح لـ‬/‫مناسب لـ‬

focus on ‫يركز على‬ thank for ‫يشكر على‬

full of ‫ملىء بـ‬ train for ‫يتدرب من أجل‬

graduate in ‫يتخرج فى‬ treatment for ‫عالج لـ‬

happen to ‫يحدث لـ‬ value of ‫قيمة الـ‬

happy with ‫سعيد بـ‬ waste of ‫إهدار لـ‬/‫ضياع‬

important for/to ‫هام لـ‬ work for/with ‫مع‬/‫يعمل لدى‬

interested in ‫مهتم بـ‬ worry about ‫يقلق عن‬

learn about ‫يعرف عن‬ write about ‫يكتب عن‬

7
PART 1 Revision (1) (Units 1-8)

Language Notes

1 Make & Do

Make
.‫بناء شىء‬/‫صنع‬/‫ تستخدم للتعبير عن إنتاج‬-

make a noise ‫يحدث ضوضاء‬ make a table ‫يصنع منضدة‬

make a speech ‫يؤدى خطابـًا‬ make arrangement ‫يقوم بترتيب‬

make a mistake ‫يخطئ‬ make parts ‫يصنع أجزاء‬

make a difference ‫يحدث فرقـًا‬ make a decision ‫قرارا‬


ً ‫يتخذ‬

make money ً ‫يجني‬


‫مال‬ make a profit ‫يحقق ربحـًا‬

make a choice ‫يختار‬ make friends ‫يتخذ أصدقاء‬

make a suggestion ‫يقدم اقتراحـًا‬ make a promise ‫وعدا‬


ً ‫يقدم‬

Do
.‫أنشطة‬/‫مهمة‬/‫ تستخدم للتعبير عن أداء عمل‬-

do homework ‫يؤدى الواجب‬ do well ‫جيدا‬


ً ‫يؤدى‬

do a survey ‫تقييم‬/‫يقوم بدراسة‬ do a job ‫يقوم بمهمة‬

do an operation ‫يجرى عملية جراحية‬ do research on/into ‫يقوم ببحث على‬

do work ‫يقوم بالعمل‬ do the shopping ‫يتسوق‬

do a project ‫يقوم بمشروع‬ do the homework ‫يحل الواجب‬

do the cleaning ‫يقوم بالتنظيف‬ do the cooking ‫يقوم بعملية الطهى‬

do the washing up ‫يقوم بغسل األطباق‬ do a favour ‫يقدم خدمة أو معروفـًا‬

2 Verbs and Nouns


:‫ بعض الكلمات تستخدم كاسم وفعل (بمعانٍ متشابهة) بنفس النطق والهجاء منها‬-

ache ‫يؤلم‬/‫ألم‬ chat ‫يدردش‬/‫دردشة‬ face ‫يواجه‬/‫وجه‬

break ‫يكسر‬/‫راحة‬ demand ‫يطلب‬/‫طلب‬ plan ‫يخطط‬/‫خطة‬

His feet were aching from standing so long.


He went to the doctor as he suffered from a stomach ache.

8
Revision (1) (Units 1-8)

3 Expressions with “get”


:‫) بمعانٍ مختلفة فى اللغة اإلنجليزية منها‬get( ‫ يستخدم الفعل‬-

get ‫يتلقى‬/‫يستلم‬ Did you get tickets for the game?


get ‫يشترى‬ Where did you get that jacket?
get ‫يصل‬ What time will we get to Alex?
get ‫يصبح‬ My son usually gets tired easily.
get ‫يحصل على‬ Ahmed’s father got a new job.
get ‫يحضر‬ She’s just gone to get the kids from school.
get ‫يصاب بمرض‬ My cousin got an illness and had to stay in bed.
get ‫ينجز‬/‫يحقق‬ The person who gets the highest score wins the race.
get ‫يتحرك‬ They shouted at us to get back.
get ‫يقنع‬/‫يجعل‬ I’ll get Mona to check the wiring for me.
get )‫يرد على (تليفون‬ My mother asked me to get the phone as she was busy.

4 Nouns & Verbs


:‫بعض الكلمات تستخدم كاسم وفعل بمعانٍ وطريقة نطق قريبة مع اختالف فى الهجاء مثل‬

advice ‫نصيحة‬ advise ‫ينصح‬

licence ‫رخصة‬ license ‫يرخص‬

practice ‫تدريب‬/‫ممارسة‬ practise ‫يتدرب‬/‫يمارس‬

device ‫جهاز‬ devise ‫يبتكر‬

5 Phrases with “break”


:‫) متبوعـًا ببعض األسماء بمعانٍ مختلفة منها‬break( ‫ يستخدم الفعل‬-

break the rules ‫يخالف القواعد‬ break (someone’s) heart ‫يحطم القلب‬

break the law ‫يخالف القانون‬ break a promise ‫يخلف وعده‬

break a habit ‫يخالف عادته‬ break a link/connection ‫يقطع العالقات‬

break the silence ‫ينهى الصمت‬/‫يكسر‬ break a code ‫يحل الشفرة‬

:)‫فسحة) كما قد يستخدم أيضـًا كفعل بمعنى (يأخذ راحة‬/‫) يستخدم كاسم بمعنى (راحة‬break( ‫ الحظ أيضـًا أن الفعل‬-
Doctors and nurses worked 18 hours without a break.
Why don’t we break now and meet again tomorrow?

9
‫‪PART‬‬ ‫‪1‬‬ ‫)‪Revision (1) (Units 1-8‬‬

‫‪6‬‬ ‫”‪Adjectives & Adverbs starting with “A‬‬


‫بعض األفعال تتحول إلى صفات أو ظروف بإضافة «‪ »a‬مثل‪:‬‬

‫‪ahead‬‬ ‫لألمام‬ ‫‪along‬‬ ‫عبر‬

‫‪alive‬‬ ‫على قيد الحياة‬ ‫‪ashore‬‬ ‫للشاطئ‬

‫‪asleep‬‬ ‫نائم‬ ‫‪alike ‬‬ ‫متشابه‬

‫‪awake‬‬ ‫مستيقظ‬ ‫‪amiss‬‬ ‫خاطئ‬

‫‪apart‬‬ ‫منفرد‪/‬منفصل‬ ‫‪aboard‬‬ ‫إلى‪/‬على متن (سفينة‪/‬طائرة)‬

‫‪7‬‬ ‫‪Words with related meanings‬‬


‫كثير من الكلمات والتعبيرات فى اللغة اإلنجليزية تستخدم بمعانٍ متقاربة مع فارق بسيط فى المعنى مثل‪:‬‬

‫‪feel‬‬ ‫يشعر (بألم‪/‬حزن‪/‬فرح)‬ ‫‪suffer‬‬ ‫يعانى (من شىء غالبـًا سيئ)‬

‫تمرين (روتينى للحفاظ على الصحة‬


‫‪training‬‬ ‫تدريب (للقوة أو المشاركة فى مسابقة)‬ ‫‪exercise‬‬
‫واللياقة)‬

‫‪available for work‬‬ ‫متوفر (مؤهل) للعمل أو التوظيف‬ ‫‪at work‬‬ ‫قائم بالعمل‪/‬فى فترة العمل‬

‫‪remind‬‬ ‫يذكر‬ ‫‪tell‬‬ ‫يخبر‬

‫‪8‬‬ ‫‪take off‬‬

‫‪I rang my boss and arranged to take some time off.‬‬ ‫يتغيب عن العمل‬
‫‪I’d better take my shoes off.‬‬ ‫يخلع مالبسه‬
‫‪The plane should take off on time.‬‬ ‫تقلع (طائرة(‬
‫‪Her business has really taken off.‬‬ ‫ينجح‬

‫‪9‬‬ ‫‪make & do & get‬‬

‫‪make‬‬ ‫يصنع‪/‬يعمل (يستخدم للتعبير عن إنتاج‪/‬صنع‪/‬بناء شىء)‬


‫‪The carpenter made us a good table for the meeting room.‬‬
‫‪do‬‬ ‫يفعل‪/‬يعمل (يستخدم للتعبير عن أداء عمل‪/‬مهمة‪/‬أنشطة)‬
‫‪We have to do a lot of activities to get good marks at school.‬‬
‫‪get‬‬ ‫يحصل على‪/‬يتسلم (يستخدم للتعبير عن القدرة على الحصول على شىء أو تسلمه)‬
‫‪He works overtime to get money for his big family.‬‬

‫‪10‬‬
Revision (1) (Units 1-8)

10 reach

The plane reached Cairo Airport at 8 o’clock. ‫يصل إلى مكان‬


She fell while reaching down a vase from the top shelf. ‫يمد يده نحو‬
The girl’s hair reaches down to her waist. ‫ارتفاعه إلى‬/‫يصل طوله‬
Temperatures are expected to reach  40 degrees this summer. ‫تصل درجة الحرارة إلى‬
The Egyptian Football team could reach the final of 2017 African Cup. )‫يحرز (تقدمـًا‬/‫يصل إلى‬
It isn’t easy to reach your ambition. )‫يحقق (شىء معنوى‬/‫يصل إلى‬
I couldn’t reach my boss on the phone, so I sent him an email. ‫يستطيع التحدث إلى‬

11 Suffix ‫الالحقة‬

Suffix Meaning Examples

ful ) ‫تعطى معنى (ملىء بـ) أو (به‬ hopeful ‫مبشر‬/painful ‫مؤلم‬/fearful ‫مخيف‬
hopeless ‫بائس‬/homeless ‫بال مأوى‬/‫مشرد‬
less )‫تعطى معنى (بال ) أو (بدون‬
painless ‫غير مؤلم‬/powerless ‫بال قوة‬/‫عاجز‬

12 Suffixes for jobs ‫اللواحق الخاصة بالوظائف‬

:‫كثير من الكلمات المعبرة عن الوظائف تتكون من اسم أو فعل باستخدام بعض اللواحق منها‬

Suffix Examples
ian technician ‫فنى‬ politician ‫رجل سياسة‬ historian ‫مؤرخ‬

ist scientist ‫عالم‬ archaeologist ‫عالم آثار‬ chemist ‫صيدلى‬

er baker ‫خباز‬ farmer ‫فالح‬ gardener ‫جناينى‬/‫بستانى‬

or actor ‫ممثل‬ conductor ‫كمسارى‬ sailor ‫بحار‬

ant accountant ‫محاسب‬ assistant ‫مساعد‬/‫بائع‬ consultant ‫مستشار‬

13 about
:‫) بمعانٍ مختلفة فى اللغة اإلنجليزية منها‬about( ‫ يستخدم الظرف‬-

about ‫على التقريب‬ They left school at about 1.30.

about ‫يوشك أن‬ Samy was about to turn on the TV when her father arrived.

about ‫تقريبـًا‬ Mona was about ready to start cooking.

about ‫قريب‬ The manager asked if the new clerk was about.

about ‫فى اتجاهات مختلفة‬/‫حول‬ The students were rushing about when they saw the headmaster.

11
‫‪PART‬‬ ‫‪1‬‬ ‫)‪Revision (1) (Units 1-8‬‬

‫‪14‬‬ ‫‪Prefix‬‬ ‫البادئة‬

‫‪Prefix‬‬ ‫‪Examples‬‬
‫‪in‬‬ ‫‪invisible‬‬ ‫غير مرئى‬ ‫‪intolerant‬‬ ‫غير متسامح‬ ‫‪informal‬‬ ‫غير رسمى‬

‫‪impolite‬‬ ‫غير مؤدب‬ ‫‪impatient‬‬ ‫غير صبور‬ ‫الحظ أنها غالبـًا تستخدم مع الكلمات‬
‫‪im‬‬
‫‪impossible‬‬ ‫غير ممكن‬ ‫‪impassive‬‬ ‫غير سلبى‬ ‫التى تبدأ بـ (‪)m-p‬‬

‫‪unintelligent‬‬ ‫غير ذكى‬ ‫‪uninjured‬‬ ‫غير مصاب‬ ‫الحظ أنها غالبـًا تستخدم مع الكلمات‬
‫‪un‬‬
‫‪unimproved ‬‬ ‫غير محسن‬ ‫‪uninformed‬‬ ‫غير مبلغ‬ ‫التى تبدأ بـ (‪)in‬‬

‫‪15‬‬ ‫‪mast & & pole & tower & stick‬‬

‫‪mast‬‬ ‫عمود‪/‬برج (محمول‪-‬إذاعة)‪/‬صارى (سفينة‪/‬قارب)‬

‫‪pole‬‬ ‫عمود‪/‬صارى (علم)‪/‬عمود (معدن أو خشب لتدعيم شىء)‬

‫‪tower‬‬ ‫برج (داخل قلعة أو قصر أو معدنى لرؤية أفضل لمنظر جميل)‬

‫‪stick‬‬ ‫عصا أو مضرب (هوكى)‬

‫‪12‬‬
Vocabulary
Exercises

Choose the correct answer from a, b, c or d:


1  My mother really .................... it when my sisters and I cooked dinner for her.

a) apologised b) appreciated c) appealed d) thanked


2  Mr Shabana has an important .................... in developing the company strategy.

a) role b) roil c) rule d) root


3  The army captain is in .................... of fifty soldiers today.

a) charge b) change c) core d) care


4  My father said that his teacher was very .................... . My father couldn’t talk in his lessons!

a) enthusiastic b) strict c) fatherly d) kind


5  Ali said that he would be here at midday and here he is. He never .................... a promise.

a) takes b) breaks c) makes d) keeps


6  Nabila .................... her grandchildren. She always gives them lots of sweets and presents!

a) annoys b) hates c) spills d) spoils


7  We walked a really long way to get to the shop, but it was in .................... . It had already closed.

a) veil b) vein c) vain d) view


8  Hazem does not like cold water, but we .................... him that swimming is good for him!

a) encouraged b) convinced c) confused d) discouraged


9  Where does your family .................... to go on holiday next summer?

a) invent b) invest c) invite d) intend


10  Don’t drink too much coffee or it will keep you .................... at night.

a) walk b) woken c) asleep d) awake


11  The school secretary is .................... for sending emails to the parents.

a) irresponsible b) respected c) responsible d) awarded


12  The palace is very .................... . It has more than 30 rooms!

a) impressed b) impressive c) improved d) industrial


13  He wants to be a .................... so that he can help his country.

a) political b) politics c) politician d) policy


14  This film is very .................... . I’d prefer to watch something that will make us laugh!

a) sensible b) funny c) serious d) fun


15  London has a/an .................... of 557 mm of rain each year.

a) average b) number c) ability d) water


16  I sometimes get .................... about the meanings of whether and weather.

a) confirmed b) confident c) confused d) concluded


17  Kamal did not want to tidy his room before he went out, but his mother .................... .

a) told b) ordered c) insisted d) said


13
PART 1 Revision (1) (Units 1-8)

18   oda’s father works for an important .................... .


H
a) job b) building c) ministry d) work
19  The explorer did not go with anyone else to Antarctica. He went .................... .

a) slightly b) solo c) special d) lonely


20  I told my little brother to read this book because it is .................... for young children.

a) suitable b) employable c) reliable d) impossible


21  My cousin wants to have a .................... in law.

a) mark b) work c) degree d) licence


22  To find the bank, walk .................... this road and it is on the right.

a) alive b) ashore c) along d) around


23  I sent my friend an email with a photo as an .................... .

a) attached b) attachment c) attack d) attractive


24  Hamid is ...................., so he cannot walk.

a) deaf b) blind c) unable d) disabled


25  The head teacher believes that .................... is very important in the classroom.

a) discipline b) indifference c) violence d) noise


26  My father does the same things every day. He likes to have a .................... .

a) root b) work c) routine d) way


27  There was a .................... at the university about new technology.

a) legend b) lie c) tale d) lecture


28  The head teacher .................... the students before the visitor gave her talk.

a) silenced b) declared c) sheltered d) shouted


29  The computer in the library does not work, so they are going to .................... it.

a) reduce b) replace c) download d) upload


30  Today is the tenth .................... of our moving into our house.

a) antiquity b) anniversary c) date d) year


31  The .................... between Aswan and Luxor is about 200 kilometres.

a) district b) long c) far d) distance


32  Ships can see where to go at night and in bad weather because they have .................... .

a) radar b) rafts c) poles d) positions


33  Mariam has always been good with money and does the .................... for a large company in Cairo.

a) accounts b) accountants c) achievements d) activities


34  Yunis was ill last year and had to take a lot of time .................... work.

a) from b) in c) on d) off
35  Fatma and Mona are very good friends and never like to be .................... .

a) helpful b) separated c) obeyed d) together


36  Our house has been much less hot since my father had an air conditioner .................... .

a) put b) done c) installed d) made


14
Revision (1) (Units 1-8)

37  ....................makes things fall to the ground on earth.


a) Gram b) Graph c) Gravity d) Space
38  You must be careful when you take that medicine because it may have side .................... .

a) affects b) effects c) affection d) effective


39  I didn’t like the soup without salt. I thought it was .................... .

a) tasted b) tasty c) teased d) tasteless


40  It is amazing how some animals can .................... in the desert.

a) survive b) survey c) alive d) die


41  Scientists think that there is a .................... between pollution and climate change.

a) join b) connected c) link d) secret


42  It is not always easy to get a mobile phone .................... in the desert.

a) sign b) noise c) signal d) side


43  You must work hard for the exam or you might .................... .

a) fail b) feel c) fall d) fill


44  There is water on the floor. There must be a .................... from the washing machine.

a) luck b) lock c) leak d) lake


45  We don’t know much about the bottom of the oceans because some of them have not been ................. .

a) explained b) explored c) existed d) found


46  That is a .................... hotel! It’s the biggest building in the city.

a) giant b) mass c) hostile d) tiny


47  Mustafa is always .................... and likes to talk to everyone.

a) social b) sociable c) society d) sociably


48  It takes many hours for the rocket to .................... the space station.

a) get b) go c) reach d) travel


49  The rocket will be .................... into space tomorrow morning.

a) launched b) taken c) kept d) led


50  You should only phone 123 in case of a/an .................... .

a) emotion b) emergency c) ambulance d) situation


51  They thought they were lost in the desert, but they became .................... when they saw a road.

a) hopeful b) dreadful c) helpless d) hopeless


52  We can’t play this computer game because the .................... don’t work.

a) contents b) crews c) crops d) controls


53  The teacher asked us to discuss the pros and .................... of artificial intelligence.

a) benefits b) cons c) advantages d) contents



54  .................... is the study of energy, sound, light, etc.
a) Physics b) Chemicals c) Geography d) Maths
55  I think that parents should .................... the amount of time that children play computer games, because

the games are bad for them.


a) increase b) recycle c) recover d) limit
15
PART 1 Revision (1) (Units 1-8)

56  The light from the sun that damages our skin is ...................., you can’t see it.
a) interrupted b) informed c) irrational d) invisible
57  We get the signal for our mobile phones from that tall .................... on the hill.

a) match b) mast c) maze d) post


58  I like to do .................... work at the hospital. I don’t get paid, but I enjoy helping the people there.

a) loyal b) freelance c) voluntary d) hopeful


59  Fawzi enjoys working at the hotel, but the .................... is that it is a long way from his home.

a) downside b) upside c) benefit d) pros


60  I can’t believe how some animals can .................... in such difficult conditions.

a) survive b) serve c) divide d) devote


61  The electrician is .................... for work next weekend.

a) available b) sustainable c) bearable d) reasonable


62  They have to .................... this essay. It’s very long.

a) realise b) recognise c) summarise d) maximise


63  When children work in groups, don’t .................... them. Let them express their ideas freely.

a) delete b) silence c) attend d) spoil


64  Modern washing machines have a/an .................... for controlling heat.

a) style b) system c) orbit d) order


65  Our boss never allows anyone to .................... him while he is talking.

a) interrupt b) interpret c) interact d) introduce


66  Most people don’t have a .................... during their holidays.

a) red-tape b) route c) routine d) rule


67  The coach keeps a .................... eye on his players.

a) fatherly b) father c) fatherless d) fatherhood


68  What do you do in your school ....................?

a) interval b) bake c) break d) brake


69  I’ll put the gas bill here to .................... myself.

a) remember b) memorise c) remind d) tell


70  A waiter came and .................... the empty bottles.

a) moved b) erased c) deleted d) removed


71  His .................... didn’t stop him from becoming a world-class scientist.

a) ability b) disable c) disabled d) disability


72  The operation was successful but I still feel a lot of .................... .

a) plain b) pain c) painful d) plane


73  The way he handled the situation was very .................... .

a) impressive b) impress c) impressed d) impression


74  He .................... the world record for the 100 metres.

a) split b) broke c) crashed d) destroyed


75  The store always takes .................... extra sales assistants for the Christmas period.

a) on b) after c) back d) away

16
Revision (1) (Units 1-8)

Grammar
Module 1 (Units 1&2)

1 Past simple ‫الماضى البسيط‬

.‫حدث تم وانتهى فى الماضى‬ .‫ كل الضمائر‬+ ‫التصريف الثانى‬

Form
Baird invented the TV. We built the High Dam.

Negative
.‫ماض مع كلمة دالة عليه‬
ٍ ‫حدث‬ Past didn’t + inf.
Ali visited me yesterday. simple We didn’t play golf yesterday.

. ‫عادات الماضى‬ .‫ بدون فعل آخر‬was/were ‫استخدام‬


He lived in Assuit when he was young. Osama wasn’t ill yesterday.

.‫يستخدم مع تعبيرات زمنية تعبر عن تمام حدوث الفعل فى الماضى‬


yesterday, last night/week/month/year/Friday, etc, two days/weeks/months ago,
then, when, How long ago .....?, in 1900/2000/2019, the other day, etc.
He graduated in 1991. How long ago did she leave her work?

Other uses ‫استخدامات أخرى‬

.‫يستخدم مع نفس ظروف تكرار المضارع البسيط ولكن مع كلمة دالة على الماضى‬
He always came to school late when he was young. = He was always late.
When he was a child, he usually/never walked to school.

Past habits
:‫ للتعبير عن عادات الماضى يمكن استخدام‬-
(A) used to (B) Past simple (C) would + inf.
Negative

didn’t + use to + inf. .‫تعبر عن عادات الماضى وال تستخدم مع حدث قصير‬
I didn’t use to be fat. People used to travel on camels in the past.

(A)
Used to
Question

Osama used to smoke. = Did + subj. + use to + inf. ...?


Osama no longer smokes. Did you use to play football?

(B) Past simple


:‫ نستخدم الماضى البسيط مع أحداث الماضى المفردة وعادات الماضى المتكررة ونستخدم معها عادة ظروف التكرار مثل‬-
Always, often, every day, etc.
When I was young, I always walked to school.

17
PART 1 Revision (1) (Units 1-8)

(C) would + inf.


.‫ للتعبير عن العادات والسلوك النمطى المتكرر فى الماضى وليس عن الشىء الدائم وثوابت األشياء‬would + inf. ‫ تستخدم‬-
At weekends, my father would go and buy fruit and also he would buy me sweets.
.‫ هذه الجملة تعبر عن سلوك متكرر لشخص وليس عن مواقف وأشياء حقيقية مثل امتالك شخص لشىء أو وظيفة لديه‬-
I used to have a bike when I was ten years old. (Not: I would have a bike ...)
would ‫ ال تستخدم مع‬state verbs :‫ ملحوظة‬-
I used to know much about football. (NOT: I would know much about football.)

2 Past continuous ‫الماضى المستمر‬

.‫لألحداث التى استمرت لفترة فى الماضى‬ I - He - She - It + was + v.ing

Form
It was raining all day yesterday. I/He was watching TV then.

.‫عند تحديد وقت معين فى الماضى‬ Past They/We/You + were + v.ing

Form
He was sleeping at 10 yesterday. continuous We were driving at 7 yesterday.

Negative
.‫مستمرا وقطعه آخر‬ ‫لحدثين كان أحدهما‬ was/were + not + v. ing
ًّ
As she was cleaning the room, she found the ring. It wasn’t raining at 7 yesterday.

:‫ يستخدم مع التعبيرات والروابط الزمنية اآلتية‬-


While/As/Just as/When/All day.../all night ...

While Past continuous Past simple


1   When +
‫ماض مستمر‬
ٍ ‫ماض بسيط‬
As/Just as ٍ

While
Past simple When Past continuous
2 
‫ماض بسيط‬
ٍ
As/Just as ‫ماض مستمر‬
ٍ

While he was walking in the street, he met his old friends.

Important Notes
.stative verbs ‫ األفعال اآلتية ال تأتى مع صيغة الماضى المستمر ألنها أفعال غير حركية‬-
be ‫ يكون‬- believe ‫ يعتقد‬- belong ‫ يخص‬- like ‫ يحب‬- own ‫ يملك‬- want ‫ يريد‬- seem ‫ يبدو‬- mean ‫ يقصد‬- hate ‫ يكره‬-
know ‫ يعرف‬- love ‫ يحب‬- need ‫ يحتاج‬- prefer ‫ يفضل‬- understand ‫ يفهم‬- surprise, etc.
While I was ill, I took much medicine.
As I was driving, I was phoning Ahmed. .‫ يمكن استخدام الحدثين مستمرين‬-
.‫ إذا لم يوجد فاعل‬While ‫ بعد‬v.ing ‫ يمكن استخدام‬-
While driving, I saw an accident.
.v.ing ‫ نستخدم االسم وليس‬during ‫ بعد‬-
During the match, the light went out.
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Revision (1) (Units 1-8)

3 Past perfect ‫الماضى التام‬

.‫حدث تم قبل حدث آخر فى الماضى‬ ‫ كل الضمائر‬+ had + P.P.

Form
Before I met Ali, I’d finished my work. I had finished my work by 3 p.m.

Negative
Past hadn’t + P.P.
perfect I hadn’t finished my work by 3 p.m.
.‫حدث انتهى وأثره كان واضحـًا فى الماضى‬
Ali was ill as he’d eaten bad food. ‫الماضى التام جملتان أو جملة وعبارة تدل على حدث‬
.‫وليس جملة واحدة‬
Before leaving, I’d taken my keys.

:‫ يستخدم مع التعبيرات الزمنية اآلتية‬-


before, after, till/until, when, by, by the time, as soon as.

Past perfect Past simple


1   After/As soon as +
‫ماض تام‬
ٍ ‫ماض بسيط‬
ٍ

Past simple Past perfect


2   Before/By the time +
‫ماض بسيط‬
ٍ ‫ماض تام‬
ٍ

After I had saved enough money, I bought the car.


Before I bought the car, I had saved enough money.

‫ماض بسيط منفى‬


ٍ ‫ماض تام‬
ٍ
3   till/until
didn’t + inf. had + P.P.

My son didn’t cross the street until he had looked both ways.
I wasn’t happy until I had passed my exams.
He wasn’t given the job until the boss had signed his application form.

After ‫ماض بسيط‬


ٍ
4   n. / v.ing
Before ‫ماض تام‬
ٍ

v.ing ‫ نستخدم‬Before ‫ أو‬After ‫ إذا لم يوجد فاعل بعد‬-


After finishing his work, he helped me.
= After he had finished his work, he helped me.
Before helping me, he had finished his work.
= Before he helped me, he had finished his work.

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PART 1 Revision (1) (Units 1-8)

5  

...... ‫ حتى‬...... ‫لم يكد‬


No sooner/Hardly/ than/when/ Past simple
+ had + subject + P.P.
Scarcely ‫الماضى التام فى شكل سؤال‬ when ‫ماض بسيط‬
ٍ

No sooner had Marwa found the money than she reported the police.
:‫ وإذا لم تأت فى أول الكالم يكون اآلتى‬،‫ إذا جاءت هذه الكلمات فى أول الكالم تكون القاعدة السابقة‬-

no sooner/hardly than/when/ Past simple


‫ الفاعل‬+ had scarcely + P.P. + when ‫ماض بسيط‬
ٍ

Marwa had hardly found the money when she reported the police.
6   n + (v.ing) = When + (clause)
O
- On seeing the thief, he ran away. = When he saw the thief, he ran away.
 7  By + ‫ فترة فى الماضى‬+ Past perfect ‫ماض تام‬
ٍ
- By yesterday ‫أمس‬ ‫بحلول‬ , he had reached Paris.
8  Having + P.P. = After + Past perfect
- Having booked the tickets, I took the train to Assuit.

4 Present perfect ‫المضارع التام‬

.stative verbs‫ و‬work/learn/study/live ‫مستمرا ولكن مع‬


ًّ ‫حدث بدأ فى الماضى وما زال‬
I have known Omar since 2001.

.‫حدث غير محدد تم قبل وقت الكالم‬ .‫عند ذكر العدد وعدم ذكر متى حدث الفعل‬
Ali has written 3 reports lately. I have visited 4 European countries.

.‫عند الحديث عن خبرات الشخص‬ have/has + P.P.


Form

My brother has qualified in medicine. The train has just stopped.


Negative

.‫حدث تم وانتهى ولكن له أثر واضح فى الحاضر‬ Pre haven’t/hasn’t + P.P.


se
There is glass. Omar has broken nt He hasn’t come back yet.
the window.
Key Past
words

yet just already ever never since for recently lately so far over the up till
time now

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Revision (1) (Units 1-8)

already She has already fed the baby.

just I have just come back from my holiday.

ever Have you ever flown a plane?


This is the most expensive car I’ve ever bought.
never They have never visited Luxor.

yet I haven’t finished breakfast yet. Has your course started yet?

so far/up till now What have you done so far?

lately/recently Have you bought any shirts recently/lately?

over Egypt has changed over the last 5 years.

How long How long has he had this car?

for I haven’t seen Mohammed for five years.

since She hasn’t visited us since October.

For & Since


a day/a month/a year ‫جملة فى الماضى البسيط‬

weeks/months/years Friday/Monday ‫األيام‬

several days/weeks/years June/April ‫الشهور‬

2 hours 2000 ‫السنوات‬


Since
For

ages 2 o’clock ‫الساعات‬

a long time + ‫ عبارة اسمية‬his childhood


the last week/year last week/last year
a/an ‫ أو بدأ‬s ‫ مع كل ما انتهى بـ‬for ‫تأتى‬ then )‫ماض بسيط‬
ٍ ‫منذ ذلك الحين (بدل‬

Have been (to)/Have gone (to)


have been to .‫ذهب إلى مكان وعاد منه‬
He has been to Cairo.
Ahmed, where have you been?
have gone to .‫ذهب إلى مكان ولم يعد أو فى الطريق إلى هناك‬
They have gone to school.
Where has Omar gone? I can’t find him.

21
Grammar
Exercises

Choose the correct answer from a, b, c or d:


1  We .................... a very good time on the beach two days ago.
a) were having b) had c) have had d) having
2  At weekends, we .................... fishing in a lake near my house.
a) would go b) used to go c) went d) all are possible
3  Mona .................... a beautiful dream when the alarm clock rang.
a) is having b) having c) was having d) had
4  We .................... dinner when you phoned, so we couldn’t answer the phone.
a) were having b) had had c) was having d) have
5  While .................... the tree, I fell down.
a) climb b) climbed c) climbing d) was climbing
6  What did you do after .................... school yesterday?
a) had left b) left c) leave d) leaving
7  No sooner had my brother joined the army .................... he had his hair cut.
a) than b) when c) that d) then
8  Ali always .................... to work when he was young.
a) walks b) walked c) is walking d) was walking
9  When I reached home, father wasn’t there. He .................... out.
a) had gone b) went c) goes d) has gone
10  Look! What you ....................! How can we clean the floor now?
a) will do b) has done c) have done d) had done
11  I .................... a break since this morning.
a) haven’t b) had c) am not having d) haven’t had
12  When I was a child, we .................... in a small house by the river.
a) would live b) used to live c) were lived d) live
13  When he was carrying a suitcase, he .................... it on his foot.
a) was dropping b) drops c) has dropped d) dropped
14  I .................... my lesson at 6 p.m. yesterday.
a) reading b) was reading c) have read d) reads
15  While we .................... in Alexandria, we enjoyed ourselves a lot.
a) are b) were being c) be d) were
16  We ordered our food after we .................... at the restaurant.
a) sitting b) sit c) had sat d) were sitting
17  When I .................... the station, the train left. I caught it.
a) have reached b) had reached c) reach d) was reaching
18  I .................... to be a doctor since I was ten.
a) have wanted b) wanted c) wanting d) was wanting
19  Having .................... his ankle, he gave up playing football.
a) had broken b) break c) broke d) broken
20  Many people have studied it since it .................... in the 1980s.
a) has written b) was written c) wrote d) writing
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Revision (1) (Units 1-8)

21  T his is the best book I .................... .


a) have never read b) was reading c) have ever read d) am reading
22  When I arrived at the party, Ali ignored me and .................... secretly.

a) left b) had left c) was leaving d) would leave


23  My dog attacked the postman when he .................... the letters into the letter box.

a) is putting b) put c) was putting d) put


24  After .................... his work, he went for a walk.

a) had finished b) finished c) finish d) finishing


25  While .................... the shopping, I ran into an old friend.

a) doing b) have done c) was doing d) did


26  I rang the bell six times but no one .................... .

a) was answering b) answered c) had answered d) answers


27  No sooner .................... the news on the radio, than I telephoned Noha.

a) I had heard b) was I hearing c) have I heard d) had I heard


28  We couldn’t get enough sleep last night because the people next door .................... a noisy party.

a) had had b) had c) were having d) have


29  After the money ...................., I was able to buy the new car.

a) had been saved b) saved c) had saved d) was saving


30  When my father looked at me angrily, I realised that I .................... something wrong.

a) have done b) would do c) am doing d) had done


31  I thought Hany .................... a car, but he said it was his brother’s.

a) had been bought b) had bought c) was buying d) has bought


32  At first I was very nervous, but after a while I .................... to feel more confident.

a) had begun b) have begun c) begin d) began


33  I didn’t go with you to the cinema because I .................... this film.

a) already see b) have already seen c) didn’t see d) had already seen
34  The student decided not to make that mistake again after .................... by the teacher.

a) being punished b) punishing c) had punished d) punished


35  On .................... the bad news, he fainted.

a) heard b) had heard c) hearing d) he had heard


36  He .................... the Nobel Prize until he had written 100 novels.

a) awarded b) hadn’t awarded c) didn’t award d) wasn’t awarded


37  After the parcel ...................., I received it.

a) had arrived b) arrives c) had been arrived d) has arrived


38  Hardly .................... the match when I felt that pain.

a) I played b) I had played c) had I played d) will I play


39  After the car he had ....................repaired, it was polished.

a) been b) had been c) hadn’t d) had


40  After she .................... back home, she found out that she had forgotten her mobile phone at work.

a) was going b) had gone c) has gone d) went


41  As soon as the girl ...................., we told the police.

a) had been disappeared b) disappeared


c) was disappeared d) has disappeared
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PART 1 Revision (1) (Units 1-8)

42  Which one of the following sentences is grammatically incorrect?


a) The children swam in the pool after they had finished their homework.
b) The children swam in the pool after they finished their homework.
c) The children had swum in the pool after they finished their homework.
d) The children didn’t swim in the pool after they had finished their homework.
43  The pharaohs believed in life after .................... .

a) they had died b) had died c) death d) they die


44  He was in Japan last month. He .................... Japan before.

a) wasn’t visiting b) has never visited c) never visited d) had never visited
45  When we said goodnight, we had had a good conversation. This means “.................... .”

a) Our conversation wasn’t finished


b) We finished talking and went to bed
c) After saying goodnight, our good conversation started
d) We would have a good conversation on going to bed
46  Which one of the following is grammatically incorrect?

a) Hardly had Osama applied for the job when he took it.
b) No sooner had Osama applied for the job when he took it.
c) No sooner had Osama applied for the job than he took it.
d) No sooner did Osama apply for the job than he took it.
47  Which one of the following sentences is grammatically correct?

a) hardly Ahmed had arrived when he began to shout.


b) hardly had Ahmed arrived when he began to shout.
c) hardly had Ahmed arrived then he began to shout.
d) hardly had Ahmed arrived when he had begun to shout.
48  One of the following sentences is grammatically correct.

a) The ancient Egyptians used hieroglyphs to write on the walls.


b) The ancient Egyptians had used hieroglyphs to write on the walls.
c) The ancient Egyptians had built the Pyramids.
d) The ancient Egyptians believed in life after they had died.
49  Ali looked both ways, and then he crossed the street.

One of the following sentences doesn’t give a similar meaning to the one above.
a) Ali crossed the street after looking both ways.
b) When Ali had crossed the street, he looked both ways.
c) Before crossing the street, Ali had looked both ways.
d) No sooner did Ali look both ways than he crossed the street.
50  Hardly had he made the mistake when he was dismissed. This means .................... .

a) He made the mistake at first, then he was dismissed.


b) He was dismissed at first, then he made the mistake.
c) He didn’t make the mistake, but he was dismissed.
d) He was dismissed before making the mistake.

24
Revision (1) (Units 1-8)

Module 2 (Units 3,4&5)

1 Relative clauses ‫جمل الوصل‬

.‫تحل محل الفاعل العاقل لذلك بعدها فعل وقبلها اسم عاقل‬
who/that The boy who (that) broke the window was punished.
My uncle, who works as a teacher, is loved by many people.

.‫تحل محل المفعول العاقل لذلك بعدها فاعل وقبلها اسم عاقل‬
who/whom/that My uncle, who/whom I love, works as a teacher.
The boy who/whom/that we punished made many mistakes.

.‫تحل محل الفاعل والمفعول غير العاقل أو تعود على جملة قبلها‬
which/that The car which/that Osama was driving was very fast.
He can’t write at all which surprised me.

.‫تحل محل ضمير الملكية وبعدها اسم يملكه ما قبلها‬


whose
The woman whose bag was stolen was angry.

.here, there ‫ فهى محل‬where ‫ لغير العاقل أما‬they ‫ أو‬it ‫ للمكان فهى محل الضمير‬which ‫تحل محل المكان وإذا جاءت‬
where = The house where I live is very old.
which ... prep. The house which I live in is very old.
The house in which I live is very old.

.‫ لغير العاقل‬they ‫ أو‬it ‫ للزمان فهى محل الضمير‬which ‫ تحل محل الزمان وإذا جاءت‬when
when =
August is the month when I go on holiday.
which ... prep.
August is the month in which I go on holiday.

‫أنواع جمل الوصل‬



‫ ونستخدم فى هذا النوع‬.‫ سيكون من الصعب أن نعرف من أو ما هو المقصود‬،‫النوع األول يعطى معلومة أساسية وبدون هذه للمعلومات‬-1
ً )that( ‫ ويمكن استخدام‬.‫) قبل أو بعد عبارة الوصل‬comma( ‫) وال نستخدم‬who/which/whom(
. ‫بدل من ضمائر الوصل المذكورة‬
The man who (that) robbed the bank was sent to prison.
The book which (that) tells you about history is useful.
)that( ‫) قبل وبعد عبارة الوصل وال تستخدم‬comma( ‫النوع الثانى يعطى معلومات إضافية وليست ضرورية لفهم معنى الجملة وال بد من استخدام‬-2
.‫فى هذا النوع‬
My father, whom I love, works as a teacher.
Alaa’s car, which he left outside, cost him L.E. 200.000 (Alaa has one car)
:‫ولمزيد من التوضيح الحظ الفرق بين المثالين اآلتيين‬
My sister, who lives in Assuit, came to visit me in Cairo last week.
My sister who lives in Assuit came to visit me in Cairo last week.
.‫في المثال األول ليس لديه إال أخت واحدة وأعطى معلومة إضافية عنها أنها تعيش فى أسيوط‬
.‫فى المثال الثانى جملة الوصل تعطى معلومة أساسية وضرورية وهذا يعنى أننى معى أكثر من أخت فوجب التفريق من التى زارتنى منهن‬

25
PART 1 Revision (1) (Units 1-8)

:‫مالحظات‬
the thing(s) that ‫ كرابط بمعنى (ما) وهى تساوى‬what ‫ تستخدم‬1

‫فعل أو ضمير أو اسم ال تعود هى عليه‬ What ‫فاعل‬/‫فعل‬

I didn’t understand what he had said. (what had been said).


- I can’t give him (Ahmed) what he needs.
What makes me angry is that Ahmed always comes late.
.‫) لتشير إلى جملة كاملة قبلها‬which( ‫ تستخدم‬2
My brother won a valuable prize, which made me happy.
ً whose ‫ تستخدم‬3
:‫بدل من أشكال الملكية كلها مثل‬
The girl with blue eyes is my sister.
- The girl whose eyes are blue is my sister.
The man is rich. He has a red car.
- The man whose car is red is rich.
The car won the race. Its colour is red.
- The car whose colour is red won the race.
whose/who’s ‫ الحظ الفرق بين‬4
who’s + v.ing/noun = who is ... who’s + P.P. = who has ...
The boy who’s running there is my cousin.
The boy whose phone was stolen was furious.
:‫ مثل‬whose ‫ هناك بعض الكلمات تستخدم كاسم وفعل فإذا استخدمت كاسم فإنها تسبق بــ‬5
stay, dream, work, play, likes and dislikes, end, hopes, etc.
People whose likes and dislikes are the same are good friends.
I like the stories whose ends are happy.
:‫ بعد صيغة التفضيل وبعد الكلمات اآلتية‬that ‫ نستخدم‬6
all - any(thing) - every (thing) - few - little - many - much - no (thing) - none - some (thing)
Is this all that you want me to do?
There isn’t anything that we can eat in this house.
This is the best book that I have ever read.
:‫) كضمير وصل كاآلتى‬why (for which)( ‫ يمكن استخدام‬7
I’d like to know the reason why (for which) he decided not to come.
‫حاالت حذف ضمير الوصل‬
.‫ إذا كان محل مفعول به‬1
The meat was delicious. We ate it yesterday.
The meat (which/that) we ate yesterday was delicious.
The man is my neighbour. I meet him every day.
The man (who/whom/that) I meet every day is my neighbour.

26
Revision (1) (Units 1-8)

:P.P. ‫ ونضع‬which + v. to be ‫ إذا كان بعده مبنى للمجهول فنحذف‬2


I still remember the encouragement given to me by my parents. (which was)
:v.ing ‫ ونضع‬which/who ‫ إذا كان بعده معلوم فنحذف‬3
The boy sitting beside me is naughty. (who sits/who is sitting)
:‫ وال نضع شيئـًا‬which + v. to be/who ‫ إذا كان بعده اسم أو اسم موصوف نحذف‬4
Hossam Hassan, a famous footballer, won many prizes. (who was)

2 Distributives: all, both, half, each, every, either, neither

1 All ‫طوال‬/‫جميع‬/‫كل‬

.‫ يأتى بعدها اسم مفرد واسم ال يعد والفعل مفرد‬-


.‫ يأتى بعدها اسم جمع والفعل جمع‬-

Singular noun ‫اسم مفرد‬ All night yesterday was cold and I couldn’t sleep well.

Uncountable noun ‫اسم ال يعد‬ All the food I had yesterday was delicious.

Plural noun ‫اسم جمع‬ All the people in my street are cooperative.

2 Both (of) ٌّ
‫كل من‬

A) Both (of ) ٌّ -
.‫مجموعتين) تتبع بفعل جمع‬- ‫شيئين‬-‫شخصين‬-‫كل من (للمثنى‬
Both (of ) my parents are doctors.
Both of them have clinics.
B) Both + ‫ فاعل أول‬and + ٍ‫ فاعل ثان‬+ ‫فعل جمع‬
Both Sameh and his wife are clever engineers.
C) ‫ فاعل‬+ ‫ فعل‬+ both + ‫ مفعول أول‬and + ٍ‫مفعول ثان‬
I like both Arabic and English.

3 Half (of) ‫نصف‬

.‫ يأتى بعدها اسم مفرد واسم ال يعد والفعل مفرد‬-


.‫ يأتى بعدها اسم جمع والفعل جمع‬-

Singular noun ‫اسم مفرد‬ Half (of ) the loaf is enough for me.

Uncountable noun ‫اسم ال يعد‬ Half (of ) the flour isn’t enough to make a big cake.

Plural noun ‫اسم جمع‬ Half (of ) the students in my class are intelligent.
.‫ مع تعبيرات الكميات والمسافات‬of ‫ ال نستخدم‬-
Half a kilometer isn’t a long way to walk or run.
The doctor advised my sister to feed her son with half a kilo of milk a day.

27
PART 1 Revision (1) (Units 1-8)

4 Each ‫كل‬

.‫ يأتى بعدها اسم مفرد يعد وفعل مفرد وتشير إلى واحد من اثنين فقط‬-
Ali is holding a bag in each hand.
Each parent has a role in bringing up the children.
Each (One of ) + ‫ = فعل مفرد واسم جمع‬Each of them + ‫فعل مفرد‬
Each of my parents is going to help me with my homework.
I have two cars. Each of them looks (is) new.
.‫ عن أكثر من اثنين ولكن كل واحد على حدة‬each ‫ يمكن أن تعبر‬-
The teacher asked each student about their name.
Each passenger should have a valid ticket to get on the train.

5 Every ‫كل‬

.‫ يأتى بعدها اسم مفرد يعد وفعل مفرد وتشير إلى أكثر من اثنين‬-
I feel pain in every part of my body.
Every person is responsible for the prosperity of the country.
Every one of + ‫ = فعل مفرد واسم جمع‬Every one of them + ‫فعل مفرد‬
Every one of students has to do their best to get high marks.
.‫ لبيان عدد مرات حدوث الشىء‬every ‫ نستخدم‬-
There is a train every twenty minutes.

6 Either )‫ اسم‬+ ‫إما‬/‫(أى‬

A) Either + ‫ اسم مفرد يعد‬+ ‫فعل مفرد‬


.‫ تشير إلى شخص واحد أو شىء واحد أو مجموعة واحدة من اثنين‬-
My flat overlooks two streets. Either street is 10 metres wide.
B) Either of (them) + ‫ اسم جمع يعد‬+ ‫فعل مفرد أو جمع‬
Either of my two cars is (are) fast.
There are two teams in my town. Either of them plays (play) well.
C) Either + ‫ فاعل أول‬or + ٍ‫ فاعل ثان‬+ ‫الفعل يتبع الفاعل الثانى‬
.................... ‫ أو‬.................... ‫اما‬
Either Ali or his friend is going to visit me.
Either Ali or his friends are going to visit me.
D) ‫ فاعل‬+ ‫ فعل‬+ either + ‫ مفعول أول‬or + ٍ‫مفعول ثان‬
I’ll drink either tea or coffee after my lunch today.
not ... either (of ) ‫يمكن استخدام‬
I liked two shirts in the shop window, but I didn’t buy either of them.
‫ فى نهاية الجملة المنفية‬either ‫تستخدم‬
Ali doesn’t play chess and I don’t, either.

28
Revision (1) (Units 1-8)

7 Neither )‫ اسم‬+ ‫(ال‬

A) Neither ‫ اسم مفرد يعد‬+ ‫فعل مفرد‬


.‫ تشير إلى شخص واحد أو شىء واحد أو مجموعة واحدة من اثنين‬-
My flat overlooks two streets. Neither street is 20 metres wide.
B) Neither of (them) + ‫ اسم جمع يعد‬+ ‫فعل مفرد أو جمع‬
Neither of my two cars is (are) fast.
There are two teams in my town. Neither of them plays (play) well.
C) Neither + ‫ فاعل أول‬nor + ٍ‫ فاعل ثان‬+ ‫الفعل يتبع الفاعل الثانى‬
.................... ‫ وال‬.................... ‫ال‬
Neither Ali nor his friend is going to visit me.
Neither Ali nor his friends are going to visit me.
D) ‫فاعل‬ + ‫ فعل‬+ neither + ‫ مفعول أول‬nor + ٍ‫مفعول ثان‬
I’ll drink neither tea nor coffee after my lunch today.
.‫ عن النفى لذلك يأتى الفعل قبلها مثبت‬neither ‫ تعبر‬-

:‫ولتلخيص القاعدة اتبع اآلتى‬

Distributive Singular noun Plural noun Uncountable noun

all All (of ) the night All (of ) the nights All (of ) the food

both  Both (of the) cars 

half Half (of ) the loaf Half (of ) the loaves Half (of ) the milk

each Each applicant Each of the applicants 

every Every page Every one of the pages 

either Either player Either of the players 

neither Neither cat Neither of the cats 

The verb after the distributives

all + Singular/Uncountable ‫الفعل مفرد‬ + Plural ‫الفعل جمع‬

both + Plural ‫الفعل جمع‬

half + Singular/Uncountable ‫الفعل مفرد‬ + Plural ‫الفعل جمع‬

each + Singular ‫الفعل مفرد‬ of + Plural ‫الفعل مفرد‬

every + Singular ‫الفعل مفرد‬ One of + Plural ‫الفعل مفرد‬

either + Singular ‫الفعل مفرد‬ of + Plural ‫مفرد‬/‫الفعل جمع‬

neither + Singular ‫الفعل مفرد‬ of + Plural ‫مفرد‬/‫الفعل جمع‬

29
PART 1 Revision (1) (Units 1-8)

3 So/such ... that; enough/too ... to


1 so + adjective/adverb + that ‫ لدرجة أن‬.... ‫جدا‬
ًّ

.‫ قبل الصفة بدون اسم وقبل الحال أيضـًا‬so ‫ تستخدم‬-


The film was so interesting that I watched it twice.
The team played so badly that they couldn’t score any goals.
I was so busy doing my homework all night that I forgot to have my dinner.
2 such + adjective + noun + that ‫ لدرجة أن‬.... ‫جدا‬
ًّ

such a/an + ‫ صفة‬+ ‫ اسم مفرد يعد‬It’s such a nice shirt that I’ve decided to buy it.

such ‫ صفة‬+ ‫اسم مفرد ال يعد‬ It’s such nice weather that we’ll go out soon.

such ‫ صفة‬+ ‫اسم جمع‬ They are such nice shirts that I want to buy them.

3 Adjective/adverb + enough to + inf. ‫بدرجة كافية‬


.‫ صفة أو حال بمعنى إيجابى أى بدرجة كافية للموقف الذى فيه‬enough ‫نستخدم قبل‬
The boy was clever enough to answer the question.
The question was easy enough to answer.
Ali ran quickly enough to catch the train.
The suit wasn’t cheap enough for me to buy.
Enough + noun
I don’t have enough sugar to make two cups of tea.
4 too + adjective/adverb + to + inf. ‫ لدرجة أنه ال‬... ‫جدا‬
ًّ

.‫ معنى الزيادة عن الحد الضرورى أو المطلوب‬too ‫ تعطى‬-


The tea is too hot to drink.
The suit was too expensive to buy.
.‫ فى نهاية الجملة المثبتة بمعنى أيضـًا‬too ‫ تستخدم‬-
My brother speaks English well and I do, too.
:‫مالحظات‬

So much/little + uncountable noun I have so little money that I can’t buy the car.

So many/few + plural noun There were so few chairs that we stood all the time.

Such a lot of + plural/uncountable I have such a lot of books that I spend all the time reading.

30
Grammar
Exercises

Choose the correct answer from a, b, c or d:


1  My uncle, .................... I love most, helps me with maths.

a) which b) that c) whose d) whom


2  Heba, .................... works as a nurse, comes from Alexandria.

a) whose b) who c) whom d) that


3  Mother’s Day is the time .................... people buy their mothers presents.

a) why b) when c) which d) what


4  This is the factory .................... my father used to work.

a) when b) why c) which d) where


5  The person .................... the police were questioning has been released.

a) which b) where c) that d) whose


6  My mother .................... is the best person in the world.

a) who I love b), who I love, c) that I love d), which I love,
7  My friend with .................... I went out was generous.

a) whom b) that c) whose d) who


8  My sister’s brother made a big mistake, .................... she should apologise for.

a) why b) whom c) who d) which


9  18 is the age .................... we can get licences and identity cards.

a) at when b) at which c) in which d) on which


10  Alexandria, .................... is the second capital city, has many comfortable resorts.

a) where b) when c) which d) whose


11  He told me about all .................... happened to him in his childhood.

a) that b) what c) which d) where


12  I went to buy a new bag, but I couldn’t find .................... I wanted.

a) which b) whose c) that d) what


13  My cousin, .................... thirty this weekend, has bought a house in Port Said.

a) that b) who’s c) whom d) whose


14  There’s a girl .................... for you outside the gate to help her.

a) waiting b) waits c) waited d) is waiting


15  The flat .................... is overlooking the Nile.

a) which he bought it b) he bought it


c) he bought d) he buying
16  A stamp is something .................... on a letter if you want to send it.

a) putting b) you put it c) which you put it d) you put


17  The Thames is a river .................... through London.

a) ran b) which runs c) running d) b and c


18  During the war, missiles were being thrown on the city from .................... direction.

a) either b) every c) all d) both


31
PART 1 Revision (1) (Units 1-8)

19  I tried to solve the puzzle twice but failed .................... times.
a) both b) every c) each d) all
20  We had a great weekend as the weather was perfect .................... days.

a) all b) either c) both d) each


21  He gets his hair cut .................... three weeks.

a) such b) either c) each d) every


22  I kiss .................... of my children before they go to bed at night.

a) each b) every c) either d) one


23  Almost .................... car pollutes the atmosphere.

a) each b) all c) every  d) either



24  .................... children need love and attention, and yours is no exception.
a) Each b) Either c) Every  d) All

25  .................... of my students has a different assignment to complete.
a) Every b) All c) Each d) Both

26  .................... of my parents work in the same building.
a) Both b) Either c) Neither d) Each
27  That football game was very close. .................... team wanted to lose.

a) Either b) Neither c) All d) Each


28  Either you leave the building now .................... I call the security guards.

a) nor b) than c) and d) or


29  A: Do you want it ready for Thursday or Friday? B: .................... day is fine for me.

a) Either  b) None c) Both d) All


30  If I were a millionaire, I would travel the .................... world.

a) all b) whole  c) every d) each


31  His arm was so .................... injured that he couldn’t play anymore.

a) bad b) deeply c) hardly d) badly


32  It is .................... useful book that you can gain a lot of information by reading it.

a) such an b) such a c) so d) too


33  The question was .................... difficult for the students that set for the exam to answer.

a) so b) such c) enough d) too


34  The King was .................... to meet Mr Rassendyll in the forest before the coronation.

a) enough lucky b) lucky enough c) too lucky d) so lucky


35  He’s got .................... little patience with children that he can’t be a teacher.

a) too b) such c) so d) enough


36  I’m .................... to go to the cinema.

a) too busy b) busy enough c) so busy d) such a busy


37  My brother is careful .................... to avoid making silly mistakes.

a) too b) enough c) so d) such


38  They are .................... thrilling short stories that I read them twice.

a) too b) so c) such a d) such


32
Revision (1) (Units 1-8)

39  Are you .................... to do this job?


a) experienced enough b) too experienced
c) enough experienced d) no experienced
40  I can’t carry the box. It is too heavy to .................... .

a) be carrying it b) be carrying c) carry it d) carry


41  That coin is .................... to be kept in the museum.

a) so old b) old enough c) such an old d) as old


42  Mr. Amin is .................... honest man that all people respect him.

a) so b) too c) such an d) such a


43  The party was interesting. It’s .................... pity that you didn’t join us.

a) too b) so c) such d) such a


44  I’m sorry. I don’t have .................... money to help you.

a) too b) enough c) such d) so


45  The lesson is too difficult for me to understand. This means that it is .................... .

a) so difficult, but I can understand it


b) so difficult, so I can’t understand it
c) such a difficult one, but I can understand it
d) not such a difficult one that I can understand it
46  A: Why didn’t you attend the party? B: Because I was .................... .

a) so busy b) as busy c) not busy d) such a busy


47  Which one of the following isn’t grammatically correct?

a) It was so hot that I feel like having an ice-cream.


b) It was such a hot day that I feel like having an ice-cream.
c) It was too hot that I feel like having an ice-cream.
d) It was so hot a day that I feel like having an ice-cream.
48  "I have one sister."

One of the following sentences gives a similar meaning to the one above.
a) My sister who spent her holiday in France is 25 years old.
b) My sister whose age is 25 spent her holiday in France.
c) My sister that is 25 years old spent her holiday in France.
d) My sister, who is 25 years old, spent her holiday in France.
49  Tarek has four cats. Two of them are black.

One of the following sentences gives a similar meaning to the one above.
a)  Tarek’s two cats, which are black, can play outside.
b)  Tarek’s two cats which are black can play outside.
c)  Tarek’s two cats, that are black, can play outside.
d)  Tarek’s two cats, whose are black, can play outside.
50  Look! That’s the boy .................... .

a) the teacher punished b) who the teacher punished


c) that the teacher punished d) a, b and c are all possible
33
PART 1 Revision (1) (Units 1-8)

51  S he went to a school .................... .


a) where they studied all subjects in English b) they studied all subjects in English
c) which they studied all subjects in English d) that they studied all subjects in English
52  Hong Kong is a place .................... .

a) where has a lot of tall buildings


b) where there are a lot of tall buildings
c) which has a lot of tall buildings
d) b and c are both possible
53  Mohamed Salah is very famous, and all the world knows him.

a) Mohamed Salah that I met at the Book Fair is a famous footballer.


b) Mohamed Salah whom I met at the Book Fair is a famous footballer.
c) Mohamed Salah, whom I met at the Book Fair, is a famous footballer.
d) I met Mohamed Salah who is a famous footballer at the Book Fair.
54  My friend Judy moved to Canada.

a) My friend Judy, whose husband is Canadian, moved to Canada last week. 


b) My friend Judy whose husband is Canadian moved to Canada last week.
c) My friend Judy who moved to Canada last week is married to a Canadian.
d) My friend Judy that moved to Canada last week is married to a Canadian.
55  I’ve got a friend .................... .

a) her husband goes skydiving b) who husband goes skydiving


c) whose husband goes skydiving d) which husband goes skydiving
56  My father .................... always forgets his password.

a) , whom I helped to install his computer,


b)  whom I helped to install his computer
c) , that I helped to install his computer,
d)  who I helped to install his computer
57  Tom Cruise .................... is a famous American actor.

a) who has starred a lot of films b) whose starred a lot of films


c) , whom films are starred, d) , who has starred a lot of films,
58  I work for a company .................... .

a) that exports clothing. b) which exports clothing


c) exporting clothing. d) a, b and c are all possible
59  I spoke to the assistant .................... .

a) which deals with complaints b) who deals with complaints


c) deals with complaints d) a and b are both possible
60  I bought a laptop ....................

a) that’s got a Chinese-English dictionary built in


b) which has got a Chinese-English dictionary built in
c) got a Chinese-English dictionary built in
d) a and b are both possible

34
Revision (1) (Units 1-8)

Module 3 (Units 6-8)

1 Active & Passive ‫المبنى للمعلوم والمبنى للمجهول‬

Active ‫المبنى للمعلوم‬

.‫ نستخدم المبنى للمعلوم عندما يكون الفاعل (سواء عاقل أو غير عاقل) أكثر أهمية من المفعول‬-
The car killed the boy last week.
:‫ وتتكون الجملة فى المبنى للمعلوم من‬-

Subject + verb ‫الزمن‬ + object


Subj. v obj.
The car hit the boy.

Passive ‫المبنى للمجهول‬

:‫ نستخدم المبنى للمجهول عندما يكون الحدث أكثر أهمية من الفاعل‬-

The food is well-done in this restaurant. (It is not important who did it.)
:‫جدا وتتكون الجملة من‬
ًّ ‫ هو الجملة التى نبدأ فيها بالمفعول فربما ال نعرف من الفاعل أو ال نريد ذكره أو هو معروف‬:‫ المبنى للمجهول‬-

Object + Verb to be + P.P.


am/is/are/was/were/be/being/been
ً ‫المفعول يصبح‬
‫فاعل‬ ‫التصريف الثالث‬
‫على شكل الفعل فى المبنى للمعلوم‬

The car is being repaired

1 Present simple ‫المضارع البسيط‬

Active
He/She/It + v.s/es/ies People like peace all over the world.
I/They/We/You+ inf.

Passive
Peace is liked all over the world.
am/is/are + P.P.

Passive Negative War isn’t liked all over the world.

Passive Interrogative Is peace liked all over the world?


‫االستفهام فى المبنى للمجهول‬ Why is peace liked all over the world?

35
PART 1 Revision (1) (Units 1-8)

2 Present continuous ‫المضارع المستمر‬

Active
Look! They are building a stage in the square.
am/is/are + v.ing

Passive
Look! A stage is being built in the square.
am/is/are + being + P.P.

Passive Negative A stage isn’t being built in the square.

Passive Interrogative Is a stage being built in the square?


‫االستفهام فى المبنى للمجهول‬ Why is a stage being built in the square?

3 Future simple ‫المستقبل البسيط‬

Active
We expect that our teacher will explain the lesson again.
will + inf.

Passive
We expect that the lesson will be explained again.
will + be + P.P.

Passive Negative The lesson won’t be explained again.

Passive Interrogative Will the lesson be explained again?


‫االستفهام فى المبنى للمجهول‬ When will the lesson be explained again?

4 Passive infinitive ‫المبنى للمجهول مع األفعال التى تأخذ المصدر‬

Active
We need to build many hotels.
‫ الفعل الذى يأخذ المصدر‬+ inf.

Passive
Many hotels need to be built.
‫ الفعل الذى يأخذ المصدر‬+ be + P.P.

Passive Negative Many hotels don’t need to be built.

Passive Interrogative Do many hotels need to be built?


‫االستفهام فى المبنى للمجهول‬ When do many hotels need to be built?

36
Revision (1) (Units 1-8)

.‫) فى المبنى للمجهول‬be + P.P.( ‫ األفعال التى يأتى بعدها المصدر فى المبنى للمعلوم يأتى بعدها‬-

will ‫سوف‬ has to ‫يجب أن‬ appear to ‫يبدو‬

would ‫كان سوف‬ had to ‫وجب أن‬ (be) going to ‫سوف‬

may ‫ربما‬ will have to ‫سيجب أن‬ (be) about to ‫على وشك‬

might ‫ربما‬ am to ‫يجب أن‬ (be) supposed to ‫مفروض‬

can ‫يستطيع‬ is to ‫يجب أن‬ needn’t ‫لست فى حاجة‬

could ‫يمكن‬ are to ‫يجب أن‬ want to ‫يريد‬

must ‫يجب أن‬ was to/were to ‫وجب أن‬ let + obj. + inf. ‫يدع‬

ought to ‫يجب أن‬ used to ‫اعتاد أن‬ expect ... to ‫يتوقع‬

should ‫يجب أن‬ need to ‫يحتاج‬ hope to ‫يأمل‬

have to ‫يجب أن‬ seem to ‫يبدو‬

2 Passive forms: Past Tenses


Past simple/Present perfect/Past continuous/Past perfect
1 Past simple passive

Active
Ali invited me to his wedding party.
‫ كل الضمائر‬+ ‫التصريف الثانى‬

Passive
I was invited to Ali’s wedding party.
was/were + P.P.

Passive Negative I wasn’t invited to Ali’s wedding party.

Passive Interrogative Were you invited to Ali’s wedding party?


‫االستفهام فى المبنى للمجهول‬ By whom were you invited to Ali’s wedding party?

37
PART 1 Revision (1) (Units 1-8)

2 Present perfect passive

Active
Ali has invited me to his wedding party.
have/has + P.P.

Passive
I have been invited to Ali’s wedding party.
have/has + been + P.P.

Passive Negative I haven’t been invited to Ali’s wedding party.

Passive Interrogative Have you been invited to Ali’s wedding party?


‫االستفهام فى المبنى للمجهول‬ By whom have you been invited to Ali’s wedding party?

3 Past continuous passive

Active
We were watching the match at 7 p.m. yesterday.
was/were + v.ing

Passive
The match was being watched at 7 p.m. yesterday.
was/were + being + P.P.

Passive Negative The match wasn’t being watched at 7 p.m. yesterday.

Passive Interrogative Was the match being watched at 7 p.m. yesterday?


‫االستفهام فى المبنى للمجهول‬ When was the match being watched?

4 Past perfect passive

Active
I had finished the homework by 7 p.m. yesterday.
had + P.P.

Passive
The homework had been finished by 7 p.m. yesterday.
had + been + P.P.

Passive Negative The homework hadn’t been finished by 7 p.m. yesterday.

Passive Interrogative Had the homework been finished by 7 p.m. yesterday?


‫االستفهام فى المبنى للمجهول‬ When had the homework been finished yesterday?

38
Revision (1) (Units 1-8)

:‫مالحظات‬
ً
.‫مفعول) ال تحول إلى المبنى للمجهول‬ ‫ األفعال الالزمة (التى ال تأخذ‬1
A team of explorers disappeared in the jungle last week.
have, fit, suit, etc :‫ بعض األفعال المتعدية ال تحول للمجهول وهى‬2
I have a shower every morning. (Not: A shower is had by me.)
.)being + P.P.( ‫) نستخدم‬v. + ing( ‫ فى حالة األفعال المتبوعة بـ‬3
I hate people telling me lies.
I hate being told lies.
.)P.P.( ‫) ثم‬be( ‫ضميرا منعكسـًا ثم‬
ً ‫) نستخدم‬let( ‫واحدا مع الفعل‬
ً ‫ إذا كان الفاعل والمفعول‬4
He doesn’t let others deceive him.
He doesn’t let himself be deceived.
.‫ ثم المادة المصنوع منها الشىء أو األداة المستخدمة أو المقادير‬with ‫ نستخدم‬5
The kite will be made by Omar. It will be made with paper, paint and string.
.‫ فى آخر السؤال‬who, whom, which, what ‫ مع‬by ‫ عند استخدام األسئلة فى المبنى للمجهول نستخدم‬6
Who takes your children to school? (Active)
Who are your children taken to school by? (Passive)
.‫ وترك التصريف الثالث فقط‬who/which + v. to be ‫ فيمكن حذف‬who/which ‫ إذا كانت الجملة مجهولة وبها ضمائر الوصل‬7
The meat which was eaten yesterday was delicious.
The meat which was eaten yesterday was delicious.
The boy who was punished yesterday was mistaken.
The boy who was punished yesterday was mistaken.
.‫ فى المبنى للمجهول‬to ‫) ويسبق المصدر بـ‬hear, help, see and make( ‫ األفعال اآلتية تأخذ المصدر فى المبنى للمعلوم‬8
They saw him leave the building.
He was seen to leave the building.
.ing ‫ فإن الفعل يظل كما هو به‬ing ‫ الفعل به‬hear, see, watch ‫ولكن إذا جاء بعد‬
They saw him running down the stairs.
He was seen running down the stairs.
:‫) عند التحويل إلى المبنى للمجهول خاصة مع التصريف الثالث من األفعال اآلتية‬verb to be( ‫بدل من‬ ً )get( ‫ يمكن أن نستخدم الفعل‬9
(catch/arrest/damage/destroy/kill/marry/burn/beat)
The police caught/arrested the bank robbers.
The bank robbers got caught/arrested.

39
PART 1 Revision (1) (Units 1-8)

3 Causative (Active and passive) ‫السببية‬

1 The active causative (have and get)

A) Have + object (‫ )عاقل‬+ infinitive


.‫ تستخدم للتعبير عن أن شخصـًا يجعل أو يتسبب أو يطلب من شخص آخر أن يفعل شيئـًا‬-
The boss had the secretary type the letter. (He asked her to type the letter)
The teacher had us do some extra work today.
B) Get + object (‫ )عاقل‬+ to + infinitive
.‫ تستخدم للتعبير عن أن شخصـًا يقنع شخصـًا آخر أن يفعل شيئـًا‬-
He got his mother to buy him a chocolate. (He persuaded her to buy him a chocolate.)
Please get Yasser to help you.
2 The passive causative (have and get)

Have/get + object (‫ )غير عاقل‬+ P.P.


I don’t cut my hair. I have my hair cut.
A: Do you usually get your room cleaned? B: No, I clean it myself.
.‫ نستخدم هذا الشكل لنقول إننا رتبنا لشخص أن يفعل شيئـًا لنا‬-
Osama had a house built. (He didn’t do it himself - the builder did it.)
:‫ نبدأ فى المبنى للمعلوم بالفاعل‬-

Active Tense

repairs ‫مضارع بسيط‬

repaired ‫ماض بسيط‬


ٍ

is repairing ‫مضارع مستمر‬

was repairing ‫ماض مستمر‬


ٍ

The mechanic has repaired my car ‫مضارع تام‬

had repaired ‫ماض تام‬


ٍ

will repair ‫مستقبل‬

can repair ‫المصدر‬

must repair ‫المصدر‬

40
Revision (1) (Units 1-8)

:‫ نبدأ فى المبنى للمجهول بالمفعول‬-

Passive Tense

is repaired ‫مضارع بسيط‬

was repaired ‫ماض بسيط‬


ٍ

is being repaired ‫مضارع مستمر‬

was being repaired ‫ماض مستمر‬


ٍ

My car has been repaired (by the mechanic) ‫مضارع تام‬

had been repaired ‫ماض تام‬


ٍ

will be repaired ‫مستقبل‬

can be repaired ‫المصدر‬

must be repaired ‫المصدر‬

‫ نبدأ فى السببية بالشخص صاحب الشىء‬-


‫ الشخص صاحب الشىء‬+ v. to have + )‫ الشىء (المفعول‬+ P.P.

Causative Tense

have ‫مضارع بسيط‬

had ‫ماض بسيط‬


ٍ

am having ‫مضارع مستمر‬

was having ‫ماض مستمر‬


ٍ

I have had my car repaired ‫مضارع تام‬

had had ‫ماض تام‬


ٍ

will have ‫مستقبل‬

can have ‫المصدر‬

must have ‫المصدر‬

41
PART 1 Revision (1) (Units 1-8)

:‫مالحظات‬
.)‫ للماضى البسيط‬did‫ للمضارع البسيط و‬do/does ‫ السببية فى السؤال (نستخدم‬1
.)‫ للماضى البسيط‬didn’t‫ للمضارع البسيط و‬don’t/doesn’t ‫ السببية فى النفى (نستخدم‬2
Did you have your meal prepared?
No, I didn’t (have it prepared). I prepared it myself.
.‫وفى األزمنة األخرى نستخدم الفعل المساعد أو الناقص الموجود فى أول السؤال‬
Are you going to have your tooth pulled out by the dentist?
Have you had your car checked at the garage?
Will you have your house painted?
.‫ فى المبنى للمعلوم بمعنى اإلصرار وليس الطلب‬have ‫بدل من‬
ً make ‫ يمكن استخدام الفعل‬3
The teacher made us write the homework twice. (He insisted that we should...)
.‫ ليفيد الصعوبة أحيانـًا‬have ‫بدل من‬
ً get ‫ تستخدم‬4
He finally got the seats booked.
‫مصدرا‬
ً ‫ وإن كان الفعل‬having ‫ فإننا نستخدم‬ing ‫ تأتى على شكل الفعل الذى يكون فى المبنى للمعلوم فلو كان الفعل به‬have ‫ يمكن القول إن‬5
.‫ مثل‬to have ‫ فإننا نستخدم‬to + inf. ‫ وإن كان الفعل‬have ‫نستخدم‬
She likes cleaning her house. She likes having her house cleaned.
She’d like (likes) to clean her house. She’d like (likes) to have her house cleaned.

42
Grammar
Exercises

Choose the correct answer from a, b, c or d:


1  Water should .................... wisely.

a) be using b) be used c) use d) have used


2  A party .................... for my sister’s engagement.

a) gives b) is to give c) is going to be given d) is going to give


3  Sooner or later, a cure for cancer .................... .

a) will be discovered b) will be discovering c) will have discovered d) will discover


4  Don’t be wasteful or your money ....................out.

a) will be run b) ran c) run d) will run


5  Animals need to .................... well.

a) be fed b) feed c) be feeding d) food


6  Old bottles .................... for recycling.

a) take b) are taken c) is taken d) are taking


7  Preparations for the party .................... now.

a) have made b) has to be made c) are being made d) are making


8  Chinese mobiles .................... all over the world.

a) are to sell b) are sold c) are selling d) has been sold


9  The wind is used .................... ships.

a) to sail b) be sailed c) to have sailed d) to sailing


10  Unfortunately, no spare parts for my car .................... easily.

a) can find b) are finding c) is found d) can be found


11  The very old house .................... yesterday.

a) was collapsed b) collapsed


c) has collapsed d) has been collapsed
12  Having ...................., the criminal admitted killing the old lady.

a) questioned b) being questioned c) been questioned d) to be questioned


13  As soon as I .................... the good news, I got excited.

a) was telling b) have been told c) had told d) was told


14  Food .................... while I was doing my homework.

a) was preparing b) is prepared c) was being prepared d) has been prepared


15  What was said in the meeting .................... .

a) hasn’t been expected b) wasn’t expecting


c) hadn’t expected d) hadn’t been expected
16  Since the femtosecond ...................., there has been a breakthrough in chemistry.

a) was discovered b) discovered c) has been discovered d) is discovered


17  I fastened the seatbelt. Then the plane .................... off.

a) was taken b) took c) was taking d) takes


43
PART 1 Revision (1) (Units 1-8)

18   o mistakes .................... after I had followed my teacher’s advice.


N
a) were made b) were making c) made d) are made
19  My car .................... before I travelled to Hurghada.

a) is checked b) had to be checked c) had checked d) had to check


20  My car was repaired. This means that I .................... .

a) had repaired my car b) had to repair my car


c) had my car repaired d) will have to repair my car
21  We usually .................... our food made as we are busy studying.

a) cause b) have c) do d) make


22  My car engine doesn’t start; I will .................... a mechanic to check it.

a) let b) have c) get d) make


23  We won’t paint our house ourselves. We .................... by a clever painter.

a) won’t paint it b) will have painted it


c) will have it painted d) will paint it
24  I’m going to get my hair .................... as it is very long.

a) shortens b) lengthens c) lengthened d) shortened


25  Are you going to have your shoes polished? - No, I will .................... myself.

a) get it polished b) polish it


c) polish them d) have them polished
26  After I .................... at El-Nasr car service, I drove to Ras Elbar.

a) had serviced my car b) had had my car serviced


c) have had my car serviced d) serviced

27  .................... an air conditioner installed in your room; it’s terribly hot there.
a) Have b) Take c) Let d) Had
28  I had my computer fixed. This means that .................... .

a) it wasn’t fixed b) no one fixed it c) I fixed it d) someone fixed it


29  Have you .................... the main road in your town paved?

a) making b) get c) had d) make


30  I’m .................... my car serviced now.

a) making b) getting c) allowed d) allowing


31  When I was a child, I ....................; I was too young to do so.

a) used to have my room tidied b) used to tidy my room


c) tidied my room d) have tidied my room
32  A: Have you had your room decorated? B: No, I .................... myself yesterday.

a) have decorated it b) had it decorated c) decorated it d) had decorated it


33  The office carpet is so dirty. It needs .................... .

a) cleaning b) to be cleaned c) to clean d) both (a) and (b)


34  Do not beat the dog./Let the dog .................... .

a) isn’t beaten b) not to be beaten c) not be beaten d) isn’t being beaten

44
Revision (1) (Units 1-8)

35  Changing the sentence “I want someone to love me.” Into passive will be .................... .
a) someone is wanted to love me b) I want to be loved
c) someone is loved by me d) someone wants to be loved
36  Which one of the following is grammatically incorrect?

a) People claim the temple is the oldest in the world.


b) The temple is claimed to be the oldest in the world.
c) It’s claimed that the temple is the oldest in the world.
d) It’s claimed that the temple to be the oldest in the world.
37  It .................... that the victim .................... with poison.

a) was thought/must have killed b) is thought/has killed


c) was thought/had been killed d) thought/had been killed
38  Which one of the following is not grammatically correct?

a) It is believed that money brings happiness.


b) People believe that money to bring happiness.
c) Happiness is believed to be brought with money.
d) Money is believed to bring happiness.
39  Changing the sentence “We avoided people seeing us.” Into passive will be .................... .

a) we avoided to be seen b) people were avoided seeing us


c) people avoided seeing us d) we avoided being seen
40  My mom had the curtains changed. This means that .................... .

a) she changed them herself


b) someone persuaded her to change them
c) someone changed them for her
d) she changed them for someone
41  My sister got the dresses delivered to the customers. This means .................... .

a) she asked the customers to take the dresses b) someone delivered them
c) The customers got the dresses themselves d) she delivered them herself
42  My brother .................... the mechanic .................... his car yesterday.

a) had/to repair b) got/to repair


c) got/repair d)  had/repairing
43  ’’Do you know where I can ....................?”

a) clean a suit b) get a suit cleaned


c) have a suit clean d) have cleaned a suit
44  Which one of the following is grammatically incorrect?

a) Ahmed got his car repaired.


b) Ahmed had his car repaired.
c) Ahmed had a mechanic to repair his car.
d) Ahmed got a mechanic to repair his car.

45
Part
2

Revision (2) on Units (9-16)


(Units 9-16)

Vocabulary
Key Vocabulary

absorb (v) (ed) ‫يمتص‬ CV (Curriculum Vitae) ‫السيرة الذاتية‬

ambassador (n) ‫سفير‬ daycare centre ‫مركز رعاية نهارى‬

ancestors (n) ‫أسالف‬ defeat (v) (ed) ‫انهزام‬/‫يهزم‬

applicant (n) ‫متقدم للوظيفة‬ degree (n) ‫درجة‬

appointment (n) ‫موعد‬ department (n) ‫إدارة‬/‫قسم‬

bark (n) ‫القشرة الخارجية‬/ ‫اللحاء‬ depression (n) ‫ركود‬/‫انخفاض‬/‫الكساد‬

base (n) (v) ‫يؤسس‬/‫أساس‬/‫قاعدة‬ diameter (n) ‫قطر الدائرة‬

beneath (prep) ‫أسفل‬ directly (adv) ‫مباشرة‬

calculate (v) (d) ‫يحسب‬ drill (v) (n) ‫تنقيب‬/‫ينقب عن‬/‫يحفر‬

candidate (n) ‫مرشح‬ drought (n) ‫الجفاف‬

cardboard (n) ‫كرتوني‬/‫ورق مقوى‬ eclipse (n) (v) (d) ‫يكسف‬/‫خسوف‬/‫كسوف‬

carve (v) ‫ينحت‬ emission (n) )‫انبعاث(غاز‬

celebrity (n) ‫شخص مشهور‬ enroll/enrol (v) (ed) ‫يسجل‬/‫يدرج االسم‬

centigrade (n) ‫مئوية‬ established (ad) ‫ذو مكانة‬/‫ثابت‬

choir (n) )‫الكورال (مجموعة مغنيين‬ evil (adj) ‫شرير‬

clear …up (v) ‫يزيل غموض‬/‫يوضح‬/‫ينظف‬ extract (v) (ed) ‫ينزع‬/‫يستخلص‬

cliff (n) ‫منحدر صخرى‬ fellow (n) ‫رفيق‬/‫رجل‬

commuter (n) ‫راكب‬/‫مسافر‬ fire (n) (v) ‫يطلق الرصاص‬/‫حريق‬-‫نار‬

concentrate (v)(d) ‫يركز‬ fluent (adj) ‫فصيح‬/‫طليق‬

concern (n) ‫اهتمام‬ force (v) (n) ‫قوة‬/‫يرغم‬/‫يجبر‬

conscientious (adj) ‫مـُجد‬/‫ذو ضمير حى‬ gap (n) ‫فجوة‬

consider (v) (ed) ‫يعتبر‬ grade (n) ‫تقدير‬/‫درجة‬

correspondent (n) ‫مراسل‬ grain (n) ‫ ذرة رمل‬/‫قمح‬

creative (adj) ‫مبتكر‬/‫إبداعى‬ greed (n) ‫جشع‬/‫طمع‬

47
PART 2 Revision (2) (Units 9-16)

harden (v) (ed) ‫يقوى‬/‫يجمد‬ redundant (adj) )‫مفصول من العمل (عاطل‬

harmful (adj) ‫ضار‬ reputation (n) ‫شهرة‬/‫سمعة‬

heat (n) ‫يسخن‬/‫حرارة‬ retrain (v) (ed) ‫يعيد تدريب‬

illuminate (v) ‫يضىء‬ ring (n) ‫حلقة‬

investment (n) ‫استثمار‬ rubber (n) ‫مطاط‬

lecture (n) ‫محاضرة‬ rule (v) (d) ‫يحكم‬

lightning (n) ‫البرق‬ sales (n) ‫مبيعات‬

manage (v) (d) ‫يتمكن‬/‫ينجح‬ sap (n) )‫سائل داخل الشجرة (نسغ‬

Mandarin (n) ‫اللغة الصينية‬ scorpion (n) ‫عقرب‬

massive (adj) ‫ضخم‬ sociable (adj) )‫اجتماعى (شخص‬

mature (adj) ‫بالغ‬/‫ناضج‬ solar panel (n) ‫لوح شمسى‬

merchant (n) ‫تاجر‬ solar (adj) ‫شمسى‬

Mexico (n) ‫المكسيك‬ sting (v) (n) ‫لدغة‬/‫يلدغ‬

neighborhood (n) ‫الحى‬/‫الجيرة‬ success (n) ‫نجاح‬

non-fiction (adj) ‫غير خيالى‬/‫واقعى‬ sunburn (n) ‫حرق الشمس‬

northern (adj.) ‫شمالى‬ Switzerland (n) ‫سويسرا‬

occur (v) (ed) ‫يحدث‬ throughout (prep) ‫خالل‬/‫عبر‬

Open University ‫الجامعة المفتوحة‬ throw away (v) ‫يلقى‬

pearl (n) ‫لؤلؤة‬ toiler (n) ‫سائر بصعوبة‬/‫كادح‬

pharmacy (n) ‫صيدلية‬ transport (n) (v) (ed) ‫نقل‬/‫ينقل‬

phenomenon (n) )‫ظاهرة (مفرد‬ treat (v) ‫يعالج‬

position (n) (v) (ed) ‫يضع فى مكان‬/‫موضع‬ trick (n) (v) (ed) ‫يخدع‬/‫خدعة‬

power cut (n) )‫انقطاع طاقة (كهرباء‬ tubes (n) ‫أنبوبة‬/‫أنبوب‬

power station (n) )‫محطة طاقة (كهرباء‬ tunnel (n) (v) (led) ‫يشق األنفاق‬/‫يحفر‬/‫نفق‬

president (n) ‫رئيس الدولة‬ turpentine (n) ‫زيت التربنتين‬

product (n) ‫منتـَج‬ ultraviolet rays (n) ‫أشعة فوق بنفسجية‬

promotion (n) ‫ترقية‬ valuable (adj) ‫قيـَم‬

publicity (n) ‫شهرة إعالمية‬/‫شيوع‬ violent (adj) ‫عنيف‬

qualified (adj) ‫كفؤ‬/‫مؤهل‬ width (n) ‫عرض‬

rainfall (n) ‫سقوط المطر‬ will (n) (v) (ed) ‫يوصى بـ‬/‫وصية‬

ray (n) ‫شعاع‬ worthwhile (adj) ‫جدير باالهتمام‬

receptionist (n) ‫موظف استقبال‬ writing (n) ‫كتابة‬

48
Revision (2) (Units 9-16)

Expressions & Idioms

a private person ‫شخص كتوم‬ have problems with ‫لديه مشاكل فى‬

at any age ‫فى أى سن‬ have qualifications for ‫لديه مؤهالت فى‬

at intervals ‫على فترات‬ have the chance to ‫لديه الفرصة لكى‬

at the present time ‫فى الوقت الحالى‬ in vain ‫بال جدوى‬

at the sight of ‫عند رؤية‬ keep the attackers out ‫يبعد الهاجمين‬

become friends ‫يتصادق‬ lift him off his feet ‫ترفعه من على األرض‬

by mistake ‫عن طريق الخطأ‬ look straight at ‫ينظر مباشرة إلى‬

by the end of ‫بنهاية‬ made into a film ‫متحول لفيلم‬

carry water from .. to ‫ إلى‬.. ‫ينقل الماء من‬ make a note ‫يدون مالحظات‬

catch the train ‫يلحق بالقطار‬ make an appointment ‫موعدا‬


ً ‫يرتب‬

cause/do harm to ‫يؤذى‬/‫يضر‬ make noise ‫يحدث ضوضاء‬

change his mind ‫يغير رأيه‬ make plans ‫يعد خططـًا‬

come into sight ‫يتضح‬/‫يظهر‬ make up his mind ‫يقرر‬

come to an agreement on ‫يصل إلى اتفاق على‬ miss opportunities ‫تفوته الفرص‬

cut into rock ‫يحفر فى الصخر‬ miss the train ‫يفوته القطار‬

do a degree course in ‫مقررا جامعيـًّا فى‬


ً ‫يدرس‬ on time ‫فى الوقت المحدد‬

do the accounts ‫يقوم (يتولى) الحسابات‬ out of interest ‫بدافع من االهتمام‬

do the shopping ‫يتسوق‬ part-time job ‫وظيفة ذات وقت جزئى‬

feel concern for ‫يشعر باالهتمام بشأن‬ reach a length of ‫يصل طوله إلى‬

full-time job ‫وظيفة ذات وقت كامل‬ set of instructions ‫مجموعة تعليمات‬

gain experience ‫يكتسب خبرة‬ sound like ‫يبدو كأنه‬

get better at ‫يتحسن فى‬ take pride in ‫يتفاخر بـ‬/‫يتباهى‬

get into a university ‫يلتحق بالجامعة‬ take the underground ‫يركب (يستقل) المترو‬

give instructions ‫يعطى تعليمات‬ take up opportunities ‫يستفيد من الفرص‬

give lectures ‫يلقى محاضرات‬ tell the truth ‫يقول الحقيقة‬

go back to education ‫يعود للتعليم‬ travel into space ‫يسافر للفضاء‬

go darker ‫يصبح داكنـًا‬ turn red ‫يتحول للون األحمر‬

have a degree in ‫لديه شهادة فى‬ use wood as a fuel ‫يستخدم الخشب كوقود‬

have a driving licence ‫يحمل رخصة قيادة‬ wear sun cream ‫يضع كريم الشمس‬

have in common ‫لديهم أشياء مشتركة‬ work on a project ‫يعمل على إنجاز مشروع‬

49
PART 2 Revision (2) (Units 9-16)

Phrases & prepositions

ambassador to ‫سفير لـ‬ look round ‫يتجول‬/‫يطوف‬

apply for ‫يتقدم بطلب لـ‬ manage to ‫يتمكن أن‬/ ‫ينجح‬

attractive to ‫جذاب لـ‬ member of ‫فرد من‬/‫عضو‬

award for ‫جائزة على‬ move to ‫ينقل إلى‬

block out/off ‫يعوق‬/‫يحجب‬ pour ... into ‫ فى‬... ‫يصب‬

candidate for ‫مرشح لـ‬ press with ‫يضغط بـ‬

care about/for ‫يهتم بـ‬ protect from ‫يحمى من‬

concentrate on ‫يركز على‬ proud of ‫فخور بـ‬

concern for/about ‫اهتمام بشأن‬ provide for ‫يوفر لـ‬

correspondent for ‫مراسل لـ‬ refer to ‫يشير إلى‬

difference in ‫اختالف فى‬ remind of ‫يذكر بـ‬

drill into ‫يثقب فى‬ remove from ‫يزيل من‬

effective at ‫فعال فى‬/‫مؤثر‬ result of ‫نتيجة لـ‬

enroll on/for /in ‫يدرج فى‬/ ‫يـُسجل‬ return to ‫يرجع إلى‬

explanation for ‫تفسير لــ‬ right for ‫صحيح لـ‬

extract from ‫يستخلص من‬ take over ‫يستولى على‬

find out about ‫يكتشف عن‬ talk about ‫يتحدث عن‬

fluent in ‫طليق فى‬ tie to ‫يربط لـ‬

focus on ‫يركز على‬ translate into ‫يترجم إلى‬

free from ‫خال من‬/‫حر‬


ٍ transport to ‫ينقل إلى‬

go out ‫تنطفئ‬ travel through ‫يسافر عبر‬

go round ‫يزور‬ turn into ‫يتحول إلى‬

grown for ‫مزروع من أجل‬ use of ‫استخدام لـ‬

harmful to ‫ضار لـ‬ warn about ‫يحذر عن‬

instead of ً
‫بدل من‬ work as ‫يعمل كـ‬

50
Revision (2) (Units 9-16)

Language Notes

1 Abbreviations

B.Sc. bachelor of science ‫بكالوريوس فى العلوم‬

BA bachelor of arts )‫بكالوريوس (درجة جامعية‬

CV Curriculum Vitae ‫السيرة الذاتية‬

DOB date of birth ‫تاريخ الميالد‬

F/T full time ‫كامل الوقت‬

GSEC General Secondary Education Certificate ‫شهادة الثانوية العامة‬

IT information technology ‫تكنولوجيا المعلومات‬

M.Sc. Master of science ‫درجة الماجستير فى العلوم‬

P/T part time ‫جزء من الوقت‬/‫بعض الوقت‬

PhD doctor of philosophy ‫درجة الدكتوراه فى الفلسفة‬

2 blow & fall & pour & rise & set


blow )‫تهب (الرياح‬
It was blowing from an easterly direction.
fall )‫يسقط (المطر‬
He stood at the balcony watching the rain fall on the road.
pour )‫يسقط بشدة (المطر‬/‫ينهمر‬
The road became very wet when rain started to pour down.
rise )‫تشرق (الشمس‬
My grandfather tells us that all farmers start work when the sun rises.
set )‫تغرب (الشمس‬
In Ramadan Muslims start to eat just after the sun sets.

3 blizzard & downpour & gale

blizzard ‫عاصفة ثلجية‬


downpour )‫هطول أمطار (مطر غزير‬
gale ‫(عاصفة) هبوب شديد للرياح‬

51
PART 2 Revision (2) (Units 9-16)

4 make up

make up ‫يشكل‬/‫يتكون من‬/‫يكون‬


make up )‫يؤلف (قصة أو كذبة‬/‫يخترع‬
make up for ‫يخفف عن‬/‫يعوض عن‬
make up to ‫ينافق شخصـًا‬
make up one’s mind ً ‫يتخذ‬/‫يقرر‬
‫قرارا‬

5 The points of the compass

.(ern) ‫( ولتحويل هذه الكلمات إلى صفات نضيف‬north – south – east – west) ‫ الجهات األصلية هى‬-
My cousins live in the south of Egypt.
In summer, temperatures are not so hot in northern Egypt. Spain is in western Europe.
Some of the biggest shopping centers are in the eastern part of the city.

6 Adjectives with weather phenomena


:‫ظواهر الطقس‬

heavy rain ‫مطر غزير‬ violent storms ‫عواصف عنيفة‬

high temperature ‫درجة حرارة عالية‬


strong wind ‫رياح عاتية‬
high waves ‫أمواج عالية‬

52
Vocabulary
Exercises
Choose the correct answer from a, b, c or d:
1  We are going to interview the five best .................... for the job.
a) applications b) appointments c) employers d) applicants
2  A lot of tourists stay at that hotel because it has a good .................... .
a) reputation b) repetition c) research d) representative
3  Ola has a lovely voice and often sings in a .................... .
a) choice b) clarinet c) client d) choir
4  My uncle speaks Spanish because he once worked as the Egyptian .................... to Argentina.
a) personnel b) president c) ambassador d) ruler
5  My grandfather left his house to my parents in his .................... .
a) well b) wall c) will d) wool
6  The factory closed and all the workers were made .................... .
a) redundant b) employable c) employed d) job holders
7  Ayman cannot apply for the job in the bank because he is not .................... to do it.
a) qualification b) qualified c) quality d) qualities
8  What .................... did you get in your maths exam?
a) grade b) graduate c) licence d) degree
9  We couldn’t take the children to the beach, so we bought them each an ice cream to make .................... it.
a) up b) down c) up for d) down for
10  Fatma is very .................... . She always does her homework carefully and on time.
a) unconscious b) conscientious c) conservative d) convinced
11  There was a .................... last night and many buildings were damaged by the wind.
a) pour b) thunder c) gale d) blow
12  At what time does the sun .................... this evening?
a) up b) down c) rise d) set
13  Should I have fish or meat at the restaurant I really can’t .................... my mind.
a) make up b) make up for c) make d) make off
14  My grandmother has spent a lot of time reading since her .................... .
a) death b) rewarding c) retirement d) birth
15  Who is the .................... of the USA at the moment?
a) King b) Queen c) President d) Prince
16  The police quickly cleared .................... the mystery of who took the money from the bank last week.
a) up b) off c) over d) down

53
PART 2 Revision (2) (Units 9-16)

17  Ahmed wants to be like his grandfather, who has been a big .................... on him.
a) individual b) rule c) influence d) idea
18  The children did not let the wind stop their .................... of the picnic.
a) enjoyment b) joyful c) enjoyable d) joylessness
19  The information in this report is very old. Please can you .................... it?
a) date b) repair c) make up d) update
20  You’ll really like this book. The story is .................... .
a) terrific b) terrible c) horrible d) capable
21  Khaled has an .................... to see the doctor at four o’clock.
a) application b) activity c) appointment d) applicant
22  When you revise, take regular breaks because it is difficult to .................... for more than an hour.
a) concern b) conclude c) concentrate d) confirm
23  Manal can speak very good English, but she is not .................... .
a) fleet b) flat c) fluent d) foolish
24  There was a .................... this morning and many of the roads flooded.
a) dust storm b) drought c) rain d) downpour
25  The teacher was angry because two boys were talking .................... the lesson.
a) throughout b) without c) after d) along
26  My little sister is very good at making .................... stories. They are very funny!
a) for b) out c) up d) off
27  It was hard to climb the mountain, but it was .................... . The views from the top were amazing!
a) worthwhile b) worth c) while d) worthless
28  Mazin has had a .................... . He is now the manager of the shop where he was an assistant.
a) punishment b) progress c) protection d) promotion
29  New cars and electrical goods are usually .................... around the world on giant ships.
a) transmitted b) transported c) translated d) travelled
30  It’s Kholoud’s first day studying science at university, so she needs to find the science .................... .
a) development b) department c) employment d) enjoyment
31  The statue was .................... in the park where many people could see it.
a) referred b) hidden c) positioned d) pointed
32  Water boils at 100 degrees .................... .
a) percent b) centigrade c) centimetres d) hot
33  Mohammed does a lot of charity work in his .................... .
a) neighbour b) neighbourhood c) neighbouring d) neighbourly
34  The Nile’s floods used to .................... every year.
a) care b) cure c) occur d) clear
54
Revision (2) (Units 9-16)

35  We all knew about the film because it had a lot of .................... .
a) publicity b) duplicity c) depository d) qualifications
36  Have you ever been .................... by a bee?
a) sting b) stung c) stuck d) stick
37  This insect is .................... . It’s smaller than a bee.
a) mass b) massive c) tiny d) great
38  How can scientists .................... the age of the tree?
a) count b) work c) capture d) calculate
39  The .................... of this room is about three metres.
a) wide b) big c) large d) width
40  In golf, it is best if you can hit the ball .................... .
a) harden b) hardly c) hard d) hardworking
41  Old bridges used to be made of wood, but modern ones are usually made of .................... .
a) concrete b) concert c) conquest d) condensation
42  Be careful with that glass vase. It is .................... .
a) valuable b) available c) visual d) vocational
43  .................... that you lived by the sea, what would you do every day?
a) Condition b) As long c) Imagine d) Supposed
44  We don’t need that old paper bag. You can throw it .................... .
a) off b) up c) away d) down
45  If it doesn’t rain soon, there will be a .................... .
a) draught b) flood c) gale d) drought
46  Did you know that the .................... of the moon is 3,474 km?
a) depth b) diameter c) length d) height
47  We felt great .................... when we heard that you were leaving the school.
a) sadness b) stressful c) strict d) sad
48  The rays of the sun .................... the statue.
a) eliminate b) illuminate c) fabricate d) regulate
49  Many modern houses have solar .................... on their roofs to get energy from the sun.
a) power b) power stations c) bases d) panels
50  The bottom of a shoe is often made of .................... .
a) rubbish b) rucksacks c) rubber d) rulers
51  We saw a .................... at the theatre today. She is a famous singer.
a) celebrity b) publicity c) celebration d) fame
52  The police .................... the car to stop before the thieves could drive away.
a) forecast b) forced c) made d) had
55
PART 2 Revision (2) (Units 9-16)

53  It was very hot, so we sat .................... a big tree and had a rest.
a) over b) on c) beneath d) at
54  Look at that cat! It is .................... a mouse.
a) chasing b) running c) cheating d) chatting
55   y brother will .................... on the English course at the American University.
M
a) apply b) enroll c) join d) enter
56  Many .................... travel to work in Cairo on the metro.
a) communities b) communications c) companies d) commuters
57  Strange weather can .................... all over the world.
a) occur b) place c) take part d) land
58  There was a .................... and all the lights went off.
a) power off b) power cut c) cut d) power station
59  The red team .................... the blue team 2-0.
a) won b) last c) defeated d) beaten
60  My sister loves chocolate, but .................... I prefer ice cream.
a) personally b) person c) to me d) at me
61  She still thinks about where to spend her holiday. She can’t .................... her mind.
a) make b) make up for c) make up d) make out
62  When the weather was very rainy, we were in a .................... .
a) downpour b) gale c) drought d) blizzard
63  The company hired a/an .................... manager to check software issues.
a) ID b) CV c) IT d) DR
64  We must all .................... the role which doctors and nurses play to fight dangerous diseases.
a) appreciate b) inspect c) stop d) suspect
65  If the symptoms persist, .................... your doctor.
a) advise b) consult c) suggest d) inquire

56
Revision (2) (Units 9-16)

Grammar

Module 4 (Units 9,10&11)


Reported Speech ) ‫الكالم المنقول (غير المباشر‬

1 Reported statements ‫الجمل الخبرية‬

.me/him/her/us/them :‫ المفعول به سواء أكان اسمـًا أم ضمير مفعول مثل‬told ‫ و يأتى بعد‬told ‫ أو‬said ‫ يكون فعل القول فى الجملة الخبرية‬- 1
.‫ ويمكن حذفها‬that ‫ ال نجد عالمات تنصيص فى الجملة المحولة ونربط الجملة الخبرية بــ‬-2
.‫ دائمـًا جملة كاملة بدايتها الفاعل (اسم أو ضمير) والضمائر تكون موافقة لسياق الجملة‬that ‫ بعد‬-3

ٍ )said/told( ‫ إذا كان فعل القول‬-4


.‫ماض فال يوجد مضارع أو مستقبل بعدهما إال فى الحاالت الخاصة‬
:‫ ننزل بالزمن درجة للوراء كاآلتى‬-5

Direct Indirect Direct Indirect

play/plays played will play would play

played had played shall play would play/should play

is/are playing was/were playing may play might play

have/has played had played can play could play

has/have been playing had been playing must play had to play/must play

was/were playing had been playing will have to play had to/would have to play

:‫ ظروف الزمان والمكان وضمائر اإلشارة تكون موافقة للكالم المنقول أيضـًا وهى كالتالى‬-٦

Direct Indirect Direct Indirect

now then tonight that night

this that tomorrow the next day

these those next week the following week

here there today that day

(two days) ago (two days) before/earlier come here go there


the week before the day before
last week yesterday
the previous week the previous day
tomorrow morning the next morning this afternoon that afternoon

next Friday the following Friday the day after tomorrow in two days’ time

57
PART 2 Revision (2) (Units 9-16)

Examples:
Direct Indirect

“The children are in the garden.” Omar said the children were in the garden.

“My T.V isn’t working.” He said his T.V wasn’t working.

“I have a meeting at 4.00.” She said she had a meeting at 4.00.

“Ola has passed her exam.” Sally told me Ola had passed her exam.

“I will probably be late.” I thought I would probably be late.

“You can have three tickets.” The man said I could have three tickets.

“The train leaves at 6.00.” The timetable said the train left at 6.00.

“We all speak English.” She said they all spoke English.

“I forgot my keys.” He said he had forgotten his keys.

:‫مالحظات هامة‬
:‫ ال يتغير الزمن فى الجملة المحولة فى الحاالت اآلتية‬1
)facts( ‫( أ ) الحقائق‬
The teacher told us that the Nile is the longest river in the world.
)just now/a moment ago( ‫ أى به كلمات مثل‬،‫(ب) إذا قبل الكالم للتو‬
My father said just now that he is going to Alex. tomorrow.
.‫(جـ) إذا كان فعل القول فى أحد أزمنة المضارع أو المستقبل‬
Ahmad says/has said that he is ready for the exam.
.‫ يبقى كما هو‬had better/used to ‫ و‬modal verbs ‫( د ) الماضى التام والماضى من‬
He said that they could see the mountain after they had reached the top of the tower.
:said ‫بدل من‬ً ‫ يمكن استخدام األفعال اآلتية‬2
claimed ‫ ادعى‬/ complained / mentioned ‫ ذكر‬/ indicated ‫ أوضح‬/ asserted ‫ أكد‬/ agreed / reported ‫نقل الخبر‬
/ explained ‫ أبلغ‬/ shout ‫صاح‬
The man said,” The woman was killed yesterday.”
The man reported that the woman had been killed the day before.
:v + ing ‫ يمكن استخدام األفعال اآلتية ويأتى بعدها‬3
suggest/admit/deny/apologise for/objected to/insisted on + (v.ing)
He said, “Let’s look for another flat .”
- He suggested looking for another flat.
:‫ وبعدها جملة‬that ‫ يمكن تحويل الجملة باستخدام‬deny/admit ‫بعد‬
He said, “I didn’t steal the bag.”
- He denied stealing the bag.
He denied that he had stolen the bag. (‫ مثبت‬deny ‫)الفعل بعد‬

58
Revision (2) (Units 9-16)

:to + inf. ‫ يمكن استخدام األفعال اآلتية ويأتى بعدها‬4


promise/offer/agree/threaten/refuse/remind/decide/warn/ask/advise/allow/ + (to + inf.)
He said, “I’ll help you with your homework.”
He promised to help me with my homework.
.‫ماض تام مستمر أو يظل كما هو للحفاظ على وحدة الزمن‬
ٍ ‫ الماضى المستمر يمكن أن يحول إلى‬5
He said that he had been studying all day the day before.
He said that he fell down while he was playing.
inform/explained/complained/exclaim/remark :‫ بعدها مثل‬that ‫ هناك أفعال يجب استخدام‬6
v.ing ‫ أو‬to + inf. ‫واألفعال اآلتية فى حالة عدم وجود‬
(agree/deny/promise/claim/threaten/remind/boast/suggest/claim)
He complained that the service in that restaurant was not good.
.‫ إلى الحالة الثانية ولكن الماضى غير الحقيقى فى الحالة الثانية والثالثة والتمنى ال يحول‬if ‫ تحول الحالة األولى من‬7
“If you ask Ali, He’ll help you.” Omar said. (1st conditional)
- Omar said (that) if I asked Ali, he would help me.
“If my children were older, I’d immigrate.” Samy said to me. (2nd conditional)
- Samy told me (that) if his children were older, he would immigrate.”

2 Reported questions ‫الجمل االستفهامية‬

.‫وبعدها مفعول أو بدون مفعول‬ asked ‫ يكون فعل القول فى الجملة االستفهامية‬١
.if/whether ‫) أو‬Wh( ‫ ال نجد أقواسـًا فى السؤال المحول ونربط السؤال بــنفس كلمة االستفهام‬2
.‫ بعد الربط تكون الجملة خبرية بدايتها الفاعل (اسم أو ضمير) ثم الفعل ثم باقى السؤال‬٣
. ‫ تحذف عالمة االستفهام ونضع نقطة‬٤
.‫) ماضيـًا فال يوجد مضارع أو مستقبل بعده إال فى الحاالت الخاصة‬asked( ‫ إذا كان فعل القول‬٥
.‫ فى تحويل األسئلة نغير األزمنة والضمائر والظروف الزمنية وظروف المكان كما فى النوع الخبرى‬٦
“Where will you go next week?”
She asked him where he would go the following week.
“Do you often write poems?”
I asked him if/whether he often wrote poems.
“Where did you find your bag?”
She asked me where I had found my bag.
would ‫ ولكن فى تحويل الجمل العادية والسؤال عن معلومات تحول إلى‬should ‫ فى طلب النصيحة واالقتراح والعروض تحول إلى‬shall ‫ عندما تستخدم‬7
“When shall we have our dinner?” Salah said (information)
- Salah asked when they would have their dinner.
“How shall I install windows 10?” Ali said (advice)
- Ali asked how he should install windows 10.
:‫ وهى أفعال ال يأتى بعدها مفعول مثل‬ask ‫ يمكن استخدام أفعال أخرى غير‬8
Wonder/inquire/want to know/don’t know/have no idea

59
PART 2 Revision (2) (Units 9-16)

:‫ ال يحول الزمن إلى الدرجة األقل مثل الجمل الخبرية مع‬9


ً ‫(ب) الكالم الذى قيل‬
.‫حال‬ .‫( أ ) الحقائق‬
.‫( د ) فعل القول فى المضارع‬ .‫(جـ) القوانين‬
‫ وهنا نضع عالمة استفهام آخر السؤال ألنه يبدأ بفعل مساعد أو‬Do you know/Can( Could) you tell me…..? ‫ يمكن أن يبدأ السؤال بـ‬10
.modal verb
Do you know when Ahmed arrived at the station?
what ‫ و‬who :‫ ال يأتى الفاعل بعد كلمة االستفهام إذا كانت تسأل عن الفاعل مثل‬11
The policeman said, “What caused the fire?”
The policeman asked what had caused the fire.

3 Reported imperatives, suggestions and advice


)‫الجملة األمرية (االقتراح والنصيحة‬
:‫ يتنوع فعل القول فى الجملة األمرية بين‬1
:‫ وهم‬.to (not to) + inf. ‫( أ ) أفعال تأخذ بعدها المفعول ثم‬

advise ‫ينصح‬ help ‫يساعد‬ teach ‫يعلم‬

ask ‫يسأل‬ instruct ‫يعلم‬/‫يوجه‬ tell ‫يخبر‬

encourage ‫يشجع‬ invite ‫يدعو‬ want ‫يريد‬

expect ‫يتوقع‬ order ‫يأمر‬ warn ‫يحذر‬

”Open your books.”


- The teacher told/asked/ordered us to open our books.
”If I were you, I’d take your coat.”
- My mother advised me to take my coat.
”Don’t waste time.”
- My father advised me not to waste time.
”Study science at university.”
- Ali encouraged his friend to study science at university.
:‫ وهم‬that + subject + infinitive without to ‫ أو‬v.ing ‫(ب) أفعال تأخذ بعدها المفعول ثم‬

suggest ‫ يقترح‬/ recommend ‫يزكى‬/‫يوصى بـ‬


”Do Exercise 2 again.”
- Leila suggested doing/that I do Exercise 2 again.
”You should revise quietly.”
- My friend recommended revising/that I revise quietly.
.‫ ثم المصدر‬to/not to ‫ ال نجد أقواسـًا فى الجملة األمرية المحولة ونربطها بـ‬2
.‫ والحاالت الخاصة‬to ‫ إذا كان فعل القول ماضيـًا فال يوجد إال المصدر الذى بعد‬3
.‫ يتم تحويل األزمنة والضمائر والظروف الزمنية وظروف المكان كما فى النوعين الخبرى واالستفهامى‬4
‫باإلضافة إلى االقتراح وتقديم النصيحة تستخدم الجملة األمرية أيضـًا للتعبير عن إعطاء التعليمات واألوامر والطلب واالستعطاف والترجى باستخدام‬-١
:‫أفعال مثل‬
beg ‫يستعطف‬, urge ‫يحث‬, offer ‫يعرض‬, order ‫يطلب‬/‫يأمر‬
“Please, please, forgive me!” she said.
- She begged me to forgive her.
60
Revision (2) (Units 9-16)

‫ إذا كان الفاعل قبل فعل القول هو نفس الفاعل الذى قبل المصدر فى الجملة التى‬wonder what/where/how ‫ بعد‬to + inf. ‫تستخدم‬-2
.‫بين األقواس‬
He asked himself, “Where shall I go?” He wondered where to go.
.to + inf. ‫ مباشرة نستخدم‬recommend ‫ إذا جاء شخص بعد‬-3
He recommended the workers to finish the task and then have a break.
.to + inf. ‫وتأتى بمعنى يرشح شخصـًا أو شيئًا لشخص وتأخذ‬
I recommend you “Animal farm” to read or watch.
.‫ حسب المعنى‬not to + inf. ‫ أو‬. to + inf. ‫ أما‬warn ‫ يأتى بعد الفعل‬-4
My father always warns me not to walk home alone. 
Good teachers warn their students to avoid smoking.
:‫ ويبقى الفاعل والمصدر كما هو‬suggest ‫ بعد‬that ‫ يمكن حذف‬-5
I suggest we have dinner first, and then watch the film.
admit/advise/insist/threaten/warn/remind ‫ بعد‬that + clause ‫ يمكن استخدام‬-6
He insisted that I (should) work on Friday.
The teacher advised us that we should study at least 5 hours a day.

61
Grammar
Exercises

Choose the correct answer from a, b, c or d:


1  The manager declared that the company .................... brilliant workers the next month.

a) had promoted b) is promoting


c) have promoted d) was going to promote
2  I suggested that Ali .................... that matter with his friends.

a) discusses b) had discussed c) discuss d) discussed


3  The criminals admitted that they .................... the villa.

a) had robbed b) hadn’t robbed c) are robbing d) have robbed


4  The social studies teacher told us that Asia .................... the largest continent in the world.

a) was b) is c) has been d) will be


5  Ali told me that he .................... his homework at that moment.

a) had done b) has been doing c) will do d) was doing


6  Adel .................... he was ready for the final exam.

a) told b) said c) wondered d) recommended


7  She told me that I .................... due care to my work. I actually appreciate her advice.

a) needn’t have given b) could have given


c) should have given d) should give
8  Adel said that he .................... to the hospital to visit his close friend yesterday.

a) must have gone b) might go c) had to go d) must go


9  I was told that my friend .................... a terrible accident while he was driving to Mansoura.

a) had had b) had c) was having d) is having


10  Samir informed me that he .................... about the result of the interview yet.

a) didn’t tell b) haven’t been told c) hadn’t told d) hadn’t been told
11  Hamza asked why .................... late for the meeting.

a) I had been b) I have been c) have I been d) had I been


12  Please, let me know where .................... .

a) can we meet b) we are going to meet c) we would meet d) will we meet


13  Samir .................... me why I had chosen that T-shirt.

a) said b) inquired c) asked d) ordered


14  My father asked, “Why .................... more money now?”

a) you needn’t b) you needed c) you need d) do you need


15  Could you tell me why .................... to the hospital yesterday?

a) did you go b) had you gone c) you went d) you had gone
16  Ali wanted to know .................... I was ready for the interview or not.

a) whether b) why c) that d) which


17  My father asked me what I .................... at the moment he arrived.

a) would do b) will do c) was doing d) am doing


62
Revision (2) (Units 9-16)

18   del wonders when I .................... back home as he needs my help urgently.
A
a) had been b) am being c) would be d) will be
19  She asked me if I .................... my lost mobile.

a) have found b) had found c) was finding d) will find


20  My father asked why .................... that loud noise.

a) we were making b) were we making c) we will make d) had we made


21  My friend asked me whether .................... ready for the school trip.

a) are we b) we were c) were we d) we are being


22  My teacher recommended .................... the lesson again.

a) to revise b) revising c) revise d) that revise


23  I suggested that Ali .................... to the sports club with us.

a) went b) to go c) go d) going
24  My father said, “.................... make any noise.”

a) Didn’t b) To not c) Don’t d) Not to


25  Mother asked me .................... my room.

a) whether to tidy b) tidy c) to tidy d) don’t tidy


26  “Don’t park here.” The policeman said we .................... park here.

a) should b) mustn’t c) shouldn’t d) must


27  Ali advised me to stop smoking. He said I .................... smoking.

a) should stop b) should have stopped


c) oughtn’t to have stopped d) to stop
28  Hazem told me .................... for the job because it’s not rewarding.

a) to apply b) not to apply c) don’t apply d) apply


29  The policeman .................... the people not to drive so fast.

a) made b) wondered c) instructed d) said


30  Ali said, “If I were you, I would read this book.” This means that Ali .................... me to read that book.

a) let b) advised c) ordered d) discouraged


31  My brother said, “Why .................... travel by train? – Surely, I will act upon his suggestion.

a) don’t you b) you don’t c) didn’t you d) you didn’t


32  My friend suggested .................... for the next bus.

a) to waiting b) not waiting c) to wait d) wait


33  I ordered him to .................... the truth. I can’t stand lies.

a) say b) ask c) tell d) wonder


34  He asked who .................... the tickets for me.

a) he booked b) had he booked c) he had booked d) had booked


35  Could you tell me .................... or not Ahmed will visit London?

a) whether b) weather c) if d) unless


36  He .................... his father was going to the market when he saw the robbery.

a) told b) asked c) wondered d) said

63
PART 2 Revision (2) (Units 9-16)

37  He .................... me when he finished his work, he would help me.
a) told b) asked c) said d) wanted to know
38  The teacher asked me .................... me with the homework the day before.

a) who had he helped b) who helped c) who had helped d) who did he help
39  He advised Osama .................... day and night to get the full mark.

a) not to study b) that he study c) that he studies d) to studying


40  “I am meeting my boss tomorrow.”

The correct reported speech of the sentence above is:


a) Samy said that he was meeting his boss tomorrow.
b) Samy said that he was meeting his boss the previous day.
c) Samy said that he would meet his boss the following day.
d) Samy said that he was meeting his boss the following day.
41  “Dalia asked me when I had got my driving licence.”

The correct direct question of the one above is:


a) ” When did you get your driving licence?,” Dalia said.
b) Dalia said to me ,” When have you got your driving licence?”
c) Dalia asked me ,” When have you got your driving licence?”
d) Dalia told me ,” When had you got your driving licence?”
42  “Never eat with your mouth full .”

The correct reported speech of the sentence above is:


a) My father asked me not eat with my mouth full.
b) My father advised me never eat with my mouth full.
c) My father advised me not to eat with my mouth full.
d) My father told me to not eat with my mouth full.
43  My teacher always encourages .................... hard to get the best marks.

a) studying b) to study
c) that we study d) to studying
44  Which one of the following is grammatically incorrect?

a) My sister suggested that we should clean the flat.


b) My sister suggested we should clean the flat.
c) My sister suggested we clean the flat.
d) My sister suggested that we cleaning the flat.
45  “Is it possible to learn new languages online?”

The correct indirect question of the one above is:


a) Do you know whether is it possible to learn new languages online.
b) Do you know whether it is possible to learn new languages online?
c) Do you know whether it was possible to learn new languages online.
d) Do you know whether possible was it to learn new languages online?

64
Revision (2) (Units 9-16)

Module 5 (Units 12&13)


Modal verbs of necessity, prohibition and lack of necessity
1) Necessity 2) Lack of necessity 3) Prohibition

1 Necessity ‫الضرورة‬

Present Past Future

have to

It will be necessary
has to had to

It was necessary
It’s necessary
for ... to + inf.

for ... to + inf.

for ... to + inf.


must Will have to

have got to
no past
has got to

need to / needs to needed to Will need to

must - have to/has to ‫الفرق بين‬


.‫كالهما يفيد الضرورة واالضطرار لفعل شىء ولكن االختالف فيمن يفرض الضرورة‬
.‫ الضرورة الشخصية (ظروف شخصية تضطره لذلك) والشخص يكون موافقـًا لهذه الضرورة وراضيـًا عنها‬must ‫ تفيد‬-
.‫ ضرورة مفروضة من الخارج ليس لديك اختيار فى فعلها وال رأى فيها‬have to ‫ وتفيد‬-
I have to get up early on school days.
I must visit Ramy on Saturday as I promised to visit him.
:‫ولبيان الفرق الكامل بينهما يجب دراسة الجدول اآلتى‬

must have/has to

(1)

.)‫يعتقد المتحدث أنه ضرورى (شعور داخلى‬ .)‫شخص آخر يعتقد أنه ضرورى (مفروض من الخارج‬
These pants don’t fit me anymore. I must lose My doctor told me I’m overweight and I have
weight. to go on a diet. 

(2)

‫تستخدم فى المضارع لوصف ضرورة عامة ودائمة وعندما تكون األوامر‬ ‫تستخدم للتعبير عن الضرورة ويمكن استخدامها فى الماضى والمضارع‬
.‫رسمية أو عامة فى مستندات أو إشعارات‬ .‫والمستقبل‬
When you drive you must wear a seatbelt. She has to take two trains and a bus to get to
Passengers must keep their bags with them at work every day.
all times. I had to visit my uncle yesterday.
I will have to book the ticket tomorrow.

65
PART 2 Revision (2) (Units 9-16)

(3)

.‫» مع كل الضمائر في الجملة الخبرية أو االستفهام‬must« ‫ال تتغير‬ ‫ للضمائر‬has ‫تستخدم مثل أى فعل عادى فى التصريف مع استخدام‬
I/He/They must be healthy. do/does ‫ وفى السؤال‬he/she/it
Must I go to the party? I don’t really want to.  oes he have to wear a suit to work?
D
Must he make so much noise? It’s really annoying. Do I have to bring some form of ID?

(4)

.‫ المختصرة وفقط ثم المصدر‬not ‫فى النفى إضافة‬ .‫ ثم المصدر‬have to ‫ ثم‬doesn’t/don’t ‫فى النفى نضيف‬
They mustn’t use their mobile phones during She doesn’t have to come to the meeting if she
lessons. doesn’t want to.
We mustn’t stand up while the plane is taking off. We don’t have to read all these books.

(5)

‫» فى النفى للمنع والحظر(قوانين) والنصيحة القوية‬mustn’t« ‫’ للشىء غير الضرورى وأن الشخص تستخدم‬don’t/doesn’t have to‘ ‫تستخدم‬
When the traffic lights are red you mustn’t go. .‫غير مضطر لفعله‬
I mustn’t drink any more coffee, otherwise I He doesn’t have to work on Fridays so he can
won’t sleep tonight. do what he wants.
You don’t have to pay to visit the Pyramids in
Egypt. They are free.

(6)

‫ فى الماضى‬must ‫ال تستخدم‬ .‫ للحديث عن الضرورة فى الماضى‬had to ‫تستخدم‬


Present simple = must/have to  id you have to pay a fine when the police
D
Future simple = must/will have to stopped you?
Past simple = had to Did he have to get up early yesterday?
Present perfect = have/has had to The doctor told her she had to lose weight.

Have got to
You can use have got to instead of have to:
have to ‫ بنفس معنى‬have got to ‫ تستخدم‬-
I’ve got to work tomorrow. or I have to work tomorrow.
When has Hala got to go? or When does Hala have to go?

66
Revision (2) (Units 9-16)

2 Lack of necessity ‫عدم الضرورة‬

Present Past Future

don’t have to

It won’t be necessary
It wasn’t necessary
didn’t have to
It isn’t necessary
for ... to + inf.

for ... to + inf.


‫لم يكن ضروريـًّا فعل شىء فلم نفعله‬
doesn’t have to

for ... to
needn’t have + P.P. Won’t have to
‫لم يكن ضروريـًّا فعل شىء ولكن تم فعله‬ Won’t need to
needn’t (to ‫) بدون‬

don’t/doesn’t need to didn’t need to

.‫ للتعبير عن عدم الضرورة‬don’t/doesn’t have to/needn’t + inf. ‫ نستخدم‬-


She isn’t late for school so she doesn’t have to/needn’t hurry.
.‫ ولكن هناك اختالف فى المعنى‬needn’t have + P.P. ‫ أو‬didn’t have to ‫ الماضى من عدم الضرورة هو‬-
didn’t have to + inf. ‫لم يكن ضروريـًّا فلم أفعل‬
needn’t have + P.P. ‫لم يكن ضروريـًّا ولكنى فعلت‬
I didn’t have to go to school on Friday as it was a holiday.
.‫ لم أضطر إلى الذهاب إلى المدرسة يوم الجمعة ألنه كان إجازة‬-
I needn’t have taken a taxi as it wasn’t far, but I did.
.‫ لم يكن ضروريـًّا أن أخذ تاكسى ألنها لم تكن بعيدة ولكنى فعلت‬-

3 Prohibition ‫التحريم‬/‫الحظر‬/‫المنع‬

It’s (banned ,forbidden) to park here.


Parking is (banned, forbidden, prohibited, not allowed) here.
.can’t ‫ للتعبير عن المنع والحظر وتساوى‬mustn’t + inf. ‫ نستخدم‬-
You mustn’t (can’t) park here. It is not allowed.
You aren’t allowed to park here.
You are forbidden from parking here.

67
1

68
Degree Present Past Examples PART

verb to be  y father is a doctor.


M
2

Certain (am - is - are) verb to be (was/were) Hany speaks English well.


‫مؤكد‬ ‫أى فعل فى المضارع‬ ‫مؤكدا‬
ً ‫أى فعل فى الماضى يعتبر‬ My brother travelled abroad.
‫مؤكدا‬
ً ‫يعتبر‬ My grandmother died in 1990.
Deduction

Ahmed must be wrong. I’m sure he is.


Near certain
must be (verb) must have been (P.P.) Trees must get their food from the soil and air.
‫أكيد‬ ‫مؤكدا فى الماضى‬
ً ‫كان‬ Osama must have been ill yesterday. We didn’t see him at
‫شبه مؤكد‬
school.
Revision (2) (Units 9-16)

T hey may visit us tomorrow but I’m not sure.


Perhaps, he passed the exam. He may have passed the
Uncertain may be (verb) may have been (P.P.)
exam.
‫غير مؤكد‬ ‫ربما‬ ‫ربما‬
I don’t know what happened. They may have punished
him.

 on’t put the vase here. It could fall off easily.


D
Very uncertain might/could could/might have
The lights are still on. Omar might have forgotten to turn
‫غير مؤكد إلى حد كبير‬ be (verb) ‫ربما‬ been (P.P.) ‫ربما‬
them off.

can’t be
can’t have been (P.P.)  e can’t be ill. He is at school.
H
Modal verbs of deduction, advice and regret

‫ال يمكن أن يكون‬


‫ال يمكن أنه كان‬ You can’t know my brother. He lives abroad.

Negative
‫النفى‬
 ou should introduce yourself; he may/might not
Y
may not be may not have + P.P.
remember you.
might not be might not have + P.P.
I had better call Anne. She may/might not have read my
‫االستنتاج‬

couldn’t be couldn’t have + P.P.


e-mail.
Revision (2) (Units 9-16)

2 Advice and regret ‫النصيحة والندم‬

Present/future Past

Advice Regret

should (shouldn’t) + inf. should (shouldn’t) have + P.P.

ought to (oughtn’t to) + inf. ought to (oughtn’t to) have + P.P.

I should/ought to make a study plan.


He should have studied/ought to have studied harder to pass the exam.
I oughtn’t to have insulted/shouldn’t have insulted him. He was angry and I’m sorry.
Should have + P.P. ‫كان ينبغى عليك فعل شىء لم تفعله‬
Shouldn’t have + P.P. ‫فعلت شيئـًا لم يكن واجبـًا فعله‬

More examples

Use Present/future Past

Advice Regret
Should/ought to/had better Should/ought to have + P.P.
Advice/Regret

They should help the poor. You should (ought to) have gone to bed
We shouldn’t waste our time. earlier last night.
They ought to study hard. I shouldn’t (oughtn’t to) have wasted my
He had better not use the phone a lot. time.

Must be (verb) - can’t be (verb) must have + P.P./can’t have + P.P.


She must be working. (positive) She must have been working.
Deduction

She can’t be over forty. (negative) She can’t have been working.
He may be mistaken. (I’m not sure) He may have been mistaken.
He might/could be mistaken. He might have been mistaken.
He might not/couldn’t be mistaken.

:‫ مراجعة سريعة للنقاط الهامة‬-


.‫) عندما نشعر بأن شيئـًا ما حقيقى بسبب وجود دليل قوى‬must be) verb ‫ تستخدم‬-1
He must be clever because he always gives the correct answers. 
.‫ عندما نعتقد بأن شيئـًا ما ممكن ولكن لسنا متأكدين‬may/might/could ‫ تستخدم‬-2
We’ll try to get there early but we may arrive late if there’s a lot of traffic.
.‫ عندما نشعر بأن شيئـًا ما غير حقيقى بسبب وجود دليل قوى‬can’t ‫ تستخدم‬-3
He has to work on the Feast Day? He can’t feel very happy about that.

69
Grammar
Exercises

Choose the correct answer from a, b, c or d:


1  Answer all the questions. You .................... write your answers in ink.

a) must to b) had to c) didn’t have to d) must


2  Did your brother .................... pay a fine when the police stopped him?

a) had to b) must c) have to d) has to


3  Since his car was being repaired, he .................... go to Alex by train.

a) has to b) had to c) didn’t have to d) must


4  You have a lot of work tomorrow. You .................... be late.

a) mustn’t b) must c) have to d) don’t have to


5  You .................... show your passport when you visit another country.

a) don’t have to b) needn’t c) have to d) had to


6  I .................... this furniture yesterday. It was really unnecessary.

a) needn’t have bought b) had to buy


c) shouldn’t buy d) needn’t buy
7  Mona .................... take her sunglasses because it was cloudy.

a) had to b) needn’t have c) mustn’t d) didn’t need to


8  We .................... use our passports. They accepted our ID cards.

a) had to b) didn’t have to  c) have to d) have got to


9  We’ve got plenty of time. We .................... hurry.

a) have to b) must c) needn’t d) don’t need


10  You .................... go shopping with us, you can stay at home if you want.

a) don’t have to b) mustn’t c) must d) have to


11  You .................... see a doctor. Your leg is bleeding.

a) mustn’t b) don’t have to c) must d) can’t


12  You .................... spend too much money. You’ll want some for your holiday.

a) mustn’t b) have to c) can’t d) must


13  Yasmin .................... be careful with what she eats because she has diabetes.

a) needn’t b) could c) shouldn’t d) needs to


14  You .................... wash these fruits. I’ve already washed them.

a) mustn’t b) can’t c) needn’t d) had to


15  Son: Mum, I don’t want to clean my room. .................... it right now? Mother: Yes, right now.

a) Have I to clean b) Must I clean


c) Do I must clean d) Must I have to clean
16  You mustn’t park here. It means that .................... .

a) it is necessary to park here b) it isn’t necessary to park here


c) it’s against the law d) parking isn’t forbidden here.
17  She .................... cook food today. There is enough in the fridge.

a) needn’t to b) mustn’t c) doesn’t have to d) has to


70
Revision (2) (Units 9-16)

18  I t’s a free-smoking area. You .................... smoke.


a) may b) mustn’t c) can d) should
19  I didn’t drink the water from the river or I .................... ill.

a) might be b) might have been c) should be d) must have been


20  The traffic on the road into Cairo was not moving; there .................... have been an accident.

a) can’t b) should c) might d) must


21  This temple .................... be important; it’s visited by hundreds of people every day.

a) shouldn’t b) can’t c) mustn’t d) must


22  Imad and Hatem .................... swimming. Their hair isn’t wet.

a) must have been b) might not have been c) should have been d) might be
23  The car broke down again; it .................... repaired very well yesterday.

a) can’t have been b) has


c) mustn’t have been d) shouldn’t have been
24  Everyone is putting their umbrellas up; it .................... raining.

a) had to start b) must have started


c) shouldn’t have started d) can’t have started
25  You .................... make a revision timetable; that is my advice!

a) oughtn’t to b) mustn’t c) needn’t d) should


26  You .................... to buy your mother a present. It was her birthday!

a) ought to have b) should have


c) shouldn’t have forgotten d) might not forget
27  The sun is very hot. I .................... my sun hat. I think I’ll buy one now.

a) might have brought b) must have brought


c) had to bring d) ought to have brought
28  A: Who sent this parcel? B: I don’t know. It .................... be from Adel.

a) should b) has to c) might d) must


29  You ought .................... the project last week.

a) finish b) to finish c) to have finished d) not to finish


30  Omar .................... be happy; he has just won the gold medal.

a) had to b) must c) can’t d) ought not to


31  Your writing is full of mistakes. You .................... it carefully.

a) needn’t have checked b) must have checked


c) should have checked d) had to check
32  Oh! There are my father’s keys. He .................... to take them to work.

a) mustn’t have remembered b) had to remember


c) must have remembered d) can’t have remembered
33  Rami .................... passed the exam. He looks very sad.

a) must have b) might not c) can’t d) can’t have


34  “ We didn’t have to wear coats yesterday as it was so hot.” This means .................... .

a) It is necessary for us to wear coats today


b) It wasn’t necessary for us to wear coats yesterday
c) We needn’t have worn coats yesterday as it was so hot
d) It wasn’t advisable for us to wear coats yesterday
71
PART 2 Revision (2) (Units 9-16)

35  One of the following sentences is grammatically incorrect:


a) Yasser needs to go to the dentist now. His tooth is really hurting.
b) Yasser had to go to the dentist now. His tooth is really hurting.
c) Yasser has got to go to the dentist now. His tooth is really hurting.
d) Yasser has to go the dentist now. His tooth is really hurting.
36  Necessity is expressed in one of the following sentences:

a) Osama didn’t have to find another job.


b) Osama has got to find another job.
c) Osama doesn’t have to find another job.
d) Osama needn’t find another job.
37  You have to see the head teacher at 3 o’clock. It has the same meaning as .................... .

a) you could see the head teacher at 3 o’clock


b) it’s necessary for you to see the head teacher at 3 o’clock
c) you needn’t have seen the head teacher at 3 o’clock
d) you aren’t allowed to see the head teacher at 3 o’clock
38  We .................... forget that education is the corner stone of our development.

a) may b) mustn’t
c) can d) should
39  You .................... go there with me. I can handle it; it’s not difficult.

a) needn’t to b) mustn’t
c) don’t have to d) had better not
40  He didn’t go to the park with us yesterday because he .................... a report.

a) didn’t have to write b) was obliged to write


c) had to write d) needed to write
41  Strong necessity is expressed in one of the following sentences.

a) You aren’t allowed to borrow more than two books at a time.


b) I mustn’t forget to call him today.
c) She needn’t buy more oil. There is enough.
d) They didn’t have to buy another flat. Theirs was large.
42  You’re not supposed to park your car here .................... .

a) it’s public parking only b) it is necessary


c) it is forbidden d) it is permitted
43  Ali could have gone to school by bus , but he went on foot. This means that .................... .

a) I’m sure that Ali went to school by bus.


b) I’m not sure that Ali went to school by bus.
c) I’m sure that Ali didn’t go to school by bus although it was possible.
a) I’m sure that it was impossible for Ali to go to school by bus.

72
Revision (2) (Units 9-16)

Module 6 (Units 14,15&16)


The Conditional sentence ‫الجملة الشرطية‬

1 The zero conditional

If/ Present simple Present simple


Type (0) , Zero conditional
When ‫مضارع بسيط‬ ‫مضارع بسيط‬

.)‫ تعبر الحالة الصفرية عن الحقائق والظواهر الطبيعية (شىء ال نتحكم فيه‬-
If/When you drop something, it falls to the ground.
If/When we heat air, it rises.
.‫ وتستخدم الحالة الصفرية أيضـًا مع األشياء التى أصبحت عادة لدى الشخص‬-
If/When I have a fever, I stay in bed.
If/When I use the computer for long, I always have a headache.
.‫ فى الحالة الصفرية‬if ‫بدل من‬
ً when ‫ الحظ استخدام‬-
When I go to bed, I always take much time to sleep.
When I eat, I begin with salad as I’m on a diet.

2 The first conditional

will
Present simple may
Type (1) If ‫مضارع بسيط‬
, can + inf. First conditional
should ‫للنصيحة‬

.‫ نستخدم الحالة األولى لألحداث والمواقف التى نعتقد أنها محتملة أو ممكنة فى المستقبل‬-
If Ali arrives late again, the headmaster will punish him.
If she doesn't earn much money, she won't be able to fly to the USA.
.‫) للوجوب واإللزام‬have to(‫) فى جواب الشرط للنصيحة أو االستحباب و‬should( ‫ نستخدم‬-
If you want to get high marks, you should study hard.
If you lose your credit card, you have to ring the bank.
.‫ لالستطاعة‬can ‫ لالحتمال و‬may ‫ يمكن استخدام‬-
If you know more than one language, they may give you the job.
If my father buys me a computer, I will be able to (can) log on the internet.
.‫ تعبر الحالة األولى عن وعد أو أمنية أو تهديد‬-
If you win the gold medal, I will reward you.
If I win the gold medal, I will be very famous.
I won’t lend you any money if you insist on spending it carelessly.
:‫ يمكن أن يبدأ جواب الشرط فى الحالة األولى بأمر (مصدر) أو نهى‬-
If you like, stay for another two days.
If you want to get high marks, don’t waste much time playing or watching TV.
73
‫‪PART‬‬ ‫‪2‬‬ ‫)‪Revision (2) (Units 9-16‬‬

‫‪3‬‬ ‫‪The second conditional‬‬

‫‪would‬‬
‫‪Past simple‬‬
‫)‪Type (2‬‬ ‫‪If‬‬ ‫ماض بسيط‬
‫ٍ‬
‫‪,‬‬ ‫‪might‬‬ ‫‪+ inf.‬‬ ‫‪Second conditional‬‬
‫‪could‬‬

‫‪ -‬تعبر الحالة الثانية عن حدث غير محتمل فى المضارع أو المستقبل وفى إعطاء النصيحة‪.‬‬
‫)‪If I were a bird, I could fly. (I’m not a bird. Untrue in the present‬‬
‫)‪If I were you, I’d help him. (Giving advice‬‬

‫‪4‬‬ ‫‪The third conditional‬‬

‫‪would‬‬
‫‪Past perfect‬‬
‫)‪Type (3‬‬ ‫‪If‬‬ ‫ماض تام‬
‫ٍ‬
‫‪,‬‬ ‫‪could‬‬ ‫‪+ have + P.P. Third conditional‬‬
‫‪might‬‬

‫‪ -‬نستخدم الحالة الثالثة للحديث عن المواقف الماضية أو األحداث التى لم تتم‪.‬‬


‫)لم يعلموا بمرضى ولم يزورونى( ‪If they had known I was ill, they would have visited me.‬‬

‫‪The mixed conditional‬‬


‫)‪(We can mix type 2 and 3‬‬
‫‪ -‬يمكن دمج الحالتين الثانية والثالثة إذا كان المعنى يتعلق بالماضى والمضارع معـًا‪.‬‬
‫‪If she knew him, she would have spoken to him yesterday.‬‬
‫‪ -‬لو كانت تعرفه لتحدثت معه أمس‪(.‬المعرفة شىء عام وغير مخصصة‪/‬بالماضى فهنا افتراض المعرفة)‪.‬‬
‫‪If you hadn’t left all these dirty dishes, the place would look a bit tidier now.‬‬
‫(ماض) لكان المكان يبدو أكثر ترتيبـًا اآلن (مضارع)‪.‬‬
‫ٍ‬ ‫‪ -‬لو لم تترك كل هذه األطباق المتسخة‬
‫جدا؛ ألنه يتماشى مع النظام الحديث لالمتحانات الذى يعتمد على الفهم وليس الحفظ والتلقين‪ ،‬فلو وجدت هذا المثال‬
‫‪-‬أصبح هذا النوع من األسئلة مهمـًّا ًّ‬
‫«لو كنت أطول ً‬
‫قليل‪ ،‬لكنت علقت الصورة أمس»‪.‬‬
‫إذا الحل سيكون الحالة الثالثة ولكن عبارة «لو كنت أطول ً‬
‫قليل» ُتـ َعــُّد افتراضـًا أو شيئـًا عكس الواقع‪ ،‬وهل ممكن أن أكون أطول‬ ‫‪-‬أمس تدل على الماضى ً‬
‫ماض فالمضارع غير المتوقع أو المستحيل يصبح حالة ثانية؛ وتعليق الصورة هذا‬
‫مما أنا عليه أمس فقط؟ أم أن هذا شىء عام إذا كان هناك جزء مضارع وجزء ٍ‬
‫موقف مخصص بالماضى يصبح حالة ثالثة‪.‬‬
‫‪If I were taller, I would have hanged the picture yesterday.‬‬

‫‪74‬‬
Revision (2) (Units 9-16)

Wish/If only
+ past simple refers to the present
Wish & If only + past perfect refers to the past
+ would/could refers to the future

.‫ للتمنى أو الندم فى المضارع بخصوص موقف نتمنى أن يكون مختلفـًا‬wish + past simple ‫ نستخدم‬-1
I wish he were/was with us now.
I wish I lived near my school.
they/ we/ you ‫ فقط مع‬were ‫ و‬I / he / she / it ‫ مع‬were / was ‫ نستخدم‬wish ‫بعد‬
.‫ للتمنى أو الندم فى المضارع بخصوص عدم القدرة على فعل شىء‬wish + could ‫ نستخدم‬-2
I wish he could know Spanish.
I wish I could make my own clothes.
.‫ للندم على شىء حدث أو لم يحدث فى الماضى‬wish + past perfect ‫ نستخدم‬-3
I wish he hadn't insulted his friend.
. ‫ للتعبير عن الرغبة فى تغيير مستقبلى غير محتمل الحدوث أو الرغبة فى التعبير عن عدم الرضا أو الحزن‬wish + would/could ‫نستخدم‬-4
I wish they would build a new station near my home.
.I/We ‫ مع كل الضمائر ما عدا‬would ‫ مع كل الضمائر ونستخدم‬could ‫ نستخدم‬-5
If only he would help me.
I wish I could play squash.
:‫ ال بد أن يكون الفاعالن مختلفين مثل‬would ‫ وبعدها‬wish ‫ عند استخدام‬-6
He wishes he could play tennis.
He wishes he would play tennis.
.‫ عن عدم الرغبة‬would ‫ عن عدم القدرة وتعبر‬wish ‫ بعد‬could ‫ تعبر‬-7
I wish my son would drive my car. (He doesn’t want to ...)
I wish my son could drive my car. (He can’t drive ...)
.‫بدل من الماضى التام للتعبير عن (ندم) على موقف فى الماضى‬ً )could have + P.P.( ‫ نستخدم‬-8
If only I could have studied French at university. I know English only.
.to + inf ‫ يأتى‬wish ‫ إذا لم يوجد فاعل بعد‬-9
My brother wishes to have a better job.

75
PART 2 Revision (2) (Units 9-16)

Alternatives to using if if ‫بدائل‬


Alternative Example
Provided that He can go and play with his friends, provided/on
On condition that )2 ‫ و‬1 ‫جملة (حالة‬ condition (that)/as long as he finishes his homework
As long as first.
Suppose /Supposing / Suppose/Supposing/Imagine (that) you met the
‫جملة‬
Imagine (that) president, what would you ask him to do?

Without N/v.ing You won't succeed without studying hard.

But for Noun But for doctors, we might die.

In case of Noun In case of emergency, call this number.

In case ‫جملة‬ Bring the washing from outside in case it rains.

Should ‫حالة أولى أو ثانية‬ + subject + inf. Should you take this medicine, take it before meals.

Were ‫حالة ثانية‬ + subject + adj. Were I you, I wouldn't spend so much money.

Were ‫حالة ثانية‬ + subject + to + inf. Were he to travel, he’d be sad.

Had ‫حالة ثالثة‬ + subject + P.P. Had you finished early, you’d have watched the film.

If it weren’t for 2 ‫ حالة‬+ noun/v.ing If it weren’t for money, we couldn't buy anything.

If it hadn’t been for 3 ‫ حالة‬+ noun/v.ing If it hadn’t been for Ahmed, I’d have been helpless.

)‫ فعل الشرط (جملة مثبتة‬+ )‫جواب الشرط (جملة مثبتة أو منفية‬


Unless
I can’t buy the car unless I have enough money.

76
Grammar
Exercises

Choose the correct answer from a, b, c or d:


1  I would have that mobile if I .................... enough money.
a) had had b) had c) have had d) would have
2  What .................... if you got lost in the desert?
a) you would do b) did you do c) would you do d) you did
3  A: What if your passport ....................? B: Surely, I’d inform the police.
a) had stolen b) had been stolen c) stole d) was stolen
4  Iron .................... if you leave it in the open air.
a) rust b) will rust c) rusts d) would rust
5  Contact the ambulance if there .................... an accident.
a) was b) is c) were d) will be
6  My friend helped me well. If he .................. supportive, I wouldn’t have been able to solve the problem.
a) hadn’t done b) had done c) had been d) hadn’t been
7  If I were not ill, I’d visit you; really I .................... ill.
a) weren’t b) were c) am d) am not
8  I’d have lent you the money you needed if I had had enough money at home.
Unfortunately, the money I had .................... enough.
a) was b) wasn’t c) had been d) hadn’t been
9  What .................... happened if Rassendyll had refused to replace the real king?
a) might have been b) might have c) had d) have
10  I will go to Alex if so, I .................... you.
a) contact b) will be contacted c) will contact d) would contact
11  If you .................... more careful, you would have minimized your mistakes.
a) had been b) were c) had d) had had
12  I .................... go to the club, if I have time. I haven’t decided yet.
a) would b) may c) should d) have to
13  If she read the news, she .................... shocked to read about the terrible accident.
a) is b) will be c) would be d) were
14  If the problem .................... well, we would have reached a reasonable solution.
a) discussed b) was discussed
c) had discussed d) had been discussed
15  I wish I .................... where I forgot my mobile.
a) will know b) knew c) know d) had known
16  I wish you .................... smoking. I’m sure you will have better health.
a) stop b) will stop c) would stop d) have stopped
17  I wish she .................... this car; it has caused her a lot of trouble.
a) doesn’t buy b) won’t buy c) didn’t buy d) hadn’t bought
18  He wishes he hadn’t neglected his work. This means that he actually .................... his work.
a) can’t have neglected b) is still neglecting
c) neglected d) had not neglected
77
PART 2 Revision (2) (Units 9-16)

19  I regret starting to smoke; I wish I .................... smoking.


a) hadn’t started b) wouldn’t start c) didn’t start d) can’t start
20  I wish I .................... a pilot when I grow up.
a) will be b) could be c) were d) had been
21  She wished she .................... well for the last exam; she couldn’t answer many questions.
a) will revise b) revised c) hadn’t revised d) had revised
22  Hatim wishes he .................... a lot of money when he was younger.
a) could save b) will have saved c) saved d) had saved
23  Oh! It’s too hot. I wish it .................... so hot.
a) were b) didn’t c) weren’t d) isn’t
24  I wish I .................... on a desert island; it’s my dearest dream.
a) had lived b) could live c) will live d) will have lived
25  I wish I were an engineer. Really, I .................... an engineer.
a) weren’t b) had been c) am not d) must be
26  .................... emergency, call 122.
a) If b) In case of c) Without d) Unless
27  .................... your carefulness, you would have hit the little boy.
a) In case of b) If it weren’t for c) Unless d) But for
28  Ali will attend the lecture .................... that he comes on time.
a) unless b) if c) provided d) should
29  .................... he put down his roots in the country, he wouldn’t have had a peaceful life.
a) Weren’t b) Hadn’t c) Had d) Shouldn’t
30  .................... he had enough cash, he wouldn’t be able to pay for the books.
a) Unless b) If c) Without d) In case
31  Take your umbrella .................... it rains heavily.
a) in case of b) in case c) unless d) but for
32  You can borrow my camera .................... you promise to keep it.
a) were b) in case of c) as long as d) unless
33  You can join the Faculty of Fine Arts .................... you pass an aptitude test.
a) in case of b) unless c) provider d) provided
34  .................... passing the driving test is a must, you have to train well for the test.
a) In case b) Unless c) As long as d) Should
35  .................... you were accused of robbery, what would you do?
a) Supposing b) Imagined c) Unless d) In case of
36  He wouldn’t agree to do extra tasks without .................... .
a) paying b) being paid c) be paid d) been paid
37  .................... he to leave now, he would take his brother with him.
a) Won’t b) Don’t c) Were d) Didn’t
38  .................... leave the front door open as long as you all go out of the house.
a) Mustn’t b) Shouldn’t c) Won’t d) Don’t
39  .................... he had an umbrella, he wouldn’t have got wet in the rain.
a) Had b) Unless c) If d) Should
40  He can come with us, .................... he pays for his own meals.
a) on condition that b) without c) but for d) in case of
78
Revision (2) (Units 9-16)

41  I f I had gone to university, I .................... a lawyer now.


a) would have been b) would be c) will be d) am
42  If you are cold, .................... on a coat.

a) puts b) will you put c) will put d) put


43  If he read that article, he .................... everything about global warming.

a) can know b) knows c) will know d) would know


44  If I .................... enough money in my twenties, I .................... around Europe. But, unfortunately, I was broke.

a) had /would backpack b) had had /would backpack


c) had had /would have backpacked d) have /will backpack
45  .................... studying English bothers you, you can stop it.

a) If b) Without c) In case of d) But for


46  If I .................... taller, they would have taken me in the team yesterday.

a) wasn’t b) had been c) were d) have been


47  If I had quit my job, I would not have enough money to live in Colombia. This means ....................

a) She quit her job and does not have enough money now.
b) She did not quit her job and she has enough money.
c) She intends to quit her job as she doesn’t have enough money.
d) She doesn’t intend to quit her job although she doesn’t have enough money.
48  I felt a bit confused because I stayed late at night. I wish I .................... late at night.

a) hadn’t stayed b) haven’t stayed c) had stayed d) stayed


49  I don’t know how to use Zoom application for meetings.

The sentence which have a similar meaning to the one above is:
a) If only I have known how to use Zoom application for meetings.
b) If only I had known how to use Zoom application for meetings.
c) If only I knew how to use Zoom application for meetings.
d) If only I know how to use Zoom application for meetings.
50  One answer of the following is grammatically correct:

a) If you want to buy a good carpet, you might go to Al Hussein Market.


b) If you want to buy a good carpet, go to Al Hussein Market.
c) If you want to buy a good carpet, you would go to Al Hussein Market.
d) If you want to buy a good carpet, will go to Al Hussein Market.
51  One answer of the following is grammatically incorrect:

a) If we boil water to 100oC, it evaporates.


b) If water is boiled to 100oC, it evaporates.
c) If water boils at 100oC, it evaporates.
d) If water boils at 100oC, it is evaporated.
52  Which sentence gives the same meaning to the following sentence:

If Ahmed lived in a big city, he could find a job easily.


a) Ahmed didn’t live in a big city, so he can’t find a job.
b) Ahmed doesn’t live in a big city, so he can’t find a job.
c) Ahmed won’t live in a big city, so he won’t find a job.
d) Ahmed didn’t live in a big city, so he found a job.

79
Additional Notes

Parts of speech ‫أجزاء الكالم‬

Noun Pronoun Verb Adjective Adverb Preposition Conjunction Interjection


‫اسم‬ ‫ضمير‬ ‫فعل‬ ‫صفة‬ ‫ظرف‬/‫حال‬ ‫حرف جر‬ ‫رابط‬ ‫صيغة تعجب‬

1 Nouns ‫األسماء‬

A noun is a word that names a person, a place or a thing.


:‫ االسم هو كلمة تسمى (تشير إلى) شخصـًا أو مكانـًا أو شيئـًا مثل‬-
Ahmed, people, man, horse, Cairo, door, factory, football, swimming.

Nouns

Abstract Concrete Common Proper Countable Uncountable


‫معنوى‬/‫مجرد‬ ‫جامد‬/‫مادى‬ ‫عام‬/‫شائع‬ ‫خاص‬ ‫معدود‬ ‫غير معدود‬

1 Abstract Nouns ‫األسماء المجردة‬

An abstract noun is a noun that names an idea, not a physical thing.


:‫ وليس شيئًا ماديـًّا مثل‬،‫ االسم المجرد هو اسم يسمى (يشير إلى) فكرة‬-
honesty, attention, love, peace, ability, success, knowledge, worry, etc.
2 Concrete Nouns ‫المحسوسة‬/‫األسماء المادية‬

A concrete noun is a noun that names a physical thing.


:‫ االسم الملموس (المحسوس) هو االسم الذى يسمى (يشير إلى) الشىء المادى مثل‬-
train, chair, tea, banana, wall, mattress, rain, etc.
3 Common Nouns ‫األسماء العامة‬

A common noun is a noun that names a general thing, not a specific thing.
:‫محددا مثل‬
ً ‫ االسم الشائع هو االسم الذى يسمى (يشير إلى) شيئًا عامـًّا وليس شيئًا‬-
woman, man, town, country, school, tree, location, etc.
4 Proper Nouns ‫أسماء األعالم‬

A proper noun is a noun that indicates the specific name of a thing. It begins with a capital letter.
:‫ يبدأ بحرف كبير مثل‬.‫ اسم العلم هو اسم يشير إلى االسم المحدد لشىء ما‬-
Osama, Hala, Cairo, Google, Earth, Eiffel Tower, etc.
.‫ الفرق واضح هنا بين االسم العلم واالسم العام الذى يشير إلى طائفة وليس إلى شىء مخصص‬-

80
Additional Notes

5 Countable Nouns ‫األسماء المعدودة‬

A countable noun is a noun that indicates something you could actually count.
.‫ مثل‬a/an ‫ االسم المعدود هو اسم يشير إلى شىء يمكنك حسابه بالفعل ويستخدم مع‬-
car, teacher, tree, lion, eye, table, pen, film, street, etc.
6 Uncountable Nouns ‫األسماء غير المعدودة‬

An uncountable noun is a noun that indicates something you cannot count.


:‫ مثل‬a/an ‫ االسم غير المعدود هو اسم يشير إلى شىء ال يمكنك عده وال يستخدم مع‬-
furniture, advice, mail, news, hope, luggage, work, coffee, information, etc.

2 Pronouns ‫الضمائر‬

A pronoun is a word that is used instead of a noun.


:‫ الضمير هو كلمة تستخدم بد ًال من االسم مثل‬-
I, he, it, we, them, us, mine, itself.

Personal ‫الضمائر الشخصية‬

Demonstrative ‫ضمائر اإلشارة‬

Interrogative ‫ضمائر استفهامية‬


Pronouns

Possessive ‫ضمائر الملكية‬

Relative ‫ضمائر الوصل‬

Reflexive ‫ضمائر عكسية‬

Reciprocal ‫الضمائر التبادلية‬

Indefinite ‫الضمائر غير المحددة‬

1 Personal Pronouns ‫الضمائر الشخصية‬

Personal pronouns represent people or things. The personal pronouns are:


:‫ الضمائر الشخصية هى‬.‫ الضمائر الشخصية تمثل األشخاص أو األشياء‬-
I, you, he, she, it, we, they, me, him, her, us, them.
2 Demonstrative Pronouns ‫ضمائر اإلشارة‬

“Demonstrative” means “showing, making something clear.”


:‫ توضيح شىء ما» مثل‬،‫ «اإلشارة» تعنى «إظهار‬-
this, that, these, those.
Use “this” and “these” )‫للقريب (للمسافة أو الوقت‬
Use “that” and “those” )‫للبعيد (للمسافة أو الوقت‬
81
PART 2 Additional Notes

3 Interrogative Pronouns ‫الضمائر االستفهامية‬

: ‫ تستخدم لألسئلة مثل‬-


who, whom, which, what, whoever, whatever, etc.

4 Possessive Pronouns ‫ضمائر الملكية‬

: ‫ لبيان الملكية واالنتماء والخصوصية مثل‬-


mine, yours, his, hers, ours, theirs.

5 Relative Pronouns ‫ضمائر الوصل‬

:‫ ضمائر الوصل هى ضمائر تربط أجزاء مختلفة من الجملة مثل‬-


who, whom, which, that, whoever, etc.

6 Reflexive Pronouns ‫الضمائر المنعكسة‬

myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself, ourselves, themselves.


.)self - selves( ‫ تظهر الضمائر االنعكاسية أن الفعل يؤثر على الشخص الذى يقوم بهذا الفعل ويحتوى على‬-
I cut myself while chopping the onions.
intensive ‫ وتفيد التأكيد وتسمى‬-
I myself baked the cake./The project itself wasn’t difficult.

7 Reciprocal Pronouns ‫الضمائر التبادلية‬

 eciprocal means that two people or groups do the same thing to each other. They treat each
R
other in the same way.
.‫ يعامل بعضهم بعضـًا بنفس الطريقة‬.‫ تعنى أن يقوم شخصان أو مجموعتان بنفس الشىء بعضهما مع البعض‬-
Ahmed helps Samy, and Samy helps Ahmed. So we can say, “Ahmed and Samy help each other.”
:‫ يوجد اثنان من الضمائر متبادلة فى اللغة اإلنجليزية‬-
- Each other and one another.
The two politicians hate each other./They gave each other presents.
We must stop fighting one another./They can’t hear one another.

8 Indefinite Pronouns ‫الضمائر غير المحددة‬

:‫ الضمائر غير المحددة هى ضمائر ال تشير إلى أى شخص أو شىء معين مثل‬-
anything, everybody, another, each, few, many, none, some.

82
Additional Notes

3 Verbs ‫األفعال‬

.‫الفعل هو كلمة أو مجموعة كلمات تعبر عن فعل أو حالة‬


go, jump, sleep, eat, think, be, change, become, drive, complete, etc.
We had a nice lunch./I think that he is right./He drove for hours.

Verbs

Auxiliary Main Compound Stative Dynamic Regular Irregular Phrasal


‫مساعد‬ ‫أساسى‬ ‫مركب‬ ‫ثابت‬/‫حالة‬ ‫حركى‬ ‫منتظم‬ ‫غير منتظم‬ ‫اصطالحى‬

1 Auxiliary verbs (also called “helping verbs”)


.‫ األفعال المساعدة هى أفعال تـُستخدم مع الفعل الرئيسى للجملة للتعبير عن الفعل أو الحالة‬-
:‫ وأهم األفعال المساعدة هى‬-
be, am, is, are, was, were, do, did, have, has, had.
We were waiting for hours./Is she sleeping?/He didn’t know the answer.
We have gone a long way./Do you smoke?/Will she help?
2 Compound verbs ‫األفعال المركبة‬

A compound verb = auxiliary verb + main verb.


They were discussing their future. He didn’t tell us the truth.
3 Stative verbs ‫أفعال الحالة‬

Stative verbs are verbs that express a state rather than an action.
ً ‫ هى أفعال تعبر عن حالة‬Stative verbs ‫ األفعال‬-
:‫بدل من فعل مثل‬
be, seem, love, own, want, sound, have, know, understand.
He seems  ill. He wants to travel.
That sounds nice!
.‫ ال يتم استخدام أفعال الحالة عادة فى األزمنة المستمرة‬-
Incorrect: He is wanting to meet you. Correct: He wants to meet you.
Incorrect: I am knowing English. Correct: I know English.
4 Dynamic (Action) verbs ‫األفعال الحركية‬

.‫ تعبر عن فعل حقيقى‬.‫ األفعال الحركية هى عكس أفعال الحالة‬-


jump, swim, catch, write, call, sleep, hit, open, speak.
.‫ تستخدم أفعال الحركة عادة فى األزمنة المستمرة‬-
Correct: He is drinking water./He drinks water.
5 Phrasal verbs ‫األفعال االصطالحية‬

.‫جديدا‬
ً ‫ وهذا الدمج يخلق معنى‬.‫ الفعل االصطالحى هو فعل مدمج مع ظرف أو حرف جر‬-
run = ‫“( يجرى‬She can run fast!”)
into = ‫“( فى‬He looked into my eyes.”)
run into = ‫“( يقابل مصادفة‬I ran into Ahmed yesterday.”)

83
PART 2 Additional Notes

4 Adjectives ‫الصفات‬

An adjective is a word that describes a person or thing.


:‫ الصفة هى كلمة تصف شخصـًا أو شيئـًا مثل‬-
big, old, pretty, expensive, green, round, French, loud, quick, fat.

Adjectives

opinion size age shape colour origin material used for


‫الرأى‬ ‫الحجم‬ ‫العمر‬ ‫الهيئة‬ ‫اللون‬ ‫بلد المنشأ‬ ‫المادة‬ ‫من أجل‬
nice big old round red Egyptian metal dinner

Determiners (articles) ‫المحددات‬

:‫ المحدد هو كلمة تأتى قبل االسم لتبين الشخص أو الشىء الذى تتحدث عنه مثل‬-
A, an, the, my, your, some, any, several, enough, any.
I have a red hat.
Some people decided to leave.
.‫ يعتبر بعض الناس أن المحددات هى نوع من الصفات‬-
.‫ ما يميز المحددات هو أنه يمكنك عاد ًة استخدام محدد واحد فقط فى كل مرة‬-
Incorrect: He has the my ticket.
Correct: He has my ticket./He has the ticket.
.‫ بمعنى آخر يأتى االسم قبل اسم آخر ويصفه‬.‫ فى بعض األحيان تعمل األسماء كصفات‬-
Sports car/Orange juice/Television station/Coffee shop/Book cover
.)‫ لكن‬، ‫ يجب أن تفصل بينها بفاصالت أو أداة ربط (و‬،‫ عندما يكون لديك العديد من الصفات من نفس النوع‬-
The beautiful, original painting.
My nice and sweet cat /An expensive but important trip.

5 Adverbs ‫الظروف‬/‫األحوال‬

:‫ الحال هو كلمة تصف‬-


‫ الجملة‬-4 ‫ الحال‬-3 ‫ الصفة‬-2 ‫ الفعل‬-1

verb She runs quickly.

adjective She is extremely beautiful.

adverb She smokes very rarely.

sentence Naturally, you don’t have to come.

Adverbs usually answer the following questions:


Where? Home. (“I went home.”)
When? Yesterday. (“We met yesterday.”)
84
Additional Notes

How? Slowly. (“The turtle moves slowly.”)


How often? Sometimes. (“Sometimes it stops responding.”)
How long? Temporarily. (“She is staying with us temporarily.”)
How likely? Surely. (“Our team will surely win!”)
To what degree? Very. (“She was very pleased.”)
.ly ‫ فى الكثير من األحوال نحول الصفة إلى حال بإضافة‬-

Adjective + “-ly”

quick + ly quickly brave + ly bravely


strange + ly strangely real + ly really
dead + ly deadly heavi + ly heavily
sudden + ly suddenly happi + ly happily
clever + ly cleverly tru + ly truly

.ly ‫ هناك أحوال ال تنتهى بـ‬-


fast, very, hard, home, just, too, well, never, sometimes, and so forth.

Adverbs

Degree Manner Place Time Frequency Duration Probability


‫الدرجة‬ ‫الطريقة‬ ‫المكان‬ ‫الوقت‬ ‫التكرار‬ ‫المدة‬ ‫االحتمال‬

Adverbs of degree
:‫ وتجيب عن األسئلة التالية‬،‫ توضح لنا ظروف الدرجة قوة أو درجة الفعل أو الحالة‬-
How much? To what degree?
very, highly, totally, perfectly, partially, almost.
You are totally right.
Adverbs of manner
:‫ وتجيب عن السؤال التالى‬،‫ توضح لنا هذه الظروف الطريقة التى يتم بها العمل‬-
How?
well, badly, nicely, slowly, loudly, quietly, happily, sadly, secretly, weakly.
The children ran happily to their father.
Adverbs of place
:‫ وتجيب عن السؤال التالى‬،‫ توضح لنا ظروف المكان موقع الفعل أو الحالة‬-
Where?
home, here, there, outside, inside, away, around, anywhere, abroad, up, down, out.
We are here. He went home.
We found him outside.

85
PART 2 Additional Notes

Adverbs of time
:‫ وتجيب عن السؤال التالى‬،‫ توضح لنا ظروف الوقت وقت الفعل أو الحالة‬-
When?
now, soon, later, yesterday, tomorrow, early, before, lately, recently.
Let’s talk now. I will do it later.
He promised to write back soon.
Adverbs of frequency
:‫ وتجيب عن السؤال التالى‬،‫ توضح لنا ظروف التكرار تكرار اإلجراء أو الحالة‬-
How often?
always, never, sometimes, often, rarely, usually, occasionally.
I always brush my teeth after a meal.
We often meet and chat.
Adverbs of duration
:‫ وتجيب عن السؤال التالى‬،‫ توضح لنا ظروف المدة طول اإلجراء أو الحالة‬-
For how long?
forever, constantly, temporarily, briefly.
He is working there temporarily.
I will be forever grateful.
Adverbs of probability
:‫ وتجيب عن السؤال التالى‬،‫ توضح لنا ظروف االحتمال فرص حدوث اإلجراء أو الحالة‬-
How likely?
certainly, maybe, probably, possibly, surely.
She will certainly forget about it.
Maybe we’ll come after all.

6 Prepositions ‫حروف الجر‬

:‫ يتم استخدامه عاد ًة إلظهار الموقع واالتجاه والوقت وما إلى ذلك مثل‬.‫ حرف الجر هو كلمة ُتـستخدم قبل اسم أو ضمير لربطها بكلمة أخرى فى الجملة‬-
on, in, at, by, under, above, beside, to, out, from, for.
Let’s go into the house.
We will meet at four o’clock.
He went to school.

7 Conjunctions ‫الروابط‬

:‫ الرابط هو كلمة تربط أجزاء من الجملة معـًا مثل‬-


and, but, or, because, so.
I want to come, but I can’t.
She is smart and beautiful.
He didn’t pass the test because he didn’t understand the subject.
We were hungry, so we ordered pizza.
86
Additional Notes

8 Interjection ‫صيغة التعجب‬

.‫ صيغة التعجب هى صوت أو كلمة أو عبارة قصيرة تستخدم للتعبير عن مشاعر المتحدث‬-
Oh! Look out! Ow! Hey! Wow! Ah! Um...
Wow, that’s amazing!
Ah, that was a good meal.
Oh dear! What happened?
Hello! How are you doing?
Well, that’s an option too.

Summary

Part of Speech Explanation Examples

Noun A word that names a person, a place or a thing. Boy, Ali, cat, Paris

Pronoun A word that is used instead of a noun. He, my, yourself

Adjective A word that describes a person or thing. pretty, easy, fat

A word or group of words that express an action


Verb go, jump, be, think
or a state.

A word that describes or gives more information


Adverb about a verb, an adjective, another adverb, or quickly, tomorrow, outside
even the entire sentence.

A word that is used before a noun or a pronoun


to connect it to another word in the sentence. It
Preposition on, in, to, from, of
is usually used to show location, direction, time,
and so forth.

Conjunction A word that joins parts of a sentence together. and, or, but

A short sound, word or phrase used to express


Interjection Wow, hmm, well, oh dear
the speaker’s emotion.

87
Exercises

Choose the correct answer from a, b, c or d:


1  Ali’s house will make a good hiding place. Here “hiding” is a/an .................... .

a) adjective b) noun
c) adverb d) preposition
2  Although she’s read the whole story, she remembers nothing. Here “story” is a/an .................... .

a) verb b) noun
c) adjective d) determiner
3  They met a few people and gained little information during the meeting.

Which of the following is the preposition?


a) few b) little
c) during d) the
4  Select the verb(s) in the following sentence:

“Osama seems to change his mind a lot.”


a) seems b) change
c) mind d) Both a & b
5  The children thoroughly enjoyed the show. Here “thoroughly” is a/an .................... .

a) adjective b) determiner
c) adverb d) noun
6  I think all Ali’s friends really like him. Here “him” is a/an .................... .

a) noun b) pronoun
c) adverb d) determiner
7  My team played three matches last week. Here “last week” is a/an .................... .

a) adverb b) adjective
c) determiner d) pronoun
8  After three very unhappy years in Cairo, they left it. Here “after” is a/an .................... .

a) preposition b) conjunction
c) noun d) pronoun
9  He has been married for twenty years and he still doesn’t understand his wife. Here “twenty” is a/an

.................... .
a) adjective b) noun
c) adverb d) pronoun
10  Do you think the young have an easier life nowadays? Here “young” is a/an .................... .

a) pronoun b) adjective
c) noun d) adverb

88
Additional Notes

11   ou’d better come in or you’ll get wet. Here “wet” is a/an .................... .
Y
a) verb b) adjective
c) adverb d) preposition
12  Choose a proper noun in the following sentence:

“Khalid is my best friend. He lives in a big city near the sea.”


a) Khalid b) friend
c) city d) sea
13  Choose the preposition in the following sentence:

“I don’t know whether the pen is on the table or underneath the piano.”
a) on b) underneath
c) the d) Both a & b
14  ”Ola’s place of birth is Assuit, but she lives here now.” Which word is a pronoun?

a) Ola b) she
c) here d) Both a & b
15  A pronoun can .................... a noun that’s already been mentioned or inferred.

a) replace b) join
c) shorten d) double
16  Prepositions link a/an .................... to another word or sentence part.

a) adjective b) noun
c) verb d) adverb
17  Can you remember the first time you saw Osama?” Which is a determiner?

a) you b) the
c) saw d) can
18  Conjunctions are used to .................... words, phrases, clauses or sentences.

a) shorten b) separate
c) replace d) join
19  ”Ow! That hurts! Stop it!” Which word is an interjection?

a) Ow b) hurts
c) stop d) that
20  An interjection is a word or phrase we use to .................... a strong feeling or emotion.

a) hide b) express
c) cause d) join

89
PART 3 The Prisoner of Zenda

Part
3

Revision (3)
The Prisoner of
Zenda

Key Vocabulary

accent ‫لهجة‬ moat ‫خندق مائى‬

ambassador ‫سفير‬ moreover ‫عالوة على ذلك‬

anxious ْ ُ‫ مـ‬/‫َقلـِق‬
‫شـتاق‬ nevertheless ‫مع ذلك‬

authority ‫سلطة‬ nonsense ‫كالم فارغ‬/‫لغو‬

betray ‫يخون‬ panel ‫لوحة‬

candle ‫شمعة‬ personality ‫شخصية‬

care (about) ‫يهتم بـ‬ physical ‫جسمانى‬

cheer ‫يهتف‬ pulse ‫نبض‬

descendants ‫أحفاد‬ relieved ‫مرتاح‬

document ‫مستند‬ reluctantly ‫بمعارضة‬/‫على كره‬

double ‫ بديل‬/ ‫شبيه‬ risk ‫يخاطر‬/‫مخاطرة‬

doubt ‫شك‬ royal ‫ملكى‬

drawbridge ‫جسر متحرك‬ shade ‫ظل‬

duty ‫واجب‬ signature ‫توقيع‬

embassy ‫سفارة‬ spade ‫مجرفة‬/‫جاروف‬

fashionably ‫على الموضة‬ splendid ‫فاخر‬/‫مـتـَاز‬


ْ ُ‫مـ‬
fork ‫مفترق طرق‬ stalemate ‫ورطة‬

gap ‫فجوة‬ stare ‫يحملق‬

guilt ‫خطأ‬/‫ذنب‬ sword ‫سيف‬

imprison ‫يسجن‬ tear ‫يمزق‬

iron ‫حديدى‬/‫حديد‬ tick )‫تدق (الساعة‬

lodge ‫كوخ‬ trap ‫يوقع فى شرك‬

loyal ‫وفى‬/‫مخلص‬ trust ‫يثق فى‬

mansion ‫قصر‬ whisper ‫يهمس‬

miracle ‫معجزة‬ whistle ‫يصفر‬

moan ‫يتألم‬/‫يئن‬ wicked ‫شرير‬

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PART 3 The Prisoner of Zenda

Important Vocabulary

admit ‫يعترف بـ‬ country house ‫بيت ريفى‬

announce ‫يذيع‬/‫يعلن‬ cover up ‫يغطى على‬

annoy ‫يتضايق‬ criminals ‫مجرمون‬

appreciate ‫يقدر‬ crown ‫يتوج‬

approach ‫يقترب من‬ distant ‫بعيد‬

avenue ‫(طريق) غالبـًا ذو شجر‬ Duke )‫دوق (لقب لشخص نبيل‬

ball ‫حفل راقص‬ evil ‫شرير‬

bandage ‫ضمادة‬/‫عصابة‬ extraordinary ‫متميز‬

bend down ‫ينحنى‬ fair ‫عادل‬

board ‫يركب على متن‬ fighter ‫محارب‬/‫مقاتل‬

border )‫حدود (بين دولتين‬ forever ‫لألبد‬

bow ‫ينحنى‬ freezing ‫متجمد‬

breathless ‫منقطع النفس‬/‫الهث‬ French window )‫نافذة فرنسية (باب زجاجى‬

briefly ‫باختصار‬ gate ‫بوابة‬

bullet ‫رصاصة‬ generous ‫كريم‬

capture ‫يأسر‬ greet ‫يـُحيى‬

castle ‫قلعة‬ guards ‫حراس‬

celebration ‫احتفال‬ guest ‫ضيف‬

cellar ‫البدروم‬/‫القبو‬ half-brother ‫أخ غير شقيق‬

chains ‫سالسل‬ handkerchief ‫منديل‬

characteristics ‫خصائص‬ identical ‫متطابق‬

cheek ‫وجنة‬/‫خد‬ inn ‫فندق صغير‬/‫حانة‬

Chief of Police ‫رئيس الشرطة‬ joyous ‫بهيج‬/‫سعيد‬

coach ‫عربة‬ jump up ‫يقفز واقفـًا‬/‫ينهض‬

coin ‫عملة معدنية‬ kidnap ‫يخطف‬

comment ‫يعلق‬ leafy ‫ذو أوراق‬/‫مـُو ِرق‬

confident ‫واثق‬ legally ‫شرعيـًّا‬/‫قانونيـًّا‬

coronation ‫تتويج ملك‬ line ‫يصطف‬

92
The Prisoner of Zenda

lock ‫يحبس‬ reward ‫مكافأة‬

march ‫مسيرة‬/‫يسير‬ ribbon ‫شـَ ِريط‬/‫ِربـَاط‬

Marshal )‫الفريق (رتبة عسكرية‬/‫مارشال‬ row )‫يجدف (قاربـًا‬

meanwhile ‫فى هذه األثناء‬ senseless ‫بال وعى‬

messenger ‫مبعوث‬/‫رسول‬ serious ‫خطير‬

murderer ‫قاتل‬ set free ‫يطلق سراح‬

nervously )‫بعصبية (بتوتر‬ shadow ‫خيال‬/‫ظل‬

officials ‫موظفين‬ sister-in-law ‫أخت الزوجة‬/‫زوجة األخ‬

opportunity ‫فرصة‬ spirit ‫روح‬

pain ‫ألم‬ spy ‫جاسوس‬

party ‫جماعة‬/‫فوج‬ square ‫ميدان‬

peaceful ‫مسالم‬/‫هادئ‬ stab ‫يطعن‬

permission ‫إذن‬ stage ‫مرحلة‬

pipe ‫ماسورة‬/‫أنبوب‬ straight hair ‫شعر مستقيم‬

poisoned ‫مسموم‬ strike ‫يضرب‬

politics ‫السياسة‬ suppose ‫يفترض‬

popularity ‫شعبية‬/‫شهرة‬ swordsman ‫مبارز بالسيف‬

position ‫موقع‬/‫مركز‬ tie up ‫يربط‬

pretend ‫دع‬
ٍ َّ‫مـُـ‬ tough ‫حا ِزم‬/‫قاس‬
ٍ

procession ‫موكب‬ truth ‫الحقيقة‬

protest ‫يعترض‬/‫يحتج‬ urge ‫يحث‬

public ‫عامة الناس‬ weaknesses ‫نقاط ضعف‬

quicken ‫يسرع‬ weapon ‫سالح‬

relative ‫أحد األقارب‬ well-defended ‫جيدا‬


ً ‫محمى‬

rescue ‫ينقذ‬
whole ‫جميع‬/‫كل‬
responsibility ‫مسئولية‬

93
Exercises

Choose the correct answer from a, b, c or d:


1  After 9 years in London, Ben had lost his French .................... .
a) language b) dialect c) accent d) taste
2  The bank manager has full .................... to make important business decisions.
a) thought b) minority c) majority d) authority
3  I still have bad feelings for my old friend as he really .................... my trust.
a) betrayed  b) supported c) helped d) pleaded
4  Many people in this city are .................... of former German immigrants.
a) ancestors b) descendants c) heroes d) enemies
5  There is no .................... that Samy did the right thing. We all trust him.
a) certainty b) secrecy c) ambition d) doubt
6  A/An .................... is the building where a group of officials deal with their country’s affairs in a foreign
country.
a) headquarter b) embassy c) organisation d) department
7  A/An .................... is a place where a road or river divides into two parts.
a) crossroads b) park c) fork d) avenue
8  A/An .................... is a house or hotel in the country or mountains where people can stay when they want
to go hunting, shooting.
a) lodge b) palace c) castle d) tower
9  Liverpool Football Club has many .................... fans who support it everywhere.
a) loyal b) hateful c) hopeless d) envious
10  The young billionaire lives in a .................... with 10 bedrooms and an indoor swimming pool.
a) cottage b) mansion c) hut d) hostel
11  The castle was ringed by a .................... spanned by a wooden drawbridge.
a) tunnel b) road c) moat d) route
12  Wafaa has a strong .................... and always tells you his opinion.
a) ability b) probability c) responsibility d) personality
13  The patient’s breathing was shallow and his .................... was weak.
a) false b) impulse c) pulse d) instinct
14  ...................., the young man started the engine and drove off as he didn’t want to leave the place.
a) Happily b) Reluctantly c) Intentionally d) Hopelessly
15  The young artist took the opportunity to meet members of the British .................... family.
a) royal b) loyal c) traitor d) gamer
16  The children spent a happy time playing on the beach with their buckets and .................... .
a) swords b) spade c) knives d) bowls
17  Egypt’s efforts to break the .................... in the peace talks continue.
a) curiosity b) ability c) stalemate d) delight
18  I was .................... into signing a contract to sell my car by criminals.
a) clapped b) crippled c) slapped d) trapped
19  James leaned over to .................... something to Michael as he didn’t want other people to hear.
a) whisper b) shout c) yell d) ask
94
The Prisoner of Zenda

20  The referee .................... as a sign of beginning the game.


a) whispered b) whistled c) wasted d) pleaded
21  If she was found guilty, the young woman will be .................... for at least six years.
a) hailed b) imprisoned c) honoured d) rewarded
22  It’s a/an .................... that nobody was killed in the crash.
a) habit b) inception c) plight d) miracle
23  All doctors say that smoking is a great....................  to your lungs.
a) delight b) health c) risk d) benefit
24  The businessman made a lot of money and had a/an .................... house built.
a) usual b) splendid c) ancient d) monument
25  Talking openly with your team helps to build .................... .
a) trust b) suspicion c) doubt d) prohibition
26  As you .................... the town, you’ll see the college on the left.
a) discover b) reproach c) approach d) employ
27  The nurse put a .................... on the child’s cut.
a) blanket b) poison c) bandage d) prescription
28  He was found to have a single .................... wound in his chest.
a) bullet b) ballet c) device d) machine
29  The politician refused to .................... about the current situation in the party.
a) recommend b) comment c) suggest d) compare
30  Nabwiya Musa was a woman of .................... intelligence and hard work, so she made great success.
a) common b) strange c) extraordinary d) believable
31  On entering the meeting room, the young man took out a .................... and dried his face.
a) handkerchief b) paper c) shirt d) stick
32  These two models are absolutely .................... in appearance. You can’t see any difference between them.
a) strange b) stained c) spanned d) identical
33  The rich man’s daughter was.................... from her home by a dangerous gang.
a) awarded b) kidnapped  c) honoured d) delighted
34  Hundreds of people .................... in the parade around the city.
a) deployed b) stopped c) marched  d) quarrelled
35  The King’s  .................... stayed in the capital for further talks.
a) fighter b) messenger c) enemy d) passenger
36  The line of bikers was held up by a long funeral .................... .
a) gallery b) show c) festival d) procession
37  My sister tied a nice .................... around the present for father’s birthday.
a) wire b) rope c) ribbon d) rail
38  A/An .................... is a person who tries secretly to get information about a country or organisation for
another country or organisation.
a) hero b) spy c) enemy d) officer
39  The police believed the criminals were dangerous as they were carrying .................... .
a) prizes b) ropes c) gifts d) weapons
40  To avoid accidents, you must leave a .................... between your car and the next.
a) gap b) fight c) line d) row
95
Part
4
Skills
1 Reading Comprehension 2 Writing 
3 Translation
Skills
1 Reading Comprehension
‫ ولكن الممارسة والتدريب المكثف والثروة اللغوية هى أفضل الوسائل للتمكن‬،‫ليس هناك مادة علمية معينة يمكن االعتماد عليها فى التعامل مع قطعة الفهم‬-
.‫من هذا السؤال وإجادته‬
:‫ ويجب اتباع اآلتى عند حل القطعة‬-
ً ‫ ويفضل بعض الناس أن يقرأ األسئلة‬،‫ نقرأ القطعة قراءة سريعة استكشافية وال نتوقف عند المفردات الصعبة‬-١
.‫أول‬
.‫ نقرأ األسئلة لتحديد المعلومات التى نبحث عنها‬-٢
.‫ نقرأ القطعة للمرة الثانية لنبحث عن إجابات األسئلة‬-٣
.‫ التمهل فى فهم السؤال ومعرفة معنى كلمات االستفهام‬-٤
‫ وما يلزمنا هو فهم المعنى العام وتطويع‬،‫عدم االنزعاج من عدم معرفة المفردات والجمل الصعبة الواردة فى القطعة؛ فالمفردات الصعبة واردة ال محالة‬-٥
.‫المفردات حسب موضوع القطعة مع استخدام القدرة على التخمين‬
.‫ قد نجد إيضاح الكلمة الصعبة فى العبارة التالية لها‬-6
.‫ قبل اختيار اإلجابة الصحيحة تأكد من أن اإلجابات األخرى غير صحيحة بالمرة‬-7

Comprehension
1 Read the following passage, then answer the questions:
It is bad to have food stuck between your teeth for long time as food attracts germs which
produce acid, and acid hurts your teeth. Flossing helps to remove this food. This explains why
flossing helps us to keep your mouth healthy, but some doctors say that flossing can be a good
for your heart. It may seem strange that something you do for your teeth can have an effect on
your heart. Doctors have some ideas about how flossing works to keep your heart healthy. One
idea is that the germs that hurt your teeth can travel into blood and attack your heart. Another
idea is that when there are too many germs in your mouth, the body tries to fight them, and the
way the body fights these germs may weaken the heart.
Not every doctor agrees about these ideas. Some doctors think that the link between good
flossing habits and good hearts health is only a coincidence. A coincidence is the occurrence of
two of more events in one time apparently by mere chance. For example, every time I wash my
car, it rains. This doesn’t mean that when I wash my car, it has likewise, some doctors think that
people who have bad flossing may have heart problems, and people who have good flossing
may have healthy hearts. The theory that flossing your teeth helps to keep your heart healthy
might not be true. But every doctor agrees that flossing is a great way to keep your teeth healthy.
So even if flossing doesn’t help your heart, it is sure to help your teeth.

Choose the correct answer from a, b, c or d:


1  ............................ doctors think that flossing has nothing to do with the heart.
a) All b) Some
c) No d) Most
2  Which of the following words mean “fight”?

a) Resist. b) Host.
c) Spoil. d) Discourage.

97
PART 3 Reading Comprehension

3  Flossing effectively helps to keep your mouth healthy by preventing ............................ .


a) germs from producing acid
b) food from entering your body
c) germs from entering your lungs
d) acid from removing your teeth
4  The underlined word “apparently” in the second paragraph means ............................ .
a) clearly b) early
c) seriously d) quickly
5  The underlined word “them” refers to ............................ .
a) germs b) teeth
c) people d) doctors
6  The passage is mainly about ............................ .
a) why doctors disagree about flossing
b) how to keep our teeth healthy
c) flossing by coincidence
d) flossing is the way to a healthy heart
7  According to the passage, how can people get rid of food between their teeth?
a) By removing acids.
b) By flossing.
c) By doing exercises.
d) By having a healthy heart.
8  According to the passage, cleaning your teeth ............................ germs from attacking your heart.
a) intensifies b) prevents
c) accelerates d) protects
9  Flossing helps you have healthy teeth because it prevents ............................ .
a) Germs from producing acid.
b) Food from entering your body.
c) Germs from entering your lungs.
d) Acid from removing your teeth.
10  Suggest a title for the passage:
a) The importance of flossing
b) The health of the heart
c) How to be healthy
d) How to remove acids from blood
98
Reading Comprehension

2 Read the following passage, then answer the questions:


Dear Ali,
How are you?
I had wanted to email you before I started my new job, but I did not have time! I’ve now worked
here for two weeks. I’m working in an old building in the middle of the city at the moment and I
travel to work by bus. By the end of next year, they will have finished building a new office in
a different part of the city. So after that, I’ll be travelling to work every day on the metro!
Before I started this job, I hadn’t known very much about new technology. Now I use it every
day. I often talk to people in other countries, using the internet.
The work is different every day. Yesterday I was interviewing a businesswoman from Japan.
Today I’m visiting a new hotel in Cairo and tomorrow I’m going to a meeting in Damietta. I think
I’ll have to get up very early because the train leaves at 5 a.m.
The job is very tiring and I don’t have a routine yet, but I’m enjoying it. I have already written
a lot of articles. You can read them online. I’ve met some famous people, too. There is a photo of me
interviewing a politician in the attachment to this email. He works for the Ministry of Antiquities,
so he knows all about ancient Egypt. I haven’t met any sports people yet, but there is an important
tennis competition next month. There are some famous tennis players going there and I’m sure I’ll
interview one.
Write soon.
Best wishes,
Munir

Choose the correct answer from a, b, c or d:


1  For how long has Munir done this job?
a) For a year.
b) For two weeks.
c) Since he moved offices.
d) Since last May.
2  Why does he have to get up early tomorrow?

a) He’s interviewing a businessman.


b) He’s visiting a new hotel.
c) He’s going to a meeting.
d) He’s interviewing a politician.
3  Why did someone take a photo of Munir?

a) He is famous.
b) He was meeting a famous person.
c) He wanted a photo to send to his friend.
d) Because his article is online.
99
PART 3 Reading Comprehension

4  What is the main idea of the email?


a) Munir’s new job is boring.
b) Munir doesn’t like his new job.
c) Munir’s new job is busy but exciting.
d) Munir wants his job to pay him more money.
5  What does the underlined word “one” refer to?

a) Tennis competitions.
b) Business people.
c) A famous tennis player.
d) A politician.
6  What does the word “Antiquities” mean?

a) Very old things.


b) Farming.
c) Medicine.
d) Education.
7  One of the following is NOT TRUE about Munir.

a) He thinks his new job is exciting.


b) He uses technology a lot.
c) He published some articles online.
d) He met famous sports people.
8  How does Munir usually communicate with people in other countries?

a) He uses the internet.


b) He usually sends them letters.
c) He uses the fax.
d) He phones them.
9  What job do you think Munir does?

a) He is an officer.
b) He is a journalist.
c) He is an archaeologist.
d) He is an ambassador.
10  Why didn’t Munir email his friend before he got the job?

a) He didn’t like to send emails.


b) He didn’t have his email address.
c) He didn’t know much about technology.
d) He didn’t have a computer.

100
Reading Comprehension

3 Read the following passage, then answer the questions:


In my project, I have to write about three powerful women in history. It is not easy to decide
who to write about because there have been many important women. However, I’m going to
start with Hatshepsut, who was the ruler of ancient Egypt for longer than any other woman.
She was the daughter of Thutmose I. During her time as Pharaoh, she helped to build many
important buildings, started trade with new countries and won some important wars. She
died in around 1458 BCE. Archaeologists did not know very much about Hatshepsut until the
nineteenth century. This might be because pictures and sculptures of the Pharaoh show her as
a man.
Next, I want to write about Emperor Wu Zetian. Wu Zetian had a good education. She was
the ruler of China in the first century CE and helped to improve Chinese people’s education. Wu
Zetian, who died at the age of 80, also helped to improve China’s agriculture. In that way, there
was enough food for everyone to eat. She is impressive because she is the only woman in China
to have ruled as an emperor.
Finally, I will include Britain’s Queen Victoria who ruled from 1837 to 1901. She was
a respected Queen for 63 years at a time when Britain was the most powerful country in the
world. She was also a wife and the mother of nine children. The Queen insisted on a law to stop
people using slaves in 1838. She was also responsible for reducing the number of hours that
people had to work in factories.

Choose the correct answer from a, b, c or d:


1  Which of the following did not Hatshepsut do to help ancient Egypt?
a) Sell goods to other countries.
b) Win battles with other countries.
c) Help to build.
d) Open new schools.
2  How do you think that Wu Zetian’s education helped her to be a good ruler?

a) She learned how to help other people.


b) She could trade with other countries.
c) She knew about art.
d) She could win wars.
3  How did Wu Zetian make sure that people had enough to eat?

a) She helped people’s education.


b) She improved farms.
c) She opened shops.
d) She opened factories.
4  What is the main idea of the text?

a) Women should be rulers.


b) Women can do great things.
c) Women were usually successful in the past.
d) You can trust women.

101
PART 3 Reading Comprehension

What does the underlined word “This” refer to?


5 

a) Why archaeologists did not know very much about Hatshepsut.


b) Why Hatshepsut died.
c) Why people thought Hatshepsut was a man.
d) Why people painted pictures of Hatshepsut.
6  What do you think the word “emperor” refers to?

a) Someone’s name.
b) A part of China.
c) The name of a book.
d) The title of a ruler.
7  Archaeologists didn’t know about Hatshepsut until the 19th century because ........................................ .

a) she was shown as a man in pictures


b) she didn’t build any temples
c) she didn’t have any statues
d) she won many wars
8  In addition to being the ruler of Britain, Queen Victoria ........................................ .

a) had a big family


b) lived for a long time
c) improved schools
d) built many factories
9  One of the following IS Not one of Hatshepsut’s achievements.

a) She helped to build many important buildings.


b) She built many schools.
c) She started trade with new countries.
d) She won some important wars.
10  What is special about Wu Zetian?

a) She improved agriculture.


b) She died at the age of 80.
c) She improved education.
d) She is the only woman in China to have ruled as an emperor.

102
Reading Comprehension

4 Read the following passage, then answer the questions:


How would you feel about travelling into space for six months to live on a planet that is 400
million kilometres from earth? And how would you feel if you had been told that you could
never return? That is what is planned for people who are going on the Mars One mission in 2031.
Surprisingly, 200,000 applications have been received from people who want to join the mission,
even though they know that they will never see earth again.
The people who want to go to Mars say that their plan is not very different from the first
Europeans who went to America, or the thousands of people who have left their countries
because of war or disease. They also knew that their new lives would be difficult, and that they
would probably never see their countries again.
A hundred people who want to go to Mars have been chosen to start special training to see
who is suitable. Scientists will get the people to live in a small living space for a long time, without
seeing any friends or family. This will be similar to what they can expect on Mars.
The launch will have a crew of just four people for the long journey into space. A special
settlement will be built on Mars where food will be grown and the four people will live and work.
It won’t be an easy life: there will be very little water, they will have to grow their own food and
the planet is known for its giant dust storms. Despite these problems, for some fearless pioneers,
it is a challenge they cannot refuse.

Choose the correct answer from a, b, c or d:


1  How many people will be sent to Mars in 2031?
a) 200,000. b) 100.
c) 4. d) 400.
2  Why did the people decide to travel to Mars?

a) They want to see if they can survive there.


b) They want to see the dust storms.
c) Scientists made them go there.
d) They don’t like earth.
3  What is the main idea of the text?

a) One day, we will all live on Mars.


b) Life on Mars will be very difficult.
c) The people who go to Mars will be famous.
d) Life on Mars will never be possible.
4  What does the word “settlement” mean?

a) A farm.
b) A place where a group of people live.
c) A factory.
d) A rocket.

103
PART 3 Reading Comprehension

What does the underlined “it” refer to?


5 

a) An offer to go to Mars.
b) A six-month journey into space.
c) Time spent with three other people.
d) An offer to send in an application.
6  How far is Mars from earth?

a) 400,000,000 km.
b) 400,000 km.
c) 4,000,000 km.
d) 2,000,000 km.
7  How did the people who wanted to go to Mars describe their mission?

a) They described it as a usual adventurous journey.


b) They described it as an impossible journey.
c) They described it as an imaginary journey.
d) They described it as a simple journey.
8  A suitable title to the passage would be “........................................” .

a) The first journey in space


b) A journey to Mars
c) How to live on Mars
d) How to apply for a space journey
9  How many applicants applied to join the mission?

a) 200. b) 20,000.
c) 400. d) 2000.
10  When would the Mars explorers return to the earth?

a) They would be back in 2031.


b) They would be back after ten years.
c) They would be back in four months.
d) They wouldn’t be back to the earth at all.

104
Reading Comprehension

5 Read the following passage, then answer the questions:


Most people know that the first man on the moon was Neil Armstrong in 1969. However, since
that time, the moon has been visited by eleven other men but they are not so famous. Who were
these other space pioneers?
In 1969, four months after Neil Armstrong and his colleague Buzz Aldrin stayed on the surface
of the moon for 21 hours, Alan Bean and Pete Conrad spent two days there. Bean is also an artist,
and is the only person on earth who is able to paint space scenes that he had actually seen. In
1971, Alan Shepard and Edgar Mitchel went on a mission to study earthquakes on the moon
(known as moon quakes). Shepard also enjoyed a game of golf there: because there is very little
gravity, he hit the ball farther than any professional golf player on earth!
Seven months later, two more astronauts stayed for nearly three days on the moon. David
Scott and James Irwin took along a special vehicle which meant they could travel around.
They returned to earth with many moon rocks. In 1972, John Young and Charles Duke landed
in the moon’s mountains for the first time.
The moon was last visited at the end of 1972. Eugene Cernan and Harrison Schmitt explored
the moon for three days, longer than any other astronaut. Schmitt was a geologist before he
became an astronaut and he did a number of scientific experiments there. Before they returned
to earth, Cernan wrote his daughter’s name on the moon’s surface. There is no weather on the
moon, so he knew that there was nothing that would wear the letters away. They are probably
there today!
There are now plans to get astronauts to visit the moon again, although nobody knows when
this might be.

Choose the correct answer from a, b, c or d:


1  Why are Alan Bean’s paintings special?

a) They were painted on the moon.


b) They were painted in space.
c) He is the only artist who has been to space.
d) You can only see them on the moon.
2  Why is it likely that you can still read the name of Eugene Cernan’s daughter on the moon today?

a) The letters are very big.


b) The letters were written in rocks.
c) There is little that will remove the letters.
d) His colleague was a geologist.
3  Why do you think that some of the astronauts played golf and wrote names on the surface of

the moon?
a) They were very important experiments.
b) They wanted to have fun.
c) Scientists on earth got them to do these.
d) They behaved badly.
105
PART 3 Reading Comprehension

Why do you think that astronauts were sent to the moon?


4 

a) To punish them.
b) To do scientific experiments.
c) To test weightless sports.
d) To test zero-gravity living.
5  What does the underlined word “They” refer to?

a) Astronauts.
b) Spaceships.
c) The moon’s weather.
d) Letters on the surface.
6  What do you think the word ’vehicle’ means?

a) Something used to carry people or things.


b) A type of spaceship.
c) A rocket.
d) A type of satellite.
7  How many people have been to the moon up till now?

a) 2. b) 11.
c) 13. d) 30.
8  What was Alan Shepard and Edgar Mitchel’s mission on the moon?

a) To play golf.
b) To write on the moon’s surface.
c) To draw paintings for the moon.
d) To study the moon quakes.
9  What was special about John Young and Charles Duke’s journey to the moon?

a) It was the first journey ever.


b) They landed in the moon’s mountains for the first time.
c) They painted pictures there.
d) They made geological experiments.
10  How long did Neil Armstrong and his colleague Buzz Aldrin stay on the moon?

a) They stayed for 21 hours.


b) They stayed for 2 days.
c) They stayed for 3 days.
d) They stayed for a week.

106
Reading Comprehension

6 Read the following passage, then answer the questions:


Hi Dalia,
You asked me to tell you about the interview that I had on Tuesday. It did not start very well.
My appointment was at eight o’clock so I had to get up very early. Then there was a downpour as I
was walking to the office so I was very wet when I arrived. However, there were two other people
who were there for interviews too, and they also got wet!
When it was my turn, the manager was very friendly. He looked at my CV and said that I had
excellent qualifications. Then he asked me to describe myself. I said that I was sociable and
conscientious. He asked me if I spoke any languages. I told him that I spoke English fluently. Then
he asked me if I had done any volunteering. I told him that I often helped at a local charity for
poor and disadvantaged children. He also asked me about my free time activities. I told him that
I enjoyed weightlifting. He said that he found that surprising but also impressive!
He asked me why I wanted to work for his company. I explained that it had a very good
reputation and that I had always wanted to work as a tour guide in a big organisation.
At the end of the interview, he said that I was an excellent candidate and I was qualified to do
the job. He explained that he would make up his mind about who would get the job in the next
few days.
I really hope that I get it.
Write soon.
Best wishes,
Ola

Choose the correct answer from a, b, c or d:


1  Which of these questions did the manager ask?

a) Do you do volunteering?
b) Can you do volunteering?
c) Have you done any volunteering?
d) Why don’t you do volunteering?
2  Which information did the manager find surprising?

a) Ola helps a charity.


b) Ola was wet.
c) Ola is fluent in English.
d) Ola likes weightlifting.
3  Why did the manager want to know if she had done any volunteering?

a) Because he can’t pay her.


b) To find out if she is a kind person.
c) Because he works for a charity.
d) Because he needs someone to work with children.
107
PART 3 Reading Comprehension

What is the main idea of the email?


4 

a) Ola knows she has got the job.


b) Ola doesn’t know if she has got the job yet.
c) Ola can’t get the job.
d) Ola will start the job in a few days.
5  What does the underlined word “it” refer to?

a) The tour guide.


b) The job.
c) The manager .
d) The company.
6  What do you think that ’disadvantaged’ means?

a) Rich.
b) Having problems.
c) Strong.
d) Voluntary.
7  When was Ola’s interview?

a) It was on Tuesday morning.


b) It was on Tuesday evening.
c) It was in the summer.
d) It was on Saturday morning.
8  Which of the following didn’t the manager ask Ola about?

a) Her qualifications.
b) Her hobby.
c) Her marital status.
d) Her personal qualities.
9  How would you describe the manager’s treatment to Ola?

a) Unfavourable.
b) Hateful
c) Hopeful.
d) Tasteless.
10  How many people were there for interviews other than Ola?

a) There were three.


b) There were two.
c) She was the only applicant.
d) There were four.

108
Reading Comprehension

7 Read the following passage, then answer the questions:

Dear Amal,
In your last email, you told me about your aunt. I am very impressed that she is going to get a
degree in law now that her children have left home. You asked me if I knew anyone else who had
studied when they were older. I don’t know anyone, but I heard about an amazing woman in a
report on the radio. The report said that a woman had started primary school at the age of 90! The
woman, whose name is Priscilla Sitienei, lives in a rural village in Kenya. When she was younger,
she was not able to go to school. She worked for 65 years as a nurse. Although she was good at
her job, she never learned to read or write.
In 2003, the government of Kenya said that primary school would be free for everyone for the
first time. Priscilla wanted to learn to read and write and decided to go to primary school with six
of her great-great-grandchildren. She said that it was never too late to learn new skills and she
wanted to inspire other adults to do the same. Now she is learning maths, English and PE. She
wears the same blue and green uniform as her fellow pupils.
The head teacher of the school said that Priscilla was loved by every pupil and that they all
wanted to learn and play with her. At break, she tells the other pupils about the customs that she
grew up with.
At the end of the report, Priscilla said that she wanted to tell the world’s children that with
education, they could be whatever they wanted. She is certainly a remarkable woman!
Best wishes,
Azza

Choose the correct answer from a, b, c or d:


1  Why is Azza impressed by Amal’s aunt?

a) She has a university degree.


b) Her children have left home.
c) She is learning to read.
d) She is studying for a degree.
2  What does Priscilla hope to achieve, as well as learning at school?

a) She wants a new job.


b) She wants pupils to inspire her.
c) She wants to inspire children to learn.
d) She wants to write a book.
3  Why do you think that Priscilla did not go to primary school when she was a child?

a) There weren’t any primary schools.


b) Her family could not pay for her education.
c) She did not want to learn.
d) She started working as a nurse.
109
PART 3 Reading Comprehension

What is the main idea of the text?


4 

a) It is never too late to learn.


b) Old people must go to school.
c) Old people should go to school.
d) Nurses can get different jobs.
5  What do the underlined words “anyone else” refer to?

a) Any other people.


b) Any aunts.
c) Any friends.
d) Any relatives.
6  What do you think the word ’remarkable‘ means?

a) Very old.
b) Very clever.
c) Very kind.
d) Unusual in a way that is surprising.
7  Why did Azza tell Amal about Priscilla Sitienei?

a) Priscilla was one of her relatives.


b) She wanted to give her a prize.
c) Amal asked her if she knew anyone who is like her aunt.
d) She wanted to write a report about Priscilla.
8  Find a word from the passage which means “give somebody the desire to do something well”.

a) To impress. b) To inspire.
c) To report. d) To skill.
9  What does Priscilla’s decision to go to primary school show about her character?

a) She lacks patience and persistence.


b) She is a hopeless woman.
c) She is a poor woman.
d) She is a very brave woman.
10  What encouraged Priscilla to go back to education?

a) The government’s decision to make primary school free for everyone.


b) She wanted to accompany her grandchildren at school.
c) She wanted to have a better job.
d) She wanted to be famous.

110
Reading Comprehension

8 Read the following passage, then answer the questions:

Monday 5th June


I have always wished that I knew more about the moon, so I did a project about it at school.
The moon orbits the earth every 27.3 days, so that is about once a month. However, we only see
one side of It. That is because it takes about the same time for the moon to spin once as it takes
for the moon to orbit the earth. The side which we do not see is called “the dark side of the moon".
However, like the earth, both sides of the moon are illuminated by the sun at different times, so it
is not dark all the time. We just can’t see it.
Like the sun, the moon rises in the east and sets in the west. A full moon is when we see the
moon as a circle. This occurs when the moon is on the opposite side of the earth to the sun.
Scientists think that there is probably some water on the moon, but there are no clouds and
there is no wind. The average temperature on the moon is 107 degrees centigrade in the day and
-153 degrees centigrade at night. If the astronauts who visited the moon hadn’t worn spacesuits,
they would have died. The moon is usually about 385,000 kilometres from earth, but its gravity
makes our seas rise and fall twice a day.
I wish I could visit the moon! It is not very big. The surface of the moon is about the same size
as Africa. I would like to see Mons Huygens, the moon’s tallest mountain, which is half as high as
Mount Everest. Gravity on the moon is only 17% as strong as it is on earth. That means you can
jump really high there!

Choose the correct answer from a, b, c or d:


1  What does the moon affect on earth?

a) The size of mountains. b) Its gravity.


c) Its weather. d) The seas.
2  Why is one side of the moon called “the dark side of the moon"?

a) It is always dark there.


b) It is never dark there.
c) We can’t see it from earth.
d) You can’t see it from a spaceship.
3  What do you think would be most dangerous about visiting the moon?

a) The temperature.
b) The gravity.
c) The height of the mountains.
d) The fact that it is dark.
4  What kind of text is this?

a) A newspaper article.
b) A diary extract.
c) A novel.
d) A poem.
111
PART 3 Reading Comprehension

What does the underlined word “That” refer to?


5 

a) The fact that you can jump.


b) The fact that the moon’s gravity is weaker.
c) The fact that the earth’s gravity is weak.
d) The fact that you are on the moon.
6  What do you think spacesuits are?

a) Special clothes that astronauts wear.


b) Special helmets.
c) Special shoes.
d) Special hats.
7  How would you describe the climate of the moon?

a) Moderate.
b) Acceptable.
c) Normal.
d) Unsteady.
8  How long is the moon’s o rbit around the Earth?
a) Nearly a year.
b) Nearly a day.
c) About a week.
d) About a month.
9  The text suggests that the moon is ....................... for human life.

a) not suitable
b) available
c) perfect
d) simple
10  From the passage find a verb which means “to shine light on something”.

a) To orbit.
b) To illuminate
c) To rise.
d) To set.

112
Reading Comprehension

9 Read the following passage, then answer the questions:

There are some amazing trees in the world. Some people think that a tree in Britain might be
4,000 years old. In Italy, a tree that might be the same age is famous for its size: its diameter is
more than 18 metres. It is called The Tree of 100 Horses because it is believed that 100 soldiers on
horses waited under the tree in a storm. However, no scientists have been able to prove the ages
of these two trees. The oldest tree that scientists know the age of in Europe is more than 1,000
years old. The tree, which is in Greece, first grew in 941 CE.
However, if you compared these with two trees in North America, they would seem quite
young! Scientists used to think a tree called “Methuselah” was the world’s oldest tree. It is more
than 4,800 years old. Then scientists found a nearby tree that is more than 5,000 years old! The
location of these trees is a secret and for a good reason: in 2012, a woman was arrested for burning
down another tree which was 3,500 years old.
These are probably the world’s oldest individual trees, but scientists believe that there are even
older roots of trees. Sometimes individual trees might have died, but new trees have grown from
their roots. For example, a small tree in Sweden has grown from roots which are believed to be
nearly 10,000 years old.
We know the age of most of these trees because scientists have calculated their age after
extracting a piece of wood from the trunk. However, we also know that a tree in Asia is more than
2,300 years old because a text describes when it was planted. I wish I could see some of these
trees: they are incredible.

Choose the correct answer from a, b, c or d:


1  Where are the two oldest individual trees in the world?

a) Greece. b) Britain.
c) Sweden. d) North America.
2  Why was a woman arrested in 2012?

a) She found one of the old trees.


b) She told people where the old trees were.
c) She destroyed an old tree.
d) She burned all the old trees.
3  W
 hy do you think that people believe that 100 soldiers on horses waited under the old Italian tree?
a) It is a very tall tree.
b) Its branches are very wide.
c) It took 100 horses to pull the tree down.
d) It looks like a lot of horses.
4  What does the writer think about trees?

a) He wishes he could see more of them.


b) He is impressed by them.
c) They should be studied more.
d) All of the above.
113
PART 3 Reading Comprehension

What does the underlined word “these” refer to?


5 

a) The world’s oldest trees.


b) The oldest trees in Europe.
c) Soldiers.
d) Soldiers on horses.
6  What do you think the word “trunk” means?

a) The main part of a tree.


b) The bark.
c) A leaf.
d) The tree’s rings.
7  How do scientists calculate the age of trees?

a) They cut them down and count the rings.


b) They extract a piece of wood from the trunk.
c) They calculate the branches in them.
d) They read their history.
8  When did the 1000-year-old tree in Greece first grow?

a) In 2012.
b) In 4800 BC.
c) In 941 CE.
d) In 2300 BC.
9  A suitable title for the passage would be “.......................” .

a) How trees grow old


b) The history of the oldest trees
c) The country with the oldest trees
d) The history of planting trees
10  Why is the location of the oldest trees in America kept a secret?

a) To be able to use their wood well.


b) So that scientists could study them privately.
c) So as to benefit from them in the future.
d) In order to protect them.

114
‫‪Writing‬‬

‫‪2‬‬ ‫‪Writing‬‬

‫‪A‬‬ ‫‪Punctuation‬‬ ‫عالمات الترقيم‬

‫قد تمتلك مهارات لغوية جيدة وتعرف كيفية التعبير عن نفسك بلغة صحيحة‪ ،‬ولكن بدون معرفة عالمات الترقيم فإن مهاراتك‪ ،‬وخاصة المكتوبة‪ ،‬تصبح غير‬
‫مكتملة‪ .‬ويصعب قراءة قطعة من الكتابة ال تتضمن عالمات الترقيم مقارنة بقطعة أخرى تحمل عالمات الترقيم المناسبة فى األماكن الصحيحة؛ لذلك يجب أن‬
‫نناقش عالمات الترقيم وخاصة شائعة االستخدام منها‪:‬‬

‫‪1‬‬ ‫‪Capital letters‬‬ ‫الحروف الكبيرة‬

‫‪My friend visited me yesterday.‬‬ ‫أول الجملة سواء خبرية أو استفهامية أو أمرية‪.‬‬ ‫‪-1‬‬
‫?‪Where is the post office‬‬
‫?‪Have you visited the museum‬‬
‫‪Give me your pen, please.‬‬
‫فى بداية الجملة الموجودة بين عالمات االقتباس فى الكالم المباشر‪.‬‬ ‫‪-2‬‬
‫”‪He said, “My father bought me a camera.‬‬
‫‪Ahmed and Emad are my friends.‬‬ ‫أسماء األشخاص واألعالم‪.‬‬ ‫‪-2‬‬

‫‪Saudi Arabia is a rich country.‬‬ ‫أسماء القارات والدول والعواصم والعناوين‪.‬‬ ‫‪-3‬‬
‫‪Egypt lies in Africa.‬‬
‫‪Washington is the capital of America.‬‬
‫‪I live in 22 Al-Nasr Street, Maadi.‬‬
‫‪The A.R.E. / the U.S.A. / the K.S.A.‬‬ ‫فى اختصارات الحروف كلها ‪.capital‬‬ ‫‪-4‬‬

‫‪She thought I’d borrowed her keys, but I hadn’t.‬‬ ‫الضمير ‪ I‬فى أى مكان فى الجملة‪.‬‬ ‫‪-5‬‬

‫أسماء البحار والبحيرات والجبال والجزر والمحيطات واألنهار‪.‬‬ ‫‪-6‬‬


‫‪the Red Sea / the River Nile / the Pacific Ocean‬‬
‫‪the Alps / Lake Victoria‬‬
‫‪Omar speaks English, French, Italian and Spanish.‬‬ ‫أسماء اللغات‪.‬‬ ‫‪-7‬‬

‫‪Next Sunday, France will hold a general election.‬‬ ‫أيام األسبوع والشهور‪.‬‬ ‫‪-8‬‬
‫‪I’ll visit London next May.‬‬
‫‪The Egyptian and Russian negotiators are close to agreement.‬‬ ‫الجنسيات‪.‬‬ ‫‪-9‬‬

‫االسم العلم‪ ،‬وهو ما يشير إلى شخص أو مكان أو مؤسسة فردية أو حدث فردى‪.‬‬ ‫‪-10‬‬
‫‪My friend Hossam is training for the Winter Olympics.‬‬
‫الحظ الفرق بين المثالين اآلتيين‪:‬‬
‫‪We have asked for a meeting with the President.‬‬
‫‪I would like to be the president of a big company.‬‬
‫المثال األول كلمة ‪ president‬اسم علم‪ ،‬أما الثانية فمعناها مدير‪ ،‬وليست اسم علم‪.‬‬

‫‪115‬‬
PART 3 Writing

Britain was the first country to profit from the Industrial Revolution. .‫أسماء الفترات التاريخية المميزة‬ -11

Dr. , Sir , Miss , Mr., etc. .‫األلقاب التى بعدها اسم الشخص‬ -12

.‫أسماء األعياد واأليام المقدسة‬ -13


During Ramadan, one must not eat before sundown.
The children greatly enjoy Hallowe’en.
.‫ وأسماء الكتب المقدسة‬،‫ بما فى ذلك أسماء األديان وأتباعها‬،‫العديد من المصطلحات الدينية‬ -14
The Prophet was born in Mecca.
The Lord is my shepherd.
.‫أسماء الكتب واألفالم والمسرحيات والصحف والمجالت‬ -15
I was terrified by “The Monster”.
I like “The Times”.
.‫أسماء الماركات مثل ماركة الموبايل أو السيارة‬ -16
Almost everybody owns a Samsung TV set.
.‫كتابة األرقام الرومانية‬ -17
Chapter V (5) in the Prisoner of Zenda is very long.
:‫مالحظات‬
.capital ‫الحظ أن فصول السنة ال تبدأ بحرف‬-1
I usually visit Alexandria in the summer.
.‫ إال إذا كانت اسم لغة‬capital ‫أسماء المواد الدراسية ال تبدأ بـ‬-2
I’m doing A-levels in history, geography and English.
.capital ‫الحظ أنه إذا انتهت الجملة أو السؤال وأردنا كتابة جملة أخرى نتبع نفس الترقيم من حيث البداية بحرف‬-3
Where were you yesterday? My father wanted to speak to you.
.‫يمكن إبراز أى كلمة وكتابتها بأحرف كبيرة للتأكيد على أهميتها‬-4
We can’t accuse him because there is NO EVIDENCE.

2 Comma (,) ‫الفاصلة‬

Thanks for all your help, Osama. .‫عند مخاطبة الشخص باالسم‬ -1
Osama, I want you to study hard.

We went to school, and then to the stadium. .‫فصل جملتين كاملتين‬ -2

.or ‫ أو‬and ‫ عندما تكون هناك كلمات أو عبارات أو جمل مرتبطة بكلمة‬:‫فصل العناصر داخل الجمل‬ -3

Sara wanted the black, green, and blue dress.


Arabic is spoken in Egypt, Libya, Algeria, Tunisia and Morocco.
You can fly to Bombay via Moscow, via Athens or via Cairo.
.or ‫ أو‬and ‫ بـ‬comma ‫الحظ أنه فى كل الجمل السابقة يمكن استبدال الـ‬

I was born on 9th August, 1990. .‫فصل األرقام والتواريخ‬ -4

116
Writing

I live in Cairo, Egypt. .‫فصل العنوان‬ -5

“Yes, Sir.” .‫مخاطبة شخص‬ -6

I meant Ali, not Ahmed. .‫فصل شخصين أو أى عناصر أخرى‬ -7

She said, “I’m sorry.” .‫قبل جملة المباشر التى بين األقواس‬ -8

.‫بعد الروابط الزمنية وعبارات معينة إذا جاءت أول الكالم‬ -9


Sure, please, well, No, Yes, Yesterday, Tomorrow, Sorry, Excuse me, Luckily, However, etc.
.‫واألحوال التى تصف الجملة‬

.‫قبل الجملة الثانية فى حالة وجود أداة ربط قبل الجملة األولى‬ -10
Although I was ill yesterday, I went to school.

.‫ فى منتصف الجملة‬and , but, or, yet, while ‫قبل‬ -11


My brother is very clever, but he doesn’t want to be a doctor.
You must hand in your essay by Friday, or you will receive a mark of zero.
.‫قبل وبعد جملة الوصل التى يمكن االستغناء عنها‬ -12
My book, which is on the table, is really useful.
Ali, who is my neighbour, is really helpful.
My father, working on the garden, is a hard-working man.

These birds are beautiful, aren’t they?  .‫قبل السؤال المذيل‬ -13

:‫الحظ ــ‬
.or ‫ أو‬and ‫ ولكن بـ‬comma ‫ ال يمكن ربط جملتين فقط بـ‬-1
.quotations ‫ وهى عالمات‬inverted commas ‫ والـ‬commas ‫ الحظ الفرق بين‬-2
.‫ إلزالة غموض معين‬and ‫ أحيانـًا نضطر لوضعها قبل‬and ‫ بديل لـ‬comma ‫ مع أن الـ‬-3
If you want good and cheap stationeries, you should buy them from Souq, Alfagala, Carrefour, and
Samir and Ali.
.‫واحدا‬
ً ًّ ‫ لكان كارفور وسمير‬and ‫ التى قبل‬comma ‫ هنا سمير وعلى محل واحد ولو حذفنا الـ‬-
‫محل‬

3 Apostrophe (’) ‫الفاصلة العليا‬

.)‫لالختصارات (عند حذف حرف أو أكثر‬ -1


It’s = it is or it has we’ll = we will or we shall they’ve = they have
can’t = cannot he’d = he would or he had aren’t = are not
won’t = will not o’clock = of the clock Hallowe’en = Halloween
.‫مفردا أو جمعـًا‬
ً ‫ سواء كان‬s ‫ الملكية إذا لم ينته االسم بـ‬s ‫قبل‬ -2
We should care for children’s health everywhere.
Ahmed’s car was repaired yesterday.
My parents’ flat is on the first floor. .s ‫ للملكية إذا انتهى االسم بـ‬s ‫بعد الـ‬ -3

Mind your p’s and q’s. .‫عند جمع الحروف‬ -4


How many s’s are there in Mississippi?

117
PART 3 Writing

:‫الحظ ــ‬
.‫ بعد االسم األول مثل‬apostrophe ‫ أحيانـًا يكون االسم مركبـًا فال نضع‬-1
Rassendyll’s sister-in-law’s decision was to find him a job.
.‫ إذا جمعنا التواريخ‬apostrophe ‫ال نضع‬-2
This research was carried out in the 1970s.
‫واإلنجليزية األمريكية تستخدمها‬
This research was carried out in the 1970’s.
.‫ عند جمع األسماء األعالم مثل‬apostrophe ‫ ال نضع‬-3
When I went to London, I stayed with the Joneses.
There were four Steves and three Julies in my class when I was studying abroad’

4 Colon (:) ‫النقطتان‬

:‫تستخدم لبيان أن شيئـًا ما أو كالمـًا قادمـًا‬

.‫بعد كلمة بعدها قائمة ألشياء أو شرح لشىء أو مثال‬ -1


He was planning to study four subjects: politics, philosophy, sociology, and economics.
.‫ على غرار الفاصلة المنقوطة‬،‫بين الجمل عندما تشرح الثانية األولى‬ -٢
I didn’t have time to get changed: I was already late.
There was one thing she loved more than any other: her dog. .‫للتأكيد‬ -٣

The ratio 2 : 4 is equivalent to the ratio 1 : 2. .‫لبيان النسب‬ -٤

The train leaves at 4:30 p.m. .‫مع الوقت‬ -5

5 Semicolon (;) ‫الفاصلة المنقوطة‬

.comma ‫فاصل أقوى من‬


ً ‫ تستخدم للتركيز على العالقة القوية بين جملة وأخرى وهى تمثل‬-
It was raining; the game was cancelled.

6 Dash (–) ‫الشرطة‬

.)Em dash( ‫) وشرطة طويلة‬En dash( ‫ شرطة قصيرة‬:‫الشــَرط‬


َّ ‫ هناك نوعان شائعان من‬.‫ تستخدم الشرطة لوقفة مفاجئة أو تغيير الفكر‬-

.‫) لإلشارة إلى نطاق معين أو مدة‬hyphen( ‫الشرطة القصيرة (–) ضعف الواصلة‬ -1
1990–2002
Assuit–Cairo trains
‫ يمكن استخدامها بد ًال من الفاصلة أو األقواس أو النقطتين لتعزيز إمكانية القراءة أو التأكيد على‬،‫ أطول من الشرطة القصيرة‬:)–(‫الشرطة الطويلة‬ -٢
.‫خاتمة الجملة‬
She gave him her answer — No!
.‫ وخاصة فى الكتابة غير الرسمية ليسهل على القارئ متابعة األفكار‬commas ‫ محل الـ‬dashes ‫الحظ أنه يمكن استخدام الـ‬ -٣
 rime—costing the city millions of dollars each year—must be reduced.
C
Crime, which weakens our city, must be reduced. .‫إعطاء تفاصيل أو شرح‬
Our “bike to work” program will reduce traffic—something everyone wants!
The “bike to work” program, which makes use of our newly added bike lanes, will reduce traffic.

118
Writing

7 Hyphen (-) ‫الواصلة‬

.‫ وال يتم فصلها بمسافات‬،‫تستخدم الواصلة لربط كلمتين أو أكثر معـًا فى مصطلح مركب‬
part-time, back-to-back, well-known, sister-in-law, half-brother, etc.

8 Inverted commas (”) )‫ = عالمات االقتباس (التنصيص‬quotation/speech marks

.capital ‫ وما بينهما البد أن يبدأ بحرف‬،‫تستخدم لبيان جملة مقتبسة من كالم شخص‬ -1
“Don’t go outside,” she said.
.‫‘) وهى تستخدم لالقتباس داخل االقتباس‬........’( ‫وهناك عالمة أخرى مفردة‬ -٢
 hmed told me, “I saw Ali at the playground, and he said to me ’Ramy travelled abroad,’ and I
A
believed him.”

9 Parentheses\Brackets ( ) ‫األقواس‬

.‫ أو يشرح الظروف أو يضيف فكرة الحقة‬،‫ ويكون فكرة جانبية‬،‫نستخدم األقواس عندما نرفق تعليقًا يختلف عن الفكرة المركزية للجملة‬
 rime (burglaries and robberies) must be reduced.
C explanation
The “bike to work” program (a project of the transportation department) will reduce traffic.

10 Ellipsis (...) ‫عالمة القطع‬

‫ وتستخدم داخل النص المقتبس للقفز من‬،‫ وتستخدم لبيان حروف أو كلمات محذوفة‬،)***( asterisks ‫) أو نجوم‬...( ‫تتمثل عالمة القطع بثالث نقط‬-
.‫جملة إلى أخرى مع حذف الكلمات غير الضرورية‬
S he began to count, “One, two, three, four ...”until she got to 10, then went to find him.
When Newton stated, “An object at rest stays at rest and an object in motion stays in motion ...” he
developed the law of motion.

11 Full stop = period (.) ‫عالمة التوقف‬

The boys are playing. .‫نهاية الجملة الخبرية‬ -1

Give me the blue dictionary. .‫نهاية الجملة األمرية‬ -٢

Mr. / A.R.E. .‫بعد االختصارات‬ -3

119
‫‪PART‬‬ ‫‪3‬‬ ‫‪Writing‬‬

‫‪12‬‬ ‫)?( ‪Question Mark‬‬ ‫عالمة االستفهام‬

‫نهاية السؤال ‪ interrogative sentence‬سواء بكلمة استفهام أو فعل مساعد‪.‬‬ ‫‪-1‬‬


‫?‪ ave you finished writing‬‬
‫‪H‬‬
‫”?‪She asked, “Are you happy to be home‬‬
‫?‪Where did you go yesterday‬‬
‫مساعدا‪ ،‬فتكون الجملة أمرية آخرها نقطة‪.‬‬
‫ً‬ ‫الحظ أن ‪ Do‬يمكن أن تستخدم كفعل أمر وليس ً‬
‫فعل‬ ‫‪-2‬‬
‫‪Do the first two exercises for homework.‬‬
‫الحظ أيضـًا إذا حولنا السؤال من مباشر إلى غير مباشر يتحول إلى جملة خبرية‪.‬‬
‫‪He asked me what I was doing.‬‬

‫‪13‬‬ ‫)!( ‪Exclamation Mark\Point‬‬ ‫عالمة التعجب‬

‫تستخدم عالمة التعجب بعد العبارات والجمل التى تعبر عن عاطفة أو رغبة مفاجئة‪.‬‬ ‫‪-1‬‬
‫”?‪“Ugh! Why are you yelling at me‬‬
‫!‪Happy birthday, Ahmed‬‬
‫!‪What a cute puppy‬‬
‫!‪How fast you ran‬‬
‫!‪You’re such a liar‬‬
‫الحظ أن التعجب يبدأ بكلمات استفهام فى بعض حاالته‪ ،‬ففرق بينه وبين االستفهام ‪.‬‬ ‫‪-2‬‬
‫!‪ hat a wonderful pyramid‬‬
‫‪W‬‬
‫!‪How wonderful the pyramid is‬‬

‫‪14‬‬ ‫)‪Slash (/‬‬ ‫الشرطة المائلة‬

‫لفصل أجزاء من عناوين اإلنترنت (الويب) وأسماء الملفات لبعض برامج الكمبيوتر‪.‬‬ ‫‪-1‬‬
‫‪http://www.example.com/‬‬
‫‪1/3 = one-third‬‬ ‫للكسور الحسابية‪.‬‬ ‫‪-2‬‬

‫‪12/9/2021‬‬ ‫لفصل اليوم والشهر والسنة فى التاريخ‪.‬‬

‫‪w/o = without‬‬
‫االختصارات‪.‬‬
‫‪n/a or N/A = not applicable or not available‬‬
‫‪80 miles/hour = 80 miles per hour‬‬ ‫لبيان كلمة «لكل» فى المسافات‪.‬‬

‫‪120‬‬
Writing

Differences between Punctuation in British and American English

Punctuation symbols British English American English

 .  a full stop a period

!  an exclamation mark an exclamation point

() brackets parentheses

[] square brackets brackets

Time 11.30 11:30

Titles Mr, Ms, or Mrs Mr., Ms., Mrs.

’I can’t go out tomorrow,’ John sighed, “I can’t go out tomorrow,” John sighed,
Quotations ’because, as my dad said, “You’ll go “because, as my dad said, ’you’ll go
out when hell freezes over”. out when hell freezes over.”

121
Exercises

Choose the correct answer from a, b, c or d:


1  In the words “See you tomorrow” she said, a comma is needed .................... the second quotation mark.

a) just after b) just before c) before and after d) between


2  Which is another word for quotation mark?

a) apostrophe b) dash c) quotation sign d) inverted comma


3  We use .................... at the beginning of the proper nouns, languages and abbreviations.

a) commas b) full stops c) capital letters d) small letters


4  To be easily understood, you should use .................... in written language.

a) essays b) punctuation c) capital letters d) commas


5  One of the following isn’t of the punctuation marks.

a) semicolon b) colon c) hemicolon d) parentheses


6  .................... are put before and after the extracted words.

a) Inverted commas b) Full stops c) Question marks d) Semicolons


7  When a person owns something, we use a/an .................... to indicate possession.

a) comma b) apostrophe c) semicolon d) dash


8  If a word that’s too long to fit on a line is broken into two parts, the first part ends with .................... .

a) a hyphen b) a backslash c) a full stop d) an ellipsis mark


9  What is the punctuation mark in “they’re” and “children’s” called?

a) Quotation sign. b) Apostrophe. c) Possessive. d) Super comma.


10  Which can replace the brackets in this sentence? “May Day (also Labour Day or Workers’ Day) is

celebrated on May 1.”


a) commas b) dashes c) colons d) Both a and b
11  .................... were glad when summer break came.

a) Students; b) Students, c) Students: d) Students


12  This is absolutely incredible ....................

a) : b) ! c) . d) ;
13  Watch out for the broken glass ....................

a) . b) , c) ! d) ?
14  Choose the correct punctuation mark:

Do the washing up well, or you will be dismissed ....................


a) ? b) ! c) : d) .
15  Choose the correct punctuation mark:

Ahmed was ill yesterday, wasn’t he ....................


a) . b) ? c) ! d) ;
16  Which of these do you think was the writer’s real intention?

a) He said, “Shall we eat Mummy?” b) He said, “Shall we eat?” Mummy.


c) He said, “Shall we?” Eat Mummy? d) He said, “Shall we eat, Mummy?”
122
Writing

17   hich of the following is correctly punctuated?


W
a) Ahmed and Sameh, who have been friends for years, go on vacation together every summer.
b Ahmed and Sameh, who have been friends for years, go on vacation together, every summer.
c) Ahmed and Sameh who have been friends for years, go on vacation together every summer.
d) Ahmed and Sameh who have been friends for years go on vacation together every summer.
18  To ...................., Jehan was on time for her math class.

a) everybodys surprise b) everybody’s surprise


c) everybodys’ surprise d) every body’s surprise
19  Billboards ‫ الالفتات‬are considered an important part of advertising for big business, .................... by their

critics.
a) but, an eyesore; b) but, ”an eyesore,” c) but an eyesore d) but-an eyesore
20  I can never remember how to use those two common words, “sell,” meaning to trade a product for

money, or .................... meaning an event where products are traded for less money than usual.
a) “to sale,” b) sale. c) “sale d) “sale,”
21  The class just finished reading .................... a short story by William Golding about some cruel boys on

a deserted island.
a) “Lord of the Flies,” b) Lord of the Flies
c) Lord of the Flies, d) -”Lord of the Flies”,
22  Which of the following is correctly punctuated?

a) We had a great time in the zoo – the children really enjoyed it.
b) We had a great time in the Zoo! the children really enjoyed it.
c) We had a great time in the zoo? the children really enjoyed it.
d) We had a great time in the Zoo. the children really enjoyed it.
23  Which of the following is correctly punctuated?

a) Some people work best in the mornings. others do better in the evenings.
b) Some people work best in the mornings; others do better in the evenings.
c) Some people work best in the mornings; Others do better in the evenings.
d) Some people work best in the mornings! others do better in the evenings!
24  Which of the following is correctly punctuated?

a) what are you doing next weekend! b) what are you doing next Weekend?
c) What are you doing next weekend? d) What are you doing Next Weekend?
25  Which of the following is correctly punctuated?

a) Mother said, “Where have you been, Ahmed?”


b) Mother said. “Where have you been, Ahmed?”
c) Mother said, “where have you been! Ahmed?”
d) Mother said, “Where have you been? Ahmed?”
26  Which of the following is correctly punctuated?

a) Did you understand why I was upset? b) “Did you understand why was I upset?”
c) Did you understand why I was upset. d) Did you understand? why I was upset!

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PART 3 Writing

27  Which of the following is correctly punctuated?


a) It is a fine idea? let us hope that it is going to work.
b) It is a fine idea; let us hope that it is going to work.
c) It is a fine idea. let us hope that it is going to work.
d) It is a fine idea; let–us–hope that it is going to work.
28  Which of the following is correctly punctuated?

a) We will be arriving on Monday morning! at least, I think so.


b) We will be arriving on Monday morning. at least, I think so.
c) We will be arriving on Monday morning – at least, I think so.
d) We will be arriving on Monday morning? at least, I think so.
29  Which of the following is correctly punctuated?

a) He is not really (nice-looking), and yet he is admired by all.


b) He is not really Nice Looking, and yet he is admired by all.
c) He is not really nice-looking! and yet he is admired by all.
d) He is not really nice-looking, and yet he is admired by all.
30  Which of the following is correctly punctuated?

a) “When I was a child”, I could watch TV whenever I wanted to.


b) When I was a child! I could watch TV whenever I wanted to.
c) When I was a child, I could watch TV whenever I wanted to.
d) when I was a child, I could watch TV whenever I wanted to.

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‫‪Writing‬‬

‫‪B‬‬ ‫‪Forms of writing‬‬

‫‪1) Paragraph‬‬ ‫‪2) Essay‬‬ ‫‪3) Email‬‬

‫‪1‬‬ ‫‪Paragraph‬‬ ‫الفقرة‬

‫موضوع ما يجب اتباع قواعد الكتابة الصحيحة حتى‬


‫ٍ‬ ‫‪-‬الفقرة هي موضوع صغير مكون من مجموعة من الجمل يحمل فكرة معينة‪ .‬وعند كتابة موضوع إنشاء عن‬
‫تساعد القارئ على فهم ما تريد‪ .‬والفقرة عبارة عن سلسلة من الجمل منظمة ومتماسكة‪ ،‬وكلها مرتبطة بموضوع واحد‪ ،‬ويجب تنظيم الجمل ليكون الموضوع‬
‫شيقـًا وال يؤدى إلى الملل‪ .‬وتتطلب الكتابة معرفة القواعد واإللمام بمفردات لغوية معقولة‪ ،‬وينقسم الموضوع إلى ثالثة أجزاء‪:‬‬

‫‪Paragraph structure‬‬

‫‪1) Introduction‬‬ ‫‪2) Body‬‬ ‫‪3) Conclusion‬‬


‫المقدمة‬ ‫الموضوع‬ ‫الخاتمة‬

‫‪1‬‬ ‫‪Introduction‬‬ ‫المقدمة‬

‫هى أول جملة؛ يجب أن تتضمن جملة الموضوع (‪ ،)Topic sentence‬وأى جمل أخرى فى بداية الفقرة تقدم معلومات أساسية‪.‬‬ ‫‪-‬‬
‫‪ -‬جملة الموضوع‪ :‬هى الجملة األساسية التى تبين للقارئ الموضوع الذى نتحدث عنه‪.‬‬
‫‪ -‬ينظر القراء عمومـًا إلى الجمل القليلة األولى فى فقرة ما لتحديد موضوع ومنظور الفقرة؛ لهذا وضعت جملة الموضوع فى بداية الفقرة‪.‬‬

‫‪2‬‬ ‫‪Body‬‬ ‫الموضوع‬

‫‪ -‬يناقش الفكرة األساسية باستخدام الحقائق والحجج والتحليل واألمثلة وغيرها من المعلومات وتسمى (‪.)Supporting‬‬
‫‪-‬هى الجمل التى تناقش وتظهر الموضوع أو الفكرة المسيطرة‪ ،‬ويجب أن تكون الجمل متماسكة‪ ،‬وتتدفق بسالسة‪ ،‬وتركز على صلب الموضوع بدون تحوالت‬
‫أو قفزات واضحة‪.‬‬

‫‪3‬‬ ‫‪Conclusion‬‬ ‫الخاتمة‬

‫‪ -‬وهى تلخيص (‪ )Summary‬الروابط بين المعلومات التى تمت مناقشتها فى متن الفقرة والفكرة المسيطرة على الفقرة‪.‬‬

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PART 3 Writing

The most important words used in The “paragraph, essay and email”

address ‫عنوان‬ introductory ‫افتتاحى‬/‫تمهيدى‬

argumentative ‫جدلى‬ line ‫خط‬/‫سطر‬

article ‫مقال‬ main idea ‫الفكرة الرئيسية‬

author ‫مؤلف‬ medium ‫وسيط‬/‫وسيلة‬

basic ‫أساسى‬ middle ‫منتصف‬

body ‫هيئة‬/‫قوام‬ narrative ‫قصصى‬/‫روائى‬

category ‫نوع‬/‫فئة‬ organisation ‫تنظيم‬

conclusion ‫خاتمة‬ persuasive ‫مستميل‬/‫مقنع‬

connection ‫ارتباط‬ phrases ‫عبارات‬

consist of ‫يتكون من‬ point ‫ناحية‬/‫نقطة‬

convince ‫يقنع‬ result ‫نتيجة‬

define ‫يحدد‬ salutation ‫حفاوة‬/‫تحية‬

descriptive ‫وصفى‬ stages ‫مراحل‬

discussion ‫مناقشة‬ statistics ‫إحصائيات‬

emphasise ‫يؤكد‬ subject ‫مادة‬/‫موضوع‬

expository ‫تفسيرى‬ summarise ‫يختصر‬/‫يلخص‬

formal ‫رسمى‬ supporting ‫معاون‬/‫مدعم‬/‫مساند‬

greeting ‫تحية‬ thesis ‫أطروحة‬/‫موضوع‬

imperatives ‫األوامر‬ topic ‫محور‬/‫موضوع‬

informal ‫غير رسمى‬ transition ‫انتقال‬

introduction ‫مقدمة‬ types ‫أنواع‬

:‫ويستخدم الطالب كلمات لربط الجمل لمواصلة األفكار ويكون من األسهل للناس فهم الموضوع الذى تكتب فيه مثل‬

Addition ‫اإلضافة‬

and ‫و‬ further ‫باإلضافة‬/‫أبعد‬

also ‫أيضـًا‬ furthermore ‫باإلضافة إلى‏(‏ذلك‏)‏‬

besides ‫باإلضافة إلى ذلك‬ in addition ‫باإلضافة‬

first (second, etc.) ً


)‫ إلخ‬... ‫أول (ثانيـًا‬ moreover )‫عالو ًة على‏(‏ذلك‬

What’s more ‫وما هو أكثر‬ next ‫تال‬

In addition to that ‫باإلضافة إلى‏(‏ذلك )‏‬ As well as ‫باإلضافة إلى‬

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Writing

Giving on opinion ‫عند إبداء الرأى‬

in my opinion ‫فى رأيى‬ in my point of view ‫فى وجهة نظرى‬


I see ‫إنى أرى‬ I think ‫أعتقد‬

Giving an example ‫إعطاء مثال‬

For example ‫على سبيل المثال‬ In fact ‫فى الحقيقة‬


For instance ‫على سبيل المثال‬ To illustrate ‫وللتوضيح‬

Contrasting ideas ‫عند تعارض األفكار‬

although ‫على الرغم من‬ however ‫ولكن‬/‫ومع ذلك‬


and yet ‫ومع ذلك‬ in contrast ‫على العكس‬
but ‫ولكن‬ in spite of ‫على الرغم من‬
despite ‫على الرغم من‬ nevertheless ‫غير أن‬/‫مع هذا‬
even though ‫على الرغم من‬ on the contrary ‫على العكس‬
on the other hand ‫من ناحية أخرى‬ though ‫على الرغم من‬
Apart from that ‫باستثناء‬ still ‫ولكن‬

To summarise or conclude ‫للتلخيص أو الخاتمة‬

all in all ‫فى المجمل‬ in summary ‫باختصار‬


in conclusion ‫فى المجمل‬/‫للختام‬ on the whole ‫على العموم‬/‫فى المجمل‬
in other words ‫بعبارات أخرى‬ therefore ‫لذلك‬
In short, ‫باختصار‬
To sum up ‫ملخصـًا لما سبق‬
To conclude ‫للختام‬

To show time ‫للتعبير عن الوقت‬

after ‫بعد‬ during ‫خالل‬/‫أثناء‬


afterward ‫بعد أن‬ while ‫بينما‬
as ‫عندما‬ Finally ‫أخيرا‬
ً
as long as ‫طالما‬ when ‫عندما‬
as soon as ‫بمجرد أن‬ immediately ً
‫حال‬
At last, ‫فى النهاية‬ later ‫فيما بعد‬
before ‫قبل‬ Meanwhile ‫فى أثناء ذلك‬/‫فى غضون‬

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PART 3 Writing

To show places or directions ‫لوصف األماكن واالتجاهات‬

above ‫فوق‬ on ‫على‬


below ‫أسفل‬ here ‫هنا‬
beyond ‫وراء‬ nearby ‫مجاور‬
close ‫متقارب‬/‫قريبـًا‬ opposite ‫متعاكس‬
elsewhere ‫فى مكان آخر‬ to the left ‫إلى اليسار‬
farther ‫أبعد‬ to the north ‫إلى الشمال‬

Logical relationships ‫العالقات المنطقية مثل الشرط والسبب والنتيجة‬

as a result ‫ونتيجة لذلك‬ because ‫ألن‬


consequently ‫بالتالى‬ for this reason ‫لهذا السبب‬
hence ‫من هنا‬ if ‫لو‬
so ‫لذلك‬ otherwise ‫وإال‬
therefore ‫بالتالى‬ since ‫ألن‬
thus ‫هكذا‬ then ‫ثم‬
unless ‫لو لم‬ without ‫بدون‬

Money
Introduction

Money is very important in everyone’s life. It helps us lead a healthy and peaceful life.
The importance of money is increasing day by day as living has become so costly. 

With money, we can buy what we need from the needle to the biggest thing. Money
Body

helps us learn and become educated and cultured persons. Our health depends mainly on
money as we can’t buy good food or go to the doctor if we don’t have money.
Conclusion

To sum up, without money, we can’t live well or achieve our aims. It is considered
the backbone of our life.

128
Writing

2 Essay ‫المقال‬


‫ وكل فقرة بها جملة أساسية لبيان الفكرة‬،‫ وتحتوى كل فقرة على فكرة معينة‬،)‫المقال هو موضوع متكامل يتكون من عدة فقرات (أربع أو أكثر‬-
‫ ولكن فى الموضوعات العامة‬،)Topic sentence( ‫مثل أال تحتوى الفقرة على‬ ً ‫ ويمكن عند سرد أحداث قصة أو تسلسل أفكار‬،)Topic sentence(
:‫ وينقسم المقال إلى ثالثة أجزاء‬.‫البد منها‬

Essay structure

1) Introduction 2) Body 3) Conclusion


‫المقدمة‬ ‫الموضوع‬ ‫الخاتمة‬

1 Introduction ‫المقدمة‬

‫ وتختلف‬.‫ أو أربع جمل‬3 ‫) وأى جمل أخرى لتقديم معلومات أساسية وغالبـًا ما تتكون من‬Topic sentence( ‫هى ما يكون أول الموضوع من جملة الموضوع‬-
‫ وفى الموضوعات ذات المزايا والعيوب‬،‫ ونذكر رأينا فى المقدمة‬،‫مثل نذكر كيف يكون الشىء‬ً ‫ ففى موضوع الرأى‬،‫المقدمات من موضوع آلخر حسب النوع‬
.‫ وسنبين ذلك فى شرح المقال وأنواعه‬،‫ وهكذا‬،‫نذكر رأى الفريقين كل فى جملة أو جملتين‬

2 Body ‫الموضوع‬

.)supporting( ‫ تتكون هيئة المقال من فقرتين أو أكثر ليتم مناقشة الفكرة األساسية باستخدام الحقائق والحجج والتحليل واألمثلة وغيرها من المعلومات وتسمى‬-
.‫ وكل فقرة تحتوى على جمل تدعم الرأى الذى نتبناه أو الموضوع الذى نتناوله‬-

3 Conclusion ‫الخاتمة‬

.‫ مع ذكر رأى الكاتب أو حسب نوع المقال‬،‫) لما تم مناقشته فى الفقرات السابقة‬Summary( ‫ هى تلخيص‬-

Money
Introduction

Money is very important in everyone’s life. If we didn’t have any money, either we would
die or suffer a lot. Besides, it helps us lead a healthy and peaceful life. In my opinion, I can’t
imagine life without money. 

Money has an influence on people’s lives. It enables us to buy what we need (our
necessities). In addition to that, a person needs money to cover the needs of all the family
members. As well as helping us to fulfill the eating, clothing and living requirements, it
Body

enables us to have a good education and a better health care.


As well as helping us to get our necessities, money helps us to improve our lives and enables
us to live in welfare. Money increases the position of the person in society and gives a good
impression to him. How could we have luxuries in life if we didn’t have money?
Conclusion

To sum up, I see, money is a very much required thing in life however; it cannot buy things
like time, love and true care. It is needed by both the rich and the poor. No one could live
without it.

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PART 3 Writing

‫ والحظ أننا لم نذكر مزايا‬،‫؛ إذ يتبنى الكاتب فكرة ويدافع عنها؛ ولذلك يذكر رأيه فى األول واآلخر‬Opinion ‫ أو‬Persuasive ‫المقال السابق يعتبر من نوع‬-
‫ وفيه ال يذكر‬،discussion ‫ أو‬for and against, advantages and disadvantages ‫ ولو ذكرت لكان الموضوع مختلفـًا وهو‬،‫وعيوبـًا‬
.‫ ولكانت كل فقرة من فقرات الجمل الداعمة تتبنى وجهة نظر‬،‫الكاتب رأيه إال فى النهاية‬
.‫ وهذه هى أشهر األنواع التى يمكن أن يتضمنها االمتحان‬،‫ يوجد العديد من أنواع المقال‬-

Types of Essay

1) Persuasive 2) Discussion 3) Descriptive 4) Expository 5) Narrative


‫أقناعى‬ ‫نقاش‬ ‫وصفى‬ ‫تفسيرى‬ ‫قصصى‬

:‫ وسنتناول بالشرح هذه األنواع وكيفية الكتابة فى كل نوع‬،‫تتعدد أنواع المقال وأشكاله وبالطبع لكل نوع خصائص معينة فى الكتابة‬

1 Persuasive (Opinion\Argumentative) essay:


‫ وفى هذا النوع من المقاالت يحاول الكاتب أن يقنع القارئ‬،‫ ويكون لدينا الحجج والبراهين التى تؤكد الرأى‬،‫نستخدم هذا النوع عند إبداء الرأى فى موضوع معين‬-
:‫ ويمكن تحديد عناصر موضوع الرأى فى اآلتى‬.‫ آراء الخبراء‬،‫ اإلحصائيات‬،‫ ويدعم الكاتب رأيه بالحقائق‬.‫بأن وجهة نظره هى الصحيحة‬
Paragraph 1: What is the current situation? What is your point of view?
‫ ما هو الوضع الحالى؟ ما هى وجهة نظرك فى هذا األمر؟‬-
Paragraph 2: Writing about your main idea by using wh- words and giving some examples.
.‫ الكتابة عن فكرتك األساسية التى تبين وجهة نظرك من خالل استخدام كلمات االستفهام وإعطاء بعض األمثلة‬-
Paragraph 3: Giving other points through giving examples (the examples should be linked to the main point).
.)‫ إعطاء نقاط أخرى من خالل إعطاء أمثلة (يجب ربط األمثلة بالنقطة الرئيسية‬-
Paragraph 4: Reaffirm your opinion and finish the essay.  .‫ أعد تأكيد رأيك وإنهاء المقال‬-

Cleanliness is very important to fight diseases


Introduction

Nothing is more important than health. All people want to live healthily in a healthy
environment. Diseases are enemies attacking living things and ending their lives. Besides,
Cleanliness is very important to fight these enemies. In my opinion, without hygiene and
sanitation, we will suffer a lot from diseases.

Concerning hygiene, persons can do many things to protect themselves from all kinds of
diseases. Our homes should be kept clean all the time. Our clothes mustn’t be left dirty.
Washing our hands before and after having meals is very necessary. It’s important for
everyone to have a bath regularly or after doing any kind of sports. Dishes shouldn’t be left
Body

lying everywhere. We should eat healthy food and drink clean water.
Concerning sanitation, our streets should be clean in order not to be a means of spreading
diseases. Rubbish should be put in dust pins. The government should punish those who
pollute our environment. Our sources of water should be pure and healthy. Our means of
transport should be environmentally friendly. Supermarkets should sell only healthy food.
Conclusion

To sum up, in my opinion, we should follow the rules of hygiene and sanitation which are
very important for our life. We should be healthy and carry out the things needed to keep
us healthy. To be healthy is very easy and doesn’t cost us much and in our reach.

130
Writing

2 Discussion (for/against) (advantages/disadvantages) essay:

Paragraph 1: The issue that the title raises. .‫ القضية التى يثيرها العنوان‬-
.‫ فى هذه الفقرة تذكر كال الرأيين‬-
Paragraph 2: Arguments in favour of the title. .‫ آراء المناصرين‬-
Paragraph 3: Arguments against the title. .‫ آراء المعارضين‬-
Paragraph 4: Your experience and opinion. .‫ تجربتك ورأيك الشخصى‬-

Physical Education (P.E.) is a very important school subject


Introduction

It’s often supposed by parents, teachers and students that P.E. is not important. They think
that schools are a place of academic study and so sports are a waste of time. On the other
hand, some people say that P.E. is one of the most essential subjects.

Those who are in favour of P.E. say that it’s necessary for students’ health. They say that
some students do exercise only at school. It doesn’t waste the time as it’s only one or two
periods during the week. In addition to that, it teaches students good habits of a healthy
Body

lifestyle, which will help them in the future.


Opponents of P.E. don’t see its importance in education. Moreover, they say that it leads to
violence because of its high level of competitiveness. Some think that the only place to do
sports is in the club.
Conclusion

To sum up, I think that P.E. is as important as any other subject, but in a different way.
These days teenagers spend too much time in front of a screen. P.E. gives them the chance
to change their sedentary life and do some exercise.

131
PART 3 Writing

3 Descriptive essay (place/people):


.‫دائمـًا ما يأتى هذا المقال بعنوان‬
(1) A place you visited and you will never forget.
(2) A place you should visit.
Paragraph 1: The location and a brief history of the building or the place.
.‫الموقع ونبذة تاريخية أو المكان‬
Paragraph 2: The architectural adjectives/material used/style of building.
.‫أسلوب البناء‬/‫المواد المستخدمة‬/‫ الصفات المعمارية‬-
Paragraph 3: Why it is popular. .‫ لماذا هو مشهور‬-
Paragraph 4: Your personal opinion. .‫ رأيك الشخصى‬-

The citadel of Saladin in Cairo


Introduction

The Citadel of Saladin is a splendid building on a hill overlooking the old city of Cairo.
It was built in the 12th century by King Saladin and his brother, King El-Addel. Apart from
the mosques, the citadel hosts four more interesting museums: the Military Museum, the
Police Museum, the Royal Carriages Museum, and the Qasr El Gawhara Museum.

The Citadel, as well as its walls, was built out of stones. It took eight years to complete.
Work began in 1176 and finished in 1183. The appearance of the Citadel is different today
from the original one. It has been enlarged and reshaped by the various leaders. 
For many centuries, it was the seat of the king and his government in Egypt.
Throughout different stages of Egyptian history, the citadel has always played a
Body

significant role in Egyptian politics. In fact, the Citadel has defended Egypt against many
violent attacks throughout time.
Today, the Citadel of Saladin is one of the most popular historical sites of Cairo and is
included in almost every capital tour. Located at the top of a high cliff, the citadel also
provides tourists with magnificent views over the bustling city of Cairo. You can visit
the Citadel of Saladin both day and evening.
Conclusion

In my point of view, it’s worth visiting as it’s one of the most interesting places in Egypt.
I visited it 10 years ago, and I’d like to go there again. I think I’ll have a very pleasant time
there.

132
Writing

4 Narritive essay:
:‫ مثل‬،‫ عند حكاية قصة أو حدث قمت به أو قام به غيرك أو قمت بتأليفه فى االمتحان البد من ترتيب األفكار بطريقة معينة‬-
Paragraph 1: Background information/setting the scene. .‫ المعلومات التى لديك عن الحدث‬-
Paragraph 2: Describing the event. .‫ وصف الحدث‬-
Paragraph 3: The response to the event. .‫ رد الفعل واالستجابة تجاه الحدث‬-
Paragraph 4: The final outcome. .‫ المحصلة النهائية‬-
An event you remember from your childhood
Introduction

In 2010, my family and I went to attend my uncle’s wedding in a small village in Assuit
4 hundred kilometres from where we live. We were driving back home again on the new
army road when a disaster happened.

As it was a good motorway, my father was driving at a breakneck speed. Unfortunately, it


was raining heavily and my father wanted to overtake a bus in front of him. I was sitting in
the back seat with my younger sister. It was very cold, but we were wearing heavy coats.
Suddenly, the car started to slide on the road. My father tried to control the car, but it
Body

crossed over onto the other side of the road.


We had been very lucky, there had been no cars coming while we were crossing the other
side of the motorway. As soon as the car stopped, we got out finding that the car windows
had been broken and there was glass everywhere. Fortunately, none of us had been
injured.
Conclusion

After our car had been repaired, we went to visit our family again. This time it wasn’t raining
and my father drove slower. I’ve never forgotten this bad experience.

5 Expository essay:

ً ‫عندما تكتب‬-
‫ مثلها مثل أى قطعة تركز على األسئلة الخمسة‬،‫ المقاالت اإلخبارية هى أمثلة جيدة للكتابة التوضيحية‬.‫ فأنت تشرح شيئـًا لجمهورك‬،‫مقال تفسيريـًّا‬
.)‫(من وماذا وأين ومتى ولماذا‬
Paragraph 1: Includes a topic sentence that clearly shows the main point of the essay.
.‫ يتضمن جملة الموضوع التى توضح النقطة الرئيسية للمقال‬-
Paragraphs 2/3: Each paragraph in the body of the essay should focus on its own issue that helps develop
and support the topic sentence. Make sure you’re using factual information to support your thesis.
.‫ تأكد من أنك تستخدم المعلومات الواقعية لدعم الموضوع‬.‫ يجب أن تركز كل فقرة فى نص المقال على القضية التى تساعد فى تطوير ودعم جملة الموضوع‬-
Paragraph 4: Your personal opinion. .‫ رأيك الشخصى‬-
.‫ واختتم مقالك‬،‫ لخص نقاطك الداعمة من كل فقرة فى الموضوع‬.‫ يجب أن تحتوى هذه الفقرة فقط على المعلومات التى قدمتها مسبقـًا فى المقال‬-

133
PART 3 Writing

Traffic rules and safety


Introduction

Traffic rules and regulations are formulated to regulate traffic, for the safety of all types of
road users. They are very essential to ensure safety of various road users and as well as their
easy commuting.

Egyptian roads are overcrowded with a variety of vehicles and daily commuters. Our
highways and city roads are carrying much more traffic than what they were actually
designed for. But the main problem lays in the variety of vehicles on the same road and of
course they all want to reach on time.
We have slow moving traffic like – carts along with cars, buses, trucks, bicycles, motorcycles,
Body

pedestrians and often animals; all using the same road. Besides, motorcyclists, bicycle riders
and pedestrians are the most vulnerable, as they are difficult to spot on a crowded and
busy road.
The traffic rules and regulations are designed in such a way, so that they ensure the safety
of all the commuters. Some rules are formulated for specific types of users, while some are
common.
Wearing a helmet while riding a bike or bicycle is meant for safety of the rider. Likewise,
Conclusion

there are many rules like wearing seat belts while driving, driving within limited speed,
giving way to pedestrians, following traffic signals and signs; all are designed for the safety
of road users and ensure their easy transit.

.‫وهذه أمثلة أخرى تأتى فى االمتحانات‬

6 A book review (Narrative) ‫قصة‬/‫تلخيص كتاب‬

‫ وكيف تختم على الرغم من كثرة‬،‫عند الكتابة عن قصة أعجبتك أو كتاب أعجبك وترشحه ألشخاص آخرين أحيانـًا ال تعرف من أين تبدأ وكيف تنسق األفكار‬-
‫ واآلن سوف نساعدك على استخراج أفكار لم تكن فى الحسبان وتنسيق األفكار بطريقة صحيحة والتى ستساعدك على الكتابة بسرعة‬.‫األفكار التى فى ذهنك‬
.‫وبطريقة منظمة‬
:‫عند الكتابة فى مثل هذه الموضوعات نفكر فى اآلتى‬-
- The name of the book and author. .‫ اسم الكتاب أو القصة واسم المؤلف‬-
- Your opinion of the book. .‫ رأيك فى الكتاب أو القصة‬-
- The type of book /the novel. .‫ نوع الكتاب أو القصة‬-
- The setting. .)‫ الخلفية (المكان والزمان‬-
- When it was published. ‫ متى نشرت؟‬-
- The main character(s). .‫ الشخصية أو الشخصيات الرئيسية‬-
- What happens to the main character? ‫ ما الذى يحدث للشخصية الرئيسية؟‬-
- The turning point in the story. .‫ نقطة التحول فى القصة‬-
- Why you enjoyed the story and the message. ‫ لماذا أعجبتك القصة؟ وما الرسالة التى تحملها؟‬-
- Why you would recommend it. ‫ لماذا ترشحها لآلخرين؟‬-

134
Writing

:‫ويتم تنسيق اإلجابة عن العناصر السابقة فى شكل الفقرات اآلتية‬


Paragraph 1: The facts and details about the novel/book.
Paragraph 2: Describe the main characters and their relationships.
Paragraph 3: What happened in the story and the turning point.
Paragraph 4: Say why you enjoyed it and what the message of the story is.
- Think of a novel you have enjoyed reading and you would recommend to other people.
- Write a book review about the last novel you read.
Introduction

My favourite novel which I consider the best novel I’ve ever read is “Oliver Twist.”
It was written by Charles Dickens who was one of the most famous writers during his time.
He wrote it in London in the nineteenth century. It was first published in 1837 in a weekly
magazine.

The story is about a young orphan who experiences the best and the worst of life.
The main character is Oliver Twist whose mother dies when he is a baby and he goes to an
orphanage where the conditions for the children are terrible. Oliver is soon forced to work
in the workhouse, but his life doesn’t improve.
Body

There is a turning point when he meets Jack Dawkins who is a thief working for Fagin.
Fagin is a man who uses children to steal. Oliver is forced to join the gang, but he is caught
by the police as they think that he tries to rob a man in the street. However, Oliver is very
lucky as he is rescued by a kind man called Mr Brownlow. The rest of the story is about the
fight between the evil Fagin and the kind Brownlow to keep Oliver.
Conclusion

To sum up, the story is about the struggle between good and evil. Dickens used the novel
as a means to expose the terrible conditions that children lived in and the danger of
criminals using them for their own benefits. I would recommend it to anyone who enjoys
action stories which have a happy ending.

7 Writing a biography (Description of people): ‫السيرة الذاتية لشخص تحبه أو له تأثير عليك‬

‫ وتذكر أنه فى االمتحان لن تجبر على‬،‫جيدا‬ ً ‫للكتابة عن شخص تعرفه أو تحبه أو له فضل أو تأثير عليك أفكار معينة وطريقة يجب أن تتبعها ليكتب‬-
ً ‫مقال‬
‫ ولذلك يمكن أن تعد األفكار والمعلومات من اآلن أو أن تجهز موضوعـًا عن شخصية فى‬،‫ ولكن تختار أنت الشخص الذى تكتب عنه‬،‫الكتابة عن شخص معين‬
:‫ وفقرات هذا الموضوع تكون كالتالى‬،‫كل مجال‬
Paragraph 1: The person’s birth, family and early school or life. Why you admire him/her.
‫ لماذا أنت معجب به؟‬.‫ ميالد الشخص وعائلته ومدرسته األولى أو حياته المبكرة‬-
Paragraph 2: First steps in the person’s successes and the developments in his/her career.
.‫حياتها المهنية‬/‫ الخطوات األولى فى نجاحات الشخص والتطورات فى حياته‬-
Paragraph 3: What made the person famous and his interests. His/her influence on society.
‫تأثيرها على المجتمع؟‬/‫ تأثيره‬.‫اهتماماتها‬/‫مشهورا؟ وما هى اهتماماته‬
ً ‫ ما الذى جعل الشخص‬-
Paragraph 4: The end of his/her career, life in retirement.
.‫حياتها المهنية والحياة فى التقاعد‬/‫ نهاية حياته‬-

135
PART 3 Writing

- Write about someone you admire.


- Write about a sportsperson/scientist/a writer from your country.
Introduction

The person I admire most is Professor Mostafa El-Sayed. Professor Mostafa El-Sayed
is a famous Egyptian chemist or medical researcher. He was born in 1933 in Gharbia
Governorate. His parents died when he was ten years old. He graduated from the Faculty of
Science at Ain Shams University in 1953.

During his studies, he did many scientific experiments that enabled him to pass his exams
successfully. In 1961, he became a professor in the University of California.
Dr El-Sayed’s success depends on working in teams. Much of Dr El-Sayed’s research is done
with his team in the laser laboratory at Georgia Tech.
Body

Professor Mostafa El-Sayed is well known for his research in biochemistry and
nanoscience. Using nanoscience research, he has developed, or created new ways
of treating cancer. His wife died of cancer in 2005 so he started to think of using
nanotechnology in treating cancer. He has received many prizes and medals for science.
Conclusion

In 2008, he was awarded the US National Medal of Science. Professor Mostafa El-Sayed said
that he works hard for humans, for prizes.

136
‫‪Writing‬‬

‫‪3‬‬ ‫‪Email‬‬ ‫البريد اإللكترونى‬

‫‪ -‬فى الوقت الحاضر‪ ،‬ال مفر من رسائل البريد اإللكترونى‪ ،‬خاصة فى مجال األعمال‪ .‬تعد رسائل البريد اإللكترونى واحدة من أكثر أشكال االتصال استخدامـًا‪.‬‬
‫‪-‬كتابة البريد اإللكترونى لها شكل مختلف فى التنسيق عن المقال العادى‪ ،‬فيكون فى أوله ثالثة صفوف أحدها للمرسل واآلخر للمستلم والثالث لعنوان الموضوع‪،‬‬
‫وبعدها نبدأ بالتحية‪ ،‬ثم الغرض من الكتابة‪ ،‬ثم النهاية‪ ،‬ويختلف البريد الرسمى عن غير الرسمى‪:‬‬

‫‪1‬‬ ‫‪Informal‬‬ ‫غير الرسمى‬

‫‪ -‬البريد غير الرسمى يرسل إلى األصدقاء والمعارف واألقارب‪.‬‬

‫ ‪To‬‬ ‫‪: mohammedaal7@gmail.com‬‬

‫ ‪From‬‬ ‫‪: emadfawzy3000@yahoo.com‬‬

‫ ‪Subject‬‬ ‫‪: Invitation‬‬

‫‪Greetings:‬‬
‫‪Hi ......,‬‬ ‫اسم الشخص‪.‬‬
‫‪Hello ......,‬‬ ‫اسم الشخص‪.‬‬
‫‪Dear ......,‬‬ ‫اسم الشخص‪.‬‬
‫‪Reason for writing:‬‬
‫‪Just a quick question about ...‬‬
‫‪I was wondering if ...‬‬
‫‪I wanted to let you know that ...‬‬
‫‪Making a request:‬‬
‫‪I was just wondering if you were around later ...‬‬
‫?‪Would you mind coming earlier‬‬
‫)‪Can you call me back ASAP? (As soon as possible‬‬
‫‪Ending:‬‬
‫‪Thanks,‬‬
‫‪Take care,‬‬
‫‪Love,‬‬
‫‪Catch up soon,‬‬
‫‪See you later,‬‬
‫‪See you soon,‬‬
‫‪Bye,‬‬
‫‪Cheers,‬‬

‫‪137‬‬
PART 3 Writing

2 Formal ‫الرسمى‬

.‫ إلخ‬... ‫ البريد الرسمى يرسل إلى الشركات والمصالح الحكومية والمؤسسات والهيئات والوزارات‬-

To : mohammedaal7@gmail.com

From : emadfawzy3000@yahoo.com

Subject : Job application

Greetings:
Dear Sir/Madam ...,
Dear Mr/Ms Jones,
Reason for writing:
I am writing to ask for further information about ...
I am writing regarding the meeting we have arranged ...
I am writing with regard to the complaint you made ...
With reference to our conversation this morning, I would like to let you know ...
Making a request:
Could you please let me know if you are available?
I would appreciate it if you could send me the document ...
Could we arrange a meeting later?
Please let me know if this will be possible ... 
Ending:
Yours sincerely,
Yours faithfully,
Kind regards,
Best wishes, 

138
Exercises

Choose the correct answer from a, b, c or d:


1  Each paragraph contains .................... .

a) a topic sentence b) supporting sentences


c) four or five paragraphs d) both a and b
2  The sentence that tells the reader what to expect in the paragraph is called .................... .

a) a topic sentence b) a supporting sentence


c) conclusion d) thesis
3  Both the paragraph and essay have .................... .

a) four to eight sentences


b) introduction, body and conclusion
c) four or five paragraphs
d) one topic sentence and many supporting sentences
4  We see the result of what is mentioned in the .................... of the essay.

a) introduction b) body c) supporting sentences d) conclusion


5  The writer’s opinion is often written in the .................... of the essay.

a) beginning b) body c) end d) topic sentence


6  When you conclude writing your essay, you should .................... .

a) summarise its content b) develop the main idea


c) make the end open d) put a full stop
7  What is the end of the essay called?

a) Topic sentence. b) Conclusion. c) Introduction. d) Thesis.


8  The stages of writing should be .................... .

a) selection, brainstorming and organisation


b) brainstorming, selection and organisation
c) organisation, brainstorming and selection
d) brainstorming, organisation and selection
9  Good .................... is /are necessary if you want to have a good paragraph or essay.

a) grammar b) spelling c) punctuation d) all of these


10  If you discuss two different ideas in an essay, you should .................... .

a) discuss the two points of view in one paragraph


b) discuss the two points of view in two separate paragraphs
c) persuade the reader of your point of view
d) prefer one idea to the other
11  “As the cell phone service has become available all the time, advertisers use it to sell their products

through text messages and photos.” This could be a part of article about .................... .
a) mobile phones b) the cell phone c) advertisement d) production
139
PART 3 Writing

12  “If we teach children to develop positive thinking, and to “bounce back” after setback, these qualities
will improve their overall health in the future.” This is part of an article about .................... .
a) the importance of positive thinking b) caring for children’s health
c) the qualities of children in the future d) children’s problems
13  “So it has become clear that great efforts are necessary to provide enough food, housing,

education medical care and jobs for the ever-increasing population in Egypt .” This could be
.................... to an article about population.
a) an introduction b) a conclusion c) a topic sentence d) a title
14  “ We cannot do without them. They can also be our friends. They try to please us. They remain with us

when we feel ill. We are indebted too much to them.” This could be a part of article about .................... .
a) teachers b) youth c) friendship d) parents
15  What are the basic types of essays?

a) Expository, declarative, interrogative and statement.


b) Process, cause and effect, expository and persuasive.
c) Descriptive, expository, narrative and persuasive.
d) Descriptive, explanation, narrative and persuasive.
16  Which of the following sentences can be considered a descriptive sentence?

a) The brave man ran up the steep hill to visit the red cottage.
b) The United States of America is composed of 50 states.
c) All of the children from this school are super intrigued with the secret play.
d) Having a tutor is better than studying by yourself.
17  Which category of words are necessary while writing a descriptive paragraph?

a) Adverbs. b) Adjectives. c) Articles. d) Contractions.


18  A narrative paragraph is .................... .

a) getting persuasion b) telling lies


c) telling facts d) telling a story
19  Which of the following sentences is considered narrative?

a) During the mornings I walk my two dogs around the neighbourhood.


b) Extracurricular activities are a great way to hone on students’ talents.
c) The human body has a higher percentage of water.
d) The best season is fall because of its the gorgeous changes.
20  Which sentence can be considered a persuasive text?

a) The constant use of technology can be considered negatively.


b) Students that are exposed to technology have a brighter future.
c) Technology is a great tool that must be used with caution.
d) Technology should be used as a tool and not a way of living.
21  The following sentence can be found in a/an .................... paragraph.

“Egypt is full of many tourist attractions which fascinate all people all over the world.”
a) argumentative b) discussion c) expository d) narrative

140
Writing

22  Which type of paragraphs would this topic sentence best go with:
“The day I won first place in the Boxcar Derby Race was the proudest day of my life.”?
a) descriptive b) expository
c) narrative d) persuasive
23  “ Today was nervous for my Spanish class presentation. Luckily, everything went well.”

The sentence above can be described as a/an .................... essay.


a) descriptive b) expository
c) persuasive d) narrative
24  When do you use supporting details or supporting sentences?

a) Before the first sentence in the introduction.


b) After the last sentence because it helps you summarise the paragraph.
c) Never use these in paragraphs because they are for essays only.
d) After the topic sentence and before the closing sentence.
25  In essays and emails, we should write .................... .

a) the sender and recipient at the beginning


b) correct spelling, grammar and punctuation
c) a narrative story in the body paragraph
d) Yours sincerely at the end
26  Salutation or greeting should be written at the beginning of the .................... .

a) essay b) paragraph
c) email d) narrative story
27  The subject line should be written .................... .

a) before the sender line


b) before the recipient line
c) at the end of the email
d) in both formal and informal emails
28  Imperative ‫ األمر‬should be avoided in .................... .

a) formal emails b) informal emails


c) an email to a friend d) the sender line
29  A message to a friend on a social networking site is a kind of a/an .................... .

a) formal email b) informal email


c) expository essay d) persuasive essay
30  A message with a link to a funny YouTube clip is a kind of a/an .................... .

a) formal email b) informal email


c) biography essay d) descriptive essay

141
‫‪PART‬‬ ‫‪3‬‬ ‫‪Translation‬‬

‫‪3‬‬ ‫‪Translation‬‬

‫‪Translation from English into Arabic‬‬

‫‪ -‬نحدد أجزاء الجملة من حيث الفاعل والفعل والمفعول‪ ،‬ونبدأ الترجمة العربى بالفعل كلما أمكن‪.‬‬
‫‪ -‬يحول المجهول إلى المعلوم‪ ،‬ولكن إذا كان المجهول واقعيـًّا فال بأس‪.‬‬
‫‪ -‬نترجم ‪ should/must/ought to‬إلى يجب أن‪/‬ينبغى أن‪/‬إنه لزامـًا علينا أن‪.‬‬
‫‪ -‬نترجم المضارع التام {‪ }have/has + P.P.‬إلى (لقد)‪.‬‬
‫‪ -‬تخمن الكلمة الصعبة من التى قبلها أو التى بعدها أو من سياق الجملة‪.‬‬
‫‪-‬يمكن التخمين باستخدام مقاطع أول وآخر الكلمة مثل ‪ ،non-renewable‬فإن أصل الكلمة ‪ new‬وأضيف لها ‪ re‬بمعنى يعيد و ‪ able‬تضيف الصفة‬
‫و‪ non‬للنفى فتصبح الكلمة غير متجدد‪.‬‬
‫‪ -‬نلتزم بزمن الجملة فى الترجمة‪ ،‬المضارع يترجم مضارعـًا والماضى يترجم ماضيـًا‪.‬‬

‫‪Translation from Arabic into English‬‬

‫‪ -‬عند الترجمة من اللغة العربية إلى اللغة اإلنجليزية‪ :‬يالحظ اآلتى‪:‬‬


‫‪ 1‬الجملة فى اللغة اإلنجليزية تبدأ بفاعل ثم فعل ثم باقى الجملة‪.‬‬
‫‪Students study their lessons.‬‬ ‫‪ -‬يذاكر الطالب دروسهم‪.‬‬
‫‪ 2‬الترجمة تكون فى نفس الزمن‪.‬‬
‫‪I visited a lot of countries.‬‬ ‫‪ -‬زرت العديد من البالد‪.‬‬

‫جيدا‪ ،‬فالفاعل فى الجملة العربى هو الفاعل فى الجملة اإلنجليزى‪.‬‬


‫‪ 3‬ينظر الطالب إلى الفاعل ً‬
‫دورا مهمـًّا فى زيادة دخلنا القومى‪.‬‬
‫‪ -‬تلعب السياحة ً‬
‫ ‪Tourism plays a vital role in increasing our national income.‬‬
‫مجهول؛ أى به ‪V. to be + P.P.‬‬
‫ً‬ ‫‪ 4‬نائب فاعل الجملة العربى هو الفاعل فى الجملة اإلنجليزى‪ ،‬ويكون بعدها الفعل‬
‫‪ -‬تستخدم السيارات لنقل الناس إلى وجهات سفرهم‪.‬‬
‫‪Cars are used to carry people to their destinations.‬‬
‫‪ 5‬أى جملة تبدأ بـ ‪ v.ing‬فهى مفرد يأخذ الفعل األصلى (‪)is/was/has/does/s/es‬‬
‫‪ -‬يقوى لعب كرة القدم أجسامنا‪.‬‬
‫‪Playing football strengthens our bodies.‬‬
‫ماض إلى المضارع التام‪.‬‬
‫‪ ٦‬نترجم قد أو لقد وبعدهما فعل ٍ‬
‫‪ -‬لقد َّ‬
‫نظفت والدتى الشقة وطهت الطعام‪.‬‬
‫‪My mother has cleaned the flat and cooked the food.‬‬
‫‪ ٧‬نترجم لقد إلى زمن الماضى البسيط إذا كان فى الجملة كلمة من كلمات الماضى البسيط‪.‬‬
‫‪I phoned my friend twice yesterday.‬‬ ‫‪ -‬لقد اتصلت بصديقى مرتين أمس‪.‬‬

‫‪ ٨‬لو جاء بعد كلمة قد فعل مضارع نستخدم ‪.may + inf.‬‬


‫‪Ahmed may win the first prize.‬‬ ‫‪ -‬قد يفوز أحمد بالجائزة األولى‪.‬‬

‫‪142‬‬
‫‪Translation‬‬

‫‪ ٩‬االسم الجمع العام ال يأخذ ‪ the‬وكذلك االسم المفرد العام (غير المخصص)‪.‬‬
‫‪ -‬تعطينا األشجار الظل واألخشاب والثمار واألكسجين‪.‬‬
‫‪Trees give us shade, wood, fruit and oxygen.‬‬
‫‪ 10‬األسماء المعنوية (غير المحسوسة) ال تأخذ ‪.the‬‬
‫‪ -‬إن التسامح والحب واإلخالص والتعاون من أسمى الصفات اإلنسانية‪.‬‬
‫‪Tolerance, love, loyalty and cooperation are of the best human qualities.‬‬
‫إذا جملة اسمية‪ ،‬وفى هذه الحالة الفعل يكون ‪ V. to be‬أو ‪ V. to have‬حسب المعنى (يكون‪/‬يملك)‪.‬‬
‫فعل فى الجملة فهمى ً‬
‫‪ 11‬إذا لم نجد ً‬
‫‪-‬إن العلم هو العمود الفقرى لتقدم أى دولة‪ .‬ال يوجد فعل فى هذه الجملة‪ ،‬وعند الترجمة البد من وجود فعل فى اإلنجليزى معناه يكون أو يملك‪ ،‬وفى هذه‬
‫الجملة نجد أنه (يكون)‪.‬‬
‫‪Science is the backbone of the progress of any nation.‬‬
‫‪-‬لدينا ظروف صعبة هذه األيام‪ .‬ال يوجد فعل فى هذه الجملة‪ ،‬وعند الترجمة البد من وجود فعل فى اإلنجليزى معناه يكون أو يملك‪ ،‬وفى هذه الجملة نجد‬
‫أنه (يملك)‪.‬‬
‫‪We have difficult circumstances these days.‬‬
‫‪ 12‬الصفة تسبق االسم فى اللغة اإلنجليزية‪.‬‬
‫‪ -‬يساعدنا المعلمون المهرة على فهم دروسنا الصعبة‪.‬‬
‫‪Clever teachers help us understand our difficult lessons.‬‬
‫‪ 13‬يترجم الفعل المضارع فى اللغة العربية إلى زمن المضارع البسيط أو المضارع المستمر‪.‬‬
‫‪ -‬تبذل الحكومة أكثر جهدها إليجاد فرص عمل للشباب‪.‬‬
‫‪The government is doing (does) its best to provide job opportunities for youth.‬‬
‫‪ -‬يعانى كثير من الناس من ارتفاع األسعار والبطالة‪.‬‬
‫‪A lot of people suffer (are suffering) from the rise in prices and unemployment.‬‬
‫‪ 14‬الضمائر المستترة فى اللغة العربية تظهر فى اإلنجليزى‪.‬‬
‫‪ -‬يجب أن نهتم بالتعليم والصناعة والزراعة والسياحة واالقتصاد‪.‬‬
‫‪We should care about education, industry, agriculture, tourism and economy.‬‬
‫‪ 15‬عندما تكون ‪ and‬أداة ربط يكون الفعل الذى بعدها يساوى ما قبلها‪.‬‬
‫‪We suggested going out and visiting the Pyramids.‬‬ ‫‪ -‬اقترحنا الخروج وزيارة األهرامات‪.‬‬
‫‪We decided to go out and visit the Pyramids.‬‬ ‫‪ -‬قررنا أن نخرج ونزور األهرامات‪.‬‬
‫‪ 16‬فى الغالب ال نترجم الفعل يعمل أو يقوم إذا جاء معه فعل آخر‪.‬‬
‫‪ -‬تقوم األم بمساعدة زوجها فى تربية األوالد‪.‬‬
‫‪Mother is helping (helps) her husband in bringing up children.‬‬
‫‪ 17‬المفعول المطلق ال يترجم وتحول الصفة إلى حال‪ .‬‬
‫‪Pollution affects man badly.‬‬ ‫تأثيرا سيئـًا‪.‬‬
‫ً‬ ‫‪ -‬يؤثر التلوث على اإلنسان‬

‫‪143‬‬
‫‪PART‬‬ ‫‪3‬‬ ‫‪Translation‬‬

‫‪ 18‬بعض األفعال يأتى بعدها حرف جر فى اللغة العربية وال تأخذ حرف جر فى اللغة اإلنجليزية‪.‬‬

‫‪affect‬‬ ‫يؤثر على‬ ‫‪admire‬‬ ‫يعجب بـ‬

‫‪celebrate‬‬ ‫يحتفل بـ‬ ‫‪suspect‬‬ ‫يشك فى‬

‫‪feel‬‬ ‫يشعر بـ‬ ‫‪include‬‬ ‫يشتمل على‬

‫‪join‬‬ ‫يلتحق بـ‬ ‫‪sacrifice‬‬ ‫يضحى بـ‬

‫‪enjoy‬‬ ‫يتمتع بـ‬ ‫‪recognise‬‬ ‫يتعرف على‬

‫‪arrest‬‬ ‫يقبض على‬ ‫‪obtain/get‬‬ ‫يحصل على‬

‫‪reach‬‬ ‫يصل إلى‬ ‫‪fear‬‬ ‫يخشى أن‬

‫‪seek‬‬ ‫يبحث عن‬ ‫‪should/must‬‬ ‫يجب أن‬

‫اد رياضى‪.‬‬
‫يريد صديقى أن يلتحق بنـ ٍ‬
‫‪My friend wants to join a sports team.‬‬
‫‪« 19‬إن» ال تترجم ولكن «أن» تترجم إلى ‪.that‬‬
‫‪F riendship is a beautiful thing in life.‬‬ ‫‪ -‬إن الصداقة شىء جميل فى الحياة‪.‬‬
‫‪People think that money brings happiness.‬‬ ‫‪ -‬يعتقد الناس أن المال يجلب السعادة‪.‬‬

‫‪144‬‬
‫‪Exercises‬‬

‫‪Choose the correct answer from a, b, c or d:‬‬


‫‪1  Egypt is famous since ancient times for its curative tourism which treats many diseases.‬‬

‫)‪a‬‬ ‫تشتهر مصر منذ القدم بسياحتها العالجية التى تعالج الكثير من األمراض‪.‬‬
‫)‪b‬‬ ‫كثيرا من األمراض‪.‬‬
‫مصر مشهورة ألنه فى العصور القديمة كانت السياحة تعالج ً‬
‫)‪c‬‬ ‫تشتهر مصر منذ القدم بعالج السياحة وعالج الكثير من األمراض‪.‬‬
‫)‪d‬‬ ‫كثيرا من األمراض‪.‬‬
‫مصر مشهورة بالسياحة العالجية منذ العصور القديمة التى عالجت ً‬

‫ ‪2‬‬ ‫‪Since you are ill, I’ll ask someone else to clean the upstairs.‬‬
‫)‪a‬‬ ‫منذ أنك مريض‪ ،‬وأنا سأطلب من شخص آخر تنظيف الطابق العلوى‪.‬‬
‫)‪b‬‬ ‫منذ أنك مريض‪ ،‬سأطلب من شخص آخر تنظيف الطوابق العلوية‪.‬‬
‫)‪c‬‬ ‫بما أنك مريض‪ ،‬سأطلب من شخص آخر تنظيف الطابق العلوى‪.‬‬
‫)‪d‬‬ ‫بما أنك مريض‪ ،‬سأطلب من شخص آخر تنظيف الطوابق العلوية‪.‬‬

‫ ‪3‬‬ ‫‪  good role model serves as an example for inspiring and motivating us to work hard to uncover our‬‬
‫‪A‬‬
‫‪true inner potentials.‬‬
‫)‪a‬‬ ‫يعد القدوة الجيدة ً‬
‫مثال يلهمنا ويحفزنا على العمل الجاد للكشف عن إمكاناتنا الداخلية الحقيقية‪.‬‬
‫)‪b‬‬ ‫يعتبر دور النموذج الجيد ً‬
‫مثال يلهمنا ويحفزنا على العمل الجاد لمعرفة إمكاناتنا الداخلية الحقيقية‪.‬‬
‫)‪c‬‬ ‫جيدا يلهمنا ويحفزنا على العمل الجاد لمعرفة طاقاتنا الداخلية الحقيقية‪.‬‬
‫دورا ً‬
‫يعد النموذج ً‬
‫)‪d‬‬ ‫جيدا يلهمنا ويمكننا من العمل الجاد لمعرفة طاقاتنا الداخلية الصادقة‪.‬‬
‫دورا ً‬
‫يعد القدوة ً‬

‫ ‪4‬‬ ‫‪The policies, plans and development works of the nation can be best implemented by youth.‬‬
‫)‪a‬‬ ‫يمكن أن ينفذ الشباب الخطط السياسية وأعمال التنمية فى البالد على أفضل وجه‪.‬‬
‫)‪b‬‬ ‫يمكن أن ينفذ الشباب سياسات وخطط التنمية واألعمال فى البالد على أكمل وجه‪.‬‬
‫)‪c‬‬ ‫يمكن أن ينفذ الشباب سياسات وخطط وأعمال التنمية فى البالد على أفضل وجه‪.‬‬
‫)‪d‬‬ ‫يمكن أن يطبق الشباب سياسات البالد وخطط التنمية واألعمال على أحسن حال‪.‬‬

‫ ‪5‬‬ ‫‪As it is a free-smoking area, you mustn’t smoke here.‬‬


‫)‪a‬‬ ‫على الرغم من أنها منطقة يسمح فيها بالتدخين‪ ،‬يجب عليك َّأل تدخن هنا‪.‬‬
‫)‪b‬‬ ‫ألنها منطقة خالية من التدخين‪ ،‬يجب عليك َّأل تدخن هنا‪.‬‬
‫)‪c‬‬ ‫وكأنها منطقة يسمح فيها بالتدخين‪ ،‬ولكن يجب عليك َّأل تدخن هنا‪.‬‬
‫)‪d‬‬ ‫مع أنها منطقة يسمح فيها بالتدخين‪ ،‬يجب عليك َّأل تدخن هنا‪.‬‬

‫ ‪6‬‬ ‫‪Man has invented numerous things to make his life comfortable and entertaining. ‬‬
‫)‪a‬‬ ‫اخترع اإلنسان أشياء عديدة ليجعل حياته مريحة ومسلية‪.‬‬
‫)‪b‬‬ ‫اخترع اإلنسان أشياء مسلية ليجعل حياته مريحة ومتنوعة‪.‬‬
‫)‪c‬‬ ‫اخترع اإلنسان أشياء مفيدة ليجعل حياته مريحة ومضيافة‪.‬‬
‫)‪d‬‬ ‫اخترع اإلنسان أشياء فعالة ليجعل حياته مريحة وسهلة‪.‬‬

‫‪145‬‬
‫‪PART‬‬ ‫‪3‬‬ ‫‪Translation‬‬

‫ ‪7‬‬ ‫ ‪ oney can be used for building new Industrial plants, improving health care and solving‬‬
‫‪M‬‬
‫‪the problems of housing and transport.‬‬
‫)‪a‬‬ ‫يمكن استخدام األموال لتكوين نباتات صناعية وتحسين الرعاية الصحية وحل مشاكل اإلسكان والنقل‪.‬‬
‫)‪b‬‬ ‫يمكن استخدام األموال لبناء مصانع جديدة وتحسين الرعاية الصحية وحل مشاكل اإلسكان والنقل‪.‬‬
‫)‪c‬‬ ‫يمكن استخدام األموال لبناء نباتات صناعية وتحسين الرعاية الصحية وحل مشاكل المنازل والنقل‪.‬‬
‫)‪d‬‬ ‫يمكن أن يستخدم المال لبناء مصانع جديدة وتحسين العناية الصحية وحل مشاكل المنازل والسفر‪.‬‬
‫ ‪8‬‬ ‫‪If children have good manners, they should keep quiet while grown-ups are talking.‬‬
‫)‪a‬‬ ‫إذا كان األطفال يتمتعون باألخالق الحميدة‪ ،‬يجب عليهم التزام الصمت أثناء حديث الكبار‪.‬‬
‫)‪b‬‬ ‫لو يمتلك األطفال طرقـًا جيدة‪ ،‬يجب عليهم التزام الهدوء عندما يكبرون ويتحدثون‪.‬‬
‫)‪c‬‬ ‫لو يمتلك الصغار عادات اجتماعية‪ ،‬يجب عليهم الهدوء عند الكبر والحديث مع الكبار‪.‬‬
‫)‪d‬‬ ‫لو يتمتع األطفال باألخالق الحميدة‪ ،‬يجب عليهم الهدوء ليحترمهم الكبار أثناء الحديث‪.‬‬
‫ ‪9‬‬ ‫‪ eople suffering from PUBG addiction have a high risk of weakened eyesight, obesity, insomnia and‬‬
‫‪P‬‬
‫‪depression.‬‬
‫)‪a‬‬ ‫األشخاص الذين يعانون من إدمان ‪ PUBG‬معرضون بشكل كبير لضعف البصر والسمنة واألرق واالكتئاب‪.‬‬
‫)‪b‬‬ ‫األشخاص الذين يعانون من إدمان ‪ PUBG‬معرضون بشكل كبير لضعف البصر واالنهيار العصبى واألرق واالكتئاب‪.‬‬
‫)‪c‬‬ ‫األشخاص الذين يعانون من إدمان الكحوليات معرضون بشكل كبير لضعف البصر والسمنة وألزهايمر ومشاكل القلب‪.‬‬
‫)‪d‬‬ ‫األشخاص الذين يعانون من إدمان ‪ PUBG‬معرضون بشكل كبير لضعف البصر ومشاكل القلب وألزهايمر واالكتئاب‪.‬‬
‫ ‪10‬‬ ‫‪We are in bad need of cooperation especially these days.‬‬
‫)‪a‬‬ ‫نحن فى حاجة ماسة إلى التعاون خاصة هذه األيام‪.‬‬
‫)‪b‬‬ ‫كثيرا خاصة هذه األيام‪.‬‬
‫لقد فقدنا التعاون ً‬
‫)‪c‬‬ ‫جدا خاصة هذه األيام‪.‬‬
‫التعاون بيننا سيئ ًّ‬
‫)‪d‬‬ ‫نحن فى احتياج سيئ إلى التعاون خاصة هذه األيام‪.‬‬
‫‪11  “She‬‬ ‫”‪stops to conquer.‬‬
‫)‪a‬‬ ‫تتوقف لكى تغزو‪.‬‬
‫)‪b‬‬ ‫هى دائمـًا منتصرة‪.‬‬
‫)‪c‬‬ ‫ال تستطيع التغلب على شىء‪.‬‬
‫)‪d‬‬ ‫تتمسكن لحد ما تتمكن‪.‬‬
‫‪12  “I‬‬ ‫”‪couldn’t help buying the book. It was priceless.‬‬
‫)‪a‬‬ ‫لم أستطع شراء الكتاب‪ ،‬إنه كان ال يقدر بثمن‪.‬‬
‫)‪b‬‬ ‫لم أستطع شراء الكتاب‪ ،‬إنه لم تكن له قيمة‪.‬‬
‫)‪c‬‬ ‫جدا‪.‬‬
‫لم يكن فى مقدورى شراء الكتب‪ ،‬إنه كان نفيسـًا ًّ‬
‫)‪d‬‬ ‫جدا‪.‬‬
‫لم أستطع أن أمنع نفسى من شراء الكتاب‪ ،‬إنه كان نفيسـًا ًّ‬
‫ ‪13‬‬ ‫‪A man is known by the company he keeps.‬‬
‫)‪a‬‬ ‫يعرف الرجل بالشركة التى يمتلكها‪.‬‬
‫)‪b‬‬ ‫يعرف المرء بعمله فى شركته‪.‬‬
‫)‪c‬‬ ‫يعرف المرء بأقرانه‪.‬‬
‫)‪d‬‬ ‫يشهر المرء بما لديه من مال‪.‬‬

‫‪146‬‬
Translation

.‫ راجعنا الخطة مرة أخرى‬،‫ عندما انتهى االجتماع‬14 


a) When the meeting has finished, we went over the plan once again.
b) When the meeting finished, we had gone over the plan once again.
c) When the meeting had finished, we had gone over the plan once again.
d) When the meeting had finished, we went over the plan once again.
.‫ كان آخر طباخ لدينا أفضل من طاهينا الحالى‬15 
a) Our last cooker was better than our present one.
b) Our last cooking was better than our nowadays one.
c) Our last cook was better than our current one.
d) Our last cooker was better than our present one.
.‫ تذكرته على الفور‬،‫ لكن عندما رأيته فى الشارع‬،‫ لم أره منذ سنوات‬16 
a) I hadn’t seen him for years, but when I saw him, I remembered him at once.
b) I haven’t seen him for years, but when I saw him, I remembered him at once.
c) I hadn’t seen him for years, but when I saw him, I realised him at once.
d) I hadn’t seen him for years, but when I saw him, I reminded him at once.
.‫ أنت بحاجة إلى تصريح خاص للدخول إلى هذا المبنى‬17 
a) You need to a special agreement to go into this building.
b) You need a special permit to go into this building.
c) You need a private allowance to go into this building.
d) You need to a special permit to go into this building.
.‫غالبا ما تتأثر العالقة بين الوالدين والطفل بسبب الفجوة بين األجيال‬ 18 

a) The parent-child relationship is often affected due to the generation gap.


b) The parents-child connection is often affected due to the generation hole.
c) The parents’-child communication is often affected due to the generation break.
d) The parents-child association is often affected due to the generation gap.
.‫من المهم صياغة سياسات تهدف إلى تمكين شبابنا لضمان غد أفضل ومستقبل أكثر إشراقـًا‬ 19 

a) It is important to form politics which aims at enabling our youth to have a better tomorrow and a
brighter future.
b) It is important to formulate policies which aim at empowering our youth to ensure a better
tomorrow and a brighter future.
c) It is important to formulate politics which aim at empowering our youth to ensure a better
tomorrow and a rising future.
d) It is necessary to frame policies which aim to enable our people to ensure a better tomorrow and
a brighter future.
.‫ يستخدم اإلنترنت بواسطة المحترفين لتبادل المعلومات وبواسطة الهواة للكتابة أو الدردشة مع بعضهم إلكترونيـًّا‬20 
a) The internet is used by professionals to change information, and by amateurs to write or chat to
each other electronically.
b) The internet is using by experts to exchange information, and by amateurs to write or chat to
each other electronically.
c) The internet is used by experts to exchange information, and by amateurs to write or chat to each
other electrically.
d) The internet is used by professionals to exchange information, and by amateurs to write or chat
to each other electronically.
147
PART 3 Translation

.‫ فهم غالبـًا يفضلون األشخاص المهرة الموثوق بهم على المهملين الجاهلين‬,‫ عندما يختار أصحاب األعمال الموظفين‬21 
a) When employers choose the employees, they usually prefer clever and reliable persons to
careless and ignorant ones.
b) When employees select the employers, they usually prefer skilled and reliable persons to careless
and ignorant ones.
c) When employers select the employees, they usually prefer clever and reliable persons than
careless and ignorant ones.
d) When employees choose the employers, they usually prefer clever and reliable persons than
careless and ignorant ones.
.‫ فهو يضعف االقتصاد ويبتلع اإلنجازات‬،‫ إن التضخم السكانى مشكلة خطيرة تواجه العديد من البالد‬22 
a) Population is a serious problem facing many countries, as it weakens the economy and swallows
up achievements.
b) Overpollution is a serious problem facing a lot of countries, as it weakens the economy and
swallows up achievements.
c) Increasing population is a series problem which faces many countries, as it decreases the
economy and swallows up achievements.
d) Overpopulation is a serious problem facing many countries, as it weakens the economy and
swallows up achievements.
.‫ يعد مشروع تطوير الريف المصرى من أفضل المشروعات لترسيخ حقوق اإلنسان‬23 
a) The Egyptian Rural Development Project is one of the best projects to establish human rights.
b) The Egyptian urban Development Project is one of the best projects to recognise human rights.
c) The Egyptian Rural Development Project is one of the best projects to neglect human rights.
d) The Egyptian urban Development Project is one of the best projects to understand human rights.
.‫ زادت درجاتك‬،‫ كلما قلت أخطاؤك‬24 
a) The little mistakes you make, the higher marks you get.
b) The fewer mistakes you make, the higher marks you get.
c) The fewest mistakes you make, the highest marks you get.
d) The fewer mistakes you make, the highest marks you get.
.‫جدا لدرجة أننا زرناه أكثر من مرة‬
ًّ ‫مؤثرا‬
ً ‫كان الموقع األثرى‬ 25 

a) The archaeological site was so impressing that we visited it more than once.
b) The archaeological sight was so impressive that we visited it more than one.
c) The archaeological site was so impressive that we visited it more than once.
d) The archaeological position was so impressing that we visited it more than once.

148

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