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# Vinayakamissions Univeristy

## AARUPADAI VEEDU INSTITUE OF TECHNOLOGY & VMKV ENGG COLLEGE

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

Question Bank

## subject: DESIGN OF MACHINE ELEMENTS

Course: B.E (MECH) year: III semester: V

## ( USE OF PSG DATA BOOK IS PERMITTED )

UNIT-I
Part A
1) Define “Design”.
2) What are the various phases of design process?

## 3) List some factors that influence machine design.

4) Define Principal plane and Principal stress.

## 6) Define stress concentration and stress concentration factor.

7) Define Notch sensitivity.
8) What are the types of variable stresses?
9) What are the various theories of failure?

## 10) What is meant by Poisson’s ratio?

11) Give any four methods of reducing stress concentration.
12) Define Hardness and Stiffness.
13) Give any four examples for curved beams.

## 14) What are CAD tools?

18) What are the methods for optimization?
19) Differentiate between hardness and toughness of materials.
20) Define ’creep’, and ‘resilience’.
21) List the various types of loads.
22) Distinguish between different types of variable stresses.
23) Explain endurance limit. What factors influence endurance strength?
24) State the significance of S-N curve.
25) what is the use of Goodman&Soderberg diagrams?

Part B
1) An electric motor weighing 500N is mounted on a short cantilever beam of uniform
rectangular cross section .The weight of the motor acts at distance of 300mm from the
support. The depth of the section is twice the width. Determine the cross section of the
beam. The allowable stress in the beam is 40 N/ mm2. ....................(1.15)
2) The stress state in a machine member is given as follows. σx = 20 Mpa; σy= 7Mpa;
τxy = 4Mpa.Find the principal normal and shear stresses. Locate the angle of σ1 and σ2
from x –axis. .......................(1.28)
3) A cantilever of span 250mm and 50mm diameter carries a vertical downward load of
3kN at free end along with a torque of 1000N-m and an axial pull of 15kN.Calculate
the maximum normal stress at the top and bottom face of the fixed end. ..........(1.34)
4) A steel member is subjected to a three dimensional stress system and the resulting
principal stresses are 120N/mm2 tension, 80 N/mm2 and 40N/mm2 compression .If the
proportional limit of the material in simple tension is 280N/mm2 and its Poisson’s ratio
is 0.3, determine the factor of safety according to a) Maximum principal stress theory
b) Maximum principal strain theory and c) Maximum shear stress theory. ..........(1.67)
5) A bolt is subjected to a tensile load of 25 KN and a shear load of 10 KN. Determine the
diameter of the bolt according to: ..................(1.69)
a) Maximum principal stress theory
b) Maximum principal strain theory
c) Maximum shear stress theory

Assume factor of safety as 2.5, yield point stress in simple tension = 300N/mm2
Poisson’s ratio = 0.25.
6) A spherical pressure vessel with 400mm inner diameter is welded from steel plates. The
vessel is subjected to internal pressure varying from 0 to 50bar.Assuming the ultimate
tensile strength as 440Mpa, yield strength 240Mpa and factor of safety 3, calculate the
plate thickness. ..................(1.90)
7) The bending stress in a machine part fluctuates between a tensile stress of 280N/mm2
and a compressive stress of 140N/mm2. What should be the minimum ultimate tensile
strength of this part to carry this fluctuation indefinitely according to i) Goodman’s
formula ii) Soderberg formula? Take Factor of safety = 1.75. Assume that the yield
point is never likely to be less than 55% of ultimate tensile strength or greater than 93%
of it. ......................(1.100)

## 8) A crankshaft bearing is loaded as shown in fig. Determine maximum and minimum

principal stresses and maximum shear stress. …………(1.29)
9) Determine the maximum and minimum normal stresses and maximum shear stresses at
the crankshaft bearing as shown in fig. ………………(1.31)

10. Taking stress concentration in to account find the maximum stress induced when a
Tensile load of 2O kN is applied to ………………(1.82)
i) A rectangular plate 80mm wide and 12mm thick with a transverse hole of 16mm
Diameter.
ii) A stepped shaft of diameters 60 and 30mm with a fillet radius of 6mm.
UNIT-II
Part-A
1) What is a shaft?
2) What is simple torsion?
3) What is simple bending moment?
4) Define the term critical speed.
5) What is a key?
6) What are the types of keys?
7) List the various failures that occur in sunk keys.

## 8) What is the function of a coupling?

9) Name any two of the rigid and flexible couplings.

## 10) Under what circumstances flexible couplings are used.

11) What are the advantages of gear coupling?
12) List out the types of stresses induced in a shaft.
13) Write down the expression for Torsional Rigidity.
14) Differentiate between Cotter joint and Knuckle joint.
15) Differentiate between Keys and Splines.
16) State the advantages of interchangeable manufacture.
17) What is maximum material condition?
18) How is clearance fits classified?
19) Give the types of interference fits and their applications.
20) What are the types of geometric variations? Explain.
21) Give the indication method for circularity, cylindercity, coaxiality
and run out.
22) Explain the need for good surface finish.
23) What are the types of rigidity?
24) List all the shaft materials.
25) What are the types of shafts?
Part-B
1) A factory line shaft is 4.5m long and is to transmit 75kW at 200rpm.The allowable
stress in shear is 49MPa and the maximum allowable twist is 1ο in a length of 20 times
diameter. Determine the required shaft diameter. ................(2.13)
2) An electric generator rotates at 200rpm and receives 300kW from the driving engine.
The armature of the generator is 60cm long and located between bearings 120cm centre
to centre. Owing to the combined weight of armature and the magnetic pull, the shaft is
subjected to 9000kg mass acting at right angles to the shaft. The ultimate stress for the
shaft is 4480kg/cm2 and shear stress is 3920kg/cm2.Find the diameter of the shaft for a
factor of safety of 6. .................(2.15)
3) A solid shaft is to transmit 1000kW at 120 rpm. Find the shaft diameter if the design
shear stress is 80N/mm2.If the shaft is made hollow with internal diameter being 0.6
times the outside diameter, find the percentage of saving in material. ...........(2.18)
4) Design a muff or Sleeve coupling for a shaft to transmit 35kW at 350rpm.The safe
shear stress for the steel shaft is 50N/mm2and for the cast iron muff it is 15N/mm2.The
allowable shear and crushing stresses for the key material are 42N/mm2and 120N/mm2
respectively. ................(2.99)
5) The split muff coupling is to be designed to transmit 67.5kW at 180rpm.Determine the
diameter of the solid shaft if permissible shear stress in the shaft is limited to 42MPa.
Assuming that the two halves of the couplings are connected by 8 bolts, determine the
diameter of each clamping bolt if the permissible tensile stress intensity for the bolt
material is limited to 70N/mm2.The co-efficient of friction is 0.3. ...................(2.107)

6) A knuckle joint is to transmit a force of 140kN. Allowable stresses in tension; shear and
compression are 75 N/mm2, 65 N/mm2 and 140 N/mm2 respectively. Design the
joint .............................(2.138).
7) Design a protective type flange coupling for the following requirements:
Power to be transmitted = 10kw ..............(2.118)
Speed of shafts =960 rpm
Select suitable materials

8) Determine the dimensions of rectangular sunk key made of mild steel for 80mm
diameter mild steel shaft to transmit a torque of 135 N-m Assume τ=50 N/mm2 and σc =
.......................(2.86)
120N/mm2.

9) Design a shaft to carry a bending moment that varies from +500N-m to -200 N-m and
a twisting moment that varies from +200N-m to +400N-m. The shaft material is C-45 steel.
Design for a factor of safety of 2. .........................(2.55)
10) A solid shaft is subjected to bending moment of 3.46 kN-m and a torsional moment of
11.5KN-m.The shaft is made of C-45 steel and factor of safety is 6.Find the diameter of
shaft. .........................(2.12)
UNIT III
Part A
1) What are the purposes of screws?

## 3) List some types of commonly used thread forms.

5) Define Welding.
6) What are the general applications of welding?
7) What are the advantages of welding?
8) What are the types of welded joints?
9) State the weld symbol for double U-joint and single V-joint.
10) List any two merits of a butt joint and a lap joint.
11) What stresses act on screw fastening?
12) What are the two types of fillet weld?
13) Name the surface preparation methods for bonded joints.
14) Name any two tests conducted to check the adhesive strength.
Part B
1) The cylinder head of a steam engine with 250mm bore is fastened by eight stud bolts
made of 30C8 steel. Maximum pressure inside the cylinder is 1Mpa. Determine the bolt
size and approximate tightening torque. Take 20% overload. Assume σy = 300MPa for
bolt material ....................(3.19)

2) A cast iron cylinder head is fastened to a cylinder of 500mm bore with 8 stud bolts. The
maximum pressure inside the cylinder is 2MPa. The stiffness of part is thrice the
stiffness of the bolt. What should be the initial tightening load so that the point is leak
proof at maximum pressure? Also choose a suitable bolt for the above
application. ....................(3.20)

## 3) In a bolted assembly initially, the nut is tightened by means of a spanner so as to induce

a pre-load of 2.5kN in the bolt .The external force P acting on the assembly is 5kN.The
bolt with coarse thread is made of plain carbon steel 30C8 (σy =400N/mm2) and the
factor of safety is 2.5.The effective stiffness of the parts held together by the bolt is 2.5
times the stiffness of the bolt. Specify the size of the bolt. ..........(3.23)
4) Find the size of the weld for the connection shown in figure below; if the tensile load
acting on the connection is 120kN. Assume permissible shear stress on the weld is
75Mpa. .....................(3.82)

5) A plate 100mm wide and 12.5mm thick is to be welded to another plate by means of
two parallel fillet welds as shown in figure below. The plates are subjected to a load of
50kN. Find the length of the weld so that the maximum stress does not exceed

6) An eccentrically loaded plate is welded to a frame as shown in figure below. Design the
welded joint, if the tensile stress in the plate should not exceed 100N/mm2 and that in
weld is 80N/mm2. ...................(3.122)
UNIT-IV
Part-A

1) What is a spring?
2) What are the applications of springs?
3) Classify helical springs.
4) Define: Belleville springs.
5) What is the stiffness of spring (q)?
6) What is the buckling of springs?
7) What is surge in springs?
8) What is a laminated leaf spring?
9) What is lever?
10) What are the factors to be considered for designing fulcrum pin of the lever?
11) What is spring index?
12) How will you find whether the given helical spring is a compression spring or
tension spring?
13) Why Wahl’s factor is to be considered in the design of helical compression
springs?
14) What are the various end conditions of spring?
Part-B
1) A gas engine valve spring is to have a mean diameter of 37.5mm.The maximum load it
will have to sustain is 450 N with a corresponding deflection of 12.5mm.The spring is
to be made of tempered wire and since the material is to be subjected to repeat load &
fatigue, a low working stress of 300N/mm2 will be used. Find the size for the wire and
number of coils used. Take rigidity modulus as 0.8×105 N/mm2. ...........(4.22)

2) A helical spring made of C50 steel has an outside diameter of 80mm and a wire
diameter of 12mm.The spring has to support a maximum axial load of 1kN. Determine
the maximum shear stress and the total deflection. If the spring has 10.5 coils with ends
ground flat .Determine also the factor of safety. Take G=0.89×102 kN/mm2. ......(4.24)

3) A semi-elliptical spring has 10 leaves with two full length leaves extending 650mm.It is
65mm wide and is made of 7mm thick. Design a helical spring, with mean coil
diameter 100mm, which will have approximate the same values of induced stress and

## 4) Design a leaf spring for a truck to the following specifications. ................(4.99)

Maximum load on the spring- 140kN
Number of springs- 4
Permissible tensile stress- 600N/mm2
Maximum number of leaves- 10
Span of spring- 1000mm
Permissible deflection- 80mm
Young’s modulus of the spring- 200kN/mm2

5) A torsion spring is wound from a round wire into coil with a mean diameter 40mm.The
torsional moment applied onto the spring is 5N-m.Assume the spring index as 10.The
permissible stress in the spring is 550N/mm2 and E=2.1×105 N/mm2.What must be the
diameter of wire and the corresponding deflection in degrees? Take number of effective
coils as 7. ...........................(4.79)

6) A spring made from a wire of 1.25mm diameter and 750N/mm2 as its yield strength has
a mean diameter of 12.5mm and 14 active coils. Find (i) Stiffness of spring (ii) Solid
height assuming that the ends are squared and ground. Take the modulus of rigidity as
0.85×105 N/mm2 .............................................(4.23)
UNIT-V
Part-A
1) What are the types of rolling contact bearings?
2) What is a bearing?

## 3) List any six types of bearing materials.

4) What is a journal bearing?
5) State the theory of lubrication.
6) Define Kinematic viscosity.
7) What is the function of flywheel?
8) Define coefficient of fluctuation of speed in case of flywheels.
9) Define the term “fluctuation of energy”.
10) How does the function of flywheel differ from that of governor?
11) How is Sommerfield number calculated?
12) What are the stresses induced in flywheel arms?
13) Define the term “Dynamic Load Rating”.
14) Define the term “Bearing Life”.
15) State the relation between the Coefficient of fluctuation of Energy and
Part-B
1) Design a suitable ball bearing for an axial flow compressor to carry a radial load of
2.5kN and a thrust load of 1.3kN.The service imposes a light shock with shock factor
1.5 and bearing will be in use for 35 hours per week for 4 years. The speed of shaft is
900rpm and diameter of shaft is 45mm.Assume X=0.56 and Y=1.4. ..........(5.19)

2) Select a suitable ball bearing to support an overhung countershaft. The shaft is 60mm
diameter and rotates at 1250rpm.The bearings are to have 99% reliability corresponding
to a life of 4000hrs.The bearing is subjected to an equivalent radial load of
6000N. ........................(5.20)

3) Design a journal bearing for a centrifugal pump with the following data: .......(5.38)
Diameter of the journal=150mm
Speed of shaft =900 rpm.
4) A cast iron flywheel for a blanking press has a mean diameter of 1.5m.The normal
operating speed of 275rpm slows down to 250rpm during punching operation. The
required energy fluctuation is 6500J and the density of the cast iron is 7000kg/m 3.Find
the area of flywheel rim if the arms and the hub provide 7% of the flywheel effect.
..........................(5.35)

5) A single cylinder I.C engine working on four stroke cycle develops 75kW at 360rpm.
The maximum fluctuation of energy can be assumed to be 0.9 times the energy
developed/cycle. If the total fluctuation of speed is not to exceed 1% and the maximum
centrifugal stress in the flywheel is to be 5.5MN/m2, estimate the mean diameter and
the cross sectional area of the rim. Flywheel is made of cast iron. ................(5.62)

6) Determine the maximum tensile stress in the thin rim of a steel flywheel rotating at
600rpm.The mean radius of rim is 1500mm.The flywheel rim is 200mm thick and
300mm wide. The area of the cross section of the rim is 0.06m2 and each of the six
spokes is constant in cross section area of 0.01 m2. Also find the stress in each spoke.
...........................................(5.65)