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CE 198– Engineering Design Process in Civil Engineering 03 March 2011

Final Paper

ProposedConstruction of a Floodwater Treatment Facility in Artex

Compound, Brgy.Panghulo, MalabonCity

Calivo, Chrislene D.
Diaz, Jose Ramil V.
Maybituin, Anacel Justine S.
Reginio, Jessabel R.
B.S. Civil Engineering Program
Institute of Civil Engineering,
University of the PhilippinesDiliman

Engr. Ma. Doreen Candelaria
Instructor, Institute of Civil Engineering,
University of the PhilippinesDiliman


Water has been a necessity to human beings since the beginning of time. Eventhough this is
case, not all has an access to a clean daily supply of water. Ironically in the Philippines, 1.
specifically in Malabon City, residents of Artex Compound which was known as the “Water
World”—four-walled compound filled with flood water, belong to these families who lack the
supply of clean water. This paper would like to present a solution to the said problem by
constructing a small-scale low-cost water treatment facility that will treat and distribute clean
water to the residents of Artex compound as well as the nearby barangay, Brgy. Panghulo. The
water treatment facility will use ABR-SBR Hybrid System and Cocopeat Filtration as its
secondary and tertiary treatment techniques. With this project implemented, it is projected that
the residents would only have to spend 1peso/50gallons of water instead of 1.25peso/1gallon.
also projected in 25 years of its operation that investment returns will be attained within 2-3 years.

1.1 Background of the Study

The supply of fresh water often depletes over time due to water pollution, over extraction of groundwater,
saline water intrusion, forest and water denudation, and inefficient use of water. The problem is
compounded by unusual climatic changes which results to an imbalance between water demand and

The delivery of an acceptable supply of safe, potable water to consumers has become increasingly
constrained by the capacity of existing water sources and poor efficiency of existing infrastructure. The
problem of water supply is also stretched because of rapid population growth and economic development.

To alleviate water shortage problems, other developed countries such as United States, Asian countries
like China, Singapore, Japan, Hong Kong, and other European countries have made various efforts to
promote wastewater treatment and reuse since the 1890s.

Wastewater reuse in many ways has been considered as a reliable, practical and economic alternative
water resource. It is considered viable for reasons including the application and fulfillment of stringent
standards supervised by the government and the use of advanced technology.

1.2 Statement of the Problem

The residents of Artex Compound in Barangay Panghulo, Malabon City and nearby areas have been
struggling from inadequate supply of water. Only one household in the compound has a line from
NAWASA and therefore, the only source of water for the other residents.

However, residents do not only suffer from scarce supply of water but also from being submerged in more
than 5 feet (2 meters) of floodwater for the whole year, up to 10 feet during heavy rains affecting more
than 150 families.

1.3 Objectives

The main objective of this study is to provide an alternative source of water for the residents of Artex
Compound, Barangay Panghulo, Malabon City through treatment of floodwater trapped in the said low-
lying area. This proposed project includes measures to ease shortages of water for municipal use, and at
the same time, will remedy the extreme volume of floodwater which always has been a burden during
rainy seasons for the residents of the compound. This project involves the construction of a treatment
facility that complies with treatment standards and thus, will guaranteeand will promotewastewater reuse
in the best and safest possible conditions.

1.4 Significance

This proposed project of treating floodwater as another potential water source will have a great impact not
only to the residents of Artex Compound, who will be served by this facility, but also those who will
indirectly benefit from this project. Residents will no longer need to use water pumps (artesian
wells)thatare contributing to the increased level of groundwater extraction which causes further
subsidence of the area. This project will also help the government in its water resources planning and
development. The results of this study can be used as a reference for the evaluation or replication of the
proposed treatment facility in other flood-prone areas suffering from water crisis.

1.5 Scope and Limitation

The study will focus only on the construction and implementation of the treatment facility in Artex
Compound in its projected 25 years of operation.

There was no laboratory water testing done due to financial and time constraints. Water characteristics
and floodwater classification based from earlier study done by other UP students were used in planning
and designing of the proposed treatment facilityinstead.

Specifications of the facility, e.g. materials to be used in the construction were not included in this study.
However, its total area was estimated to be 160 sq. m., given the availabilityof space in Artex
Compound.A daily output of 2500 m3 was assumed based fromthe daily consumption of the residents.For
simplicity, it is also assumed that there is no significant increase in the floodwater level within the 25
years of operation.


1. Site ocular inspection

2. Interview with officials
a. Artex Officials and residents
b. Brgy. Panghulo, Malabon officials
c. Malabon City officials
3. Field Sampling at Artex Compound
4. In situ sampling
a. Floodwater Sample Collection
b. Laboratory Test
– pH
– DO
– BOD5
– Coliform
– Oil and grease
– Heavy metals
1. Location of lowest-cost area for Floodwater Treatment Facility construction
2. Design of Floodwater Treatment Facility
– Considering available space in Artex
– Alternatives Evaluation for Filtration Process


In 20 years, 60% of the world's population will be living in the cities (UN 2006), thus more water will be
needed for municipal use and consequently additional municipal wastewater will be produced all in the
same place and within a limited area. This situation represents both a risk and an opportunity to better use
water, for example by increasing and diversifying municipal wastewater reuse.

Non-potable and indirect potable use of reclaimed wastewater is practiced in Asian countries. Tianjin city
in China has a wastewater reclamation plant which treats 50,000 m 3/d of secondary effluent to serve about
160,000 residents. Korean practice is characterized by onsite water recycling systems for toilet flushing,
cleaning and cooling. Japan, Hong Kong and Singapore also have wastewater treatment plants.

In the Philippines, at least 22 anaerobic industrial treatment plants have been installed since 1991, 21 by
Enviroasia and 1 by Paques. 16 plants use UASB reactors and the other 6 use UAC reactors.

A case study regarding water sanitation, “Pro-poor Water and Wastewater Management in Small Towns”,
documents the installation of a low-cost wastewater treatment facility in Muntinlupa Public Market. This
case study examines the design and construction of the said treatment facility and the means employed by
the local government of Muntinlupa tocomply with the requirements mandated by the Philippine Clean
Water Act 2004.They proposed to convert wastewater producedby the marketto water that can be used for
irrigation, flushing toilets and street cleaning.

Using flood as the source of water subjected to treatment and recycling has not yet been practiced in the
Philippines. The country is a flood-prone area and it experiences an average of 19.6 typhoons a year in its
area of responsibility. Storm surges accompany tropical depressions and cause extreme flood occurrence.
Eighteen to 20 flood events occur in Metro Manila each year (Daligdig&Besana, 1993) and in 1985, it
was estimated in 1990, 14 percent of Metro Manila (86.7 square kilometers) are inundated with
floodwaters (JICA, 1990). Floods directly affect 190,000 households in the metropolis and inconvenience
almost 70 percent of its total population. The amount of flood losses escalates through time and health-
related risks such as dengue fever, diarrhea diseases, unsanitary conditions, and water contamination have
become prevalent.

Malabon is a low-lying area and has been highly affected by such flood occurrences. Since the
construction of the Dagat-dagatan Road, spearheaded by Mrs. Imelda Marcos, the Artex Compound in
Barangay Panghulo has become the catch basin of nearby areas for long periods of time.

A study on the evaluation of kangkong grown on floodwater of Artex Compound in Malabon was made
by Briones, et al. under the Department of Environmental Engineering at the Univeristy of the Philippines
(2010).Kangkong grown at Artex turned out to be safe for consumption based on the metal toxicity
analysis. The researchers also tested the floodwater for its pH, DO, BOD 5, TSS, TDS, oil & grease,
coliform and heavy metals.

Results of the above studies were used for conceptualizing the design and implementation of the proposed
floodwater treatment facility in Artex Compound in Malabon.


4.1 Study Process

Readily available laboratory test results for the floodwater in Artex Compound on pH, DO, BOD 5, TSS,
TDS, oil & grease, coliform and heavy metals were obtained and used as basis for the design of the
filtration process in the floodwater treatment facility. The procedures of analysis were based from the
Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. In-situ testing was also done by the
previous study using conductivity measure and Hach colorimeter.

4.2 Method of Analysis

Data and results of the laboratory done by the previous study were compared with the DAO 34 water
quality criteria for coastal and marine waters.The floodwater in Artex Compound was categorized under
Class SC.

Design of the most effective and cost-efficient floodwater treatment facility was envisaged given the
allocated space and budget constraints for the construction of the facility, floodwater quality, and
innovations that can be applied in the facility.


5.1 Wastewater Characteristics

There were three sampling dates at least one month apart done by the group of Briones. Within this period
of sampling, seasonal changes have occurred, from rainy season during the 1st sampling on December 11
to summer on the last sampling on March 1. It was found out that this change n weather conditions, aside
from other factors, greatly affected the results on the analysis. Some parameters gave very different values
for the three sampling periods.

There were three sampling points – from the inlet, dumpsite, and residential area – selected by Briones’s
group. Shown in Tables 1 to 3 are the in-situ and laboratory results.

Table 1. Laboratory results for sample point 1

Sample point 1
11 Dec 31 Jan 01 Mar
Time collected 10:55 am 9:15 am 9:56 am
Floodwater depth, m 0.94 0.98 0.86
Temperature, °C 29.0 27.7 28.0
Temperature (ambient) 31.5 29.5 33.0
Temperature rise 0 -1.3 0.3
Conductivity, μS 3.3 5.3 7.4
Turbidity, NTU 1 3 19
Color, PCU 47 22 105
pH 7.00 6.61 8.16
DO, mg/L 6.9 4.8 4.5
BOD5, mg/L - 15.6 12.0
TSS, mg/L 4.5 13 4.5
TDS, mg/L - 3220 4454
Oil & grease, mg/L - - 52.6
Total Coliform,
170x10 80x103 1600x103
Fecal Coliform,
- 80x103 220x103

Table 2. Laboratory results for sample point 2

Sample point 2
11 Dec 31 Jan 01 Mar
Time collected 10:35 am 9:31 am 10:05am
Floodwater depth, m 0.99 1.02 0.92
Temperature, °C 29.0 27.6 27.5
Temperature (ambient) 27.9 27.4 33.0
Temperature rise 0 -1.4 -0.1
Conductivity, μS 3.2 5.4 7.3
Turbidity, NTU 3 4 22
Color, PCU 47 30 171
pH 6.70 6.97 7.89
DO, mg/L 5.7 2.9 5.4
BOD5, mg/L - 15.6 19.2
TSS, mg/L 9 21 14
TDS, mg/L - 3256 4258
Oil & grease, mg/L - - 31.4
Total Coliform,
- 140x103 >1600x103
Fecal Coliform,
- 90x103 >1600x103

Table 3. Laboratory results for sample point 3

Sample point 3
11 Dec 31 Jan 01 Mar
Time collected 11:07 am 9:46 am 10:16 am
Floodwater depth, m 1.05 0.90 0.93
Temperature, °C 27.4 27.9 27.2
Temperature (ambient) 28.1 28.5 33.0
Temperature rise 0 0.5 -0.7
Conductivity, μS 3.1 5.0 7.3
Turbidity, NTU 4 3 14
Color, PCU 60 35 177
pH 6.50 7.63 7.70
DO, mg/L 7.4 2.4 4.4
BOD5, mg/L - 29.4 22.8
TSS, mg/L 6 28 31
TDS, mg/L - 3106 4414
Oil & grease, mg/L - - 44.8
Total Coliform,
- >1600x103 >1600x103
Fecal Coliform,
- >1600x103 >1600x103

Effects of hot climate are very evident in the results. Water depth has decreased by 1 meter which may
have caused increased concentration of pollutants which was apparent in the increase of turbidity, TSS,
TDS, conductivity and color during the sampling in March. Algae production must also have proliferated
as suggested by the green color of filtered suspended solids.

Coliform count was also found to be highest at point 3, which is the residential area. This must be
explained of having no proper sanitary measures of other residents of Artex. Some do not have proper
septic tank and they directly throw their wastes into the floodwater.

5.2 Floodwater Classification

Water can be categorized into fresh water and marine water. Salt/marine water can be further categorized
based on Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) amount as brackish, highly brackish, saline, seawater and brine.
Water classification based on TDS amount is in Table 4 below.

Table 4. Water classification based on TDS

Water Total Dissolved Solids
Classification (ppm)
Fresh water <1,000
Brackish 1,000 – 5,000
Highly brackish 5,000 – 15,000
Saline 15,000 – 30,000
Sea water 30,000 – 40,000
Brine >40,000

Based from the laboratory results, the TDS value ranges from 3,000 – 4,500 ppm. This means that the
floodwater in ArtexCompound falls under the category of brackish water.
In addition to that, according to DAO 34“water which serve its purpose for recreational (i.e. boating) and
fishing activities class II must be classified under class C or SC.” Thus, floodwater was classified as class

Table 5. Comparison with DAO 34 Class SC

Max, min values Std. value (DA) 34

1 2 3 Class SC)
8.16, 7.70,
pH 7.89, 6.70 6.0-9.0 Passed
6.61 6.50
DO, mg/L 6.9, 4.5 5.7, 2.9 5 Failed
15.6, 29.4,
BOD5, mg/L 19.2, 15.6 7-10 Failed
12.0 22.8
13.00, 30.90, <30 mg/L
TSS, mg/L 21.00, 9.00 Passed
4.50 6.00 increase
4454, 4414,
TDS, mg/L 4258, 3256 - -
3220 3106
Oil & grease,
52.60 31.40 44.80 3 Failed
Total Coliform, 80x103, 1600x
140x103 5000 Failed
MPN/100mL 170x103 103
Fecal Coliform, 80x103, 1600x
90x103 - -
MPN/100mL 220x103 103

5.3 Heavy Metals Analysis

Based from the study conducted by Briones, et al., concentrations of Pb in the leaves of kangkong is
caused by the lead-laden dust in the environment from air-borne emissions of a nearby noodle factory
(Bassuk). It is emphasized that the metal detected in the kangkong leaves were due to the environment and
not to the adsorption of the latter from the floodwater.

5.4 Strategies on Designing Floodwater Treatment Facility

In designing the treatment facility, there were a lot of factors considered such as the target beneficiary of
the facility, site specifications, construction cost, and investment return scheme and technology

The treatment facility directly benefitted 150 families residing in Artex Compound, residents of Barangay
Panghulo and from other nearby areas suffering from inadequate supply of water.

The proposed floodwater treatment facility was limited to an area of 160 m2 due to availability of land and
cost of the construction.

Construction cost and expected benefit or returns from the facility were also considered.

Aside from the chosen Hybrid design, other alternative technologies were considered as shown in Table 6

Table 6. Evaluation of Alternative Technologies

Capital Land
Types of Technology Monthly Remarks
Cost Requirements
ABR/SBR HYBRID $130,000 $500 160 m2 Most Applicable (Selected)
LAGOON $80,000 $175 2000 m2 Large area requirement
Large area requirement with
CONSTRUCTED additional pre-treatment devices
$120,000 $175 1500 m2
WETLANDS to reduce high-strength of
expensive and long-term
ACTIVATED SLUDGE $200,000 $700 160 m2 operation and maintenance
systems requirement
rotating biological contractor
TRICKLING FILTER $200,000 $700 160 m2 (RBC)13 could not be
effectively installed
Exchange rate used: US$1 = Php 51.5

5.4.1 Innovations

Certain innovations were introduced in the design of the proposed floodwater treatment facility. These
were the use of ABR-SBR Hybrid System and Cocopeat Filtration as the main components of secondary
and tertiary treatment.

ABR-SBR (Anaerobic baffled reactor-sequence batch reactor) Hybrid System combines the effectiveness
of bothmethods without the use of costly and complicated equipments. This method introduces the use of
the oxygen-activated bacteria that consumes most of the organic compounds in the wastewater. In contrast
to the water treatment employed by using Sequence Batch Reactor or SBR, it takes less time for the
Hybrid System to treat the water since the mixing and aeration of the sludge and wastewater are done
simultaneously in every compartment.

CocopeatFiltrationis an emerging alternative for costly filtration systems. It was proven to be effective in
reducing the amount of heavy metals such as arsenic, cadmium and lead as well as the total suspended and
dissolved compounds in the water. In the proposed facility, stacks of rolled cocopeat will be used to
maximize the surface area, hence maximizing its efficiency.

5.4.1 Sketch of Floodwater Treatment Facility

Shown below are the sketches of the proposed floodwater treatment facility in ArtexCopmound.

Figure 2.Isometric views of Floodwater Treatment Facility

5.4.2 Schematic Diagram of Filtration

Shown in Figure 3 is the schematic diagram of the filtration process which the floodwater will undergo.

Figure 3. Schematic Diagram of Filtration Process

The treatment facility operates 24 hours, 7 day a week and is generally used by the residents of the
compound and nearby neighbors. The floodwater trapped in the area is diverted to a holding tank which I
connected to the treatment facility. During the treatment, the floodwater will undergo several steps where
the waste is screened and clarified to be able to meet the Philippines National Standards for Chemical and
Acceptability Quality.
5.5 Economic Analysis

5.5.1 Project Rationale

The proposed project addresses the need for the government to make further actions regarding water
crisis, and at the same time, improvement of flood reduction plan especially in Metro Manila area. With
this project, it has a potential to answer the problem of water supply and flood water dilemma which
always have been a burden during rainy seasons, particularly in Artex Compound in Malabon. Aside from
proposals and already existing yet inadequate drainages, river channel floodways as solutions to the flood

water problem, this project poses another feasible way, using other advanced structural measures, to
remedy the extreme volume of flood water.

Public sectors in the government such as Water supply, Sanitation, and Waste Management can partake in
this endeavor to minimize water shortage as it poses opportunities for these sectors to help manage and
maintain this project. Water quality can be guaranteed by the Sanitation and approved by Health,
Nutrition and Social Protection. Private sectors can also take part by investing in this proposed project.

The main alternative to the project is to increase water conservation. Recycle and reuse water especially in
the household. Promote better use and protection of water resources. The groundwater has becoming
depleted and contaminated which risks the only source of freshwater.
Efficiency improvements on water utilities have been identified from the ongoing projects addressing the
water scarcity. There have been improvements on water pipelines for better water access and service. On
the other hand, capacity expansions of water supply might not be an answer to water scarcity. For an
instance, Angat Dam is not in its full capacity since water level has been lower than it critical level. Water
level is continually lowering because of too much demand and because of water drought.

5.5.2 Macroeconomics and sectoral context

In a macroeconomic context, this project relates to the overall strategy of the government for water
resources planning and development. Water supply is one of the sub-components of the water planning
and development project of the government along with irrigation, hydropower, flood control, pollution,
watershed management, and etc. Various government agencies are in-charge in most of water resources
programs and projects in the country.

This project can be a sectoral strategy of the government for addressing the water shortage in our
particular area of interest. Since the area of interest, Artex Compound in Malabon is a flood-prone area,
this project is just applicable to be a plan of action by making use of the floodwater trapped in the area as
a source of water supply. If in case, our project becomes a success, expansion within the whole Malabon
area will be considered.

5.5.3 Demand Analysis

The basis for projecting the demand for project output includes the individuals or consumers who are
experiencing the problems addressed by our project, specifically water shortage problem. In this proposed
project, this is not profit-driven but for self-sustenance of Artex compound in Malabon which usually
experience water shortage and high level of flood water. Demand for water might not be highly affected
since water is a basic commodity. Even supply gets lower; demand is not affected and changing. Other
sources of supply for meeting the demands include the existing water reservoirs such as Angat Dam and
other product alternatives.

5.5.4 Identification, Quantification and Valuation of Costs and Benefits

This proposed construction of floodwater treatment facility aims to alleviate the problem of water
shortage. If it is implemented, many families within the affected area will surely benefit. First and
foremost, there will an adequate and safe water supply for the residents. Second, water pumps will no
longer be used to extract groundwater. Residents will be able to allocate their saved money for their other
expenses because of having cheaper water supply yet safe quality of water. Floodwater level will decrease
and hopefully the area will no longer be submerged in flood. If by chance it happens, residents no longer
need to paddle their way out through the flood when going to school or work. Health risks including
dengue fever or water-borne disease will also be prevented. The vegetation within the neighbourhood will
also be improved. All of these will not be achieved if the current situation still prevails.

Without the project, there is no need for the government to change the protocols and management plan for
the mitigation of the water shortage issue, hence saving their efforts and time. There is also no need for
them to allocate budget that will be used for this which will come from the tax of the people. They can
save it for more important projects. The delays caused by the construction such as heavy traffic will also
be avoided. However for the people, the implementation of the project will be a big help. There will be
enough water to maintain the cleanliness of the surroundings, the house and their hygiene.

One of the benefits that can be quantified is cost reduction of water supply and service since water supply
is already in-situ in the area of interest of this proposed project.

Construction costs for the floodwater treatment facility was estimated to reach around 6.7 M. Monthly
expenditures for the operation of the facility were approximated to Php. 24,000 for the salary of 4
employees (to cover monitoring operations and maintenance) and Php. 15,000 for electric cost.
Technology used, which is the combination of ABR and SBR will cot around 5.59 M and its maintenance
was estimated to reach around Php. 21,500 monthly.

To recover the expenses from the construction of the facility, it will be implemented in the Artex
Compound and other residents who will be served by this facility, of a “user fee collection scheme”. The
residents will have to pay P1.00 for every 50 gallons of water. Table 7 shows the results of the cost-
benefit analysis of the project. A cash flow diagram is shown in Figure 4.

Table 8 below illustrates the comparison of expenses of buying water from NAWASA versus the treated
water provided by the proposed water treatment facility.

Table 7. Cost-Benefit Analysis

Facility land area (m2) 160
Output volume (m3) 2500
Monthly Yearly
Construction cost 6.7 M

O&M of facility
Salary (P6000/month x 4 workers) P24, 000.00 P288, 000.00
Electric Cost P15, 000.00 P180, 000.00

ABR/SBR Hybrid 5.59 M
O&M of ABR/SBR Hybrid P21, 500.00 P258, 000.00

User fee
(P1.00/50 gal) P396, 258.00 P4, 755, 096.00

Figure 4.Cashflow Diagram

Project life: 25 years
Interest rate (projected): 5%
Net Present Worth: Php. 45 086 461.00

Table 8. Comparison of Expenses for Water Consumption with and without the proposed Floodwater
Treatment Facility

no. of households 180

daily monthly yearly
*without treatment facility
crude oil for pumping out water (drum) 4 48
crude oil cost (P) 32614.40 391372.80
water consumption (gal) 15.85 475.5 5706
water consumption cost (P) 12.50 375.00 4500.00
total water consumption (gal) 2853 85590 1027080
total water consumption cost (P) 2250.00 67500.00 810000.00
total cost (P) 100114.40 1201372.80

*treated water from facility

water consumption cost (P) 45.00 1350.00 16200.00

Figure 5. Graph of Water Consumption Comparison with and without the project

Interest rate, i 0.05
projected life (years) 25
NPW (w/o treatment facility), Php 16932081.65
NPW (w/ treatment facility), Php 228321.902


6.1 Project Description

This proposed project of floodwater treatment will provide solutions to water related issues due to scarcity
and/or lack of access to clean water. This project includes measures to ease shortages of water for
municipal use and will reduce dependence on groundwater resources.

The proposed project involves the construction of a treatment facility where the raw water would be
collected and conveyed. It is an innovative wastewater treatment facility using technologies such as
anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR) and sequencing batch reactor (SBC) and filtration system to treat
available flood and sewage water from the market into discharge standards for domestic and household

6.2 Baseline Environmental Conditions

The ecological and environmental aspects presented in this report pertain to the geology, land use,
hydrology, water quality, biology, vegetation and socio-economic setting of the project site.

A. Physical Environment

1. Geography

Malabon is located at the northern part of Metro Manila with an area of 1,571.40 has which is
approximately 2.5% of the total land area of the latter. Its borders consist of the following: Caloocan
City (south), Navotas City (west), Valezuela (north), and Obando (northwest). Malabon is
characterized by flat plains with an average elevation of 17 meters. The Artex Compound, Bautista
St., Barangay Panghulo, Malabon is an 8.5 hectare property and 1 hectare of it was intended for the
workers of the Yupangco Textile Mill Inc. during the 1980’s.Artex Compound is a low-lying area
wherein it became a catch basin of flood during heavy rains.

Figure 6.Google Map location of Artex Compound, Bgry.Panghulo, Malabon

2. Demography

Malabon is composed of 21 barangays. The whole area is a combination of commercial districts,

residential neighborhoods, and gated communities where a population of approximately 338,855 is
residing. Artex Compound houses more than 150 families, most of whom were originally workers
from the closed factory/

3. Hydrology

Malabon is predominantly composed of 11 rivers extending to its boundaries. Out of the 21

barangays, 7 are affected by high tide, 2 are flooded during heavy rain, and 5 barangays are affected
by both high tide and heavy rainfall. Depending on the location, the level of water during floods
varies from 0.25 meters to more than 2 meters, especially during heavy downpour.

4. Water Quality

The water quality of the area is poor due to leakage of flood through pipes and garbage clogging the
waterways caused by improper waste disposal of informal settlers inhabiting the riversides. In Artex
Compound, it has been found out that the supply of water from NAWASA is unfit for drinking due to
presence of E.coli.

5. Air Quality

Due to polluting industries present such as the nearby noodle factory, the air quality of the area is at

B. Biological Environment

1. Terrestrial Flora and Fauna

Most of the land area of Malabon is occupied by residential and industrial facilities. Due to
constant flooding, it becomes very difficult for the exposed residents to take care of plants and
animals. However some areas, although minimal, are still abundant in flora and fauna. Take note
that Malabon is famous for its Malabon Zoo.

2. Aquatic Ecology

Because of the pollution in Manila Bay and the rivers of Malabon, the quality of the saltwater
coming from them is no longer suitable for growing bangus. Also, because of Malabon's
proximity to Manila, the increase in the value of land now makes it more viable to turn fishponds
into residential or commercial land.

C. Socio-Cultural, Economic and Political Environment

Approximately 160 sq. meters is anticipated to be covered by the facility to be built. The development
of the proposed project will have an impact to barangays within the City of Malabon, especially the
Artex Compound. During the site inspection, residents of Artex Compound were interviewed. They
were actually open for proposals of improvement since the area was considered already as area for
improvement and development.

D. Environmental Management Plan

Mitigation Measures Location Responsibility
A. Construction Phase
Loss of Topsoil Stripping and storing topsoil prior to All Contractor
construction and reusing it for construction
rehabilitation sites
Rehabilitation of Sand and coarse aggregate will be used All Contactor
borrow areas for project activities. In other cases, construction
erosion will be minimized by regular sites
rehabilitation of areas not in use for
project activities during construction.
Rehabilitation will include:
- Immediate revegetation using fast-
growing species to keep soil in place
- Installation of sediment runoff control
- Erosion and revegetation monitoring

Soil Contamination Installation of soil separators at Material Contractor

washdown and refueling areas, and storage areas
secondary containment at fuel storage
Disposal of excess Use of excavated rock and aggregates in Spoil areas Contractor
excavated materials construction, while the spoils will be
from construction deposited in areas with minimum
activities landslide potential, layered and covered
with soil, and planted with tress, shrubs,
and grasses.

Water Quality

Disposal of sewage Waste water discharge during Work camps, Contractor
construction phase will consists of construction
wastewater effluent discharge from the camps
work camps.
All wastewater will be treated to comply
with the Effluent Standards.
There will be no direct discharge of
untreated sanitary waste to surface
Truck and other vehicle maintenance
will be strictly controlled to prevent
discharge of waste oil.
Wastewater from Wastewater contains high concentration Work camps, Contractor
construction works of suspended solids which pollute the construction
body of water. sites
Installation of sedimentation tanks for
the treatment of wastewater from sand
and gravel washing.
Reuse of treated effluent In coarse
aggregate washing while residual
dewatered sludge may be transported to
waste disposal area.
Air Quality
Generation of Dust Regular water sprinkling of areas prone to All Contractor
dust emission particularly during dry and construction
windy conditions. sites, access
Adopt wet approach in aggregate screening roads
process and mix concrete in closed
integrated mixing equipment.
Erect clear warning signs for vehicles slow
Paving of exposed parts of service roads,
particularly through populated communities.
Provide protective gadgets such as
respirators to workers.
Noise Impacts Install clear warning signs. All blasting Contractor
Enforce ban on nighttime blasting. sites
Install vibration isolation facilities to high
noise-generating equipment and on-site
sound barriers around concrete mixing
Noise mitigation measures for noise impacts
on construction workers will include
standards for occupational health and safety
practices such as ear protection and
enforcement of exposure duration

Solid Waste
Solid Waste Segregation of domestic waste from All Contractor
construction waste. construction
Regular disposal to a designated waste sites
storage area.

Temporary land use Vegetation will be removed at the All Contractor
and excavation will construction sites. All work should be construction
cause removal or carried out in a manner such that damage or sites
relocation of tress disruption to vegetation is minimized. After
and other vegetation completion of construction activities,
as well as changes of temporary occupied areas should be
land functions. revegetated.
Disturbance to wild Provision of environmental training on Entire project Contractor,
animals from environmental management issues. cycle Project Head
construction Deployment of environmental protection with
activities, forcing guards and imposing fines for illegal coordination
them to migrate to activities. with DENR-
other places FMB
Changes in the lives Design and implementation of a Land Water Project Head
of affected Acquisition and Resettlement Action Plan treatment
communities due to Plant
land acquisition and
Public Health and safety
Epidemics and Enhance hygiene and sanitation at the
infectious diseases construction camps. Health checks and
among construction awareness should be provided regularly
workers for disease prevention. Clinic facilities
should also be provided within the
construction sites.
Safety hazard to the Provide warning barriers and signage All Contractor
general public construction

E. Estimated Cost of EIA

1. Conduct of EIA
1.1 Site scoping, public consultation, and public hearing 5,000
1.2 Environmental sampling and study 10,000
1.2.1 Survey of land uses and ownership
1.2.2 Flora and fauna 5,000
1.2.3 Engineering geological and geohazard assessment report 10,000
1.2.4 Survey of water use 5,000
1.2.5 Air and noise quality 5,000
1.2.6 Other supplemental environmental sampling
that may be required by DENR 20,000
1.3 ECC Application and DENR review 50,000
1.3.1 DENR filing and processing fee and review fund 50,000
1.3.2 Travel and transportation expenses 5,000
1.3.3 Other incidental expenses 5,000

1.4 EIS consultancy 20,000

TOTAL Php 190,000

F. Type of agreements or guarantees that will ensure the realization of such programs
The construction of the proposed wastewater treatment facility will be done by the City of Malabon
together with its City Engineer’s Office, Malabon Central Development Cooperative and City Planning
and Development Office with expert guidance from United States Agency for International Development,
Planning and Development Collaborative International Inc. (PADCO) and National Water Resources
Board (Philippines), a water industry under Department of Environment and Natural Resources that is
responsible for ensuring optimum utilization, development, conservation and preservation of the country’s
water resources.

Artex Compound and Malabon will sign a Memorandum of Agreement (MOA) with USAID specifying
their responsibilities from planning to operation and maintenance of the project.The City Government
spearheaded by their municipal mayor in cooperation will be the one to develop the project design,
advocacy campaign, fund the construction, and monitor the operation facility, shoulder construction and
labor costs of the employees. PADCO in cooperation with USAID and NWRB will be the ones to provide
technical assistance to Malabon in the initial plan, design and construction of the proposed treatment
facility, and provide expert assistance on the selection of the appropriate technology. During construction,
Artex Compound and then the Malabon City submit a report of the developments and future plans to the
Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR).


The proposed floodwater treatment facility as projected to operate for 25 years ensures that there will be
sufficient supply of clean water to the residents of Brgy. Panghulo, specifically Artex Compound.In
addition, the residents would only have to pay Php. 1.00 per 50 gallons of water instead of Php 1.25 per
gallon which will lessen their financial burdens given that these families belong to the middle class

Aside from having a low-cost supply of water, extreme volume of floodwater in the area will also be
remedied. As stated in the economic analysisthat the daily operation of the facility will extract 2500 cubic
meters from the stagnant flood water in Artex Compound, it is expected that it will take 2 months of
continuous operation to fully empty the flood, assuming that within this span of time there will be no
significant raise in the level of water.


We recommended for further improvements the consideration of the months thatthe vicinity is
experiencing drought, meaning, all the floodwater were extracted, and the months that there are typhoons
and heavy rains that will cause great increase in the level of water that our facility cannot accommodate.

We also recommend the conceptualization of a piping plan that will collect the waste and flood water
from its sources and distribute the treated water to the households in the most efficient way.


1. Case Study on Water and Sanitation for the Poor done by the organization of United Nations
Economic and Social Commission for Asia and Pacific entitled, “Pro-poor Water and Wastewater
Management in Small Towns”.
2. Briones, et al (April 2010). “A Study on the Evaluation of KangkongGrown on Floodwater of Artex
Compound in Malabon”.
3. WasteWater System: Anaerobic Baffled Reactors (ABR); Retrieved from
http://www.wastewatersystem.net/2009/10/anaerobic-baffled-reactors-abr.html, on February 28.
4. Biological Processes, batch reactor process (sbr water treatment) with decanter: AquaExcel; Retrieved
from http://www.aqua-aerobic.com/aquaExcel.asp# on February 28.
5. Sequential Batch Reactor (SBR); Retrieved from http://www.thewatertreatments.com/waste-water-
treatment-filtration-purify-sepration-sewage/sequential-batch-reactor-sbr on February 28.
6. Biolytix :: BioPod at Work; Retrieved from
http://www.biolytix.co.nz/commercial/technology/how_the_biopod_works/ on February 28.