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CAPE COAST POLYTECHNIC

SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING

CIVIL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

COMPARING THE COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF CONCRETE


UTILIZING NATURAL POZZOLANA AS A PARTIAL
REPLACEMENT OF ORDINARY PORTLAND CEMENT IN
CONCRETE PRODUCTION

BY

ASARE OSEI SAMUEL


(02/07/0012/D/CVE)

ODOOM ANTHONY
(02/07/0029/D/CVE)

A PROJECT WORK SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE AWARD


OF CERTIFICATE IN HIGHER NATIONAL DIPLOMA (HND) IN CIVIL
ENGINEERING.

JUNE, 2010.
TABLE OF CONTENT

CONTENT PAGE

Declaration i

Certification ii

Dedication iii

Acknowledgement iv

List of Tables v

List of Figures vi

Abstract vii

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 introduction 1

1.1 Purpose of the study 1

1.2 statement of the problem 3

1.3 aim of the study 4

1.4 project objectives 4

1.5 significance 4

1.6 scope of the study 5

CHAPTER TWO

2.0 literature review 6

2.1 introduction 6

2.2 background 8

2.3 materials 12

2.3.1 Cement 12

2.3.2 Aggregate 14

2.4 concrete production 15


2.4.1 Proportioning and mixing concrete 16

2.4.2 Conveying 16

2.4.3 Placing 17

2.4.4 Curing 18

2.4.4.1 Curing methods 19

2.4.4.1.1 water cure 19

2.4.4.1.2 Water retaining method 19

2.4.4.1.3 Waterproof paper or plastic film seal 19

2.4.4.1.4 Chemical membranes 19

2.5 quality control 20

2.5.1 Slump test 21

2.5.2 Compaction factor test 22

2.6 pozzolana 23

2.6.1 Engineering properties of pozzolana 28

2.6.1.1 Fineness 28

2.6.1.2 Pozzolanic activity (chemical composition and mineralogy) 28

2.6.1.3 Loss on ignition 28

2.6.1.4 Moisture content 29

2.6.1.5 Workability 29

2.6.1.6 Time of setting 29

2.6.1.7 Bleeding 29

2.6.1.8 Pumpability 29

2.6.1.9 Strength development 29

2.6.1.10 Heat of hydration 30

2.6.1.11 Permeability 30

2.6.1.12 Resistance to freeze-thaw 30

2.6.1.13 Sulphate resistance 31


2.6.1.14 Alkali-silica reactivity 31

2.6.2 Advantages of the natural pozzolan 32

2.6.2.1 Litification 32

2.6.2.2 Autogenously healing 32

2.6.2.3 Reduced permeability and voids 32

2.6.2.4 Reduces expansion and heat of hydration 32

2.6.2.5 Reduces creep and cracks 33

2.6.2.6 Reduces microcracking 33

2.6.2.7 Increases compressive strength 33

2.6.2.8 Increases resistance to chloride attack 33

2.6.2.9 Increases resistance to sulphate attack 33

2.6.2.10 reduces alkali-aggregate reaction 34

2.6.2.11 protects steel reinforcement from corrosion 34

2.6.2.12 increases abrasion resistance 34

2.6.2.13 lowers water requirement with high fluidity, 34


Self-levelling and compression
2.6.2.14 improves durability 34
2.7 design considerations 35

2.7.1mix design 35

CHAPTER THREE

3.0 methodology 37

3.1 introduction 37

3.2 data collection 37

3.3 desk study 37

3.4 mix proportion 37

3.5 casting and curing 38


3.6 test procedures 38

3.6.1 Slump test 38

3.6.2 Setting times 38

3.6.3 Compressive strength 38

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0 Data Presentation and Analysis 39

4.1 Silt Test Results and Analysis 39

4.2 Properties of Fresh Concrete 44

4.2.1 Slump Test 44

4.2.2 Compaction Factor Test 47

4.3 Compressive Strength 56

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0 Conclusion and Recommendations 63

5.1 Conclusion 63

5.2 Recommendations 64

References 65

Appendices 66
DECLARATION

We the undersigned declare that this project work is the result of our own investigation
carried out on assessing the properties of concrete cubes utilizing natural pozzolana as a
partial replacement under the supervision of Mr Emmanuel Nana Jackson of Cape Coast
Polytechnic.

Name Signature Date

SAMUEL OSEI ASARE nanakwame 2nd July, 2010

ANTHONY ODOOM anthony odoom 2nd July, 2010

i
CERTIFICATION

The appendix signature certifies that this project is an original work undertaken and presented
in accordance with the regulation governing the preparation and presentation of a project
work in cape coast polytechnic for acceptance of dissertation entitle study to assess the
properties of concrete cubes utilizing natural pozzolana as a partial replacement

This report is submitted by SAMUEL OSEI ASARE (02/07/0012/D/CVE) and ANTHONY


ODOOM (02/07/0029/D/CVE) to the department of civil engineering in partial fulfilment of
the requirement for the award of higher national diploma (HND) in Civil Engineering.

nana kackson 2nd July, 2010

Mr Emmanuel Nana Jackson date


(Supervisor)

ii
DEDICATION

This project work is dedicated to the almighty God and the department of Civil Engineering,
Cape Coast Polytechnic.

iii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

Acknowledgement is due to the department of Civil Engineering, Cape Coast Polytechnic for
the use of the laboratory for the purpose of this work.
The investigators would also like to thank Mr Emmanuel Nana Jackson for his dedication and
assistance with the entire work as well to our families for their financial and morale support
and to all those who contributed immensely to the success of this work especially to Mr
Nathan Kofi Kakra Asare, (Sonitra Ghana), Mr Daniel Kofi Panyin Asare (MTN Ghana Ltd),
madam Felicia Adu, Evelyn Essel and to Madam Cecielia Mensah, Madam Veronica Odum,
and Michael Odoom.

The investigators are thankful to all staff of The Civil Engineering Department, Cape Coast
Polytechnic for their assistance in diverse ways for the successful completion of this project.

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LIST OF TABLES
Table 2.1: chemical and physical analysis of cement 13

Table 4.1: Results of obtained from silt test conducted sand sample 39

Table 4.2: Mix proportion details 40

Table 4.3: Results of grading test for coarse aggregate 41

Table 4.4: Results of grading test for fine aggregate 42

Table 4.5: Slump properties of fresh concrete 45

Table 4.6: Results of Compaction factor test of concrete incorporating pozzolan 46

Table 4.7: Detail results of Compressive strength of concrete grade 20 at all ages 48

Table 4.8: compressive strength incorporating pozzolan at all ages of test 56

Table 4.9: A one sampe statistics standard deviation and standard error 61
mean for various concrete from 7 -28 days

Table 4.10: 95% Confidence Interval of the Difference for Various Concrete 61
From 7 -28 Days

Table 4.11: A Correlation Matrix for Various Concrete From 7 -28 Days 63

Table 4.12: An Explanation of the Total Variance of Concrete From 7 -28 Days 64

v
LIST OF FIGURES

Fig. 4.1: Grading curve for coarse aggregate 41

Fig. 4.2: Grading curve for fine aggregate 43


Fig. 4.3 Effect of pozzolanic material on the slump of concrete 45

Fig. 4.4: Effect of pozzolanic material on the compaction factor of 46


concrete

Fig. 4.5: Effect of pozzolanic replacement on the compressive 58


strength of concrete at 7days

Fig. 4.6: Effect of pozzolanic replacement on the compressive 58


strength of concrete at 14 days

Fig. 4.7: Effect of pozzolanic replacement on the compressive 59


strength of concrete at 21 days

Fig. 4.8: Effect of pozzolanic replacement on the compressive 59


strength of concrete at 28 days

Fig. 4.9: Effect of pozzolanic replacement on the compressive 60


strength of concrete at all ages

Fig. 4.10: line diagram illustrating the effect of pozzolanic replacement 60


on the compressive Strength of concrete at all ages

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RÉSUMÉ

Naturelles matériau pouzzolanique est disponible en sacs de 50kg de la construction et


l'institut de recherche routière (BRRI) au Ghana. Ce projet de recherche avait pour but l'étude
préliminaire de la performance du béton en utilisant le matériau naturel pouzzolanique.
Le matériau de la pouzzolane BRRI a été constituée dans le béton pour remplacer le ciment
partielle d'étudier les effets du niveau de remplacement sur le développement de la résistance
à la compression du béton à différents âges. Facteur Slump et le compactage du béton frais
ont également été mesurées.

Les résultats montrent que l'inclusion de pouzzolanes naturelles dans le béton pour remplacer
le ciment partielle ne nuit pas à des propriétés du béton frais. Son incorporation dans le béton
a augmenté de manière significative la résistance à la compression à tous les âges pour le
mélange de remplacement de pouzzolane 30% par rapport à d'autres mélanges. Une
augmentation de la force moyenne de 1,1 MPa a été enregistré à partir du test
Cependant remplacement partiel des mélanges de 70%, 60% et 80% de pouzzolane n'a pas
atteint la résistance de calcul de 20 N/mm2. Résistance à la compression et les essais
maniabilité suggéré que la pouzzolane, pourrait être remplacé par du ciment Portland jusqu'à
30% dans la fabrication de béton sans perte de maniabilité ou de force.

Afin d'améliorer le développement de la résistance, la réactivité pouzzolanique des


pouzzolanes pourrait être sensiblement améliorée / modifiée en utilisant un ou une
combinaison de plusieurs méthodes de traitement. Cependant, toutes les méthodes peut être
possible d'atteindre le niveau optimal. Par conséquent, il est fortement recommandé que,
outre employant diverses méthodes de traitement, l'applicabilité de faisabilité et pratiques de
chaque méthode doit être étudié en détail.

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ABSTRACT
Natural pozzolanic material is available in bags of 50kg from the building and road research
institute (BRRI) in Ghana. This research project was aimed preliminary study of the
performance of concrete utilizing the natural pozzolanic material.

The pozzolan material from the BRRI was incorporated in concrete as partial cement
replacement to study the effects of replacement level on the compressive strength
development of concrete at various ages. Slump and compaction factor of fresh concrete were
also measured.

The results show that the inclusion of natural pozzolana in the concrete as partial cement
replacement was not detrimental to for the properties of fresh concrete. Its incorporation in
the concrete increased the compressive strength significantly at all ages for the replacement
mix of 30% pozzolana as compared to other mixes. An average strength increase of 1.1 Mpa
was recorded from the test

However Partial replacement mixes of 70%, 60% and 80% pozzolana did not attain the
design strength of 20 N/mm2 . Compressive strength and workability tests suggested that
pozzolan, could be substituted for Portland cement at up to 30% in the manufacture of
concrete with no loss in workability or strength.

In order to enhance the strength development, the pozzolanic reactivity of pozzolans could be
significantly improved/modified by using one or a combination of several treatment methods.
However, not all methods may be feasible to achieve the optimum level. Therefore, it is
strongly recommended that, besides employing various treatment methods, the feasibility and
practical applicability of each method needs to be investigated in details.

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CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION

1.1 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY

Manufacturing of Portland cement requires high energy and releases a very large amount of
green-house gases to the atmosphere; approximately 13,500 million tonnes is produced from
this process worldwide, which accounts for 7% of the green house gas produced annually
[Sumrerng Rukzon, 2009].

The use of pozzolana, especially waste pozzolana, to replace part of Portland cement is
therefore receiving a lot of attention. Historically, Pozzolans are named after the volcanic
additives used in mortar by the Romans.

Pozzolans are fine materials containing silica and/or alumina and while they do not have any
cementing properties of their own, in the presence of calcium oxide (CaO) or Calcium
Hydroxide (Ca(OH2), silica and alumina in the pozzolana reacts and form cementitious
material.

Ash from some agricultural by-products such as rice husk ash, bagasse ash and palm oil fuel
ash have been shown to be good Pozzolan.

Their uses are receiving more attention now since the properties of the blended cement
concrete using them are generally improved. In addition, they can also save the cost of
construction materials and reduce the negative environmental effects.

Palm oil fuel ash is one promising Pozzolans and is available in many parts of the world. It is
a by-product obtained from a small power plant, which uses the palm fibre, shells and empty
fruit bunches as fuels which are burnt at 800-1000°C. The main chemical composition of
palm oil fuel ash is silica, which is the main ingredient of pozzolanic material.

At present, palm oil fuel ash is sent to landfill which is a problem for all power plants
because it has not been proven useful yet and treated as a waste.

The use of pozzolana to replace part of Portland cement improves durability of concrete
through the pore refinement and the reduction of calcium hydroxide in the cement paste

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matrix. Resistance to chloride penetration, acid solution attack, and sulphate attack of the
concrete containing Pozzolan is generally enhanced. The other important property, which
also influences the performance of concrete, is carbonation in steel reinforcement. The
ingress of carbon dioxide into the cement matrix results in a reduction in the ability of the
cement matrix to protect the steel reinforcement as the passive layer at the surface of the
reinforcing bars is destroyed. The carbonation is usually severe in the high carbon dioxide
environment and in the relatively dry or indoor environment of 50-60% relative humility
(RH). In particular when thin concrete sections, such as slabs and thin walls, are involved, the
concrete covering of steel reinforcements is small and protection of the steel reinforcement
by the cement matrix against penetration of carbon dioxide is much reduced. Although paint
and other surface covering of concrete surface can help reduce the carbonation, the modern
designs using dare concrete surfaces are often preferred.
The use of these agricultural by-products ashes as Pozzolan usually requires grinding to
produce relatively fine Pozzolana. Their use reduces the bulk density of the concrete
products, as their specific gravity is usually around 2.0-2.3, which is much lower than the
overall 3.15 of Portland cement. Other advantages are that the product is less stiff, which
gives better performance in terms of noise absorption and fire resistance [Sumrerng Rukzon,
2009]. The application of these materials in concrete for indoor use is therefore very
attractive. The fineness of the Pozzolan is known to have a large influence on the properties
of concrete through increase in the packaging effect and pozzolanic activity thus ultimately
improves the durability of the matrix through pore refinement and reduced Ca (OH) 2. The
parameter used to quantify this is the Blaine number, a surface area measurement that has
been used since the 1940s to determine cement quality.

Cement is responsible for 7% of the world’s total emission of CO 2, which is a major green
house gas implicated in global warming. The addition of industrial waste and natural
resources such as slag, fly ash, silica fume or natural pozzolana to cement during
manufacturing contributes to a decrease in energy consumption and the amount of CO 2
released into the air. Hence, low cost environmental friendly cement is obtained. Also, when
used as a concrete admixture, the amorphous silica present in these additives combined with
the calcium hydroxide liberated during the hydration of cement in concrete to form additional
cementitious compound, namely calcium silicate hydrate (CSH). The resultant binder matrix
is more chemically resistant by virtue of its denser microscopic pore structure.

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A large number of studies have shown that different additions, when used as partial cement
replacement materials in mortar and concrete have many advantages but also some
disadvantages. [Nehdi, 2001].

It should be possible, by the systematic adjustment of the proportions to produce ternary


blended cement (OPC-NP-SF) which utilizes the desirable characteristics of one addition
which compensating for the undesirable characteristic of the other. For example, SF increase
the low early strength caused by the inclusion of NPJ and the NP decrease the high water
demand of SF. On the other hand, the best combined of these mineral additions, can lead to
excellent durability [Sumrerng Rukzon, 2009].

The objective of this research work is to access the strengths and durability of concrete using
a mixture of ordinary Portland cement and natural pozzolana. The result could be beneficial
to the understanding of the mechanism involve as well as future applications of these
materials in the construction industry based on the strengths and durability of concrete.

1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

The requirement for high durability concrete structures exposed to harsh environment such as
seafloors, offshore structures, tunnels, highway bridges, sewage pipes etc. cannot be easily
achieved using Ordinary Portland Cement. The phenomenon of the widespread deterioration
of concrete structures during the past two decades has become a matter of global concern.
The issue of ensuring long-term durability of concrete structures has therefore assumed great
importance.

As a result, new materials and composites are being investigated and improved cements are
produced. The present state of the art in concrete research has demonstrated the benefits of
pozzolanic materials as partial replacement. In addition, the use of pozzolanic materials
conserves energy and has environmental benefits as a result of the reduced use of cement (the
production of which is associated with high carbon dioxide emission).

Pozzolanic materials are divided into natural and by-product materials. By-product materials
are fly ash, slag and silica fumes whereas natural pozzolanic material is obtained from
volcanic rocks.

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Since the past decade the use of pozzolanic materials in concrete is gaining impetus because
of its benefits. Most of the research has been concentrated on by-product pozzolanic materials
and little effort was dedicated to natural pozzolanic materials,

Regarding Ghana’s natural pozzolanic material, no information pertaining to engineering and


durability related properties is available. Therefore, there is a need to investigate and explore
the potential of this material for the use in concrete [Khan and Alhozaimy, 2005].

1.3 AIM OF THE STUDY

The aim of the study was to compare the strength of concrete using a mixture of pozzolana
and Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) as a binder to that of OPC only in concrete production.

1.4 PROJECT OBJECTIVES

1. This project was intended to investigate the performance of locally available natural
pozzolanic material in the republic of Ghana.
2. To investigate the influence of the pozzolan on the properties of fresh concrete and
compressive strength development.

1.5 SIGNIFICANCE

The high economy associated with concrete works with the use of cement as a binder has
necessitated the study into the benefits of partial replacement of concrete with natural
pozzolanic material, which will reduce the effect of carbon-dioxide emission, increase
durability and reduce cost of production of concrete.

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1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY

The area under study was Cape Coast Metropolitan Assembly and its environs in the Central
Region of Ghana. The materials for the study were all found in Cape Coast and its environs.

The laboratory tests were done in the Cape Coast Polytechnic Civil Engineering laboratory.
This research was strictly based on testing of concrete cubes with the mixture of pozzolana
and ordinary Portland cement and ordinary Portland cement only as binders. The research
was limited to testing of concrete cubes and the factors affecting the compressive strength of
concrete were accessed.

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CHAPTER TWO

2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 INTRODUCTION

It is now well established that in order to produce a durable concrete, a dense homogeneous
concrete microstructure, especially in the interface region between hydrated paste and
aggregate, is required [Aitcin and Neville 1994]. The densification and homogeneity of the
interfacial region are achieved through the incorporation of natural and by-products
pozzolanic material. In addition, the incorporation of natural and by-product material in
concrete can significantly enhance its basic properties in both the fresh and hardened states.
Blended cements with mineral admixtures offer improved performance over that of ordinary
Portland cement with respect to microstructure and durability of concrete [Malhotra and
Mehta, 1996], [Gjorv, 1994].

The incorporation of pozzolanic materials in concrete reduces bleeding and segregation and
enhances cohesiveness of concrete, reduces heat evolution during hydration leading to lower
tendency for crack formation during hardening which is beneficial in mass concrete
application. The inclusion of natural pozzolana or slag or silica fume results in concrete with
reduced or similar permeability to that of plain concrete; such concrete increases the
resistance against chloride attack [Malhotra and Mehta, 1996] and performs satisfactorily
against Sulphate attack [Alhoziamy; Soroushian and Mirza, 1996].

The research on by-products material namely, natural pozzolana, slag and silica fume is well
documented while research on natural pozzolana is hardly available. Natural pozzolanic
material behaves in similar manner to that of by-product pozzolanic admixtures. It is reported
that natural pozzolanic material tends to increase the water demand. However, this excess
water is consumed by pozzolanic reaction at the later stages [Malhotra and Mehta, 1996].
Setting time of natural pozzolanic material is retarded as compared to ordinary Portland
cement concrete, as is the case in the by-product pozzolanic material. Due to the inference
provided by finely divided particles and the absorption by microporous, natural pozzolan
reduces the bleeding of concrete. This reduction in the internal bleeding improves the
interfacial zone of the concrete hence the strength of the concrete. [Mehta and Monteiro,
1995], [Neville, 1996].

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The incorporation of natural pozzolanic materials delays the rate of strength development like
natural pozzolana and slag. It reported that the concrete mixes containing 10, 20 and 30%
natural pozzolanic material (Santorin earth) demonstrated less strength at 7 days as compared
to that of control mix. At 28 days, concrete with 10% replacement showed higher strength
than that of control mix. Further, the inclusion of natural pozzolanic material in concrete did
not demonstrate the significant change in drying shrinkage as compared to the control mix
[Mehta, 1981].

The addition of natural pozzolan enhances the hydration products of Portland cement;
however, the rate of enhancement depends on its characteristics. [Cook, 1986].

Pozzolanic material efficiently decreases the permeability, thereby increasing the resistance
of concrete to deterioration by aggressive chemicals such as chlorides [Malhotra and Mehta,
1996)]. Therefore, the incorporation of pozzolanic material in the concrete has become an
increasingly accepted practice in the construction of structures exposed to harsh
environments. Natural pozzolana is reported to have similar influence on the permeability of
concrete as that of natural pozzolana and slag. Concrete containing natural pozzolana
improves permeability and pore size distribution of the concrete [Mehta, 1981].

The scientific information on by-product pozzolanic materials such as natural pozzolana, slag
and silica fume are well documented and little effort has been dedicated to the natural
pozzolanic materials. The technical information on locally available natural pozzolanic
material is not available. Therefore, there is a need to investigate and explore the potential of
this material for use in concrete as partial cement replacement.

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2.2 BACKGROUND

Concrete is a stone-like material obtained by permitting carefully proportioned mixture of


cement, sand and gravel or other aggregate, and water to harden in forms of the shape and
dimensions of the desired structure. The bulk of the material consists of fine and coarse
aggregate. Cement and water interact chemically to bind the aggregate particles into a solid
mass. Additional water, over and above that needed for this chemical reaction, is necessary to
give the mixture the workability that enables it to fill the forms and surrounds the embedded
reinforcing steel prior to hardening. Concrete with a wide range of properties can be obtained
by appropriate adjustment of the proportions of the constituent materials. Special cements
(such as high early strength cements), special aggregate (such as various lightweight or heavy
weight aggregate), admixtures such as plasticizers, air-entraining agents, silica fume, and
natural pozzolana), and special curing methods (such as steam curing) permit an even wider
variety of properties to be obtained.

These properties depend to a very substantial degree on the proportions of the mix, on the
thoroughness with which the various constituents are intermixed, and on the conditions of
humidity and temperature in which the mix is maintained from the moment it is placed in the
forms until it is fully hardened. Curing is done to control the conditions after placement. To
protect against the unintentional production of substandard concrete, a high degree of skillful
control and supervision is necessary throughout the process, from the proportioning by
weight of the individual components, through mixing and placing, until the completion of
curing.

The factors that make concrete a universal building material are so pronounced that it has
been used, in more primitive kinds and ways than at present, for thousands of years starting
with lime mortars from 12,000 to 6000 B.C. in Crete, Cyprus, Greece and the Middle East.
The facility with which, while plastic, it can be deposited and made to fill forms or moulds of
almost any practical shape is one of these factors. Its high fire and weather resistance are
evident advantages. Most of the constituent materials, with the exception of cement and
additives, are usually available at low cost locally. Its compressive strength, like that of
natural stones, is high, which makes it suitable for members primarily subject to compression,
such as columns and arches. On the other hand, again as in natural stones, it is relatively
brittle material whose tensile strength is small compared with its compressive strength. This
prevents its economical use in structural members that are subject to tension either entirely

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(such as in tie rods) or over part of their cross sections (such as in beams or other flexural
members). Concrete (construction), artificial engineering material made from a mixture of
Portland cement, water, fine and coarse aggregates, and a small amount of air. It is the most
widely used construction material in the world.

Concrete is the only major building material that can be delivered to the job site in a plastic
state. This unique quality makes concrete desirable as a building material because it can be
moulded to virtually any form or shape. Concrete provides a wide latitude in surface textures
and colours and can be used to construct a wide variety of structures, such as highways and
streets, bridges, dams, large buildings, airport runways, irrigation structures, breakwaters,
piers and docks, sidewalks, silos and farm buildings, homes, and even barges and ships.

Other desirable qualities of concrete as a building material are its strength, economy, and
durability. Depending on the mixture of materials used, concrete will support, in
compression, 700 or more kg/sq. cm (10,000 or more lb. /sq. in). The tensile strength of
concrete is much lower, but by using properly designed steel reinforcing, structural members
can be made that are as strong in tension as they are in compression. The durability of
concrete is evidenced by the fact that concrete columns built by the Egyptians more than
3600 years ago are still standing.

The two major components of concrete are a cement paste and inert materials. The cement
paste consists of Portland cement, water, and some air either in the form of naturally
entrapped air voids or minute, intentionally entrained air bubbles. The inert materials are
usually composed of fine aggregate, which is a material such as sand, and coarse aggregate,
which is a material such as gravel, crushed stone, or slag. In general, fine aggregate particles
are smaller than 6.4 mm (.25 in) in size, and coarse aggregate particles are larger than 6.4 mm
(.25 in). Depending on the thickness of the structure to be built, the size of coarse aggregate
particles used can vary widely. In building relatively thin sections, a small size of coarse
aggregate, with particles about 6.4 mm (.25 in) in size, is used. At the other extreme,
aggregates up to 15 cm (6 in) or more in diameter are used in large dams. In general, the
maximum size of coarse aggregates should not be larger than one-fifth of the narrowest
dimensions of the concrete member in which it is used.

When Portland cement is mixed with water, the compounds of the cement react to form a
cementing medium. In properly mixed concrete, each particle of sand and coarse aggregate is

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completely surrounded and coated by this paste, and all spaces between the particles are filled
with it. As the cement paste sets and hardens, it binds the aggregates into a solid mass.

Under normal conditions, concrete grows stronger as it grows older. The chemical reactions
between cement and water that cause the paste to harden and bind the aggregates together
require time. The reactions take place very rapidly at first and then more slowly over a long
period of time. In the presence of moisture, concrete continues to gain strength for years. For
instance, the strength of just-poured concrete may be about 70,307 g/sq. cm (1000 lb./sq. in)
after drying for a day, 316,382 g/sq.cm (4500 lb./sq. in) in 7 days, 421,842 g/sq. cm (6000
lb./sq. in) in 28 days, and 597,610 q/sq. cm (8500 lb./sq. in) after 5 years.

Concrete mixtures are usually specified in terms of the dry-volume ratios of cement, sand,
and coarse aggregates used. A 1:2:3 mixtures, for instance, consists of one part by volume of
cement, two parts of sand, and three parts of coarse aggregate. Depending on the applications,
the proportions of the ingredients in the concrete can be altered to produce specific changes
in its properties, particularly strength and durability. The ratios can vary from 1:2:3 to 1:2:4
and 1:3:5. The amount of water added to these mixtures is about 1 to 1.5 times the volume of
the cement. For high-strength concrete, the water content is kept low, with just enough water
added to wet the entire mixture. In general, the more water in a concrete mix, the easier it is
to work with, but the weaker the hardened concrete becomes.

Concrete can be made to have any degree of water tightness. It can be made to hold water and
resist the penetration of wind-driven rains. On the other hand, for purposes such as
constructing filter beds, concrete can be made porous and highly permeable. Concrete can
also be given a polished surface that is as smooth as glass. By using heavy aggregates,
including steel fragments, dense concrete mixtures can be made that weigh 4005 or more
kg/cu m (250 or more lb. /cu ft.). Concrete that weighs only 481 kg/cu m (30 lb. /cu ft.) can
be made by using special lightweight aggregates and foaming techniques. Forms consisting
of such lightweight aggregates can be floated on water, sawed into pieces, or nailed to
another surface.

For small jobs and minor repairs, concrete can be mixed by hand, but machine mixing
ensures more uniform batches and, therefore, superior performance. For most home repairs
and improvements—for example, floors, walks, driveways, patios, and garden pools—the
recommended proportion is a 1:2:3 mix.

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After exposed surfaces of concrete have hardened sufficiently to resist marring, they should
be cured by sprinkling or ponding (covering) with water or by using moisture-retaining
materials such as waterproof paper, plastic sheets, wet burlap, or sand. Special curing sprays
are available. The longer concrete is kept moist, the stronger and more durable it will
become. In hot weather, it should be kept moist for at least three days. In cold weather,
drying concrete must not be allowed to freeze. This can be accomplished by covering the
cement with a tarpaulin or some other material that helps trap the heat generated by the
chemical reactions within the concrete that cause it to harden [Microsoft ® Encarta ® 2009]

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2.3 MATERIALS

2.3.1 CEMENT

Cementitious material is one that has the adhesive and cohesive properties necessary to bond
inert aggregate into a solid mass of adequate strength and durability. This technologically
important category of materials includes not only cements proper but also limes, asphalts, and
tars as they are used in roads building, and others. For making structural concrete, so-called
hydraulic cements are used excessively. Water is needed for the chemical process (hydration)
in which the cements powder sets and hardens into one solid mass. Of the various hydraulic
cements that have been developed, Portland cement, which was first patented in England in
1824, is by far the most common.

Portland cement is finely powdered, grayish material that consists chiefly of calcium
Aluminium silicates. The common raw materials from which it is made are limestone, which
provide CaO, and clays or shale, which furnish SiO2 and Al2O3. These are ground, blended,
fused to clinkers in a kiln, and cooled. Gypsum is added and the mixture is ground to required
fineness.

Over the years, five standard types of Portland cement have been developed. When cement is
mixed with water to form a soft paste, it gradually stiffens until it becomes solid. This process
is known as setting and hardening. The cement is said to have set when it gains sufficient
rigidity to support an arbitrarily defined pressure, after which it continues for a long time to
harden i.e., to gain further strength. The water in the paste dissolves material at the surfaces
of the cement grains and forms a gel that gradually increases in volume and stiffness. This
leads to a rapid stiffening and hardening of the mass. The principal products of hydration are
calcium silicate hydrate, which is insoluble, and calcium hydroxide, which is soluble.

In ordinary concrete, the cement is probably never completely hydrated. The get structure of
the hardened paste seems to be the chief reason for the volume changes that are caused in
concrete by variations in moisture, such as the shrinkage of concrete as it dries.

For complete hydration of a given amount of cement, an amount of water equal to about 25
percent of that of cement, by weight – i.e. a water-cement ratio of 0.25 is needed chemically.
An additional amount must be present, however, to provide mobility for the water in the
cement paste during the hydration process so that it can reach the cement particles and to
provide the necessary workability of the concrete mix. For normal concretes, the water-

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cement ratio is generally in the range of 0.40 to 0.60, although for high-strength concretes,
ratios as low as 0.21 have been used. In this case the needed workability is obtained through
the use of admixtures. Any amount of water above that consumed in the chemical reaction
produces pores in the cement paste. The strength of hardened paste decreases in inverse
proportion to the fraction of the total volume occupied by pores. Put differently, since only
the solids, and not the voids, resist stress, strength increases directly as the fraction of the
total volume occupied by the solids. That is why the strength of the cement paste depends
primarily on, and decreases directly with an increasing water-cement ratio. The chemical
process involved in the setting and hardening liberates heat, known as heat of hydration. In
large concrete masses, such as dams, this heat is dissipated very slowly and results in
temperature rise and volume expansion of the concrete during hydration, with subsequent
cooling and contraction. To avoid the serious cracking and weakening that may result from
this process; special measures must be taken for its control.

The source of cement, manufactured by GHACEM in Ghana was used in this investigation.
The chemical and physical properties of cement are given in table 2.1. It complies with
ASTM C150.

Table 2.1: Chemical and physical analysis of cement

Properties Source
SiO2 (%) 19.90
Al2O3 (%) 5.13
Fe2O3 (%) 3.75
CaO (%) 63.59
MgO (%) 1.50
SO3 (%) 2.75
Loss on ignition (%) 2.21
Fineness- Blaine (cm2/g) 3282
Source: Dr. Muhammad and Dr. Alhozaimy (2005).

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2.3.2 AGGREGATE

In ordinary structural concretes the aggregates occupy about 70 to 75 percent of the volume
of the hardened mass. The remainder consist of hardened cement paste, uncombined water
(i.e. water not involved in the hydration of the cement), and air voids. The latter two
evidently do not contribute to the strength of the concrete. In general, the densely the
aggregate can be packed, the better the durability and economy of the concrete. It is there
considerably important that particle size in the aggregate is properly graded. It is also
important that the aggregate has good strength, durability, and weather resistance; that its
surface is free from impurities such as loam, silt, clay and organic matter that may weaken
the bond with cement paste; and that no unfavourable chemical reaction takes place between
it and the cement.

Natural aggregates are generally classified as fine and coarse. Fine aggregate (typically
natural sand) is any material that will pass a No. 4 or 0.150mm.

Materials which are coarser than 0.150mm are classified as coarse aggregate. When
favourable gradation is desired, aggregate are separated by sieving into two or three size
groups of sand and several size groups of coarse aggregate. These can then be combined
according to grading charts to result in densely packed aggregate.

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2.4 CONCRETE PRODUCTION

Concrete is a mixture of two components: aggregates and paste. The paste, comprised of

cement and water, binds the aggregates (usually sand and gravel or crushed stone) into a

rocklike mass as the paste hardens because of the chemical reaction of the cement and water.

Supplementary cementitious materials and chemical admixtures may also be included in the

paste. The processes used vary dramatically, from hand tools to heavy industry, but result in

the concrete being placed where it cures into a final form.

When initially mixed together, Portland cement and water rapidly form a gel, formed of

tangled chains of interlocking crystals. These continue to react over time, with the initially

fluid gel often aiding in placement by improving workability. As the concrete sets, the chains

of crystals join up, and form a rigid structure, gluing the aggregate particles in place. During

curing, more of the cement reacts with the residual water (Hydration).

This curing process develops physical and chemical properties. Among other qualities

mechanical strength, low moisture permeability, and chemical and volumetric stability.

[http://en.wikipedia.org]

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2.4.1 PROPORTIONING AND MIXING CONCRETE

The various components of a mix are proportioned so that the resulting concrete has adequate
strength, proper workability for placing, and low cost. To achieve low cost in concrete
production requires the use of minimum amount of cement (which is the most costly
component) that will achieve adequate properties. The better the gradation of aggregate, i.e.
the smaller the volume of voids, the less cement paste is needed to fill these voids. In addition
to the water required for hydration, water is needed for wetting the surface of the aggregate.
As water is added, the plasticity and fluidity of the mix increases (i.e. its workability
improves), but the strength decreases because of the larger volume of voids created by the
free water. To reduce the free water while retaining the workability, cement must be added.
Therefore, as for the cement paste, the water-cement ratio is the chief factor that controls the
strength of the concrete. For a given water-cement ratio, the minimum amount of cement that
will secure the desired workability is selected.

2.4.2 CONVEYING

Conveying of most building concretes from the mixer or truck to form is done in bottom-
dump trucks or by pumping through steel pipelines. The chief danger during conveying is
that of segregation. The individual components of concrete tend to segregate because of their
dissimilarity. In overly wet concrete standing in containers or forms, the heavier gravel
components tend to settle, and the lighter materials, particularly water, tend to rise. Lateral
movement, such as flow within the forms, tends to separate the coarse gravel from the finer
components of the mix

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2.4.3 PLACING

Placing is done by transferring the fresh concrete from the conveying device to its final place
in the forms. Prior to placing, loose rust must be removed from the reinforcement, forms must
be cleaned, and hardened surface of previous concrete lifts must be cleaned and treated
appropriately. Placing and consolidation are critical in their effect on the final quality of the
concrete. Proper placement must avoid segregation, displacement of forms or of
reinforcement in the forms, and poor bond between successive layers of concrete.
Immediately upon placing, the concrete should be consolidated, usually by means of
vibrators. This prevents honeycombing, ensures close contact with forms and reinforcements,
and serves as a partial remedy to possible prior segregation. Consolidation is achieved by
high-frequency, power-driven vibrators.

Fresh concrete gains strength most rapidly during the first few days and weeks. Structural
design is generally based on the 28-day strength, about 70 percent of which is reached at the
end of the first week after placing. The final concrete strength depends greatly on the
conditions of moisture and temperature during this initial period. Curing is then done to
maintain the proper conditions. Thirty percent of the strength or more can be lost by
premature drying of the concrete; similar amounts may be lost by permitting the concrete
temperature to drop to 40⁰F (4.4⁰C) during the first few days unless the concrete is kept
continuously moist for a long time thereafter. Freezing of fresh concrete may reduce its
strength by 50 percent or more. To prevent such damage, concrete should be protected from
loss of moisture for at least 7 days and in. more sensitive work, up to 14 days. When high
early strength cements are used, curing periods can be cut in half. Curing can be achieved by
keeping exposed surfaces continually wet through sprinkling, ponding, or covering with
plastic film or by use of sealing compounds, which, when properly used, form evaporation-
retarding membranes. In addition to improving strength, proper moist curing provides better
shrinkage control. To protect the concrete against low temperature during cold weather, the
mixing water, and occasionally the aggregates, is heated; temperature insulation is used
where possible; and special admixtures are employed. When air temperatures are very low
external heat may have to be supplied in addition to insulation [ACI Manual of Concrete
Practice, Part 2, 2003]

- 17 -
2.4.4 CURING

Curing is the process of controlling the rate and extent of moisture loss from concrete during
cement hydration. It may be either after it has been placed in position (or during the
manufacture of concrete products), thereby providing time for the hydration of the cement to
occur. Since the hydration of cement does take time – days, and even weeks rather than hours
– curing must be undertaken for a reasonable period of time if the concrete is to achieve its
potential strength and durability. Curing may also encompass the control of temperature since
this affects the rate at which cement hydrates. The curing period may depend on the
properties required of the concrete, the purpose for which it is to be used, and the ambient
conditions, i.e. the temperature and relative humidity of the surrounding atmosphere. Curing
is designed primarily to keep the concrete moist, by preventing the loss of moisture from the
concrete during the period in which it is gaining strength. Curing may be applied in a number
of ways and the most appropriate means of curing may be dictated by the site or the
construction method.
In all but the least critical applications, care needs to be taken to properly cure concrete, and
achieve best strength and hardness. This happens after the concrete has been placed.

Cement requires a moist, controlled environment to gain strength and harden fully. The
cement paste hardens over time, initially setting and becoming rigid though very weak, and
gaining in strength in the days and weeks following. In around 3 weeks, over 90% of the final
strength is typically reached though it may continue to strengthen for decades. [ACI Manual
of Concrete Practice, Part 2, 2003]

Hydration and hardening of concrete during the first three days is critical. Abnormally fast
drying and shrinkage due to factors such as evaporation from wind during placement may
lead to increased tensile stresses at a time when it has not yet gained significant strength,
resulting in greater shrinkage cracking. The early strength of the concrete can be increased by
keeping it damp for a longer period during the curing process. Minimizing stress prior to
curing minimizes cracking. High early-strength concrete is designed to hydrate faster, often
by increased use of cement which increases shrinkage and cracking.

During this period concrete needs to be in conditions with a controlled temperature and
humid atmosphere. In practice, this is achieved by spraying or ponding the concrete surface
with water, thereby protecting concrete mass from ill effects of ambient conditions. The

- 18 -
pictures to the right show two of many ways to achieve this, ponding – submerging setting
concrete in water, and wrapping in plastic to contain the water in the mix.

Properly curing concrete leads to increased strength and lower permeability, and avoids
cracking where the surface dries out prematurely. Care must also be taken to avoid freezing,
or overheating due to the exothermic setting of cement (the Hoover Dam used pipes carrying
coolant during setting to avoid damaging overheating). Improper curing can cause scaling,
reduced strength, poor abrasion resistance and cracking.

2.4.4.1 CURING METHODS

2.4.4.1.1 Water cure: The concrete is flooded, ponded, or mist sprayed. This is the most
effective curing method for preventing mix water evaporation.

2.4.4.1.2 Water retaining methods: Use coverings such as sand, canvas, burlap, or straw
that is kept continuously wet. The material used must be kept damp during the curing period.

2.4.4.1.3 Waterproof paper or plastic film seal: Are applied as soon as the concrete is hard
enough to resist surface damage. Plastic films may cause discoloration of the concrete-do not
apply to concrete where appearance is important.

2.4.4.1.4 Chemical Membranes: The chemical application should be made as soon as the
concrete is finished. Note that curing compounds can effect adherence of resilient flooring,
your flooring contractor and/or chemical membrane manufacturer should be consulted.

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2.5 QUALITY CONTROL

The quality concrete is assured by the producer, who must exercise systematic quality
controls, usually specified pertinent standards. Concrete is produced at or close to the site,
and its final quality is affected by a number of factors. Thus, the systematic quality control
must be instituted at the construction site.

The main measure of the structural quality of concrete is its compressive strength. Test for
this property are made on cylindrical specimen of height equal to twice the diameter, usually
150 ×300 mm. impervious molds of this shape are filled with concrete during the operation of
placement as specified by ASTM C 172 ―Standard Method of Sampling Freshly Mixed
Concrete,‖ and ASTM C 31, ―Standard Practice for Making and Curing Concrete Test
Specimens in the Field‖. The cylinders are moist-cured at about 70⁰F (21.1⁰C), generally for
28 days, and then tested in the laboratory at a specified rate of loading. The compressive
strength obtained from such tests is known as the cylinder strength ƒ’c and is the main
property specified for design purposes. To provide structural safety, continuous control is
necessary to ensure that the strength of concrete is furnished is in satisfactory agreement with
the value called for by the designer.

It is evident that, if concrete were proportioned so that its mean strength were just equal to the
required strength ƒ’c it would not pass these quality requirements because about half of its
strength test results would fall below the required ƒ’c. It is therefore necessary to proportion
the concrete so that it’s mean strength ƒ’cr used as the basis for selection of suitable
proportions, exceeds the required design strength ƒ’c by an amount sufficient to ensure that
the two quoted requirements are met.

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2.5.1 SLUMP TEST

The slump test is the most well-known and widely used test method to characterize the
workability of fresh concrete. The inexpensive test, which measures consistency, is used on
job sites to determine rapidly, whether a concrete batch should be accepted or rejected. The
test method is widely standardized throughout the world, including in ASTM C 143 in the
United States and EN 12350-2 in Europe.

The slump test is however, not considered applicable for concrete with a maximum coarse
aggregate size greater than 1.5 inches. For concrete with aggregate greater than 1.5 inches in
size, such larger particles can be removed by wet sieving.

Additional qualitative information on the mobility of fresh concrete can be obtained after
reading the slump measurement. Concretes with the same slump can exhibit different
behavior when tapped with a tamping rod. A harsh concrete with few fines will tend to fall
apart when tapped and be appropriate only for applications such as pavements or mass
concrete. Alternatively, the concrete may be very cohesive when tapped, and thus be suitable
for difficult placement conditions.

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2.5.2 COMPACTION FACTOR TEST

The compaction factor test [Powers 1968; Neville 1981; Bartos 1992, Sonebi, and Tamimi
2002] measures the degree of compaction resulting from the application of a standard amount
of work. The test was developed in Britain in the late 1940s and has been standardized as a
British Standard 1881-103.

The compaction factor is defined as a ratio of the mass of concrete compacted in the
compaction factor apparatus to the mass of the fully compacted concrete. The standard test is
appropriate for maximum aggregate sizes of up to 20mm. a larger apparatus is available for
concretes with maximum aggregate sizes of up to 40mm. [ICAR]

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2.6 POZZOLANA

A pozzolan is a material which, when combined with calcium hydroxide, exhibits


cementitious properties. Pozzolans are commonly used as an addition (the technical term is
"cement extender") to Portland cement concrete mixtures to increase the long-term strength
and other material properties of Portland cement concrete and in some cases reduce the
material cost of concrete. Pozzolans are primarily vitreous siliceous materials which react
with calcium hydroxide to form calcium silicates; other cementitious materials may also be
formed depending on the constituents of the pozzolan.

The pozzolanic reaction may be slower than the rest of the reactions that occur during cement
hydration, and thus the short-term strength of concrete made with pozzolans may not be as
high as concrete made with purely cementitious materials; conversely, highly reactive
pozzolans, such as silica fume and high reactivity metakaolin can produce "high early
strength" concrete that increase the rate at which concrete gains strength.

The first known pozzolan was pozzolana, a volcanic ash, for which the category of materials
was named. The most commonly used pozzolan today is fly ash, though silica fume, high-
reactivity metakaolin, ground granulated blast furnace slag, and other materials are also used
as pozzolans.

A pozzolan is a siliceous or aluminosiliceous material, which is highly vitreous. This material


independently has few/fewer cementitious properties, but in the presence of a lime-rich
medium like calcium hydroxide, shows better cementitious properties towards the later day
strength (> 28 days). The mechanism for this display of strength is the reaction of silicates
with lime to form secondary cementitious phases (calcium silicate hydrates with a lower C/S
ratio) which display gradual strengthening properties usually after 7 days.

The extent of the strength development depends upon the chemical composition of the
pozzolan: the greater the composition of alumina and silica along with the vitreous phase in
the material, the better the pozzolanic reaction and strength display.

Many pozzolans available for use in construction today were previously seen as waste
products, often ending up in landfills. Use of pozzolans can permit a decrease in the use of
Portland cement when producing concrete; this is more environmentally friendly than
limiting cementitious materials to Portland cement. As experience with using pozzolans has
increased over the past 15 years, current practice may permit up to a 40 percent reduction of

- 23 -
Portland cement used in the concrete mix when replaced with a carefully designed
combination of approved pozzolans. When the mix is designed properly, concrete can utilize
pozzolans without significantly reducing the final compressive strength or other performance
characteristics.

It’s rare to find in nature natural stones with exceptional resistance to every chemical and
mechanical corrosion; many silicates have these features and, among these, the natural
Pozzolana is the only natural material that can be used as such with lime to form cement able
to harden and resist indefinitely in water. The natural pozzolana is a natural fine volcanic ash,
typical of the volcanic region of Pozzuoli (from here, its name) near Naples, Italy, but present
in other volcanic zones of Italy and other Countries.

It was used for the first time by the ancient Romans who started using just the pozzolana
extracted at Pozzuoli. Just the buildings of the ancient Pozzuoli (Puteoli, in Latin) were built
using the pozzolana as cement as well as the early days Forts and castles in the then Gold
Coast, and they resisted for many centuries till today to the action of sea waters that
submerged their imposing ruins because of the bradyseism, typical of that area.

The pozzolana is formed by volcanic ashes cemented by the heat of deep magmas and then,
after their eruption, exposed to a long action of the atmospheric agents, H 2O and CO2, so that
the original complex silicates were transformed in a fine dust of simple silicates and oxides
(SiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3).

When these oxides react with lime, Ca(OH)2, they harden relatively quickly, also under
water, forming complex and insoluble calcium silicates and aluminates, more and more
resistant with the passing time and not needing to react also with CO 2 to form CaCO3
(limestone) as it happens in the cement, like that used by the Romans before they discovered
the pozzolana.

The Romans were able to build exceptional monuments and palaces, like the Pantheon dome
in Rome and the foundations of their harbours just with this volcanic cement, the "opus
coementicium".

The Roman architect Vitruvium already distinguished 4 types of pozzolana; white, yellow,
gray and red.

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After the fall of the Roman Empire, the use of this cement was lost and forgotten; buildings
like the Pantheon become impossible during the middle Ages, for the absence of equally
resistant cement to water.

Only Filippo Brunelleschi, the genial Florence architect of the first half of the XV century,
started to use again the pozzolana and, since the late Renaissance, this cement has been used
frequently for some specific works, reaching again the building quality of the ancient Romans
and it's still in use.

Very used is also the artificial pozzolana, prepared heating at about 700C a clay mixture
formed by SiO2, Al2O3, MgO and CaO. The natural pozzolana is still extracted today in
many volcanic zones but it's replaced, in most of cases, by the hydraulic cement, discovered
in England about 1750 and made of lime and the much more common clay, with the same
function of pozzolana.

Various mixtures of this new cement were improved during the XIX century, until reaching
the formula of the Portland cement (1924), formed by limestone and 40% of clay that hardens
with higher speed than pozzolana.

Then, mixtures of the Portland cement with natural or artificial pozzolana started to be
available, in the last century, to improve cement resistance to water.

So, pozzolana is again more and more frequent in some cement used for modern restoring
works and for building bio-compatible houses.

Concrete is a compound material made from sand, gravel and cement. The cement is a
mixture of various minerals which when mixed with water, hydrate and rapidly become hard
binding the sand and gravel into a solid mass. The oldest known surviving concrete is to be
found in the former Yugoslavia and was thought to have been laid in 5,600 BC using red lime
as the cement.

The first major concrete users were the Egyptians in around 2,500BC and the Romans from
300 BC The Romans found that by mixing a pink sand-like material which they obtained
from Pozzuoli with the informal lime-based concretes they obtained a far stronger material.
The pink sand turned out to be fine volcanic ash and they had inadvertently produced the first
'pozzolanic' cement. Pozzolana is any siliceous or siliceous and aluminous material which
possesses little or no cementitious value in itself but will, if finely divided and mixed with

- 25 -
water, chemically react with calcium hydroxide to form compounds with cementitious
properties.

The Romans made many developments in concrete technology including the use of
lightweight aggregates as in the roof of the Pantheon, and embedded reinforcement in the
form of bronze bars, although the difference in thermal expansion between the two materials
produced problems of spalling. It is from the Roman words ―caementum‖ meaning rough
stone or chipping and 'concretus' meaning grown together or compounded, that we have
obtained the names for these two now common materials.

Lime and Pozzolana concretes continued to be used intermittently for nearly two millennia
before the next major development occurred in 1824 Cement was, made from a mixture of
clay and limestone, which had been crushed and fired in a kiln, was an immediate success.
Although many developments have since been made, the basic ingredients and processes of
manufacture are the same today

The oldest known form of concrete is to be found in the Middle East and it dates back to
5600 BC; the Egyptians (XXVI Century BC) used mixed with straw to bind dried bricks,
gypsum and lime mortars in stone masonry (in particular for the construction of pyramids).

The Greeks living in Crete and Cyprus used lime mortars as well (Eight Century BC),
whereas Babylonians and Syrians used bitumen to construct stone and brick masonries.

The Ancient Greeks, similarly, used calcined limestone, while the Romans made the first
concrete: mixed lime putty with brick dust or volcanic ash. They used it with stone to
construct roadways, buildings and aqueducts.

The Romans used pozzolana, a particular type of sand from Pozzuoli, near the volcano
Vesuvio (Southern Italy), to construct buildings of crucial importance, such as the Pantheon
or the Colosseo.

Pozzolana is an uncommon kind of sand which reacts chemically with lime and water,
becoming a rocklike mass; furthermore, it is siliceous and aluminous and it reacts with
calcium hydroxide to form compounds with cementation properties.

The domed Pantheon, constructed in the Second Century AD, is one of the structural
masterpieces of Roman time: it has a sophisticated structure with a large number of voids,
niches and small vaulted spaces aimed at reducing its weight; in particular the dome shows a

- 26 -
thicker structure at its base, whereas its thickness tends to diminish gradually, according to
the increased height of the dome (in other words, the dome thickness is inversely proportional
to its height). Pliny reported a mortar of lime and sand (one part of lime to four parts of sand),
and Marco Vitruvio Pollione (First Century BC) reported a mixture of pozzolana and lime
(two parts of pozzolana to one part of lime) and we have also an essay of him as regards the
properties of concrete.

The cementitious composition comprises pozzolanic material. Pozzolanic materials are


inorganic materials, either naturally occurring or industrial by- products typically comprising
siliceous compounds or siliceous and aluminous compounds. Examples of suitable pozzolans
include, but not necessarily limited to one or a combination of commercially available
pozzolanic including coal natural pozzolana, silica fume, diatomaceous earth, calcined or
uncalcined volcanic ash, bagasse ash, rice hull ash, natural and synthetic zerolites,
metakaolin, slag and other sources of amorphous silica. Preferred pozzolanic materials are
selected from the group consisting of natural pozzolana, calcined or uncalcined volcanic ash,
rice hull ash, and combinations thereof. Examples of suitable natural pozzolana include, but
are not necessarily limited to, class F, class C or class N as defined in ASTM C-618,
―Specifications for coal Natural pozzolana and Raw or Calcined Natural Pozzolan for use as a
Mineral Admixture in Portland Cement Concrete

All of the alkaline earth metal (preferably calcium-containing material) may be replaced by
the pozzolanic material; however, effective curing conditions for cementitious compositions
that do not include calcium-containing material generally include higher temperatures,
especially autoclaving at about 80⁰ C. In one embodiment, the cementitious composition is
composed of up to about 95% by weight pozzolanic material g suitably from about 10% to
95% by weight pozzolanic material, preferably from about 40% to about 90% by weight
pozzolanic material. In a preferred embodiment, the pozzolanic material makes up
approximately 80% or more by weight, based on the total weight of the cementitious
composition. Preferably the cementitious composition comprises from about 80% to about
95% by weight, more preferably from about 80 wt. % to about 90 wt. % of the cementitious
composition, based on the total weight of the cementitious composition. Suitable pozzolanic
material comprise from about 10% to about 50% by weight amorphous silica or vitreous
silica (hereafter ―silica‖), preferably from about 20% to about 40% by weight silica, even
more preferably about 35% silica.

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2.6.1 ENGINEERING PROPERTIES OF POZZOLANA

Some of the engineering properties of natural pozzolana that are of particular interest when
natural pozzolana is used as and admixture or a cement addition to PCC mixes include
fineness, LOI, chemical composition, moisture content and pozzolanic activity. Most
specifying agencies refer to ASTM C618 when citing acceptance criteria for the use of
natural pozzolana in concrete.

2.6.1.1 Fineness: fineness is the primary physical characteristics of natural pozzolana that
relates to pozzolanic activity. As the finess increases, the pozzolanic activity can be expected
to increase. Current specifications include a requirement for the maximum allowable
percentage retained on a 0.045 mm (No. 325) sieve when wet sieved. ASTM C618 specifies a
maximum of 34 percent retained on a 0.045mm (No 325). Fineness can also be assessed by
methods that estimate specific surface area, such as the Blaine air permeability test
commonly used for Portland cement.

2.6.1.2 Pozzolanic Activity (chemical composition and Mineralogy): pozzolanic activity


refers to the ability of the silica and alumina component of natural pozzolana to react with
available calcium and/ or magnesium from the hydration products of Portland cement. ASTM
C618 requires that the pozzolanic activity index with Portland cement, as determined in
accordance with ASTM C311 be a minimum of 75 percent of the average 28-day
compressive strength of control mixes made with Portland cement.

2.6.1.3 Loss on Ignition: many state transportation departments specify a maximum LOI
value that does not exceed 3 or 4 percent, even though the ASTM criteria are a maximum
LOI content of 6 percent (2of 11). This is because carbon contents (reflected by LOI) higher
than 3 to 4 percent have an adverse effect on air entrainment.

Natural pozzolana must have a low enough LOI (usually less than 3.0 percent) to satisfy
ready –mix concrete producers, who t are concerned about product quality and the control of
air-entraining admixtures. Furthermore, consistent LOI values are almost as important as low
LOI values to ready –mix producers, who are most concerned with consistent and predictable
quality.

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2.6.1.4 Moisture Content: ASTM C618 specifies a maximum allowable moisture content of
3.0 percent.

Some of the properties of fly ash-concrete mixes that are of particular interest include mix
workability, time of setting, bleeding, pumpability, strength development, heat of hydration,
permeability, resistance to freeze-thaw, sulfate resistance, and alkali-silica reactivity.

2.6.1.5 Workability: At a given water-cement ratio, the spherical shape of most fly ash
particles permits greater workability than with conventional concrete mixes. When fly ash is
used, the absolute volume of cement plus fly ash usually exceeds that of cement in
conventional concrete mixes. The increased ratio of solids volume to water volume produces
a paste with improved plasticity and more cohesiveness.

2.6.1.6 Time of Setting: When replacing up to 25 percent of the Portland cement in concrete,
all Class F fly ashes and most Class C fly ashes increase the time of setting. However, some
Class C fly ashes may have little effect on, or possibly even decrease, the time of setting.
Delays in setting time will probably be more pronounced, compared with conventional
concrete mixes, during the cooler or colder months.

2.6.1.7 Bleeding: Bleeding is usually reduced because of the greater volume of fines and
lower required water content for a given degree of workability.

2.6.1.8 Pumpability: Pumpability is increased by the same characteristics affecting


workability, specifically, the lubricating effect of the spherical fly ash particles and the
increased ratio of solids to liquid that makes the concrete less prone to segregation.

2.6.1.9 Strength Development: Previous studies of fly ash concrete mixes have generally
confirmed that most mixes that contain Class F fly ash that replaces Portland cement at a 1:1
(equal weight) ratio gain compressive strength, as well as tensile strength, more slowly than
conventional concrete mixes for up to as long as 60 to 90 days. Beyond 60 to 90 days, Class
F fly ash concrete mixes will ultimately exceed the strength of conventional PCC mixes. For
mixes with replacement ratios from 1.1 to 1.5:1 by weight of Class F fly ash to the Portland
cement that is being replaced, 28-day strength development is approximately equal to that of
conventional concrete.

Class C fly ashes often exhibit a higher rate of reaction at early ages than Class F fly ashes.
Some Class C fly ashes are as effective as Portland cement in developing 28-day strength.
Both Class F and Class C fly ashes are beneficial in the production of high-strength concrete.

- 29 -
However, the American Concrete Institute (ACI) recommends that Class F fly ash replace
from 15 to 25 percent of the Portland cement and Class C fly ash replace from 20 to 35
percent.

2.6.1.10 Heat of Hydration: The initial impetus for using fly ash in concrete stemmed from
the fact that the more slowly reacting fly ash generates less heat per unit of time than the
hydration of the faster reacting Portland cement. Thus, the temperature rise in large masses of
concrete (such as dams) can be significantly reduced if fly ash is substituted for cement, since
more of the heat can be dissipated as it develops. Not only is the risk of thermal cracking
reduced, but greater ultimate strength is attained in concrete with fly ash because of the
pozzolanic reaction. Class F fly ashes are generally more effective than Class C fly ashes in
reducing the heat of hydration.

2.6.1.11 Permeability: Fly ash reacting with available lime and alkalies generates additional
cementitious compounds that act to block bleed channels, filling pore space and reducing the
permeability of the hardened concrete. The pozzolanic reaction consumes calcium hydroxide
(Ca(OH)2), which is leachable, replacing it with insoluble calcium silicate hydrates (CSH).
The increased volume of fines and reduced water content also play a role.

2.6.1.12 Resistance to Freeze-Thaw: As with all concretes, the resistance of fly ash concrete
to damage from freezing and thawing depends on the adequacy of the air void system, as well
as other factors, such as strength development, climate, and the use of deicer salts. Special
attention must be given to attaining the proper amount of entrained air and air void
distribution. Once fly ash concrete has developed adequate strength, no significant
differences in concrete durability have usually been observed. There should be no more
tendency for fly ash concrete to scale in freezing and thawing exposures than conventional
concrete, provided the fly ash concrete has achieved its design strength and has the proper air
void system.

2.6.1.13 Sulphate Resistance: Class F fly ash will generally improve the sulfate resistance of
any concrete mixture in which it is included. Some Class C fly ashes may improve sulfate
resistance, while others may actually reduce sulfate resistance and accelerate deterioration.
Class C fly ashes should be individually tested before use in a sulfate environment. The
relative resistance of fly ash to sulfate deterioration is reportedly a function of the ratio of
calcium oxide to iron oxide.

- 30 -
2.6.1.14 Alkali-Silica Reactivity: Class F fly ash has been effective in inhibiting or reducing
expansive reactions resulting from the alkali-silica reaction. In theory, the reaction between
the very small particles of amorphous silica glass in the fly ash and the alkalis in the Portland
cement, as well as the fly ash, ties up the alkalis in a nonexpansive calcium-alkali-silica gel,
preventing them from reacting with silica in aggregates, which can result in expansive
reactions. However, because some fly ashes (including some Class C fly ashes) may have
appreciable amounts of soluble alkalis, it is necessary to test materials to be used in the field
to ensure that expansion due to alkali-silica reactivity will be reduced to safe levels.

Fly ash, especially Class F fly ash, is effective in three ways in substantially reducing alkali-
silica expansion:

1) It produces a denser, less permeable concrete;

2) When used as a cement replacement it reduces total alkali content by reducing the Portland
cement; and

3) Alkalis react with fly ash instead of reactive silica aggregates. Class F fly ashes are
probably more effective than Class C fly ashes because of their higher silica content, which
can react with alkalis. Users of Class C fly ash are cautioned to carefully evaluate the long-
term volume stability of concrete mixes in the laboratory prior to field use, with ASTM C441
as a suggested method of test. [Coal Fly Ash journal, 2009]

- 31 -
2.6.2 ADVANTAGES OF THE NATURAL POZZOLAN

2.6.2.1 Lithification: Once the Natural pozzolan-lime mixture is hydrated, the pozzolanic
reaction begins immediately and continues for many years. Eventually, the mass will reach
complete lithification, forming a rocky material similar to plagioclase with some content of
magnetite. The compressive strength as well as the flexural strength will continue to increase
for a long time. This unique characteristic is one of the main reasons many great ancient
structures have lasted for over two thousand years.

2.6.2.2 Autogenous Healing: A unique characteristic of Natural pozzolan is its inherent


ability to actually heal or re-cement cracks within the concrete by means of the continuation
of pozzolanic reaction with the calcium hydroxide freed from the cement hydration reaction.
This results in the filling up of most of the gaps inside the hardened concrete matrix

2.6.2.3 Reduced Permeability and Voids: The leaching of water-soluble calcium hydroxide
produced by the hydration of Portland cement can be a significant contributor to the
formation of voids. The amount of "water of convenience" used to make the concrete
workable during the placing process creates permeable voids in the hardened mass. Natural
pozzolan can increase the fluidity of concrete without "water of convenience," so that the size
and number of capillary pores created by the use of too much water can be minimized.

2.6.2.4 Reduces Expansion and Heat of Hydration: Experiments show that replacing 30%
Portland cement with Natural pozzolan can reduce the expansion and heat of hydration to as
low as 40% of normal. This may be because there is no heat produced when Natural pozzolan
reacts with calcium hydroxide and that the free calcium oxide in the cement can hydrate
with natural pozzolan to form C-S-H. Natural pozzolan decreases the heat generated by
cement hydration and delays the time of peak temperature. The graphic pattern of Natural
pozzolan - Portland cement mixture is extended longer and lower, to form a much more
moderate curve than the heat of hydration curve of Portland cement itself.

2.6.2.5 Reduces Creep and Cracks: While concrete is hardening, the "water of
convenience" dries away. The surface of the hardening mass then begins to shrink as the
temperature goes down from outside. This results in the formation of creep and cracks.
Natural pozzolan moderates the expansion and shrinkage of concrete. It also helps to lower

- 32 -
the water content of the fresh concrete. Therefore, the creep and cracks can be significantly
reduced without the process of water cooling.

2.6.2.6 Reduces Microcracking: The expansion and shrinkage mentioned above also create
microcracks inside the hardened C-S-H paste and in-between the aggregate and the C-S-H
paste. These microcracks significantly contribute to concrete permeability as well as other
concrete defects. The Natural pozzolan- Portland cement mixture expands these shrinks so
moderately that there is no microcracking inside the C-S-H paste after drying.

2.6.2.7 Increases Compressive Strength: The pozzolanic reaction between natural pozzolan
and calcium hydroxide happens after the C3S and C2S in the cement begins to hydrate. At
the early stage of curing, 30% Natural pozzolan substituting Portland cement mixture is
slightly lower than reference OPC [Ordinary Portland Cement} in regard to compressive
strength. As time goes by, natural pozzolan continues to react with the calcium hydroxide
produced by cement hydration and increases the compressive strength by producing
additional C-S-H. After 21 curing days, the 30% Natural pozzolan 70% Portland cement
mixture begins to exceed reference OPC in compressive strength. After 28 days, it exceeds
reference OPC by about 15%. The pozzolanic reaction continues until there is no free
calcium hydroxide available in the mass and the compressive strength exceeds the reference
OPC by 30-40%.

2.6.2.8 Increases Resistance to chloride Attack: Concrete deterioration caused by the


penetration of chloride occurs quickly when chloride ions react with calcium. The expansion
of hydrated calcium oxy-chloride enlarges the microcracks and increases the permeability
that causes quicker chloride penetration and more damage from freezing and thawing action.
The 30% Natural pozzolan added into cement can react with almost all the free calcium
hydroxide and form a much denser past. Thus, the penetration of chloride can be minimized
and the few penetrated chloride ions cannot find free calcium hydroxide with which to react.

2.6.2.9 Increases resistance to sulfate attack: There are three chemical reactions involved
in sulfate attack on concrete:

1) Combination of free calcium hydroxide and sulfate to form gypsum (CaSO 4-2H2O).

2) Combination of gypsum and calcium aluminate hydrate (C-A-H) to form ettringite (C3A-
3CaSO-32H2O).

- 33 -
3) Combination of gypsum and calcium carbonate with C-S-H to form thaumasite (CaCO3-
CaSiO3-CaSO4-15H2O).

All these reactions result in the expansion and disruption of concrete. Thaumasite in
particular is accompanied by a very severe damaging effect which is able to transform
hardened concrete into a pulpy mass.

2.6.2.10 Reduces alkali-aggregate reaction: Because Natural pozzolan is shattered into such
a fine particle size resulting in dramatically increased reactive surface area, it can react
quickly with calcium hydroxide and can trap the alkali inside the cement paste. Thus, it helps
to form a denser paste with almost no alkali aggregate reaction at all.

2.6.2.11 Protects steel reinforcement from corrosion: The preceding discussions make it
very clear that concrete made from 30% Natural pozzolan/ 70% Portland cement mixture can
protect steel reinforcement because it creates an environment so densely packed that no
liquids or gases can penetrate through it to cause corrosion to the steel.

2.6.2.12 Increases abrasion resistance: Natural pozzolan increases the compressive strength
of concrete and makes the concrete matrix stronger and denser. It also prevents the formation
of pulpy, crispy, or water-soluble materials created by chemical attack. Therefore, it helps the
concrete to durably resist abrasion

2.6.2.13 Lowers water requirement with high fluidity, self-leveling, and compression: In
normal operations, the bulk volume of concrete in the constructions are placed and
compacted by use of high frequency poke vibrators. The rapid vibration induces segregation
phenomena of all orders of magnitude in the fresh concrete, e.g., stone segregation, internal
bleeding giving bonding failures, and inhomogeneous cement paste and air-void systems.
Under proper use of vibratory compaction, Natural Pozzolan minimizes or eliminates these
problems due to the amorphous structure of the pozzolan particles.

2.6.2.14 Improves Durability: The benefits and characteristics of Natural Pozzolan


mentioned above clearly explain why the ancient structures built by the Greeks have survived
over 2000 years of weathering. [Lawluvi and Odei, 2009 unpublished project work]

- 34 -
2.7 DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS

2.7.1Mix Design

Concrete mixes are designed by selecting the proportions of the mix components that will
develop the required strength, produce a workable consistency concrete that can be handled
and placed easily, attain sufficient durability under exposure to in-service environmental
conditions, and be economical. Procedures for proportioning fly ash concrete mixes differ
slightly from those for conventional concrete mixes. Basic mix design guidelines for normal
concrete [Coal Fly Ash journal, 2009]

One mix design approach commonly used in proportioning fly ash concrete mixes is to use a
mix design with all Portland cement, remove some of the Portland cement, and then add fly
ash to compensate for the cement that is removed. Class C fly ash is usually substituted at a
1:1 ratio. Class F fly ash may also be substituted at a 1:1 ratio, but is sometimes specified at a
1.25:1 ratio, and in some cases may even be substituted at a 1.5:1 ratio. [Coal Fly Ash
journal, 2009]

There are some states that require that fly ash be added in certain mixes with no reduction in
cement content

The percentage of Class F fly ash used as a percent of total cementitious material in typical
highway pavement or structural concrete mixes usually ranges from 15 to 25 percent by
weight. This percentage usually ranges from 20 to 35 percent when Class C fly ash is used.

Mix design procedures for normal, as well as high-strength, concrete involve a determination
of the total weight of cementitious materials (cement plus fly ash) for each trial mixture that
is being investigated in the laboratory. The ACI mix proportioning guidelines recommend a
separate trial mix for each 5-percent increment in the replacement of Portland cement by fly
ash. If fly ash is to replace Portland cement on an equal weight (1:1) basis, the total weight of
cementitious material in each trial mix will remain the same. However, because of
differences in the specific gravity values of Portland cement and fly ash, the volume of
cementitious material will vary with each trial mixture.

When a Type IP (Portland-pozzolan) or Type I-PM blended cement is used in a concrete mix,
fly ash is already a part of the cementing material. There is no need to add more fly ash to a
concrete mix in which blended cement is being used, and it is recommended that no fly ash

- 35 -
be added in such cases. The blended cement can be used in the mix design process in
essentially the same way as Type I Portland cement.

To select a mix proportion that satisfies the design requirements for a particular project, trial
mixes must be made. In a concrete mix design, the water-cement (w/c) ratio is a key design
parameter, with a typical range being from 0.37 to 0.50

When using a blended cement, the water demand will probably be somewhat reduced because
of the presence of the fly ash in the blended cement. When fly ash is used as a separately
batched material, trial mixes should be made using a water-cement plus fly ash (w/c+f) ratio,
sometimes referred to as the water-cementitious ratio, instead of the conventional w/c ratio.
[Coal Fly Ash journal, 2009]

The design of any concrete mix, including fly ash concrete mixes, is based on proportioning
the mix at varying water-cementitious ratios to meet or exceed requirements for compressive
strength (at various ages), entrained air content, and slump or workability needs. The mix
design procedures stipulated in ACI 211.1 provide detailed, step-by-step directions regarding
trial mix proportioning of the water, cement (or cement plus fly ash), and aggregate materials.
Fly ash has a lower specific gravity than Portland cement, which must be taken into
consideration in the mix proportioning process.

- 36 -
CHAPTER THREE

3.0 METHODOLOGY

3.1 INTRODUCTION

Review of data for the study comprised of conduction of test, desk study and review of the
reports to achieve the objectives of this study, which is ―Comparing the compressive strength
of concrete utilizing natural pozzolana as a partial replacement of Ordinary Portland Cement‖
in concrete production.

3.2 DATA COLLECTION

The under listed methods of data collection were used to obtain the necessary data;

 Desk study and review of reports


 Laboratory test methods

3.3 DESK STUDY

In order to accomplish information on this study, a comprehensive review of previous data


gathered about the study by other researchers were used.

3.4 MIX PROPORTION

The concrete was designed and water/cement ratio was found to be 0.55 for all mixes. Mixing
was done in revolving drum mixer in accordance with ASTM C 192. The pozzolana
replacements were selected at ratios of 50:50, 60:40, 70:30, and 80:20 as a partial cement
replacement by weight of cement content.

- 37 -
3.5 CASTING AND CURING

Ninety (96) concrete cubes were cast and compacted in three layers by tamping. After
casting, the samples were leveled and kept in the mould for 24 hours. The samples were then
demoulded the following day and cured in a curing tank at temperature of 20±2ºC.

3.6 TEST PROCEDURES

Tests were conducted to help prove the study.

3.6.1 SLUMP TEST

Slump tests were performed according to ASTM C 143. The reductions in slump in time were
measured. During the standing time, the concrete were covered to minimize water loss
through evaporation.

3.6.2 COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH

The compressive strengths of concrete were determined, using 150mm cubes prepared and
tested according to BS1881. Three cubes per measurement were cast to determine the
compressive strengths at various ages (7days, 14days, 21days and 28days). The compressive
strengths were taken on the three samples and the average was reported as a result.

- 38 -
CHAPTER FOUR

4.0 DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS

4.1 SILT TEST RESULTS AND ANALYSIS

SAMPLE 1 SAMPLE 2 SAMPLE 3

Level of
150 150 150
Content

Depth of Sand
without silt 70 70 70
(ml)
thickness of
visible silt 20 15 10
(ml)

Volume of
60 65 70
Water (ml)

Percentage by
volume of silt
29 21 14
depth to sand
thickness (%)
Table 4.1: Results of obtained from silt test conducted sand sample. (Source: Laboratory
test 2010)

29+21+14
The average silt content from the results is given as =
3
= 21.333%

This is 17.333% above the standard provided by BS 812. The effect of high silt content on
concrete is excessive drying shrinkage thereby decreasing the compressive strength. Since
results obtained from the silt test was 17.333% above the standard and the shrinkage test on
the cubes were immeasurable, the sand used could not have negative influence on the results
of the compressive strength.

- 39 -
Table 4.2: Details of Mix proportion

WEIGHT OF WEIGHT OF WEIGHT OF WEIGHT OF


MIX WEIGHT OF CEMENT (kg) W/C RATIO
POZZOLANA (kg) SAND (kg) STONES (kg) WATER (kg)

CONTROL 14000 0 28000 56000 7700 0.55


POZO 30% 9800 4200 28000 56000 7700 0.55
POZO 70% 4200 9800 28000 56000 7700 0.55
POZO 40% 5600 8400 28000 56000 7700 0.55
POZO 60% 8400 5600 28000 56000 7700 0.55
POZO 20% 2800 11200 28000 56000 7700 0.55
POZO 80% 11200 2800 28000 56000 7700 0.55
POZO 50% 7000 7000 28000 56000 7700 0.55
(Source: Laboratory Test, 2010)

40
Table 4.3: Results of Grading Test for Coarse Aggregates

Weight retained
Sieve size Weight passed(g) % retained % passing Lower limit Upper limit
(g)

38 0.000 8.900 0.000 100.0 100.0 100.0


19 0.916 7.984 11.070 88.9 80.0 100.0
10 5.200 2.784 62.870 26.1 0.0 20.0
5 2.155 0.629 26.050 0.0 0.0 5.0
(Source: laboratory test, 2010)

120.0
100.0
80.0
% passing

60.0
40.0
20.0
0.0
-20.0 0.1 1 10
Sieve Size, mm

upper limit lower limit grading curve for coarse aggregate

Fig. 4.1: Grading Curve for Coarse Aggregates

41
Table 4.4: Results of Grading Test for Fine Aggregates

BS Recommended Nominal Size


Passing (%)
Weight retained
Sieve size (mm) Weight passed(g) % retained % passing
(g)
Lower limit Upper limit

10 0.000 0.400 0.000 100.0 100.0 100.0


5 0.000 0.400 0.000 100.0 90.0 100.0
2.8(No. 7) 0.009 0.391 2.860 97.1 75.0 100.0
1.4(No. 14) 0.067 0.324 2.270 75.9 55.0 90.0
600 µ(No. 25) 0.07 0.254 22.22 53.65 35 60
300µ(No. 52) 0.068 0.186 21.5 32.06 10 30
150µ(No. 100) 0.101 0.085 32.06 0 0 10
(Source: laboratory test, 2010)

42
120

100

80

60

40

20

0
0.01 0.1 1 10

lower limit upper limit grading curve for fine aggregate

Fig. 4.2: Grading Curve for Fine Aggregates

43
A mechanical analysis of the inert material was conducted for the purpose of this work. Dry
sieving was used. After passing the sample through BS sieves, the percentages passing each
sieve were plotted on sand and gravel fraction of a semi-logarithmic chart as shown in Fig.
4.1 for coarse sample and Fig. 4.2 for fine sample.

Comparing the results of the percent passing BS sieves from the test analysis with the BS
Recommended Nominal Size Passing (%) it is shown from the grading curves that the
particle size distribution curves is satisfied.

4.2 PROPERTIES OF FRESH CONCRETE

This section reports on workability using slump test and compaction factor test for concrete
containing natural pozzolana as partial replacement.

4.2.1 Slump Test

The initial slump of all mixes was within the range of 12±1 mm (Table 4.5).

The slump of pozzolanic concrete as compared to the control is shown in Fig. 4.3. This figure
demonstrates that there is little or no significant variation in slump of pozzolanic concrete
mix (30%, 70%, 40%, 60%, 20%, 80% and 50%) and the control mix. However, it was also
observed in other research work on slump loss of pozzolanic mixes that pozzolanic concrete
mixture starts with a slightly higher slump and drops slightly steeper with time as compared
to the control mix.

44
Table 4.5: Slump properties of fresh concrete.

Mix Height of Slump

Control 12
Pozo 30% 13
Pozo 70% 20
Pozo 40% 5
Pozo 60% 6
Pozo 20% 12
Pozo 80% 13
Pozo 50% 12
(Source: Laboratory test 2010)

25

20
Slump. Mm

15

10
Height of slump
5

0
Control Pozo Pozo Pozo Pozo Pozo Pozo Pozo
30% 70% 40% 60% 20% 80% 50%
Mix

Fig. 4.3 Effect of pozzolanic material on the slump of concrete

According to Neville, the slump ranging from 15 to 30 is low. The 70% pozzolana mix is of a
low slump while the control and all other mixes are of very low slump.

45
4.2.2 Compaction Factor

Table 4.6: Results Of Compacting Factor Tests Of Test Specimen

Weight of Partially Weight of Fully


Mix Compaction Factor
Compacted Conc. Compacted Conc.

Control 9599 11818 0.81


Pozo 30% 9259 11721.5 0.79
Pozo 70% 8382 11318 0.74
Pozo 40% 8875 11620 0.76
Pozo 60% 8159 11434 0.71
Pozo 20% 9525 10820 0.88
Pozo 80% 7760 10903 0.71
Pozo 50% 9415 11479 0.82

(Source: Laboratory Test, 2010)

1.00
0.90
0.80
Compaction Factor

0.70
0.60
0.50
compaction
0.40 factor
0.30
0.20
0.10
0.00
ControlPozo 30%Pozo 70%Pozo 40%Pozo 60%Pozo 20%Pozo 80%Pozo 50%
Mix

Fig. 4.4: Effect of pozzolanic material on the compaction factor of concrete

46
The compacting factor test conducted on concrete grade 20 indicates an adequate workability
of the concrete using a water/cement ratio of 0.55. From the results obtained, the compacting
factor for the control mix and Pozo 50% and Pozo 20% are of good workability as compared
to the remaining mix ratios.

47
4.3 COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH

Table 4.7: Detail results of Compressive strength of concrete grade 20 at all ages

CONTROL
CONCRETE COMPRESSIVE STRENGHT TEST RESULTS FOR
CONTROL MIX
DESCRIPTION: CONTROL DUARATION: 7DAYS SLUMP: 12mm
DENSITY STRENGTH
WEIGHT (kg) MAX LOAD (kN) AVERAGE
(kg/dm3) (Mpa)

8170 2.421 367.401 16.329


8144 2.413 380.273 16.901 16.4
8079 2.394 359.351 15.971

DESCRIPTION: CONTROL DUARATION: 14DAYS SLUMP: 12mm


DENSITY STRENGTH
WEIGHT (kg) MAX LOAD (kN) AVERAGE
(kg/dm3) (Mpa)

8103 2.401 451.615 20.072


8186 2.425 444.870 19.772 20.1
8259 2.447 458.583 20.381

DESCRIPTION: CONTROL DUARATION: 21DAYS SLUMP: 12mm


DENSITY STRENGTH
WEIGHT (kg) MAX LOAD (kN) AVERAGE
(kg/dm3) (Mpa)
8153 2.415 451.191 20.053
8310 2.462 454.522 20.201 20.2
8068 2.391 457.615 20.338

DESCRIPTION: CONTROL DUARATION: 28DAYS SLUMP: 12mm


DENSITY STRENGTH
WEIGHT (kg) MAX LOAD (kN) AVERAGE
(kg/dm3) (Mpa)

8153 2.397 591.281 26.279


8101 2.422 564.752 25.100 25.7
8242 2442.000 578.017 25.090

- 48 -
POZZOLANA 30%
CONCRETE COMPRESIVE STRENGHT TEST RESULTS POZO 30%
DESCRIPTION: POZO 30% DUARATION: 7DAYS SLUMP: 13mm
DENSITY STRENGTH
WEIGHT (kg) MAX LOAD (kN) AVERAGE
(kg/dm3) (Mpa)
8049 2.385 372.032 16.535
8023 2.377 365.689 16.253 16.9
8026 2.378 405.501 18.022

DESCRIPTION: POZO 30% DUARATION: 14DAYS SLUMP: 13mm


DENSITY STRENGTH
WEIGHT (kg) MAX LOAD (kN) AVERAGE
(kg/dm3) (Mpa)

7977 2.364 479.815 21.325


8008 2.373 445.976 19.821 20.2
8088 2.396 440.256 19.567

DESCRIPTION: POZO 30% DUARATION: 21DAYS SLUMP: 13mm


DENSITY STRENGTH
WEIGHT (kg) MAX LOAD (kN) AVERAGE
(kg/dm3) (Mpa)

8070 2.391 520.476 23.132


8113 2.404 536.217 23.832 23.7
8014 2.375 543.036 24.135

DESCRIPTION: POZO 30% DUARATION: 28DAYS SLUMP: 13mm


DENSITY STRENGTH
WEIGHT (kg) MAX LOAD (kN) AVERAGE
(kg/dm3) (Mpa)

8038 2.382 605.381 26.906


7997 2.369 564.123 25.072 25.9
8012 2.374 581.282 25.835

- 49 -
POZZOLANA 70%
CONCRETE COMPRESSIVE STRENGHT TEST RESULTS FOR
POZO 70%
DESCRIPTION: POZO 70% DUARATION: 7DAYS SLUMP: 20mm
DENSITY STRENGTH
WEIGHT (kg) MAX LOAD (kN) AVERAGE
(kg/dm3) (Mpa)

7826 2.319 117.331 4.671


7822 2.318 110.220 4.899 4.4
7592 2.249 113.244 3.180

DESCRIPTION: POZO 70% DUARATION: 14DAYS SLUMP: 20mm


DENSITY STRENGTH
WEIGHT (kg) MAX LOAD (kN) AVERAGE
(kg/dm3) (Mpa)
7752 2.297 105.107 4.671
7800 2.311 135.857 6.038 5.2
7705 2.283 113.244 5.033

DESCRIPTION: POZO 70% DUARATION: 21DAYS SLUMP: 20mm


DENSITY STRENGTH
WEIGHT (kg) MAX LOAD (kN) AVERAGE
(kg/dm3) (Mpa)

7767 2.301 165.311 7.347


7782 2.306 161.422 7.174 6.8
7650 2.267 134.921 5.996

DESCRIPTION: POZO 70% DUARATION: 28DAYS SLUMP: 20mm


DENSITY STRENGTH
WEIGHT (kg) MAX LOAD (kN) AVERAGE
(kg/dm3) (Mpa)
7799 2.311 160.270 7.123
7778 2.305 184.370 8.194 7.6
7845 2.324 170.280 7.568

- 50 -
POZZOLANA 40%

CONCRETE COMPRESSIVE STRENGHT TEST RESULTS FOR


POZO 40 %
DESCRIPTION: POZO 40% DUARATION: 7DAYS SLUMP: 5mm
DENSITY STRENGTH
WEIGHT (kg) MAX LOAD (kN) AVERAGE
(kg/dm3) (Mpa)

8109 2.403 274.269 12.190


8050 2.385 295.946 13.153 13.1
8056 2.387 311.789 13.857

DESCRIPTION: POZO 40% DUARATION: 14DAYS SLUMP: 5mm


DENSITY STRENGTH
WEIGHT (kg) MAX LOAD (kN) AVERAGE
(kg/dm3) (Mpa)
8008 2.373 292.489 13.000
8055 2.387 319.350 14.193 13.8
8017 2.375 317.478 14.110

DESCRIPTION: POZO 40% DUARATION: 21DAYS SLUMP: 5mm


DENSITY STRENGTH
WEIGHT (kg) MAX LOAD (kN) AVERAGE
(kg/dm3) (Mpa)
8043 2.383 358.454 15.931
8040 2.382 353.485 15.710 15.8
8133 2.410 357.230 15.877

DESCRIPTION: POZO 40% DUARATION: 28DAYS SLUMP: 5mm


DENSITY STRENGTH
WEIGHT (kg) MAX LOAD (kN) AVERAGE
(kg/dm3) (Mpa)

7951 2.356 368.392 16.373


8052 2.386 370.806 16.480 16.1
8148 2.414 344.844 15.326

- 51 -
POZZOLANA 6O%
CONCRETE COMPRESSIVE STRENGHT TEST RESULTS FOR
POZO 60%
DESCRIPTION: POZO 60% DUARATION: 7DAYS SLUMP: 6mm
DENSITY STRENGTH
WEIGHT (kg) MAX LOAD (kN) AVERAGE
(kg/dm3) (Mpa)

7663 2.271 132.400 5.884


7890 2.338 177.913 7.907 6.9
7831 2.320 155.733 6.921

DESCRIPTION: POZO 60% DUARATION: 14DAYS SLUMP: 6mm


DENSITY STRENGTH
WEIGHT (kg) MAX LOAD (kN) AVERAGE
(kg/dm3) (Mpa)
7924 2.348 196.061 8.714
7711 2.285 209.024 9.290 7.6
2369 2.369 106.043 4.713

DESCRIPTION: POZO 60% DUARATION: 21DAYS SLUMP: 6mm


DENSITY STRENGTH
WEIGHT (kg) MAX LOAD (kN) AVERAGE
(kg/dm3) (Mpa)

7908 2.343 257.130 11.428


2353 2.353 112.308 4.991 8.8
7551 2.237 227.316 10.103

DESCRIPTION: POZO 60% DUARATION: 28DAYS SLUMP: 6mm


DENSITY STRENGTH
WEIGHT (kg) MAX LOAD (kN) AVERAGE
(kg/dm3) (Mpa)

7802 2.312 276.213 12.276


7736 2.292 274.845 12.215 11.9
7731 2.291 253.745 11.278

- 52 -
POZZOLANA 20%
CONCRETE COMPRESSIVE STRENGHT TEST RESULTS FOR
POZO 20%
DESCRIPTION: POZO 20% DUARATION: 7DAYS SLUMP: 12mm
DENSITY STRENGTH
WEIGHT (kg) MAX LOAD (kN) AVERAGE
(kg/dm3) (Mpa)
8115 2.404 338.074 15.026
8104 2.401 353.269 15.701 15.6
8063 2.389 361.119 16.050

DESCRIPTION: POZO 20% DUARATION: 14DAYS SLUMP: 12mm


DENSITY STRENGTH
WEIGHT (kg) MAX LOAD (kN) AVERAGE
(kg/dm3) (Mpa)

8090 2.397 365.080 16.226


8142 2.412 397.486 17.666 17.3
8188 2.426 408.503 18.156

DESCRIPTION: POZO 20% DUARATION: 21DAYS SLUMP: 12mm


DENSITY STRENGTH
WEIGHT (kg) MAX LOAD (kN) AVERAGE
(kg/dm3) (Mpa)
8100 2.400 441.199 19.609
8003 2.371 366.880 16.306 17.5
8134 2.410 372.353 16.549

DESCRIPTION: POZO 20% DUARATION: 28DAYS SLUMP: 12mm


DENSITY STRENGTH
WEIGHT (kg) MAX LOAD (kN) AVERAGE
(kg/dm3) (Mpa)

8010 2.373 374.153 16.629


8119 2.406 465.036 20.668 17.9
8074 2.392 372.065 16.536

- 53 -
POZZOLANA 80%
CONCRETE COMPRESSIVE STRENGHT TEST RESULTS FOR POZO
80%
DESCRIPTION: POZO 80% DUARATION: 7DAYS SLUMP: 13mm
DENSITY STRENGTH
WEIGHT (kg) MAX LOAD (kN) AVERAGE
(kg/dm3) (Mpa)
7823 2.318 63.122 2.805
7691 2.279 63.410 2.818 2.7
7690 2.279 56.785 2.524

DESCRIPTION: POZO 80% DUARATION: 14DAYS SLUMP: 13mm


DENSITY STRENGTH
WEIGHT (kg) MAX LOAD (kN) AVERAGE
(kg/dm3) (Mpa)

7559 2.240 67.443 2.997


7678 2.275 69.891 3.106 3.1
7725 2.289 69.748 3.100

DESCRIPTION: POZO 80% DUARATION: 21DAYS SLUMP: 13mm


DENSITY STRENGTH
WEIGHT (kg) MAX LOAD (kN) AVERAGE
(kg/dm3) (Mpa)

7808 2.313 78.461 3.487


7686 2.277 61.178 2.719 3.1
7808 2.313 70.828 3.148

DESCRIPTION: POZO 80% DUARATION: 28DAYS SLUMP: 13mm


DENSITY STRENGTH
WEIGHT (kg) MAX LOAD (kN) AVERAGE
(kg/dm3) (Mpa)
7683 2.276 80.808 3.591
7735 2.292 93.728 4.166 3.7
7623 2.259 72.988 3.244

- 54 -
POZZOLANA 50%
CONCRETE COMPRESSIVE STRENGHT TEST RESULTS FOR POZO
50%
DESCRIPTION: POZO 50% DUARATION: 7DAYS SLUMP: 12mm
DENSITY STRENGTH
WEIGHT (kg) MAX LOAD (kN) AVERAGE
(kg/dm3) (Mpa)
7873 2.333 211.328 9.392
7919 2.346 265.627 11.806 10.6
7990 2.367 240.998 10.711

DESCRIPTION: POZO 50% DUARATION: 14DAYS SLUMP: 12mm


DENSITY STRENGTH
WEIGHT (kg) MAX LOAD (kN) AVERAGE
(kg/dm3) (Mpa)

8006 2.372 262.315 11.658


7905 2.342 251.188 11.164 11.4
8014 2.375 256.913 11.418

DESCRIPTION: POZO 50% DUARATION: 21DAYS SLUMP: 12mm


DENSITY STRENGTH
WEIGHT (kg) MAX LOAD (kN) AVERAGE
(kg/dm3) (Mpa)
7932 2.350 279.238 12.411
7938 2.352 328.136 14.584 12.9
7812 2.315 262.675 11.674

DESCRIPTION: POZO 50% DUARATION: 28DAYS SLUMP: 12mm


DENSITY STRENGTH
WEIGHT (kg) MAX LOAD (kN) AVERAGE
(kg/dm3) (Mpa)

7928 2.349 262.891 11.684


8031 2.380 296.882 13.195 13.6
8093 2.398 359.822 15.992
(Source: laboratory test 2010)

- 55 -
Table 4.8: Average Compressive Strengths Incorporating Pozzolan at all Ages of Test.

Compressive Strength, Mpa


Mix
7-days 14-days 21-days 28-days

Control 16.4 20.1 20.2 25.7

Pozo 30% 16.9 20.2 23.7 25.9

Pozo 70% 4.4 5.2 6.8 7.6

Pozo 40% 13.1 13.8 15.8 16.1

Pozo 60% 6.9 7.6 8.8 11.9

Pozo 20% 15.6 17.3 17.5 17.9

Pozo 80% 2.7 3.1 3.1 3.7

Pozo 50% 10.6 11.4 12.9 13.6


(Sources: Laboratory Test, 2010)

Compressive strength was measured on concrete containing various combinations of


pozzolanic material. As presented in Tables 4.7 and 4.8.

All the mixes prepared with pozzolanic materials demonstrated lower compressive strength at
all ages as compared to that of corresponding control mix. However, partial replacement mix
of 30% pozzolana showed an early strength gain compared to the control and a significant
strength gain in later ages too.

The effect of pozzolanic replacement on the compressive strength can be seen in fig. 4.4, 4.5,
4.6, 4.7, 4.8, 4.9, and 4.10

These figures shows the compressive strengths of concrete prepared with 30%, 70%, 40%,
60%, 20%, 80%, and 50% pozzolanic material as cement replacement. The selection of these
ratios was on the basis of information from earlier research work conducted in the Civil
Engineering Department of Cape Coast polytechnic in 2009 that 30% pozzolan replacement
of cement recorded higher compressive strength and could be used as alternative to control.
[Hope and Nasir Odei, 2009. Unpublished project work].

Initially it was expected that pozzolanic concrete might show enhancement in strength at later
ages. As expected, mix with 30% replacement showed higher strengths as compared to the
control at all ages as well as higher strength compared to the other mix ratios at all ages.

- 56 -
18.0
16.0
Compressive strength, Mpa

14.0
12.0
10.0
8.0
7 days
6.0
4.0
2.0
0.0
Control Pozo 30% Pozo 70% Pozo 40% Pozo 60% Pozo 20% Pozo 80% Pozo 50%
Mix

Fig. 4.5: Effect Of Pozzolanic Replacement On The Compressive Strength Of Concrete At 7


Days

25.0

20.0
Compressive strength, Mpa

15.0

10.0 14 days

5.0

0.0
Control Pozo 30%Pozo 70%Pozo 40%Pozo 60%Pozo 20%Pozo 80%Pozo 50%
Mix

Fig. 4.6: Effect of pozzolanic replacement on the compressive strength of concrete at 14days

- 57 -
25.0

20.0
Compressive strength, Mpa

15.0

10.0 21 days

5.0

0.0
Control Pozo 30% Pozo 70% Pozo 40% Pozo 60% Pozo 20% Pozo 80% Pozo 50%
Mix

Fig. 4.7: Effect of pozzolanic replacement on the compressive strength of concrete at 21 days

30.0

25.0
Compressive strength, Mpa

20.0

15.0

28 days
10.0

5.0

0.0
Control Pozo 30% Pozo 70% Pozo 40% Pozo 60% Pozo 20% Pozo 80% Pozo 50%
Mix

Fig. 4.8: Effect of pozzolanic replacement on the compressive strength of concrete at 28 days

- 58 -
30.0

25.0
Compressive strength, Mpa

20.0

7 days
15.0
14 days
10.0 21 days

5.0 28 days

0.0
Control Pozo 30% Pozo 70% Pozo 40% Pozo 60% Pozo 20% Pozo 80% Pozo 50%
Mix

Fig. 4.9: Effect of pozzolanic replacement on the compressive strength of concrete at all ages

30.0 Control
Compressive Strength, MPa

Pozo 30%

Pozo 70%

20.0
Pozo 40%

Pozo 60%

Pozo 20%
10.0

0.0
0 7 14 days
Age, 21 28

Fig. 4.10: line diagram illustrating the effect of pozzolanic replacement on the compressive
strength of concrete at all age

- 59 -
Table 4.9: A One -Sample Statistics for Various Concrete From 7 -28 Days

N Mean Std. Deviation Std. Error Mean


Control 3 25.6897 .58950 .34035
Pozo 30% 3 25.9377 .92130 .53191
Pozo 70% 3 7.6283 .53804 .31064
Pozo 40% 3 16.0597 .63762 .36813
Pozo 60% 3 11.9230 .55942 .32298
Pozo 20% 3 17.9443 2.35922 1.36210
Pozo 80% 3 3.6670 .46567 .26886
Pozo 50% 3 13.6237 2.18576 1.26195

Table 4.10: 95% Confidence Interval of the Difference for Various Concrete From 7 -28 Days

Test Value = 0
95% Confidence Interval
Sig. (2- Mean of the Difference
t df tailed) Difference Lower Upper
Control 75.481 2 .000 25.68967 24.2253 27.1541
Pozo 30% 48.763 2 .000 25.93767 23.6490 28.2263
Pozo 70% 24.557 2 .002 7.62833 6.2918 8.9649
Pozo 40% 43.625 2 .001 16.05967 14.4757 17.6436
Pozo 60% 36.916 2 .001 11.92300 10.5333 13.3127
Pozo 20% 13.174 2 .006 17.94433 12.0837 23.8050
Pozo 80% 13.639 2 .005 3.66700 2.5102 4.8238
Pozo 50% 10.796 2 .008 13.62367 8.1939 19.0534

- 60 -
Confidence interval (interval estimator) is a formula that tells how to use sample data to
calculate an interval that estimates a population parameter. The chosen confidence level of
95% implies that the method used to construct each of the intervals has 5% long-run error
rate.

In the correct interpretation, the level of 95% refers to the success rate of the process being
used to estimate the proportions and does not refer to the population proportion itself.

Based on the information provided by the various mix proportions, we can be 95% confident
that the mean total of the samples are between their corresponding 95% confidence interval
of the differences. The intervals are relatively wide indicating that the values of the
population mean have not been estimated more precisely in either case. This is not surprising
given the reported sample size. Also it is noted that most of the intervals are relatively
overlapping and this may cause a sceptical statement that a particular sample has a higher
95% confidence level in terms of average 28 day compressive strength compared to others,
―however we are 95% confident that the intervals for the various mixes actually does contain
the true value p” this means that if we were to select many different samples of the same
mixes and construct the corresponding intervals, 95% of them would actually contain the
value of the population proportion.

- 61 -
Table 4.11: A Correlation Matrix for Various Concrete From 7 -28 Days
Contro Pozo Pozo Pozo Pozo Pozo Pozo Pozo
l 30% 70% 40% 60% 20% 80% 50%
Sig. (1- Control .031 .031 .473 .483 .173 .288 .388
tailed) Pozo
.031 .062 .496 .452 .204 .319 .357
30%
Pozo
.031 .062 .442 .486 .142 .257 .419
70%
Pozo
.473 .496 .442 .044 .300 .185 .139
40%
Pozo
.483 .452 .486 .044 .344 .229 .095
60%
Pozo
.173 .204 .142 .300 .344 .115 .439
20%
Pozo
.288 .319 .257 .185 .229 .115 .324
80%
Pozo
.388 .357 .419 .139 .095 .439 .324
50%

Table 4.12: An Explanation of the Total Variance of Concrete From 7 -28 Days
Initial Eigenvalues Extraction Sums of Squared Loadings
Compon
ent Total % of Variance Cumulative % Total % of Variance Cumulative %

1 4.673 58.409 58.409 4.673 58.409 58.409

2 3.327 41.591 100.000 3.327 41.591 100.000

3 4.054E-16 5.067E-15 100.000

4 1.252E-16 1.565E-15 100.000

5 6.385E-17 7.981E-16 100.000

6 -7.461E-18 -9.326E-17 100.000

7 -1.245E-16 -1.557E-15 100.000

8 -1.931E-16 -2.414E-15 100.000

Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.

- 62 -
CHAPTER FIVE

CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

5.1 CONCLUSION

This study was conducted to assess the performance of concrete cubes utilizing natural
pozzolanic material as a partial replacement to ordinary Portland cement. The following
conclusions were drawn from the present study.

 The partial replacement mix of 30% pozzolana attained the highest compressive
strength after 28 days as proved by other researchers in earlier works.

 Pozzolana concrete could be used in project when early age strength is required
without having detrimental effect on the early age or later age strength development.
The early age compressive strength in this research was found to be higher than that
of Portland Cement concrete (Control)

 The inclusion of natural pozzolana in the concrete as a partial replacement was not
detrimental to the properties of concrete. Slump loss, compaction factor and
compressive strength were similar to that of corresponding control mix.

 Partial replacement mixes of 20%. 40%, 50%, 60%, 70% and 80% Pozzolana did not
attain the design strength of 20 N/mm2 after 28 days.

- 63 -
5.2 RECOMMENDATIONS

Generally the use of pozzolana has the advantage of lower costs and better durability.
After appraising the results and conclusion from the study the following recommendations
were made:

 Compressive strength and workability tests suggested that pozzolan, could be


substituted for Portland cement at up to 30% in the production of concrete with no
loss in workability or strength.

 The pozzolanic reactivity could be significantly improved by using one or a


combination of several treatment methods. However, all methods may not be feasible
to achieve the optimum level. Therefore, it is strongly recommended that, besides
employing various treatment methods, the feasibility and practical applicability of
each method needs to be investigated in greater details.

- 64 -
REFERENCES

1. Aitcin P.C and Neville A. ―High-Performance Concrete Demystified,‖ Concrete


International, Vol. 15, No. 1 pp. 21-26, 1993][O.E. Gjorv, ―High Strenght Concrete,‖
Advances in Concrete Technology,. Malhotra V. M, Ed., CANMET, Energy, Mines
sand Resources, Canada, 1994, pp. 19-82.
2. Alhoziamy A.; Soroushian P. and F. Mirza, ―Effects of Curing Conditions and Age
on Chloride Permeability of Fly Ash Mortar‖, ACI Material Journal, Vol. 93 No. 1,
pp. 87-95, Jan-Feb 1996.
3. Coal Fly Ash journal. (2009), pp.2
4. Cook D.J., ― Natural Pozzolana,‖ Cement Replacement Material Vol. 3, Editor,
Swamy R.N., Surry Press, UK, 1986
5. Dr. Muhammad Iqbal khan (PI) Dr. Abdurrahman M. Alhozaimy (2005). King Saud
University College of engineering research center. Final research report no. 423 / 33.
6. Gjorv O.E ―High Strenght Concrete,‖ Advances in Concrete Technology,V. M.
Malhotra, Ed., CANMET, Energy, Mines sand Resources, Canada, 1994, pp. 19-82
7. Guide for MEASURING, Transporting, and Placing Concrete.‖ ACI Committee 304,
ACI Manual of Concrete Practice, Part 2, 2003.
8. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Concrete#Concrete_production, 21/12/09
9. ICAR, Summary of Concrete Workability Test Method, 2001
10. Malhotra V.M. and. Mehta P.K, ―Pozzolanic and Cementitious Materials-Advances in
Concrete Technology,‖ Vol. I, Gordon ND Breach Publishers, Amsterdam,
Netherlands, 1996
11. Mehta P. K. and Monteiro P.J.M, ―Concrete Structure, Properties and Materials,‖
Prentice Hall, USA. 1995
12. Mehta P.K., ―Studies on Blended Portland Cement Containing Santorin Earth,‖
Cement and Concrete Research, Vol. 11 pp. 507-518, 1981
13. Microsoft ® Encarta ® 2009. © 1993-2008 Microsoft Corporation
14. Nehdi, M. (2001) Tenary and quaternary cement for sustainable development.
Concrete International, 23 (4), PP.35-42.
15. Neville A.M, ―Properties of Concrete,‖ Fourth Edition, Longman, UK, 1996.
16. Sumrerng Rukzon,‖Construction Building and Design‖, SAGE publication,
London,2009.

- 65 -
APPENDIX A

- 66 -
- 67 -
- 68 -
APPENDIX B

DESIGN MIX CALCULATION

It was supposed that the concrete is required for use on roadwork, that it is to be
compacted by power-operated machines, that OPC is to be used, that the aggregate will be
supplied in two sizes and that the concrete is to have a minimum strength of 20 C at 28
days. Reference to Table 1, shows that under such conditions the minimum strength may be
expected to be about 60 percent of the average strength.

The average strength to be aimed at in this design procedure would, therefore, be

𝟐𝟎
× 𝟏𝟎𝟎 = 𝟑𝟑. 𝟑𝟑 ≈ 𝟑𝟒 𝑵/𝒎𝒎𝟐
𝟔𝟎
Water cement ratio = 0.55

Workability required = medium

Aggregate size and shape = 19mm Angular

Total Aggregate weight after sieve analysis test= 8.930g

(See Tables 4.3 and 4.4 for sieve analysis test results)

𝟗 𝒌𝒈−𝟖.𝟗𝟑 𝒌𝒈 ×𝟏𝟎𝟎
Percentage error =
𝟖.𝟗𝟑 𝒌𝒈

= 𝟎. 𝟕𝟖%

Appendix B. Table 1a

1 2 3 4
19 100 92.0 100 92 100 93 100 93
10 45 48.4 55 52 65 57 75 62
5 30 30.0 35 35 42 42 48 48
No 7 23 30.4 28 34 35 41 42 46
No 14 16 22.3 21 26 28 29 34 36
No 25 8 16.0 14 18 21 23 27 26
No 52 2 10.0 3 11 5 14 12 16
No 100 0 0.0 0 0 0 0 1.5 0
Source: Laboratory test, 2010

Grading curve selected from sieve analysis = curve 4 (Appendix B. Table 1a)

- 69 -
Aggregate cement Ratio (for medium size aggregate) from table 3 = 1:6.4

Percentage of fine to course aggregate = 48%

RATIOS

W/C : CEMENT : AGGREGATE

𝟎. 𝟓𝟓 ∶ 𝟏 ∶ 𝟔. 𝟒
𝟒𝟖 𝟒𝟖
𝟎. 𝟓𝟓 ∶ 𝟏 ∶ × 𝟔. 𝟒 ∶ 𝟔. 𝟒 − × 𝟔. 𝟒
𝟏𝟎𝟎 𝟏𝟎𝟎

𝟎. 𝟓𝟓 ∶ 𝟏 ∶ 𝟑. 𝟎𝟕 ∶ 𝟑. 𝟑𝟑

Comparing the design ratio, 1:3.07:3.33 to the natural ratios, then the mix ratio of 1:2:4 for
the design.

- 70 -