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Introduction to LIDAR NPS Lidar Workshop May 24, 2007 Joe Liadsky Optech Incorporated © Copyright
Introduction to LIDAR
NPS Lidar Workshop
May 24, 2007
Joe Liadsky
Optech Incorporated
© Copyright 2007, Optech Incorporated. All rights reserved.
Lidar topics Basic principle of operation Desirable attributes and features of a system Examples of
Lidar topics
Basic principle of operation
Desirable attributes and features of a system
Examples of data produced
© Copyright 2007, Optech Incorporated. All rights reserved.
LIDAR: Light Detection and Ranging In addition to ranging, Lidar systems can provide: additional information
LIDAR: Light Detection and Ranging
In addition to ranging, Lidar systems can
provide:
additional information about the target (for classification)
information about the transmission path (e.g. atmospheric
lidar to measure concentration of elements in the
atmosphere)
Talk will focus on lidar system for obtaining
spatial information about a target i.e. mapping
and imaging systems
© Copyright 2007, Optech Incorporated. All rights reserved.
Lidar Principle of Operation ` reflectance or backscattering coefficient (Rayleigh, Mie, Raman, fluorescence)
Lidar Principle of Operation
`
reflectance or backscattering coefficient (Rayleigh, Mie, Raman,
fluorescence)
extinction coefficient (absorption, scattering)
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Choice Of Laser Wavelength Characteristics of transmission medium Absorption of atmosphere Transmission of water
Choice Of Laser Wavelength
Characteristics of transmission medium
Absorption of atmosphere
Transmission of water (bathymetry applications)
Reflectance of targets
Eye-safety considerations
Availability of suitable lasers and detectors
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Atmospheric Spectral Transmission 2500 2000 SOLAR IRRADIANCE CURVE OUTSIDE ATMOSPHERE SOLAR IRRADIANCE CURVE AT SEA
Atmospheric Spectral Transmission
2500
2000
SOLAR IRRADIANCE CURVE OUTSIDE
ATMOSPHERE
SOLAR IRRADIANCE CURVE AT SEA LEVEL
CURVE FOR BLACKBODY AT 5900 K
1500
0
3
H
2 0
1000
0
2, H 2 0
H
2
0
H
2 0
H
2 0
500
H
2 0
H 2 0, CO 2
H 2 0, CO 2
0
3
0
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
1.2
1.4
1.6
1.8
2.0
2.2
2.4
2.6
WAVELENGTH ( ) - μm
(Lidar applications must balance transmission and absorption)
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SPECTRAL IRRADIANCE (E ) -W m-2
μm-1
The ‘Jerlov’ Curves Diffuse attenuation in sea water vs.wavelength Credit:Credit: JerlovJerlov,, N.G.,N.G.,
The ‘Jerlov’ Curves
Diffuse attenuation in sea
water vs.wavelength
Credit:Credit: JerlovJerlov,, N.G.,N.G., 1976.1976. MarineMarine
OpticsOptics,, ElsevierElsevier ScientificScientific Pub.Pub. Co.,Co.,
Amsterdam,Amsterdam, 231231 pp.pp.
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Spectral Reflectance Of Various Target Types LEGEND 1 Grass 2 Lime Stone 3 Sand, dry
Spectral Reflectance Of Various Target Types
LEGEND
1 Grass
2 Lime Stone
3 Sand, dry
4 Snow, old
5 Fir tree
6 Asphalt, wet
7 Water
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Radiometric Aspects: Target Reflectance Lambertian-type surface (most natural surfaces) Specular-type surface (glass,
Radiometric Aspects: Target Reflectance
Lambertian-type surface
(most natural surfaces)
Specular-type surface
(glass, water….smooth-wet surfaces)
Weather conditions affect reflectance properties: e.g. surface wetness
changes reflectance from Lambertian to specular
Maximum range decreases dramatically for combination of steep, smooth,
wet and black surface properties
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Ranging techniques Pulsed time of flight CW systems Modulate amplitude and measure phase shift between
Ranging techniques
Pulsed time of flight
CW systems
Modulate amplitude and measure phase shift between
received and transmitted beams
Modulate frequency (chirp) and mix the received signal
with transmitted signal
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Detection schemes Direct detection APD or PMT operating in linear mode APD or PMT in
Detection schemes
Direct detection
APD or PMT operating in linear mode
APD or PMT in Geiger mode (single photon detection;
photon counting)
Coherent detection
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Direct detection time of flight Laser emits a short pulse which travels to the target
Direct detection time of flight
Laser emits a short pulse which travels to the
target and is reflected back to the receiver
Range is determined by measuring the time of
flight (using the speed of propagation, etc.)
Time interval can be measured with a precision
of 67 ps (corresponding to 1 cm range precision)
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Time of Flight T 0 pulse t Return pulse © Copyright 2007, Optech Incorporated. All
Time of Flight
T 0 pulse
t
Return pulse
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Radiometric Apsects: Received Power A t 2 P R ( ) = P s l
Radiometric Apsects: Received Power
A
t
2
P R
(
) =
P
s
l
2
o
a
R
= received signal power from transmitted laser pulse after scattering/reflecting
P
s
from target
= power of the laser pulse
P
l
= “effective Lambertian” reflectivity of the target
A r = effective collection area of the optical receiver
t
R
= slant range to the target from “sensor”
o = optical transmission efficiency of all optical components in the ALS
a = transmission efficiency of the atmosphere between sensor and target (at range R)
= exp (- R) (e.g. ~ 0.3/km for 10 km visibility)
Note:
system hardware parameters
operating environment parameters
P , A
R
l
r ,
o
,
t
a ,
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Spatial Characteristics of Laser Beam Diverging Gaussian beam Spot size (footprint) at given range is
Spatial Characteristics of Laser Beam
Diverging Gaussian beam
Spot size (footprint) at given range is typically given as
the radius or the diameter of the contour where the
intensity has fallen to either 1/e or to 1/e2 of the intensity
of the peak.
I
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Return Pulse Characteristics Return pulse shape is result of interaction of Gaussian beam Target characteristics
Return Pulse Characteristics
Return pulse shape is result of interaction of
Gaussian beam
Target characteristics influence return pulse
shape
Sloping or rough terrain produces wider return pulses
Multiple targets separated by small distances produce
complex waveforms
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Airborne Laser Mapping System © Copyright 2007, Optech Incorporated. All rights reserved.
Airborne Laser Mapping System
© Copyright 2007, Optech Incorporated. All rights reserved.
Airborne Laser Terrain Mapper - ALTM 3100 Rapid 3-D digital elevation data Computer Rack Sensor
Airborne Laser Terrain Mapper - ALTM 3100
Rapid 3-D digital
elevation data
Computer Rack
Sensor
Head
Up to 100,000
measurements/sec
Fits in virtually any aircraft
Measures IR intensity, X,Y& Z
Vertical resolution: ~ 5 to 10 cm
Horizontal resolution: ~ 15 cm
Operational altitude: up to 3 km
Area coverage: up to 50 km /h
Pilot Display
Operator & Flight
Navigation
Interface Laptop
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Functional Block Diagram LIDAR SCANNER TRANSCEIVER POS (IRS & GPS) SYSTEM CONTROL AND DATA ACQUISITION
Functional Block Diagram
LIDAR
SCANNER
TRANSCEIVER
POS
(IRS & GPS)
SYSTEM CONTROL AND DATA
ACQUISITION COMPUTER
OPERATOR
I/F
DATA
STORAGE
Lidar Transceiver - Generates laser beam and captures laser energy
scattered/reflected from target
Scanner
- Moves laser beam across aircraft track
POS
- Measures “sensor” position and orientation
Operator I/F - Permits operator interaction (control/monitor) with system
Data Storage - Captures all AIRBORNE system data required for generation of x,
y, z “target” coordinates
Computer - Integrates/controls interaction of all of the above
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ALTM (Airborne Laser Terrain Mapper) System measures and outputs: Range Scan angle Sensor position (in
ALTM (Airborne Laser Terrain Mapper)
System measures and outputs:
Range
Scan angle
Sensor position (in a given geodetic reference frame)
Sensor orientation (roll, pitch, heading)
Signal amplitude (intensity)
Post processing software:
Calculates X,Y,Z coordinates (in the given geodetic
reference frame)
Performs filtering and other functions
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Data Processing Workflow Download data from removable hard drive Download GPS data from airborne system
Data Processing Workflow
Download data from removable hard drive
Download GPS data from airborne system and
base-station
Compute aircraft trajectory from GPS & IMU data
Compute laser points X,Y,Z
Run (third party) application software
© Copyright 2007, Optech Incorporated. All rights reserved.
Key System Attributes Accuracy Maximum altitude Area coverage (swath width) Spot distribution/scan pattern Laser
Key System Attributes
Accuracy
Maximum altitude
Area coverage (swath width)
Spot distribution/scan pattern
Laser pulse repetition frequency
Spot size (footprint)
Multiple return pulse capability
ALTM Gemini
367 sq km/hr
© Copyright 2007, Optech Incorporated. All rights reserved.
The fundamental question : Why use LIDAR? LIDAR offers advantages over more conventional means of
The fundamental question : Why use LIDAR?
LIDAR offers advantages over more conventional means of survey
that include:
Day or night operation
Efficient acquisition of millions of elevation points per hour
Faster coordinate acquisition than traditional methods
All digital: no intermediate steps to generate digital XYZ
Rapid turnaround: Capable of “overnight” processing
Captures multiple returns per pulse with intensity information
Dense data
Accurate: Elevation +/- 10 cm (or better)
Airborne: Easy to mobilize and demobilize
Non-Intrusive method of survey (airborne) capable of accessing remote
areas
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The ALTM Advantage “4 - Returns per Pulse” Optech’s ALTM 3100 has the distinct feature
The ALTM Advantage
“4 - Returns per Pulse”
Optech’s ALTM 3100 has the distinct feature of
recording 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and Last returns + Intensity for
each pulse
Very useful
for forestry studies
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Multiple Returns First Returns Second Returns Third Returns Last Returns All Returns © Copyright 2007,
Multiple Returns
First Returns
Second Returns
Third Returns
Last Returns
All Returns
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Multiple Returns First Returns Second Returns Third Returns Last Returns All Returns © Copyright 2007,
Multiple Returns
First Returns
Second Returns
Third Returns
Last Returns
All Returns
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First return all data © Copyright 2007, Optech Incorporated. All rights reserved.
First return all data
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Second return building outline, trees & wires © Copyright 2007, Optech Incorporated. All rights reserved.
Second return
building outline, trees & wires
© Copyright 2007, Optech Incorporated. All rights reserved.
Removing the Trees Visualization software may aid in displaying detailed imagery and geo-referenced information for
Removing the Trees
Visualization software may aid in displaying
detailed imagery and geo-referenced information
for area planning purposes
SURFACE REGION
IN RECEIVER FOV
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Removing the Trees Bare Earth models may be generated to sub- canopy details © Copyright
Removing the Trees
Bare Earth models may be generated to sub-
canopy details
© Copyright 2007, Optech Incorporated. All rights reserved.
Removing the Trees Contours may be plotted for accurate depiction of surrounding areas © Copyright
Removing the Trees
Contours may be plotted for accurate depiction
of surrounding areas
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ALTM 3100’s Intensity Capabilities 25cm spot spacing, 900m AGL © Copyright 2007, Optech Incorporated. All
ALTM 3100’s Intensity Capabilities
25cm spot spacing, 900m AGL
© Copyright 2007, Optech Incorporated. All rights reserved.
ALTM 3100’s Intensity Capabilities © Copyright 2007, Optech Incorporated. All rights reserved.
ALTM 3100’s Intensity Capabilities
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ALTM Composite Elevation Model © Copyright 2007, Optech Incorporated. All rights reserved.
ALTM Composite Elevation Model
© Copyright 2007, Optech Incorporated. All rights reserved.
ALTM 3100’s 4 Simultaneous Pulse Returns – plus intensity Grey-scale intensity image © Copyright 2007,
ALTM 3100’s 4 Simultaneous Pulse Returns
– plus intensity
Grey-scale intensity image
© Copyright 2007, Optech Incorporated. All rights reserved.
ALTM 3100’s 4 Simultaneous Pulse Returns – plus intensity Colour-coded elevation combined with intensity data
ALTM 3100’s 4 Simultaneous Pulse Returns
– plus intensity
Colour-coded elevation combined with intensity data
© Copyright 2007, Optech Incorporated. All rights reserved.
ALTM 3100 Capabilities Digital Elevation Model Active Laser Photo © Copyright 2007, Optech Incorporated. All
ALTM 3100 Capabilities
Digital Elevation Model
Active Laser Photo
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How SHOALS Works Initial Laser Pulse Surface Return Bottom Return © Copyright 2007, Optech Incorporated.
How SHOALS Works
Initial Laser
Pulse
Surface Return
Bottom Return
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Introduction Nadir Angle 20º Surface Spot Diameter (2.5m approx) Typically Measures 2 to 3 Secchi
Introduction
Nadir Angle
20º
Surface Spot
Diameter
(2.5m approx)
Typically Measures
2 to 3 Secchi
Depth
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Performance: Depth penetration KD m 3.5 (day); 5.0 (night) Coastal waters K(m -1 ) D
Performance: Depth penetration
KD m 3.5 (day);
5.0 (night)
Coastal waters
K(m -1 )
D
m (day)
D
m (night)
Very Clean
0.07
50m
71m
Clean
0.10
35m
50m
Typical
0.15
23m
33m
Typical
0.20
18m
25m
Dirty
0.30
12m
17m
Very Dirty
0.50
7.0m
10m
© Copyright 2007, Optech Incorporated. All rights reserved.
ALTM 3100 data © Copyright 2007, Optech Incorporated. All rights reserved.
ALTM 3100 data
© Copyright 2007, Optech Incorporated. All rights reserved.