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ПРАКТИЧЕСКИЙ КУРС

АНГЛИЙСКОГО ЯЗЫКА
2 курс

Под редакцией В.Д.АРАКИНА


И здание пятое, переработанное и дополненное

Допущено
М инист ерст вом общего и профессионального образования
Российской Федерации в качестве учебника для ст удент ов
педагогических вузов по специальност и «Иност ранные я зы к и »

Москва

1998
ББК 81.2 Англ-923
П69

В.Д.Аракин , Л.И.Селянина, А.В.Куценко,


Л.Г. Любимова» И.В.Михеева» В.В.Попова,
М.А.Соколова, Н.И.Крылова» В.С.Денисова

Рецензент:
кафедра английского язы ка Казанского
государственного педагогического института
(зав. кафедрой доц. З.З.Гатиатуллина)

Практический курс английского языка. 2 курс.


П69 Учеб. для пед. вузов по спец. «Иностр. яз.» Л.И.Се-
лянина, Л.Г.Любимова и др.; под ред. [В.Д.Аракина];
5-е изд., перераб. и доп. - М., Гуманит. изд. центр
В ЛА Д ОС, 1998. - 520 с.: ил.
ISBN 5-691-00199-Х
Учебник является второй частью серии комплексных учебников
для I-V курсов педагогических вузов. Основная цель ~ развитие
навыков устной и письменной речи.
5-е издание (4-е - 1993 г.) учебника значительно переработано,
усилена его профессиональная направленность, упражнения пере­
смотрены с точки зрения их коммуникативности.
ББК 81.2 Англ-923

© Коллектив авторов, 1998


© «Гуманитарный издательский
центр ВЛАДОС*, 1998
ISBN 5-691-00199-Х ©Все права защищены
ПРЕДИСЛОВИЕ

Настоящая книга является второй частью серии комплексных учебни­


ков английского языка под общим названием «Практический курс англий­
ского языка» и предназначается для студентов второго курса факультетов
и отдалений английского языка педагогических институтов.
Учебник рассчитан на дальнейшее развитие навыков устной и пись­
менной речи в результате овладения речевыми образцами, содержащими
новые лексические и грамматические явления, а также на более углублен­
ное изучение отдельных аспектов языка в предусмотренное учебным пла­
ном время. Одновременно с этим закрепляются уже известные из первой
части речевые образцы и составляющие их словарные единицы, а также
фонетический и грамматический материал. Кроме того, учебник знакомит
студентов с оригинальными образцами английской и американской прозы
и поэзии, а также рядом явлений, характерных для быта, традиций и обра­
за жизни англичан.
Учебник содержит три раздела:
1. Основной курс (Essential Course).
2. Упражнения по интонации (Exercises in Intonation).
3. Упражнения по грамматике (Grammar Exercises).
Основной курс (авторы [В. Д. Аракин j Л. И. Селянина, А. В. Куценко,
Л. Г. Любимова, И. В. Михеева, В. В. Попова) состоит из 9 уроков. В основу
его положен тематический принцип. Однако, ввиду того что авторы прида­
ют большое значение работе над оригинальными текстами в процессе обу­
чения языку, было сочтено необходимым построить учебный материал в
.двух планах, дополняющих друг друга, что и нашло свое отражение в
структуре уроков, каждый из которых состоит из двух частей (I и И). Пер­
вая часть урока содержит оригинальные тексты, и главный упор в ней де­
лается на углубленную работу над речевыми образцами, на изучение, тол­
кование, перевод и пересказ текста и т. д., а также на расширение словар­
ного запаса студентов и на анализ изучаемых лексических единиц (выяв­
ление многозначности, подбор синонимов, антонимов и т. д.) в целях раз­
вития навыков устной (в том числе и неподготовленной) и письменной
речи. Вторая часть урока представляет собой дальнейшую разработку со­
ответствующей темы и рассчитана на расширение запаса речевых образ­
цов и лексических единиц.
Такое чередование материала и задач, которые ставятся при прохож­
дении каждой части урока, имеет также преимущества психологического
и методического порядка, так как позволяет внести разнообразие в подачу
материала и использовать разные виды работы для его закрепления и ак­
тивизации в речи.
Различный подход к изучению материала в первой и второй частях
Урока определяет и несколько различную структуру построения каждой
части. В первой части урока основному тексту предшествует список рече­
вых образцов (Speech Patterns), взятых из текста, с примерами их употреб­
ления в речи и упражнениями на закрепление и активизацию. Отбор ре­

3
чевых образцов обусловлен их употребительностью в речи, определенной
последовательностью прохождения грамматического материала1 и, в от­
дельных случаях, необходимостью повторения пройденного. Предтексто-
вое введение речевых образцов объясняется необходимостью интенсивной
работы над ними на протяжении всего урока.
Тексты, на которых строится работа в первой части каждого урока,
взяты из произведений английских и американских авторов XX века (все
тексты несколько сокращены). По своему содержанию они связаны с те­
мой второй части урока. Работа над оригинальным текстом на 2 курсе,
кроме его фонетической проработки (подробнее см. с. 7), предполагает его
краткий лексико-грамматический анализ, выявление в отдельных случаях
подтекста, толкование имеющихся в нем реалий, перевод текста на рус­
ский язык, наконец, обсуждение его содержания, идейной направленности
и некоторых особенностей языка и стиля автора.
За текстом следуют лексические пояснения (Vocabulary Notes), рассчи­
танные не только на толкование некоторых слов из текста, но и на расши­
рение лингвистической базы студентов. Изучение Vocabulary Notes начи­
нается после первичной проработки текста и может выполняться студента­
ми самостоятельно, с последующим контролем (на занятии) правильного
понимания ими значений слов и их употребления в речи (путем опроса,
проверки составленных студентами примеров на употребление активной
лексики, перевода предложений с русского языка на английский и т.д.).
Проверка эта, естественно, сопровождается дополнительными пояснения­
ми преподавателя (в менее продвинутых группах соответствующие поясне­
ния могут предшествовать самостоятельной работе студентов над лекси­
ческими пояснениями).
За лексическими пояснениями идет список слов и словосочетаний
(Essential Vocabulary I), взятых из текста и, частично, из лексических пояс­
нений, которые входят в активный словарь студента (имеются в виду лек­
сические единицы, впервые вводимые или впервые закрепляемые в дан­
ном уроке).
Вторая часть каждого урока начинается с текста по теме, который до­
полняется диалогами, составленными авторами или заимствованными из
английских учебников и лингафонных курсов. Работа над текстами второй
части не предполагает углубленной языковой проработки (и не всегда тре­
бует полного перевода), она рассчитана на изучение их содержания и лек­
сики и на практическую работу по использованию этой лексики в устной
речи.
За текстами следует список слов и словосочетаний (Essential Vocabula­
ry II), который в ряде случаев сопровождается пояснениями или примера­
ми употребления данных слов и словосочетаний (там, где требуется иллюс­
трация их употребления в разных речевых ситуациях).
Весь активный словарь основной части учебника равен примерно
850 единицам (из них около 550 слов-значений и 300 словосочетаний раз­
ного типа). Отбор слов я каждом уроке определяется: 1) их употребитель­
ностью, 2) темой урока, 3) практической необходимостью расширения сло­
варного запаса за счет синонимов, производных и т. д.

1 Так, первые три урока рассчитаны главным образом на закрепление


наиболее употребительных речевых образцов с сослагательным наклоне­
нием; в уроках 4—6 даны речевые образцы, выражающие модальность;
в уроках 7—9 — речевые образцы с некоторыми видами неличных форм
глаголов.

4
За списком слов и словосочетаний в обеих частях каждого урока сле­
з е т серия упражнений, рассчитанных на постепенное развитие навыков
устной (в том числе неподготовленной) и письменной речи и обеспечиваю­
щих прочное закрепление вводимого языкового материала в результате
многократного повторения и использования его в процессе речевого обще­
ния.
В основу всей системы упражнений данного учебника положены сле­
дующие методические принципы: упражнения даны в порядке нарастания
языковых трудностей и постепенного перехода от упражнений репродук­
тивного типа к упражнениям продуктивного типа; устные упражнения че­
редуются с письменными.
Упражнения рассчитаны как на самостоятельную работу студентов,
так и на выполнение их в аудитории под руководством преподавателя
(к последним относятся упражнения с заданиями типа Answer the questions,
Correct WTong statements, а также на составление неподготовленных диало­
гов, проведение бесед на пройденную тему и т. п.).
Упражнения, выполняемые студентами самостоятельно, проверяются в
аудитории либо с помощью преподавателя (например, переводы и все уп­
ражнения творческого характера), либо по ключам (например, упражне­
ния на заполнение пропусков и т.д.) с последующим обсуждением неяс­
ных для студентов моментов. (Во время такой проверки преподаватель ра­
ботает с отдельными студентами.)
Помимо упражнений, данных в учебнике, каждый студент должен са­
мостоятельно выполнить серию лабораторных упражнений1, рассчитанных
на дальнейшее закрепление новой лексики и речевых образцов, развитие
автоматизированных навыков их употребления, совершенствования про­
изношения студентов, а также на развитие навыков понимания иностран­
ной речи на слух. Эти упражнения предназначены для самостоятельной
(устной и письменной) работы студентов со звукозаписывающей аппара­
турой по схеме: предложение, наговоренное диктором, — пауза для выпол­
нения задания (перевода, заполнения пропусков и т.д.) — ключ, нагово­
ренный диктором, — пауза для повторения ключа или исправления оши­
бок. По этой схеме, рассчитанной на самоконтроль, построены все упраж­
нения тренировочного характера. Упражнения на развитие навыка пони­
мания иностранной речи на слух, дающие, как правило, дополнительную
информацию по теме, предполагают последующую работу по ним в ауди­
тории (опрос на контроль понимания, обсуждение их содержания и т.д.).
Домашняя и аудиторная работа по учебнику проводится параллельно:
фонетическая отработка текстов (разметка, повторение за диктором) по
разделу Laboratory Exercises предшествует или непосредственно следует за
первичным чтением и анализом текста (в зависимости от языковой подго­
товленности студентов, качества их фонетических навыков и т.д.), а лек­
сико-грамматические лабораторные упражнения включаются несколько
позднее, после введения и первичного закрепления основных текстов и
языкового материала2.

1 Задания к лабораторным упражнениям (Laboratory Exercises) даны в


конце каждого урока.
2 С записью текстов этих упражнений (в том числе упражнений на
разметку текста и повторение его за диктором) на ферромагнитной ленте,
а также текстовыми ключами к ним можно познакомиться в лаборатории
звуко-свето-техники факультетов иностранных языков МПГУ им. В. И. Ле­
нина.

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Каждое аудиторное занятие рассчитано на 2 часа; примерно столько
же требуется на подготовку к нему дома и около одного часа на выполне­
ние лабораторной работы. На прохождение каждого урока требуется око­
ло 24 аудиторных часов (которые распределяются поровну на каждую
часть). Всего основная часть учебника рассчитана на 200—215 аудиторных
часов. Остающееся в учебном плане время для работы по практике языка
отводится на работу по текстам для домашнего чтения (1—2 часа в неде­
лю). по газетному материалу и на другие виды работ, выходящие за пред­
елы данного учебника.
Материал для углубленной практической работы по разным аспектам
языка (фонетике и грамматике) дан в двух других разделах учебника. Они
составлены с учетом тематики, языкового материала и последовательности
его изучения в основном курсе учебника и рассчитаны на параллельное с
ним изучение в специально отведенное время (в пределах существующей
для этих аспектов сетки часов).
Раздел Exercises in Intonation (авторы М. А. Соколова, Н. И. Крылова,
И. С. Тихонова, Г. А. Шабадаш) предназначен для интенсивной работы над
английской интонацией и является продолжением аналогичного раздела в
учебнике для 1-го курса.
Основная цель раздела обучение студентов правильному воспроизве­
дению и самостоятельному употреблению в речи отобранных для 2-го кур­
са интонационных структур.
Раздел состоит из серии обучающих, контролирующих и творческих
упражнений, предназначенных для выработки автоматизированных навы­
ков воспроизведения и употребления отобранных интонационных струк­
тур. Работа над интонационной структурой начинается с односинтагменно-
го предложения и, пройдя определенные зтапы. завершается употреблени­
ем этой структуры в спонтанной речи. Обучающие упражнения предна­
значены в основном для лабораторной работы, контролирующие и твор­
ческие — для работы в аудитории. Последовательность упражнений опре­
деляется методической целесообразностью порядка работы над ними. Спе­
циальных упражнений на транскрибирование, интонирование и изобра­
жение интонации графически в разделе кет, но такое задание может быть
дано в отношении любого упражнения. В конце раздела предлагаются не­
сколько стихотворений и тексты, над которыми по заданию работа идет
параллельно с соответствующим уроком по практике речи.
В описании интонационных структур авторы следуют за теорией инто­
нации О'Коннора и Дж. Арнольда, описанной в книге J. D. O ’Connor,
G. F. Arnold "Intonation of Colloquial English”. Разметка дается также в соот­
ветствии с этой теорией, но в несколько упрощенном виде.
В разделе использованы упражнения и тексты из книг J. D. O'Connor,
G. F. Arnold "Intonation of Colloquial English”, J. D. O'Connor "A Course of
English Pronunciation”, “Ungaphone English Course”, “Пособие по практи­
ческой фонетике для студентов 1—3 курсов английского языка" и др.
Раздел Grammar Exercises (авторы В. С. Денисова) содержит дополни­
тельный тренировочный материал по грамматике английского языка, име­
ющий целью выработку прочных навыков грамматически правильной
речи. Этой общей задаче подчинены как характер упражнений, так и ха­
рактер подобранного языкового материала. Кроме активного словаря ос­
новной части учебника авторы раздела стремились максимально использо­
вать оригинальные примеры преимущественно разговорной речи из про­

6
изведений современных английских авторов (Дж. Голсуорси. С. Моэма,
Дж. Олдриджа, Ч. Сноу, К. Мэнсфилд, Айрис Мердок и др.). По своему со­
держанию этот раздел охватывает тему «Глагол» и включает повторение
времен и пассива, а также новый материал: косвенные наклонения, мо­
дальные глаголы и неличные формы глагола в объеме и трактовке посиль­
ной и целесообразной для второго года обучения. При составлении упраж­
нений авторы использовали некоторые примеры из известной у нас прак­
тической грамматики английского языка А. Томсона и А. М артинета
(A. J. Thomson and А. V. Martinet "A Practical English Grammar for Foreign
Students”, London, 1964), а также из пособия по разговорной речи С. Алле­
на (W. Stannard Allen. “Living English Structure", London, N. Y., Toronto,
1954). По сравнению с разделом упражнений по грамматике в учебнике
для 1-го курса настоящий раздел почти не содержит пояснений к упражне­
ниям в виде «примечаний» (Notes), так как студенты второго года обуче­
ния уже могут сами пользоваться имеющимися у нас грамматиками1.
В пятом издании учебника по сравнению с четвертым произведены
следующие изменения:
1. В разделе Essential Course
1) Частично заменен текст и упражнения первой (основной) части
урока (ур. 3 — Introducing London). Тексты из второй части уроков 3, 7, 8
частично заменены. Доработаны некоторые тексты второй части уроков
3, 7, 8.
2) Имеется раздел, целью которого является упорядочение и углубле­
ние обучения студентов письменной речи. В конце каждого урока дается
краткий информационный материал о правилах написания параграфа,
изложения, эссе и т. п. Этот материал сопровождается иллюстративными
примерами и заданиями2.
3) Даны задания на интерпретацию текста, поскольку авторы считают
необходимым уже на этом этапе учить студентов воспринимать текст в
единстве его формы и содержания.
4) С целью дальнейшего усиления направленности учебника на уст­
ную речь даются речевые упражнения, причем особое внимание уделяет­
ся ролевой игре3.
5) Изменены лабораторные работы с учетом современных требований.
Авторский коллектив считает своим долгом выразить благодарность за
помощь, оказанную в работе над учебником, старшему преподавателю ка­
федры психологии МПГУ им. В. И. Ленина Л. В. Поповой.

Авторы

1 Бархударов Л. С., Штелинг Д А. Грамматика английского языка. М.,


1965; Ganshina М. A., Vasilevskaya N.M. English Grammar. М., 1964; Каи-
shanskaya V. L. and others. A Grammar of the English Language. Leningrad.
1959.
2 Предполагается, что задания по указанному материалу должны быть
равномерно распределены преподавателем на протяжении всего урока.
3 Для ролевой игры требуется широкое использование раздаточного
материала.

7
ESSENTIAL COURSE

U N IT O N E

SPEECH PATTERNS

1. If I were you, I should keep an eye on that boy.


(C/: If I am well, I shall have a walking holiday.)
If I had time, I should go to the theatre tonight.
If we were hungry, we should have a bite.
If you did not work enough, you w ouldn't get good marks.
If Anne were in Moscow, she would ring me up.
If the w eather were fine, we could go for a walk.
2. rather like the idea of having a cup of tea then. |
I dislike the idea of staying at home on such a fine day.
The children liked the idea of going for a walk.
All of us lik ed the idea of sp en d in g th e day off o u t of
town.
W e disliked the idea of staying in town the w hole sum ­
mer.
W h y d o n ’t you lik e th e id e a of h av in g d in n e r a t my
place?

EXERCISES

I. Rewrite these sentences, using Pattern 1:

E x a m p l e : a) If it is cold, we'll put on our warm coats.


If it w ere cold, we should p u t on our warm
coats.
b) If my friends com e to see me, I’ll be very glad.
If my friends cam e to see me, 1 should be very
glad.
8
I. If the boy is hungry, I'll give him som ething to eat. 2. If
the supper is ready, w e'll sit down to table. 3. If I g et a good
m ark for my com position, I'll be happy. 4. If M ary has m ore
free time, she'll read more. 5. If the w eather changes, w e'll go
boating. 6. If I have no o p p o rtu n ity to see him, I'll be very
sorry. 7. If it d o esn 't rain, I sh a n 't have to take m y um brella
w ith me. 8. If she finishes ev erything on Friday, sh e w o n 't
have to w ork on Saturday. 9. If you catch a cold, you'll have
to stay at home. 10. If the child d o esn 't do what I tell him, I’ll
have to punish him.
II. Answer the following questions:
1. W hat w ould you do if you w ere late for y o u r lesson?
2. W h e re w o u ld you go if y o u h ad a h o lid a y in w in te r?
3. W ho(m) w ould you invite if you arranged a party? 4. How
long w ould it tak e you to w alk hom e from th e U niversity?
5. W hich w ould you prefer to go to, th e Art T h eatre or the
Bolshoi T h eatre? 6. W ould you feel g lad if it w ere sp rin g
now? 7. W o u ld n 't you lik e to go to th e cin em a afte r th e
lessons? 8. W hat film would you like to see?

III. Rewrite each of these sentences, using Pattern 2:

E x a m p le : The girl thought that it would be good to study


a foreign language.
The girl liked the idea of studying a foreign
language.
1. The students thought that it would be useful to work in
th e lab tw ice a w eek. 2. W e liked th e su g g e stio n th a t we
sh o u ld visit o u r sick frien d . 3. T he c h ild re n fo u n d th a t it
w ould be in terestin g to go on an excursion. 4. W e th o u g h t
th a t it w o u ld n 't b e g o o d to sta y in d o o rs all d a y lo n g .
5. W o u ld n 't you like to go to the theatre tonight? 6. All of us
thought that it would be nice to arrange a party at our Univer­
sity. 7. Is there anyone against our spending the holidays in
the holiday cam p? 8. W e thought that it would be good to go
to the cinem a after the lessons.

IV. Translate these sentences into English:


1. Если бы я не устала, я бы пошла осматривать город. 2. Мы
бы не пошли завтра на этот спектакль, если бы это не была премь­

9
ера. 3. Если бы я ж ила не так далеко, я бы заходила к вам почащ е.
4. Если бы он говорил погромче, публика слуш ала бы его с боль­
шим интересом. 5. Будь у нее плохая память, она не запом инала
бы ср азу столько ц и ф р (figures). 6. Я ничего не имела бы против
поездки в Крым, если бы там не было сейчас так ж арко. 7. Нам
всем понравилась его мысль встретиться в начале учебного года.

V. Act out the dialogue. Make up your own after the model:
D ic k : W hat would you do if you had a boat?
T о m: I would sail in it, of course.
D ic k : W here would you sail?
T о m: All around the coasts of Britain. I would even try to
sail across the Atlantic if my boat were big enough.
D ic k : W hat w ould you do if your parents d id n 't let you
sail?
T о m: I would run away from home, I suppose.
D ic k : W hat would you do if your boat were w recked in a
storm?
T о m: I would get drowned, I suppose.
D i с k: It is just as well you haven't got a boat, I suppose.

VI. Explain the meaning of the following sayings and illustrate them:
1. If it w ere not for hope, the heart w ould break. 2. If the
pills w ere pleasant, they would not be gilded. 3. If there w ere
no clouds, we should not enjoy the sun. 4. If things were to be
done twice all would be wise.

T E X T . ANNE MEETS HER CLASS

T he c h ild re n fixed th e ir eyes u p o n A nne. A nne g azed


back, feeling helpless.
“ Now, c h ild re n ,” b eg an M iss E nderby firmly, “you are
very, very lucky this term 1 to have Miss Lacey for your new
teacher.”
1 term n
School terms in Great Britain are arranged in the following way.
Usually called Approximate dates
the first term the autumn term Sept. 5 — Dec. 20
the second term the winter Jan. 5 — Mar. 25 (or later,
term or spring term depending on the date of Easter)
the third term the summer term Apr. 15 (or later) — Jul. 20

10
A nne gave a w atery smile. T he ch ild ren 's faces w ere u n ­
moved.
“ M iss L acey,” re p e a te d M iss E n d erb y w ith em p h asis.
“Can you say th at?”
“Miss Lacey,” chorused the class obediently.
“ P e rh a p s you c o u ld say ‘G ood m o rn in g ’ to y o u r new
teacher?” suggested Miss Enderby in an im perative tone.
“Good morning. Miss Lacey,” cam e the polite chorus.
“G ood m orning, c h ild re n ,” resp o n d e d A nne in a voice
which bore no resem blance to her own.
Miss Enderby m otioned to the children to take their seats.
"I should give o u t p ap er an d co lo u red p e n c ils,” said M iss
Enderby, “as soon as you've called the register2. Keep them
busy while you're finding your way about the cupboards3 and
so on.”
She gave a swift look round the class. “ I e x p e ct you to
help Miss Lacey in every way,” said the headm istress. “D'you
hear me, A rnold?”
T he little boy addressed, who had been crossing an d u n ­
crossing his eyes in an ugly m anner for the enjoym ent of his
neighbours, looked suitably crest-fallen.
“If I w ere you, I should k eep an eye on th at b o y ,” m u r­
m ured M iss Enderby. “Broken hom e — brother in Borstal4 —
and som e rather dreadful habits!”
A nne looked with fresh interest at Arnold and th o u g h t he
looked q u ite d ifferen t from w hat M iss E nderby said ab o u t

2 to call th e register is used only if the nam es are called out and the
pupils answer. To m ark smb. p re sen t/a b sen t is often used in connection
with registration. The expression to take th e reg ister is also used in the
sense of “mark”.
In schools the form teacher marks the register every morning before
lessons, and often before afternoon lessons too. The reg ister is a book
with a list of the pupils’ full names, addresses and d ates of birth. W hen
marked, the register is usually kept in the school office, and not taken to
lessons.
In universities and colleges there is generally no formal marking of a
register by the teaching staff.
3 cupboard л: a cabinet or closet fitted with shelves.
4 Borstal: an institution (like a prison) for young criminals.
II
him . Far too in n o c e n t an d a p p le -c h e e k e d to have su ch a
record. But even as she looked, she saw his pink face express
his scorn of Miss Enderby who was giving her final m essages
to the new teacher.
“ B reak 5 at ten forty-five, d e a r,” said th e h ead m istress.
“Com e straight to the staff room. I will wait there till you join
us. I will introduce you to those you d id n 't m eet on your first
visit. How do you like the idea of having a cup of tea then?
W e need rest after all. If th ere's anything that puzzles you, I
shall be in my room. You can depend on me. Ju st send a m es­
sage by one of the children.”
She m ade her way to the door and w aited before it, ey e­
brows raised as she turned her gaze upon the children. They
gazed back in som e bewilderment.
“ Is no one going to rem em ber his m anners?” asked Miss
Enderby.
W ith a nervous start A nne hastened forward to the door,
b u t was w aved b ack by a m ovem ent of her h e a d m istre ss's
han d . A d o zen or m ore ch ild re n m ade a rush to o p e n th e
door. A freckled girl with two skinny red plaits was the first to
drag open the door. She was rewarded by a smile.
“T h an k you, d ear, th a n k y o u ," said M iss E n d erb y and
sailed m ajestically into the corridor. T here cam e a faint sigh
of relief as th e d o o r clo sed b e h in d her, an d th e fo rty -six
to n g u e s w hich h ad so far k e p t u n n atu ra lly silen t b eg an to
wag cheerfully. Anne w atched this change with som e dismay.
She rem em bered with sudden relief som e advice given her at
college in just such a situation.
“Stand q uite still, be q u ite calm, and gradually th e ch il­
dren will becom e conscious that you are waiting. Never, nev­
er attem pt to shout them dow n.”

6 break л: This is widely used in schools to denote a 10- or 20-minute


interval in the middle of the morning (11 — 11.30).
Morning break and afternoon break are used in schools which also
have a break between afternoon lessons. Lunch break can be used as a tran­
slation of «большая перемена». Break may also be used of the shorter time
allowed for changing lessons.
Break is not generally used in universities and colleges, except in the
sense of the 5* to 10-minute break between one class and the next, because
there aie usually no other breaks besides the lunch hour.

12
So A nne stood her g ro u n d w aiting for the ch a tte rin g to
subside. But the noise grew in volume as conversations becam e
more anim ated. O ne or two children ran across th e room to
see their distant friends. Two little boys attacked each other.
A child with birthday cards was displaying their beauties to
an adm iring crowd round her desk. Arnold had rem oved his
blue p u llo v er an d was a ttem p tin g to pull his shirt over his
head, in o rd er to show his frien d s a scar on his sh o u ld e r-
blade.
A m idst grow ing chaos A nne rem ained silent. She looked
at the clock which jerked from one m inute to the next and d e­
cided to let it leap once more before she abandoned hope.
O n e crum b of com fort, if com fort it could be called, re­
mained with her. This was an outburst of natural high spirits.
Her presence, she noted, m eant nothing at all to them.
A chair fell over, som eone yelped with pain, th ere was a
b urst of laughter, and A nne saw the clock jum p to an o th er
m inute. Anne advanced into action.
“To your desks!” she roared, "And quickly!”
W ith a p le a s u ra b le sh o c k sh e saw h er w ords o b ey e d .
W ithin a m inute order had returned. Refreshed by the break
the children turned attentive eyes upon her.
A nne's self-esteem crept back.
(From “Fresh from the C ountry” by Miss Reed}

VOCABULARY NOTES

1. to look v i / t 1. смотреть, глядеть, e. д. I looked (up,


down) at the opposite house, but saw no lights in its windows.
Syn. to stare, to gaze
to look m eans "to use o n e's eyes, to try to see” , e. g. He
looked at me, but d id n 't recognize me.
to stare m eans “to look steadily, with w ide-open eyes, of­
ten w ith c u rio sity or su rp rise , or v a c a n tly (бессмысленно,
рассеянно)” . W e may stare at a person or thing, into the water,
distance, fire or anything that has d ep th (пристально смот­
реть, глазеть, таращить/пялить глаза), е. д. Не stared at me
as if I had asked him to do som ething impossible. He stared at
the fire, deep in thought.
13
to gaze m eans “to look at sm b. or sm th. (or into sm b .'s
eyes) usu. long and steadily with interest, love, desire, in w on­
der, adm iration, etc.” , e. g. H e’s very fond of this picture, he
can gaze at it for hours. T he lovers stood w ith th eir h an d s
clasped, gazing into each other's eyes.
to look about осматриваться, оглядываться по сторонам,
е. д. I looked about, but saw no people anywhere.
Look aheadl Берегись!
to look (a thing) through просматривать что-л., e. g. Look
through those docum ents, please.
to look after заботиться, ухаж ивать за кем-л., чем-л.,
е, д. I'll look after the child. D on't forget to look after th e
flowers w hen I'm away.
to look for искать кого-л., что-л., e. g. I've b een looking
for you since the very morning.
to look forward to (smth. or doing smth.) предвкушать
что-л., с удовольствием ожидать чего-л., е. д. John looked
forw ard to seeing M ario and his wife. S tu d en ts always look
forward to their holidays.
Look here! Послушай! e. g. Look here, w ouldn't it be better
to stay indoors in such nasty weather?
2. казаться, выглядеть (followed by an adjective, noun or
like), e. g. He looks sad. The child looks ill (well). She looks
like a real teacher. It looks like rain.
N o t e : казаться has two English equivalents — to look and to seem; to
look means выглядеть, e. g. He looks young for his age. She looks beautiful
in this dress. She looks a child ; to seem means производить впечатление
(it expresses various degrees of doubt), e.g. She seems (to be) clever. This
village seems (to be) quite small now. He seems (to be) well educated.
look n 1. взгляд, e. g. There was som ething strange in his
look.
Syn. stare, gaze, e. g. Lanny returned the m an's stare, but
d id n 't u tte r a w ord. T he girl b lu sh ed w hen she n o ticed the
stranger’s fixed gaze.
to have a look at взглянуть, e. g. Have a look at this photo,
do you recognize the man?
N o t e : The English for взгляд = точка зрения is idea, opinion, (point
of) view, e. д. I don't know his point of view on (views on, idea(s) of, opinion
of) this subject.
14
2. выражение, е. д. A took of p leasure cam e to her face.
T here was an angry look in her eyes.
2. to differ vi 1. различаться, отличаться (from smb. or
sm th. in sm th.), e. g. T he two brothers differ in th eir tastes.
His plan differs from all the others.; 2. не соглашаться, рас­
ходиться во взглядах (from /w ith smb. in smth.), e. д. I differ
from (with) you in this matter.
Ant. ag ree (with smb.; to smth.), e. g. Let's agree to differ
(пусть каждый останется при своем мнении).
different adj 1. непохожий, не такой, отличный от (from),
е. д. Не is quite different from what I thought him to be. I w ant
a different kind of book this tim e (b ut: I prefer books of a dif­
ferent kind). O ur views on life are different.
Ant. alike, e. g. O ur tastes are alike.
N o t e : D on't confuse the words different and an o th er which may be
translated by the same Russian word другой; e. д. I want another (другой -
еше один) piece of cake. 1 want a different (другой = другого сорта, вида
и т. д.) piece of cake. Let's try another (еще один) variant. Let's try a different
(иного рода) variant.

2. разный, различный, e. g. A departm ent store sells m any


different things. Every day our students get different w ritten
assignm ents.
d ifference л разница, различие, e. g. T he difference b e ­
tween our views is not very great. 1 d o n 't find m uch difference
in the styles of these writers.
to m ake som e (no, not m uch) difference (to smb.), e. g. It
w on't m ake m uch difference w hether we do it today or tom or­
row. You m ay stay or leave, it m akes no difference to me.
3. re st v i / t 1. отдыхать, леж ать, спать; давать отдых,
е. д. Не rested for an hour before going on with his work. She
likes to rest after dinner. They stopped to rest their horses.
2. опираться, покоиться, держаться на чем-л., е. д. The
roof rests on eight colum ns. T here is always a cloud resting
on the top of this mountain.
3. оставаться (леж ать); класть, прислонять, е. д. H er
fingers touched his forehead and rested there. She sat with
her elbows resting on the table.
15
N o t e : The Russian word оставаться has several English equivalents,
e. д. Пусть все остается как есть. Let the m atter rest. Я не хочу здесь
оставаться. I d o n 't want to stay here. У нас осталось только 5 рублей.
Only 5 roubles are left. Все остается без изменений. Everything remains
without any changes.
rest n покой, отдых, сон, e. g. Rest is necessary after work.
I had a good night's rest. W e had several rests on our way up
the m ountains. But: Он отдыхал на юге. Не spent his holiday
in the South.
rest n (always w ith def. article) остаток, остальное, ос­
тальная часть чего-л.
the rest of (the time, the books, etc.), e. g. Have you writ­
ten all the exercises? — No, only half of them . T he rest (of
th e e x e rc ise s) m ay b e d o n e o rally . O n ly five of u s w ere
present at the lesson, the rest (of the group) w ent to the m eet­
ing. I'll take an apple and you may take the rest.
4. comfortable adj 1. удобный; комфортабельный; ую т­
ный, e. g. a com fortable chair, room, bed, house; com fortable
shoes, etc.; 2. predic разг. довольный, спокойный, чувствую­
щий себя удобно, е. д. I'm su re you'll be very com fortable
there; 3, утешительный, успокоительный, e. g. com fortable
words
Ant. uncomfortable
to make oneself comfortable, e. g. Mr. M urdoch m ade him ­
self com fortable in a chair and ordered a strong black coffee.
comfort n 1. утешение, поддержка, e. g. The news brought
com fort to all of us. He was a great com fort to his parents.;
2. успокоение, покой, отдых, e. g. to be fond of com fort, to
live in comfort
Ant. discomfort
comfort vt утешать, успокаивать
N o t e : convenient adj means suitable, handy, serving to avoid trouble
or difficulty: e. g. convenient time, method, tool, place, etc. Will this bus be
convenient to/for you? Let's arrange a convenient time and place for the
conference.
Ant. inconvenient
con ven ience n 1. удобство (the q u ality of being co n v e­
nient or suitable), e. g. at your earliest convenience; for con­
venience; 2. [pi] удобства (device, arrangem ent, etc. that is
16
useful or convenient, e. g. central heating, hot w ater supply),
e. g. T he house has all m odern conveniences.
Ant. inconvenience
5. to run (ran, run) v i/t 1. бежать, бегать, e. д. I ran all the
way for fear of being late. As soon as we fired, the enem y ran.
2. ходить, плыть, курсировать (о трамваях, автобусах
и пр-)« е- 9- Trams run on rails. M otor cars run along ordinary
roads. The buses run every five minutes.
3. течь, литься, e. g. Torrents of w ater ran down the streets.
Rivers run into the sea. D on't you hear the w ater running in
the kitchen? If you have a bad cold, your nose runs.
4. тянуться, e. g. For several miles the road ran across a
plain.
N o t e : For the Russian тянуться = простираться the verb stretch is
used, e. g. The forest stretched to the South for many miles.
5. гласить, рассказывать, говорить(ся), e. g. So the story
runs. The story runs ... .
to run into smb. случайно встретиться с кем-л.; to run
into smth. натолкнуться на что-л., е. g. O ur car ran into the
bus. I ran into a frien d of m ine on my w ay hom e.; to run
across sm b ./sm th . случайно встретить (натолкнуться на
что-л.), е. д. The other day I ran across a very interesting arti­
cle in the new spaper.: to run over smb. переехать, задавить
кого-л., also: to be run over (by a car), e. g. But for the skill of
the driver the m an would have been run over by the bus.
runner л бегун
6. join v t/i 1. соединяться), объединять(ся), e. g. I co u ld n 't
join (together) th e two halves of the vase, b ec au se a sm all
piece was missing. W here do the two streams join (each other)?
S yn . unite
N о t e: to join usu. means “to put two things together”, e. g. The island
was joined to the mainland with a bridge ; to unite usu. means “to join to­
gether (by a common aim or bond) several objects so as to form one new
unit”, e. g. Ukraine and Russia united in 1654. W e united all our forces to
drive the enemy out of our country. W orkers of the world, unite! The Unit­
ed Nations Organization (UNO) was formed in 1945 in San Francisco.
2. присоединяться (к), e. g. Will you join me in my walk?
W e'll join you in a few minutes.
17
3, входить в компанию, вступать в члены, е. д. If I w ere
you I should join this club. He was twenty-two when he joined
the army.
7. d e p e n d v i 1. зависеть от (o n /u p o n sm b. for sm th.),
e. g. W e d e p e n d on th e n ew sp ap ers for inform ation ab o u t
world events. H e d epends on his sister for a living. C hildren
usually d ep e n d on their p aren ts (находятся на иждивении
родителей).; 2. полагаться, рассчитывать на кого-л., что-л.,
е. д . You can d ep en d upon the man. I d epend on you to do it.
Can I depend on this tim e-table or is it an old one?
It (all) d e p e n d s как сказать; в зависимости от обстоя­
тельств, е. д. Will you finish your work on time? — It depends.

NOTES ON SYNONYMS AND ANTONYMS

1. S ynonym s are w ords expressing th e sam e notion, but


differing by certain additional characteristics. E. g. to look, to
stare and to g aze exp ress th e sam e n o tio n of tu rn in g o n e's
eyes on som ething or somebody, but stare and gaze differ by
their em otional colourings (see item 1 of V ocabulary N otes)
w hereas look describes the notion generally, w ithout any a d ­
ditional characteristics. Such a general w ord in the g ro u p of
synonym s is called the synonym ic dom inant.
To glance is another synonym of this group which differs
from the rest of them by duration: it m eans looking at som e­
thing briefly, passingly, a m om ent only.
2. A ntonym s are words with contrasted meanings. E. g. dif­
ferent — alike; co n v e n ie n t — in c o n v en ien t; love — hate;
up — down.

ESSENTIAL VOCABULARY (I)


W ords
chorus n, v differ v join v
com fort n, v difference л look л, v
com fortable adj different adj rest n, v
convenience л gaze n, v run v
convenient adj headm istress л stare л, v
depend v unite v
18
Word Combinations
to fix one's eyes o n /u p o n smb. to keep an eye on smb.
to feel helpless to give (send) a m essage
to give a smile (a nod, a look, etc.) to turn one's eys (gaze)
to bear (to have) a strong upon sm b./sm th.
resem blance to to run across
to m otion to smb. to run into
to give out (pencils, leaflets, to run over
readers, workcards, sets of to shout smb. down
material, etc.) to abandon hope
to call the register (the roll)

EXERCISES

I. Read the text and talk on the following points (A. Grammar,
B. Word usage):
A. 1. W hy is th e P resen t P erfect u sed in "... as soon as
you've called the register” ? 2. W hy is the Past Perfect C ontin­
uous used in ” ... w ho had been crossing and uncrossing his
eyes in an ugly m anner ...” ? 3. W hy is the Present Indefinite
used in “ ... till you join us” ? and in “If th ere's anything that
puzzles you ...” ? 4. Tick off all the sentences with the oblique
moods. T ranslate them.
B. Pick out all the words and phrases describing the chil­
dren's actions.

II. Read the following words with silent t, p, gh. Memorize them:
h asten, fasten, listen, C hristm as, castle, w histle, jo stle,
nestle, wrestle; cupboard, pneum onia, psychology, raspberry;
n e ig h b o u r, n ig h tin g a le , s tra ig h t, n a u g h ty , h ig h , h e ig h t,
through, sigh.

III. a) Write the Past Indefinite and Past Participle of the verbs:
grow , creep, bear, b reak , keep , th in k , leap, m ean, fall,
find, feel, say, cling, hear, meet, run, show;
19
b) the Past Indefinite and Present Participle of the verbs:
differ, prefer, murmur, appear, occur, recover, rem em ber,
chatter, refer, stir, water, fear, offer, drag, wag, plan, chat, slip,
beg.

IV. Find nouns related to the verbs below. Pay special attention to the
spelling of the suffix -епсеЛалсе. Place them in two columns:
d ep en d , differ, exist, accept, resem ble, atten d , perform ,
insist, occur.

V. What nouns are these adjectives derived from? What is the meaning
of the suffixes -ed, -y? Translate the adjectives:
a) freckled, nosed, haired, winged, horned, bearded, feath­
ered;
b) w atery, sk in n y , grassy, silky, bony, b ran ch y , wavy,
stony.

VI. Answer these questions:


1. How was A nne introduced to her class? 2. W hat did she
feel at that m om ent? W hat words does the author choose to
describe her feelings? 3. W hat instructions did the headm is­
tress give to the young teacher? W hat do you think of them ?
4. W hy did A nne “look with fresh in terest at Arnold?*’ D e­
scribe A rnold's a p p e aran c e and behaviour. 5. How did the
o th e r ch ild re n b eh av e in M iss E n d erb y 's p re se n c e ? (Find
w o rd s d e s c rib in g th e ir b eh av io u r.) 6. W h y do y o u th in k
“there cam e a faint sigh of relief” after Miss Enderby left the
classroom ? D escribe the ch ild ren 's behaviour after sh e left.
7. W hat advice given her at college did A nne rem em ber? Did
she follow the advice? W hat was the result? W hy did the chil­
dren behave like that? 8. How did Anne restore the order? Do
you think it was the only way out? 9. C om m ent on the words:
“A nne's self-esteem crept b ack ” .

VII. Comment on the meaning of the prepositions for, in, with in the
sentences below:
A. 1. ... you are very, very lucky this term to have M iss
Lacey for your new teacher. 2. They chose him for their lead ­
er. 3. M ust you have G eorge for a m aster — here, an d our
m other for a school-m istress? 4 . 1 still want you for my wife.
20
B. 1. “Perhaps you could say ‘Good m orning’ to your new
te a c h e r? ” su g g e ste d M iss E n d erb y in an im p erativ e tone.
2. “ G ood m orning, c h ild re n ,” re sp o n d e d A nne in a voice
which bore no resem blance to her own. 3. They conversed in
a whisper.
C. 1. They gazed back in some bewilderm ent. 2. If a man is
in grief, w ho ch eers him; in trouble, w ho co n so les him; in
wrath, who soothes him; in joy, who m akes him dou b le h ap ­
py; in prosperity, who rejoices; in disgrace, who backs him
against the world? W ho but woman?
D. 1. A nne looked with fresh interest at Arnold. 2. Anne
w atched this ch an g e w ith som e dism ay. 3. W ith a nervous
start Anne hastened forward to the door. 4. She rem em bered
w ith su d d en relief som e advice given her at co lleg e in ju st
such a situation.
E. 1. ... som eone yelped with pain, 2. His voice trem bled
with horror. 3. He was dying with hunger. 4. The boys w ere
speechless with fear. 5. R uth's eyes w ere wide with wonder.

VIII. Form adjectives and nouns from the given words with the help of
the prefixes ил-, /л-, mis-, d/s-:
convenient, convenience; comfort, comfortable; dependent,
d ep en d en ce; different, difference; able, capable; im portant;
experienced; obedient; understanding; honesty.

IX. a) Fill in prepositions where necessary:


C an you rem em ber your first day ... school? It was proba­
bly rather confusing. I am sure you ran ... your m other think­
ing she was deserting you. W hen the child goes ... school ...
his first day, he has to w atch ... his m other leaving. The teach­
er m ust convince him that ... the end ... the day his m other
and his hom e will still be there. It is difficult to m ake the new­
com er join ... a gam e or a walk. A new life, com pletely differ­
ent ... what he is used ... begins.
The m others are as upset as their children. They h a n g ......
their eyes fixed ... their children and dislike leaving them ...
their fate.
T he best w ay to deal ... the situ atio n is to g e t th e child
used ... the idea ... school, to help him ... every way. M uch d e ­
21
pends ... the parents. ... the beginning ... the term the m other
should tak e her child to see th e teach er an d to look ... th e
school. The first d ay should be som ething to l o o k and
not to be feared.
b) Retell what you've read.
c) What measures would you suggest to settle the newcomers?

X. Study Vocabulary Notes, translate the illustrative sentences into


Russian and write your own sentences with the new words and phrases.

XI. Use stare or gaze instead of look where possible:


1. It's im polite to look at people like that. 2. A big crowd
stood on the pavem ent looking at a broken car. 3. No w onder
people stand looking at this picture for hours: it's beautiful.
4. The little boys stood looking at each other ready to start a
fight. 5. Look at her: again she is looking out of the window
with that strange expression of hers. 6. W hen I looked at her
eyes 1 guessed th a t she had cried. 7. The G reek m yth runs
that N arcissus looked at his own reflection in the w ater until
he fell in love w ith it. 8. He stood looking aro u n d as if he
tried to im press on his mem ory everything he saw.

XII. Fill in
a) look or seem:
1. The w eather ... q u ite warm though it's only 5°C above
zero. 2. The children ... tired b u t they ... greatly p leased with
the trip, d o n 't they? 3. The host and the hostess ... a bit old-
fashioned, but th ey ... to be hospitable and friendly. 4. She ...
to be very light-m inded, but she only ... it, in fact she is a very
seriou s and hard-w orking stu d en t. 5. M y b ro th er says th at
people usually ... what they are and I believe that people are
very often quite different from what they ... to be.
b) another or different:
1. The teacher tried to explain the rule in a ... way an d I
understood it at once. 2. The schoolboy returned the book he
had read and asked for ... book, but of a ... kind, he said, as he
w anted to have a rest from detective stories. 3. I asked for a
pair of shoes of a ... kind, but the shop-girl said that the rest of
the shoes were not my size.
22
c) stretch or ran:
1. A small stream ... along the road. 2. These steppes ... to
the South for miles and miles. 3. The path ... across the field
for a m ile and then was lost in the forest. 4. No m atter how
hard I looked I saw only a vast plain ... before me. 5. The ugly
scar (шрам) ... right across the m an's left cheek. 6. For how
m any kilom eters does this fo re s t...?
d) comfortable or convenient:
1. I like to sleep on a cam p-bed, I find it very .... 2. I b e ­
lieve Friday the only ... day for our m eeting, we have only
four le ctu res on th at day. 3. T hough the flat was rath e r ...,
warm, light and cosy, it was n o t ... for our work as it was rath­
er small. 4. These shoes are very ... for wear in wet w eather as
they have rubber soles.
e) join or unite:
1. The two stream s ... at the foot of the m ountain. 2. ... we
stand, divided we fall. 3. O ne by o n e the children ... in the
game. 4. T he partisans' d etachm ent ... the regular arm y and
the enem y lost the battle against their ... forces. 5. All peace-
loving people should ... in their stru g g le against a new war.
6. W o n 't you ... me in a walk?
XIII. Paraphrase the following:
1. It is of no importance. 2. Rivers flow into the sea. 3. You
can 't rely on him. 4. Make yourself at home. 5. French is un­
like English in having far more verbal inflexions. 6. He seem s
to be ill. 7. C onnect th ese points with a line. 8. This street
stretches east and west. 9. He refused to live at the expense
of his parents. 10. I disagree w ith you. 11. I'll drive the car
into the garage. 12. Will you come with us? 13. I met him by
chance in London last week. 14. Listen to me, Tom! 15. This
tool is easy to use. 16. T hese are not the sam e p eo p le with
the sam e name. 17. W hy is Jane silent?
XIV. Translate these sentences into Russian. Write your own sentences
with the new words and phrases:
1. He looked about the room and caught sight of the case
containing the jewels which had been carelessly left open on
the table. 2. The difference was curious betw een her intense
23
expectation of the previous day and her present indifference.
3. U nited we stand, divided we fall. 4. My father rem inded me
that I was entirely d ep en d en t upon him. 5. The m any m en he
ran across, belonging to a different world, had filled him p e r­
haps with adm iration and envy. 6. I'm always doing things on
the spur of the m om ent — to my own inconvenience and oth­
er p eople's. 7. It m ade him uncom fortable to alter his plans
and think out som ething new. 8. He was angry with N orah be­
cause she had not let the m atter rest.

XV. Retell the text: a) in indirect speech; b) as if you were Anne.

XVI. Write: a) a letter from Anne to a friend of hers about her first
experience at school; bl an answer of a friend of Anne's to this letter.

XVII. Make up dialogues based upon the text between: al Anne and a
friend of hers, a young teacher discussing their first lessons; b) Anne and
Miss Enderby discussing the problem of discipline in class; c) Anne and
her college teacher discussing situations like that described in the text.

XVIII. Miss Barrett, a young teacher from Bel Kaufman's ‘Up the Down
Staircase’, once “had an epidemic of unprepared students”. Study the
reasons they gave for neglecting to do their homework. What other reasons
could they have given? Elect one student to play the part of the teacher
who should respond in each case. Role-play the whole situation.

Wby 1 Didn’t Do My Homework


— I know hom ew ork is essential to our w ell-being, and I
did it but I got into a fight with some kid on our way to school
and he threw it in the gutter.
— My dog chew ed it.
— I d id n 't know we w ere supposed to do it.
— I fell asleep on the subway because I stayed up all night
doing my hom ework, so w hen it stopped at my station I ran
through the door not to be late and left it on the seat on the
subway.
— I did it b u t left it hom e by mistake.
— The baby spilled milk on it.
— My brother took “my” homework instead of “his”.
— The page was missing from my book.
— I lost my book and just found it.

24
— T here's no room in my house now my uncie m oved in
and I have to sleep in the hall and co u ld n 't use the kitchen ta­
ble.
— Som eone stole it.
— W hat homework?

XIX. Translate the following putting it in your own words. Comment


on what you have read:
... Детей нет — есть люди, но с иным масштабом понятий, с
иным запасом опыта, иными влечениями, иной игрой чувств. Пом­
ни, что мы их не знаем...
Все современное воспитание направлено на то, чтобы ребенок
был удобен, последовательно, шаг за шагом, стремится усыпить,
подавить, истребить все, что является волей и свободой ребенка,
стойкостью его духа, силой его требований.
Вежлив, послушен, хорош, удобен, а и мысли нет о том, что
будет внутренне безволен и жизненно немощен. ...
Обратили ли вы внимание, как часто, когда раздается в пере­
дней звонок, вы слышите просьбу:
— Я отворю ?
Во-первых, зам ок у входных дверей трудный, во-вторых, чув­
ство, что там, за дверью , стоит взрослы й, которы й сам не м ож ет
сладить и ждет, когда ты, маленький, поможеш ь...
Вот какие небольшие победы празднует ребенок, уже грезя­
щий о дальних путешествиях, в мечтах он — Робинзон на безлюд­
ном острове, а в действительности рад-радехонек, когда позволят
выглянуть в окошко.
[Януш Корчак. Как любить детей.)

XX. Arrange a talk on the following topics:


1. Difficulties awaiting young teachers.
2. Reasons for children's being unm anageable.
3. How to direct a child's energy into the right channels.
4. Ideal upbringing.

XXI. Translate these sentences:


l. Я огляделась вокруг и увидела, что в поселке (village) не ос­
талось ни одного деревянного дома, 2. Старый доктор остался тем
же добрым, искренним человеком, каким (that) мы знали его с дет­
ства. 3. Остается по крайней мере месяц до нашего отъезда, но мы
уже с нетерпением ждем отпуска и строим разные планы на лето.
4. Дай мне знать, если ты решишь остаться у своей тети на осталь­

25
ную часть каникул, я тогда присоединюсь к тебе. 5, Остается одно:
попросить эту старушку присмотреть за детьми. 6. Послушай, я
подмету пол и помою посуду, а ты сделаешь все остальное, ладно?
— Хорошо. 7. Несколько человек остались на волейбольной пло­
щадке, а остальные игроки пошли в бассейн поплавать, б. Вы ище­
те ваше пальто? Оно осталось в саду. Разрешите, я его принесу
(fetch it).

XXII. Try your hand at teaching.


1. The situation given below could cause difficulties for the teacher.
Describe how you would handle the situation in the teacher's position.
Decide amongst your group which is the most practical solution:

Bill, a fourth former, was always telling the class about his
dog Tim ber, the tricks he could perform , w hat a w onderful
w atch-dog he was and how Tim ber w ould p ro tect Bill. Each
week he would com e to school and tell about the w onders of
Timber.
As it tu rn ed out, Bill did not own a dog and none of his
relatives or close friends had such a dog.

2. Learn to use alternative ways of controlling the class, using polite


requests rather than direct commands.
Notice:
a) The following forms express annoyance and irritation.
— Do try to work on your own.
— Just speak up a little!
b) You can m ake your com m ands sound m ore p o lite by
using eith er a low rising tone or words, p h rases and s tru c ­
tu re s like “p lease; I'm afraid; I think; p erh ap s; d o n 't you
th in k ; I (d o n 't) w ant you to...; I (d o n 't) e x p e c t you to...;
w ould you like; w ould you, please; will you; co u ld
you; what if...; le t's /le t’s not.”

Assignments:

1. Practise giving instructions to pupils in a polite manner, use the


phrases below:

go on to the next exercise, carry on (proceed) reading, re­


p e a t w hat you said, co p y th is off th e board, w ork in tw os
26
(threes), sh are the textbook, try the n ex t item, p ractise th e
irregular verbs, listen carefully to what I say, etc.

2. Take it in turns to play the part of the teacher beginning and


finishing the lesson. Make sure that you don't sound too straightforward.
(See HClassroom English", Sections II and IH.|

LABORATORY EXERCISES (I)

1. Listen to the text "Anne Meets Her Class", mark the stresses and
tunes, repeat the text following the model.
2. Respond as shown in the models, check your replies.
3. Combine the sentences into one conditional sentence.
4. Write a spelling-translation test:
a) Translate the phrases into English.
b) Check them with the key.
5. Answer the questions using the phrases "to like the idea/dislike the
idea".
6. Translate the sentences into English. Check your sentences with the
key.
7. Listen to the jokes connected with school life. Get ready to retell
them in indirect speech.

II
T O P I C : CHOOSING A CAREER
T E X T A. WHAT'S YOUR LINE?

School! Lessons, gam es, clubs, hom ew ork. A bell rings.


You go to a classroom . A bell rings. You have lunch. A bell
rings. You go home.
But one day you go to school for th e last tim e. W h at to
do after th at? You realize th a t th e tim e to ch o o se o n e job
out of the hundreds has come. It's going to be a hard choice
and nobody can m ake it for you.
B efore you can choose, you ask y o u rself q u ite a lot of
q u estio n s. W h at d o you know you are goo d at? W h a t do
you e n jo y d o in g ? P e rh a p s you e n jo y w o rk in g w ith y o u r
27
hands. O r you m ay prefer u sing your h ead — y o u r brains.
A re you in te re s te d in m ach in es? O r d o you like m e etin g
people? It's difficult to know all the answ ers to these q u e s­
tions until you have left school and actually begun work.
M any y o u n g p eo p le co n sid er te ach in g as a career. It's
no t surprising: after your p aren ts your te ach e r m ay b e the
most im portant person in your life. W ith all the teachers you
m eet, you think th ere isn 't an y th in g you d o n 't know ab o u t
the work. T hat's w here you are wrong, since only those who
are in it can appreciate it. Have you ever asked yourself why
m ost te a c h e rs a re so d ev o ted to th e ir w ork an d p riv ate ly
think, though they may not like to adm it it openly, that they
serve hum anity doing the m ost vital job of all? T hose of us
who spend our days in schools know how rew arding the job
is. At th e sam e tim e it is not easy an d a real c h a lle n g e to
your character, abilities and talent, as teaching is a constant
stream of decisions.
C h ild re n in y o u r classro o m a re n 't ju st boys an d girls.
Every one is a unique individual who has never been before
and will never again exist. If you like people, you will love
teaching. To be a good teacher you m ust be genuinely inter­
ested in what you are doing.
T he m ost im p o rta n t th in g s in th e w orld are aw aren ess
and learning — w anting to know every day of your life more
an d m ore and m ore. B ecause every tim e you learn so m e­
thing new you becom e som ething new. An ignorant teacher
te ach e s ign o ran ce, a fearful te ach e r te ach e s fear, a b o red
te a c h e r te ach e s boredom . But a good te ach e r cataly zes in
his pupils the burning desire to know and love for the truth
and beauty.
Jo h n Steinbeck, writing about his school days said, “I've
com e to believe that a great teacher is a g reat artist and you
know how few great artists th ere are in the world. Teaching
m ight even be th e g reatest of the arts since its m edium is
the hum an m ind and the hum an spirit.” W hat an incredible
resp o n sib ility to be the g u ard ian s of th e hum an sp irit and

28
the hum an m ind! I think, th a t is th e reason w hy h u m an ity
has the deepest respect for teachers.
I w ould never stop teach in g and I'm sure th at you, hav­
ing chosen it for your career, feel the sam e way. If you d o n ’t
feel that way then, please, for all our sakes, get out! The h u ­
man mind and the hum an spirit are too w ondrous to destroy.
But if you are p rep ared to accep t the responsibility, I wish
you all the luck in the world.
A Teacher

TEXT B. CHOOSING IS NOT SO EASY AS IT LOOKS

J a n e : Hallo, Bob!
B o b : Hallo!
J a n e : Oh, yo u ’ve just left college, haven't you?
B o b : Yes.
J a n e : W hat are you going to do?
B o b : Er... well, it looks like a ch oice betw een teaching
or going into an office and... I think I'd much prefer to go in
for teaching, because... well you get long holidays.
J a n e : But, Bob, w o u ld n 't you g et bored w ith the sam e
routine year after year teaching... teaching the sam e material
to th e children. And... a sense of responsibility you n eed —
all those children, all those parents.
B o b : Oh, look, it w o u ld n 't be as boring as... as w orking
in an office. T e a c h in g is te rrib ly stim u la tin g . It's ... new
every day — I'm sure I'd enjoy it.
J a n e : But I m ean, th e r e 's so m u ch v a rie ty in o ffice
w ork! Look at m y job: I’m d e a lin g w ith p e o p le an d th e ir
problems, there're new situations to cope with all the time.
B o b : Yes, th a t's quite true, but I think th ere's a num ber
of differences betw een teaching and office work and, well, I
think I'll go in for teaching because... it really attracts me.

(From J. Jones “Functions of English”. Cam., 1981)

29
M em ory Work
Autumn Fires
In the other gardens
And all up the vale,
From the autum n bonfires
See the sm oke trail!
Pleasant sum m er over
And all the summ er flowers,
The red fires blaze,
The grey sm oke towers.
Sing a song of seasons!
Something bright in all!
Flowers in the summer,
Fires in the fall!
(R. L. Stevenson)

ESSENTIAL VOCABULARY (II)


Words
appreciate v genuinely adv responsibility л
career n job л responsible adj
challenge n profession л vital adj
choice л reliable adj vocation л
educate v respect v work n, v

Word Combinations
to m ak e/tak e a (careful) choice rew arding/stim ulating work
to have no choice to be devoted to smth. or smb.
to be interested in to be responsible for smth.
to leave/finish school to tak e/a cce p t responsibility
school leaver to h av e/n eed a sense of res-
to consider teaching (medicine, ponsibliiity
etc.) as a career to cope with smth.
to take up a ca rrer/a job to earn /en jo y gratitude
to go in for teaching and respect
to be in teaching (medicine, to have (no) respect for
banking, etc.) smb. or smth.
to be in /o u t of one's line love of sm th./for smb.
30
N o t e : The nouns “work, job, profession, career, vocation” have more
or less the same meaning. Nevertheless there is a certain difference in their
semantics and usage.
“W ork” has the most general meaning and can be applied to anything
one has to do in the way of m aking a living. “J o b ” is close to it in its
m eaning but tends to denote less prestigious work. Apart from that the
word “jo b ” can also denote a position in employment, in which case the
difference between the words “work” and “job” is quite obvious (e. g. I'm
very fond of my job, even though it means doing a lot of work). “ Profes­
sion” is work which requires advanced educatio n and special training.
T rad itio n ally it's a p p lie d to law, m edicine, a rc h ite c tu re and m ilitary
career. The word “career” itself means either a course of progress in the
life of a person or has the same meaning as the word “work” and is mostly
when speaking of the choice of work. The word “v o catio n ” m eans the
kind of work to which a man is led by natural talents {compare with the
word “ c a llin g ” ). It’s a learn ed word and is seldom u sed in ev ery d ay
speech.
Remember that the word “work” in the meaning m entioned above is
uncountable and sh o u ld n ’t be used with the indefinite article or in the
plural.
In contrast to it the word “jo b ” is countable and can be used with the
indefinite article.

EXERCISES

I. a) Transcribe and learn to read the following words:


m achines, appreciate, humanity, vital, challenge, individu­
al, aw areness, ignorance, fearful, boredom , m edium , accept,
routine, stim ulating, variety.

b) Study Texts A and В and explain the meaning of the words and
word combinations listed below:
think privately, the most vital job, a rew arding job, a chal­
lenge to your character, an ignorant teacher, a guardian, the
same routine, stim ulating work, to go in for teaching

II. a) Write English equivalents of the following words and phrases.


Use them in sentences of your own:
сделать выбор, иметь призвание (способности) к чему-л., и нте­
ресоваться чем-то, подумать о проф ессии учителя, оценить, быть
преданны м своей работе, служ и ть людям, ж гучее стрем лен и е к
знаниям, уваж ен и е к кому-л.

31
b) Find in Text A synonyms to the following words and word combina­
tions:
to do well in smth., in fact, because, faithful, confess, g rati­
fying, sincerely, knowledge, to ruin.

III. a) Enlarge upon the following topics:


1. After your parents your teacher may be the most im por­
ta n t person in yo u r life. 2. T each in g is not easy an d a real
ch allen g e to your character, abilities and talent. 3. To be a
good teacher you m ust be gen u in ely interested in w hat you
a re d o in g . 4. T e a c h in g is a c o n s ta n t strea m of d e c isio n s
5. Every tim e you learn som ething new you becom e so m e­
thing new.
P r o m p t s : th e re 's one m ore th in g to be noted, m ore
over, w h at's more..., I m ight as well ad d that..., in addition,
on top of that..., som ething else I'd like to say is..., talking
of... .
b) Comment on the quotation from John Steinbeck, say if you shart
his opinion. Do you also think that teaching equals art? Why do you think
that? Find more quotations concerned with teachers and teaching, comment
on them.
c) Continue the text on the part of the teacher. You may find tin
following ideas useful:
A good teacher is one who learns all the time, from life
from colleagues, from children; a professional teach er in te ­
g rates theory an d practice; this sort of w ork dem an d s great
patience; there are many skills necessary for good teaching.
d) Prepare a 3-minute talk on one of the great teachers of the past o;
today, give reasons for your choice.

IV. a) Act out the dialogue M


Choosing is not so easy as it looks”.
b) Role-play a talk between an intending teacher and a will-b<
journalist on differences and similarities of the careers they've chosen. Us»
Text В and Essential Vocabulary II.

V. Speak about:
1. possible change in the system of secondary education in Russia.
P r o m p t s : universal com pulsory education, to extent
th e training course, to im prove the ed u catio n al process, ti

32
m odernize program m es and manuals, to use up-to-date tech ­
nical eq u ip m en t, to im prove lab o u r e d u c a tio n an d c a re e r
counselling (профориентация), to provide optional training in
various subjects.
2. an ideal school as you see it.

VI. Read the jokes below. See how the verbs learn and study are used
in the context. Consult a dictionary and find out the difference in their
meaning and usage. Retell the jokes in Indirect speech:
1. A young teacher ju st beginning his career asks advice
of an older m em ber of the faculty: “W hat have you learned
in your years of experience?”
“I've learned one thing. Often you will find while you are
giving a lesson in class th at th ere is one young u p start who
always disagrees with you. Tell me, w ould you stop him and
try to m ake him shut up right then and th ere?”
“I suppose I w ould.”
“W ell, don't. H e's probably the only one who is listening
to you.”
2. A high-school girl seated next to a fam ous astronom er
at a dinner party struck up a conversation asking, “W hat do
you do in life?”
He replied, “I study astronom y.”
“ D ear m e,” said th e y o u n g miss, “ I finished astro n o m y
last year.”

VII. Translate the sentences using the words leant and study in their
different meanings:
1. В молодости он изучал химию в университете. 2. Дети легко
учат иностранные языки. 3. Я очень огорчился, когда узнал, что не
сдал экзамен. 4. Весь вечер он занимался в своей комнате. 5. Изу­
чите эту информацию очень внимательно: она поможет вам сде­
лать правильный выбор. 6. Моя сестра учится, чтобы стать юрис­
том. 7. К сожалению, он так и не научился читать и писать. 8. Вам
еще предстоит научиться, как справляться с трудными проблемами
на уроках.

VIII. Comment on the given proverbs. Make up a situation centered


round one of them:
1. Better unborn than untaught.
2. Like teacher, like pupil.
3. A little know ledge is a dangerous thing.
33
IX. a) Fill in prepositions and adverbs where necessary:

Dialogue
B o b : W hat are you going to take... as a career?
J o h n : A rc h ite c tu re . A ctu ally , I'v e a lre a d y s ta rte d . 1
began my studies ... last O ctober.
B o b : W hat are you going to do when you finish?
J o h n : Oh, I shall go b ack ... hom e and p ractise ... my
native town. T here's a lot of useful work to be done there —
building schools, hospitals, homes ... the people.
В о b: W hat made you decide to take ... architecture as a
career?
J o h n : W ell. I was good ... M aths and Art ... school and
1 think 1 had a certain feeling ... design. My teacher encour­
aged ... me and said I had a bent ... architecture.
В о b: 1 find th a t som e y o u n g p e o p le fail to ta k e ... a
ca re er b e c a u se th e y 're not sure w hat th ey w ant to do and
w hat career opportunities there are.
J o h n : Yes, th a t's true. But usually your personal q u ali­
ties s h o w school, do n 't they? Teachers guide and encour­
age ... the young to take ... the careers ... which th ey 're best
suited.
b) Tell your friends how John chose his career.
c) Make up your own dialogues on choosing a career. Use the word
combinations in bold type in them.

X. a) Read the following;


C arin g teach ers tak e an active p art in d efen d in g p eace
and in solving other social problem s, such as stru g g lin g for
b etter living conditions and a happier future for their pupils
Their dem ands are well grounded since millions of boys and
g irls th ro u g h o u t the w orld are b eing d ep riv ed cf a h ap p y
childhood.
b) Support the idea with information from Russian and/or foreign
press. Pay special attention to the situation in the USA and Great Britain.
c) Speak on:
1. your idea of a happy childhood;
2. the problem of deprived children in Russia and abroad
XI. Here is a series of extreme opinions. Build a conversation about
each topic. Begin as in the model:
English is a very easy language to learn.
A.: It says here English is a very easy language to learn.
B.: I'm not sure I quite agree. I'd say it's fairly difficult.
A.: W hy do you think that?
B.: Well, ...
Opinions:
1. A teaching career isn’t suitable for men.
2. Teaching a foreign language in a school is pointless.
3. E ducation is the responsibility of teachers and parents
shouldn't interfere.
4. S choolchild ren sh o u ld be allow ed to choose th e su b ­
jects they want to study.
5. In the near future sch o o lteach ers will be rep laced by
com puters.

XII. Translate the sentences below Into English. Use Essential Vocabul­
ary II:
1. Любовь к детям заставила его стать учителем, и он никогда
не жалел о своем выборе. 2. Похоже, придется выбирать между
работой в детском саду и учебой в пединституте. 3. В моей работе
нет большого разнообразия, но у нее есть свои достоинства. 4, Бо­
юсь, что в этот раз школьникам нелегко будет справиться с зада­
нием. 5. Успехи учеников в большой степени зависят от их учите­
ля и его профессионального мастерства, б. Работа в школе потре­
бует от вас ума, такта и чувства ответственности. 7. Уважение лю­
дей можно заслужить только честным трудом. 8. Не каждый, кто
получает профессию учителя в Великобритании, может найти себе
работу. 9. Я работаю учителем уже много лет и могу сказать, что
не смог бы найти более благородного труда. 10. Мой друг выбрал
себе профессию врача, еще когда учился в школе. Он всегда был
уверен, что эта работа самая важная на свете. 11. Любовь к музы­
ке и интерес к педагогике (theory of education) заставили меня
подумать о профессии учителя музыки. 12. Часто выпускникам
Школ бывает трудно решить, какую профессию выбрать. В этом
случае учителя и родители могут помочь им сделать правильный
выбор. Кроме того, в каждой школе существует система профори­
ентации. 13. В нашей стране профессия учителя традиционно была
одной из самых уважаемых. 14. Что привлекает вас в работе учи­
теля?

35
XIII. Role-playing, a) Act out in pairs the following situations; use
Essential Vocabulary II:
1. M ik e 's fath e r has b ee n ask ed b y th e h e a d m a ste r to
com e to school because of his son's unusual behaviour: bad
m arks, lots of m issed classes, ru d e behaviour. D iscuss th e
causes of his behaviour and steps to be taken.
2. N ext year G eorge and Nick are going to take entrance
exam inations at the University. Imagine a talk betw een them
about their plans and the reasons that have determ ined their
choice.
3. M o th er an d d a u g h te r have a very serio u s talk about
the girl's decision to take up teaching as a career. Her m oth­
er, though, is rather sceptical about her choice.
4. Im agine a talk b etw een two friends, o n e of w hom is
fed up with his or her present boring, unrew arding job. The
other tries to suggest what he or she should do.
P r o m p t s : m ig h t it b e an id e a to ...; h av e you ever
thought of ...; you could always ...; if I w ere you, I'd ...; why
d o n 't you ...; y ou 'd better ...
b) Role-play the following situation:
You are at a P aren t-T each ers asso ciatio n m eetin g . You
are discussing a problem you feel very strongly about. Among
you there is a m other w ho's sure th at children sh o u ld n 't bo
strictly disciplined at school, a father who has the opposite
opinion, a fath er w ho te n d s to blam e te ach e rs for his c h il­
d re n 's faults, a g ran d m o th er w ho ten d s to spoil h er g ra n d ­
ch ild ren , a m o th er w ho gives o th e r p a re n ts ad vice for tht
only reason that her daughter is at the head of the class.
XIV. Pick one of these topics and discuss it, making sure each membei
of the group gets a chance to speak:
1. How to en co u rag e a child to m ake b etter pro g ress <r
school? Should parents use: praise, presents, prom ises of fu
ture rewards?
2. Should a child be punished? If not, how to m ake chil
dren obey?
3. Should children be allowed to wear clothes of their owi
at school? S hould boys b e allow ed to have long hair, a n t’
girls to use m ake-up?

36
4. H ow c a n p a re n ts h e lp te a c h e rs w ith o u t-o f-sc h o o l
activities?
5. Should p aren ts insist on th eir ch ild ren d o in g eq u ally
well in all th e subjects or should they en co u rag e th eir sons
and d au g h ters to specialise in one or two subjects essential for
their future career?

XV. a) Read and translate the text:

My Memories and Miseries As a Schoolmaster


T he p a re n ts of the boys at school n atu rally fill a broad
page in a schoolm aster's life and are responsible for m any of
his sorrow s. T here are all kinds and classes of them . M ost
accep tab le to the schoolm aster is the old-fashioned type of
British father who enters his boy at the school and says:
“Now I w ant this boy well thrashed if he d o e sn 't behave
himself. If you have an y tro u b le w ith him let me know and
I'll com e and thrash him myself. He's to have a shilling a week
pocket m oney and if he spends m ore than that let me know
and I'll stop his m oney altogether.”
Brutal though his speech sounds, the real effect of it is to
create a strong prejudice in the little boy's favour, and w hen
his fa th e r c u rtly says, “ G ood -b y e, J a c k ” an d h e answ ers,
“G ood-bye, fath er,” in a trem bling voice, the sch o o lm aster
would be a hound, indeed, who could be unkind to him.
But very d ifferen t is th e case of th e u p -to -d a te p aren t.
“ N ow I’ve ju s t given Jim m y five p o u n d s ,” he say s to th e
schoolm aster, in the same tone as he would use to an inferi­
or clerk in his office, “and I've explained to him th at w hen
he w ants an y m ore h e 's to tell you to go to th e b an k and
draw for him w hat he n eed s.” After which he goes on to ex ­
plain th a t Jim m y is a boy of very p ec u lia r d isp o sitio n , re ­
quiring the greatest nicety of treatm ent; that th ey find if he
gets in tem pers the best way is to hum our him and presently
h e'll com e round. Jimmy, it appears, can be led, if led g e n ­
tly, but never driven.
D uring all of w hich tim e th e sch o o lm aster, in su lted by
being treated as an underling, has alread y fixed his eye on
the u n d isc ip lin e d y o u n g pup called Jim m y w ith a view of
37
trying out the problem of seeing w hether he c a n 't be driven
after all.
{From “College Days" by S. Leacock)

Ы Answer the questions below:


1. How does th e au th o r characterize two o p p o site types
of “British father*’? 2. W hy, in Leacock's view, the “old-fash­
io n e d ” type is m ore accep tab le for a schoolm aster? W ould
you p refer to have Ja c k or Jim m y for a pupil? 3. How did
the ac q u ain tan ce with the fathers influence the schoolm as­
te r's attitu d e to the boys? Do you find it natural? 4. Do you
th in k th e problem s raised in the text are o u td a ted ? Ju stify
your answer. 5. In what way should teachers and parents co ­
operate in educating the child?

XVI. Act as an interviewer. Let the rest of the group speak about why
and how they decided to qualify as a teacher of languages. Find out:
1. if anybody or anything influenced their choice;
2. when they finally m ade up their minds;
3. what attracts them in the work;
4. what they consider its advantages and disadvantages.

XVII. Interview a teacher at the school where you have school practice.
Ask him or her the questions from Exercise XVI and also try to find out:
1. how long he or she has been in teaching;
2. if he or she ever regretted having taken up the job;
3. what is the most notable feature of teaching;
4. what advice he or she can give to a teacher trainee.
Discuss the interviews in class.

XVIII. Comment on the picture (p. 39). You may find these phrases
useful:
a T eacher-Parent Association m eeting; to keep discipline
in the classroom ; to use traditional (new) m ethods; to be in
the habit of giving orders; to be strict with the pupils; to tell
the pupils off; a bossy teacher.
"1 will now ex p lain th e p ro g ressiv e m e th o d s by w hich
your children are taught — so keep quiet, sit up straight and
don't fidget."

38
XIX. Film “Mr. Brown's Holiday".1 Film segment 1 “An Unexpected
Turn” (London), a) Watch and listen, b) Do the exercises from the guide to
the film.2

STUDIES OF WRITTEN ENGLISH


I
Clarity, interest and em phasis are m arks of good writing.
G ood w riting is also based on selectio n of w ords in a se n ­
tence, on organization of sen ten ces in a parag rap h , and on
unity of a w ritten passage. T hese are the main objectives of
the second-year studies of w ritten English.

1 «М-р Браун в отпуске». Авторы сценария: Е. Сергиевская, А. Мо­


розова, А. Штаден. Научные консультанты: Е. Кириллова, Н. Федотова.
Режиссер А. Штаден. «Леннаучфильм», 1977.
2 Кириллова Е. П., Сергиевская Е. Г. Методические рекомендации к
учебному фильму на английском языке «М-р Браун в отпуске». М.,
1978.

39
Patterns of written prose. W hen w riting you m ay choose
to describe the facts or events, to tell a story about them, to
argue about them or to explain them according to your u n ­
d erstan d in g . T hese verbs co rresp o n d to four basic form s of
trea tin g a topic: description, narration, argumentation, and
exposition (explanation).
Paragraph is a single sentence or a group of related sen ­
tences expressing and developing a basic idea, or a p articu ­
lar phase of thought. T he p arag rap h is a practical device in
w riting. Its p u rp o se is to in d icate th e b eg in n in g s an d e n d ­
ings of a thought unit. The beginning of a paragraph is indi­
cated by beginning a line a little in from the margin.
H ere is a sho rt p arag rap h describing a w ell-know n p o r­
trait: “M ona Lisa (Gioconda) is represented sitting in front of
a m arble balcony. T he left arm rests on the arm of the seat,
and the fingers fold over th e end of it. The right hand, p e r­
haps the most perfect hand ever painted, lies lightly over the
left hand and wrist. O n sleeves and bodice the pleats of the
satin d ress ta k e th e lig h t.” (From “ L eonardo d a V in ci” by
E. Me. С urely)
The au th o r presen ts his im pressions of the p o rtrait and
describes it in detail.
H ere is an o th er exam ple of a p arag rap h telling a story:
“A rath er dreadful thing h a p p e n ed in th e car as th ey w ere
driving up from the b each to the an cien t town, on ce a N o r­
m an port, b u t now left high an d dry by th e re ce d in g se a .”
(From “The W ind” by A. Bennett)
H ere is an exam ple of a p arag rap h of argumentation: “I
am h ere to say a very few w ords on th e w hole q u estio n of
th e treatm en t of anim als by our civilized selves. For I have
no special know ledge, like som e w ho will sp eak to you, of
th e tra in in g of p erfo rm in g an im als. I have o n ly a ce rta in
k n o w led g e of hu m an an d anim al n atu re s; an d a com m on
se n se w hich tells m e th a t w ild an im als are m ore h a p p y in
freedom than in captivity — dom estic anim als are m ore h ap ­
py as com panions th an as clow ns.” (From “ O n Perform ing
Animals” by J. Galsworthy)

40
T he a u th o r tries to co n v in ce th e re a d e r of his p o in t of
view: he dislikes the idea of tu rn in g dom estic anim als into
perform ers in the circus.
T he ex p o sito ry p a ra g ra p h b elow m ak es it c le a r w hat
p o liten ess is: “ It isn 't only w ith a c q u a in ta n c e s an d friends
that politeness counts so m uch. Half the trouble in m arriage
and o th e r fam ily relatio n sh ip s b egins w ith th e throw ing of
politeness overboard. Politeness is often little m ore th an the
e x e rc ise of self-co n tro l, w h ich is as v a lu a b le a q u a lity in
friendship as kindness itself.” (From “ Effective E nglish and
personal Efficiency C ourse”)
N o t e : These patterns of writing seldom occur alone, more often they
are joined together.
Assignments:
1. Read the text “Anne Meets her Class" and point out the paragraphs
of description, narration, argumentation and exposition. What does the
author like to describe in this episode? What is he telling the reader about?
What argument is Anne thinking of to manage the class? What is Miss
Enderby trying to explain to Anne?
2. Search Texts А В (P. II) for the basic forms of treating the topic
“On Teaching" and prove your selection of paragraphs.
3. Write a paragraph describing the picture suggested by the teacher.
4. Write a short paragraph about your visit to a former schoolmate.
5. Write a paragraph supporting or arguing Jane's and Bob's idea
about teaching. (See the Dialogue.)

LABORATORY EXERCISES (II)

1. a) Listen to the text “What's Your Line?", mark stresses and tunes,
practise reading the text.
b) Listen to the dialogue and learn it by heart.
2. Respond as in the models. Check your replies.
3. Write a spelling-translation test, check it with the key.
4. Write the dictation “Five Hundred Years of English Language
Teaching", check your spelling with a dictionary.
5. Translate the sentences into English, check your translation with the
key.
6. a) Listen to the text and find English equivalents to the given words
and word combinations.
b) Check the words and word combinations.
c) Listen to the text again and do the tasks after it.

41
U N IT T W O

I
SPEECH PATTERNS

la. It would have been natural if the boy had gone to sleep.

It would have been natural if you had punished the child


for his behaviour yesterday.
It w ou ld n 't have been so cold in the m orning if the wind
had stopped blowing.
It w ould have b ee n s tra n g e if he h a d n 't c a lle d on m e
w hen he was here last summer.
It w ould have been q u ite dark in the forest if we h a d n 't
m ade a good fire.

lb. The father wouldn't have called the doctor if the boy
had been quite well.

G ra n t w o u ld hav e a c c e p te d M a rio 's in v ita tio n if he


h ad n 't m ade up his plans for the summer.
A nne w ould have tak en her sp rin g exam s if sh e h a d n 't
fallen ill.
W e sh o u ld n 't have m ade friends with them if we h a d n 't
stayed in the sam e camp.
W e should have finished our w ork yesterd ay if you had
helped us.

lc. The boy would have behaved in a different way if he


were selfish.

They w ouldn't have quarrelled if they both were less n er­


vous.
You w ould have im proved your spelling long ago if you
w ere more diligent.
W e should have invited him to our party if we knew him
better.
42
She w ou ld n 't have forgiven him if she d id n ’t love him so
much-

2. He seem ed to know all about influenza.

The children seem to like each other very much.


You d o n 't seem to understand me.
S he se e m e d to k n o w g ra m m a r m u ch b e tte r th a n w e
thought.
They d id 't seem to have met before.

3. I can 't keep from thinking.

C an 't you keep from talking all the time?


Try and keep from gossiping about other people.
She c o u ld n 't k eep from sco ld in g th e child, th o u g h she
knew she shouldn 't do it.
W e ca n 't keep from laughing when we look at him.

EXERCISES

I. Change these sentences, using Patterns la and lb:


E x a m p l e : W e should m eet a lot of tourists if we w ent to a
tourist cam p next summer.
W e should have m et a lot of tourists if we had
gone to a tourist cam p last year (last summer,
when we had our holiday, etc.).
I. M ario w o u ld n 't com e to England if Jo h n d id n 't invite
him. 2. P eter w ould accep t your invitation if he w ere not ill.
3. It w ouldn't be a hardship for the children to sweep and clean
the rooms, would it? 4. If the w eather w ere fine we should go
to a holiday camp next summer. 5. W e would live in a hotel if
the rates w ere not very high. 6. It w ould be n atu ral if th ey
didn't m eet after their quarrel. 7. My friend and I would go to
the cinem a after this lesson if the rest of the students agreed
to go with us. 8. If the w eather did n 't change we should go to
the country tonight.
43
II. Combine the following sentences into one, using speech Pattern lc:
E x a m p l e : They quarrelled. They both are very nervous.
They w ouldn't have quarrelled if they both were
not very nervous.
1. Bob recovered. T he d o cto rs th a t had trea ted him are
very experienced. 2. M ary passed her exams. She is in d u stri­
ous. 3. W e invited Jo h n Brown to our tea-party. W e are a c ­
q uainted with him. 4. 1 d id n 't leave the children alone. They
are n a u g h ty . 5. She d id n 't a g re e to te ach us F ren ch . She
d o e sn 't know the lan g u ag e well. 6. M artha u n d ersto o d the
G erm an delegates, she is a German. 7. I gave you this book
because it's very interesting. 8. I advised my friends to have
a w alking tour because I myself am fond of walking tours.

III. Make up sentences after Patterns 2 and 3, using the following


words and phrases:
a) P a tte rn 2: to be busy, to know a lot, to u n d e rsta n d
each other, to hate (smb. or smth.), to love music, e. g. Ann
seem s to love ch ild re n , I often see h er p lay in g w ith little
boys and girls in our yard.
b) P attern 3: to scold each other, to argue (about smth.),
to m eet (with), to write a letter, to dream (of smth), e. g. She
c a n 't keep from crying when she reads sentim ental poetry.

IV. Translate these sentences into English, using the patterns from
Units One and Two:
1. He беспокойся, ребенок не был бы таким веселым, если бы
он был серьезно болен, 2. Тебе не пошло бы, если бы ты носил
бороду и усы, ты бы выглядел гораздо старше своих лет. 3. Было
бы лучше, если бы они не позволяли детям смотреть телевизор так
поздно. 4. Было бы естественно, если бы дети спросили меня об их
новой учительнице, но никто не задал этого вопроса. 5. На твоем
месте я ела бы поменьше сладкого, ты располнеешь. 6. Было бы
естественно, если бы он стал ученым, ему хорошо давались точны*
науки в школе, но он стал актером. 7. Ты бы давно закончила этот
перевод, если бы не болтала по телефону. 8. Ты бы не забыла мне
позвонить, если бы не была такой рассеянной.

V. Make up a dialogue, using the patterns from Units One and Two.
E x a m p l e : A.: If my m other h a d n 't b een ill I should have
gone to the South last summer.

44
В.: You had bad luck. And what are your plans for
the com ing w inter holidays?
A.: I haven't m ade any plans so far.
B.: W ouldn't you like to stay with me at my au n t's
in the country?
A.: But would it be convenient to her?
B.: Certainly.
A.: Well, th at's very nice of you to invite me.

TEXT. A DAY'S WAIT


by Ernest Hemingway

H em ingw ay, Ernest (1899 —1961 j: a prom in en t A m erican novelist


and short-story writer. He began to write fiction about 1923, his first books
being the reflection of his war experience. “The Sun Also Rises” (1926)
belongs to this period as well as “A Farewell to Arms” (1929) in which the
antiwar protest is particularly powerful.
During the Civil W ar Hemingway visited Spain as a war co rrespon­
dent. His impressions of the period and his sympathies with the Republi­
cans found reflection in his famous play “The Fifth C olum n” (1937), the
novel “For Whom the Bell Tolls" (1940) and a number of short stories.
His later works are “Across the River and into the T rees” (1950) and
“The Old Man and the Sea" (1952) and the very last novel “Islands in the
Stream” (1970) published after the author's death. In 1954 he was awarded
a Nobel Prize for literature.
Hemingway's manner is characterized by deep psychological insight
into the hum an nature. He early established himself as the m aster of a
new style: laconic and somewhat dry.

H e cam e into th e room to sh u t th e w indow s w hile we


w ere still in bed and I saw he looked ill. He was shivering,
his face was white, and he walked slowly as though it ached
to move. “W hat's the matter, Schatz?” 1
“I've got a headache.”
“You'd better go back to bed.”
“No, I'm all right.”
“You go to bed. I'll see you when I'm dressed.”

1 Schatz (Germ.): darling

45
But w hen I cam e d ow nstairs he was d ressed , sittin g by
the fire, looking a very sick and m iserable boy of nine years.
W hen I put my hand on his forehead I knew he had a fever.
“You go up to bed,” I said, “you're sick.”
“I'm all right,” he said.
W hen the doctor cam e he took the boy's tem perature.
“W hat is it?” I asked him.
“O ne hundred and two.”2
D ow nstairs, th e d o cto r left th ree d ifferen t m ed icin es in
different colored capsules with instructions for giving them .
O n e was to b ring dow n the fever, an o th er a p urgative, th e
third to overcom e an acid condition. The germ s of influenza
ca n o n ly e x is t in an a c id c o n d itio n , h e e x p la in e d . H e
seem ed to know all about influenza and said there was n o th ­
ing to w orry ab o u t if th e fever did n o t go above o n e h u n ­
dred and four degrees. This was a light epidem ic of flu and
there was no danger if you avoided pneum onia.
Back in th e room I w ro te th e b o y 's te m p e ra tu re dow n
and m ade a note of the tim e to give the various capsules.
“Do you want me to read to you?”
“ All right, if you w an t to ,” said th e boy. H is face w as
very w hite and there were dark areas un d er his eyes. He lay
still in the bed and seem ed very detached from what was go­
ing on.
I read alo u d from H ow ard P y le's3 Book o f Pirates, b u t I
could see he was not following what I was reading.
“How do you feel, Schatz?” I asked him.

2 102 °F (Fahrenheit) correspond to 38.9 °C (Centigrade). The Fahren­


heit therm om eter is used throughout the British Com m onw ealth and in
the United States. The boiling point of the Fahrenheit therm om eter is
212", the freezing point — 32°, the normal tem perature of a human body
is about 99°. The C entigrade therm om eter, used in Russia, France and
other countries, has 0° (zero) for its freezing point and 100° for the boiling
point.
3 Pyle, Howard (1853- 1911): an American illustrator, painter and
author.

46
“Ju st the same, so far,” he said.
I sat at the foot of the bed and read to myself while I w ait­
ed for it to be tim e to give an o th er cap su le. It w ould have
been natural for him to go to sleep, but w hen I looked up he
was looking at the foot of the bed, looking very strangely.
“W hy d o n 't you try to go to sleep? I'll w ake you up for
the m edicine.”
“I'd rather stay aw ake.”
A fter a w hile he said to me, “You d o n 't have to stay in
here with me, Papa, if it bothers you.”
“It d o esn 't bother me.”
“No, I m ean you d o n 't have to stay if it's going to bother
you.”
I th o u g h t perh ap s he was a little lig h t-h ead ed an d after
giving him the prescribed capsules at eleven o 'clo ck I w ent
out for a while.
It was a bright, cold day, the ground covered with a sleet
that had frozen so that it seem ed as if all the bare trees, the
bushes, the cu t brush and all the grass and the bare ground
had been varnished with ice. I took the young Irish setter for a
little walk up the road and along a frozen creek.
At the house they said the boy had refused to let any one
come into the room.
“You c a n 't com e in ,” he said. “You m u stn 't g e t w hat I
have.” I w ent up to him and found him in exactly the posi­
tion I had left him , w h ite -fac ed , b u t w ith th e to p s of his
cheeks flushed by the fever, staring still, as he had stared, at
the foot of the bed.
I took his tem perature.
“W hat is it?”
“S om ething like a h u n d red ," I said. It was o n e h u n d red
and two and four tenths.
“It was a hundred and two,” he said.
“W ho said so ?”
“The doctor,”
“Your te m p e ra tu re is all rig h t,” I said. “ It's n o th in g to
worry about.”

47
“ I d o n 't w orry ,” he said, " b u t I c a n 't k ee p from th in k ­
ing.”
“D on't think,” I said. "Just take it easy.”
“ I'm tak in g it easy ,” he said and looked w orried ab o u t
som ething.
"Take this with w ater.”
“Do you think it will do any g o o d ?”
“Of course, it will.”
I sat dow n and o pened the Pirate Book and com m enced
to read bu t I could see he was not following, so I stopped.
“ A bout w hat tim e do you th in k I'm g o in g to d ie ? ” he
asked.
“W h at?”
“About how long will it be before I d ie?”
“You aren 't going to die. W hat's the m atter with y o u ?”
“Oh, yes, I am. I heard him say a hundred and two.”
“P eople d o n ’t die w ith a fever of one h u n d red and two.
T hat's a silly way to talk!”
“ I know th ey do. At school in F ran ce th e boys told me
you c a n 't live w ith forty-four d eg ree s. I’ve g o t a h u n d re d
and two.”
H e h a d b e e n w a itin g to d ie all day, ever sin c e n in e
o'clock in the morning.
“You p o o r S c h a tz ,” I said . “ P oor o ld S ch atz, it's lik e
m iles and kilom eters. You a re n 't going to die. T h at's a dif­
fe re n t th e rm o m e te r. O n th a t th e rm o m e te r th irty -se v e n is
normal. O n this kind it's ninety-eight.”
“Are you su re?”
“A bsolutely,” I said. “ It's like m iles and kilom eters. You
know, like how m any kilom eters we m ake w hen we do sev­
enty miles in the car?”
“O h,” he said.
But his gaze at th e foot of th e b ed relax ed slow ly. T he
hold over him self relax ed too, finally, and th e n ex t d ay it
was very slack and he cried very easily at little th in g s that
w ere of no im portance.

48
VOCABULARY NOTES

1. to shiver vi дрожать, as shiver with cold


Syrt. to trem ble, to shudder, to start; to trem ble is th e
m ost g e n e ra l w ord; sh u d d erin g /sta r tin g is g e n e ra lly th e
resu lt of (great) fear or d isg u st, e. g. H e seem ed p e rfe c tly
calm, only a slight trem bling of his voice and hands showed
he w as ex c ite d . K eith s h u d d e re d at th e sig h t of th e d e a d
body. T he child was shivering w ith cold. She sta rte d w hen
they cam e in.
2. ache л боль (a continuous, not sharp or sudden, pain).
Usually used in com pounds: headache, toothache, stom ach­
ache, earache, backache, e. д. I had a bad h ead ach e y ester­
day. Som e p eo p le have (a) bad ea ra ch e w hen th e p la n e is
losing heig h t. But: to have a sore throat, eye, finger, etc.,
e. д. I ca n 't speak louder, I have a sore throat.
Syn. pain л to feel (have) a bad (sharp, slight) pain in ...,
e. g. I feel a sharp pain in my right knee. M y leg gives m e
m uch pain.; painful adj болезненный, тяжелый
Ant. painless, e. g. It was a painful (painless) operation.
to a ch e v i / t болеть (чувствовать боль) — to b e in
c o n tin u o u s p ain , e. g. M y ear a c h e s. A fter c lim b in g th e
m ountain he ached all over.
C/.; hurt v t / i причинять боль, e. g. It h u rts th e eyes to
look at the sun. My foot hurts (me) w hen I walk.
3. m ed icin e л 1. лекарство, e. g. W h at m ed icin e(s) do
you take for your headaches? 2. медицина, e, g. He is fond
of medicine, he wants to becom e a surgeon.
medical adj, e. g. He studies at a M edical Institute. He is
a m edical stu d e n t. M y m edical know led g e leaves m uch to
be desired. You'd better consult your surgeon.
4. condition л 1. состояние; to be in (a) good (bad) con­
dition, e. g. After the thunderstorm our garden was in a terri­
ble co ndition, q u ite a num ber of trees w ere b ro k en . Every
p arcel a rriv ed in go o d co n d itio n (n o th in g w as b ro k e n or
spoiled).; to be in no condition to do smth., e. g. He is in no
co n d itio n to travel. T he ship was in no co n d itio n to leave
harbour. H e can sing very well, b u t tonight he is in no co n ­
dition to do it, he has a sore throat.
49
2. условие; under good (bad) condition(s), e. g. T he u n ­
e m p lo y ed live u n d e r very h ard co n d itio n s.; on con d itio n
that = if, e. g. 1 will do it on condition that you give me the
tim e I need.; co n d itio n a l adj. e. g. C o n d itio n a l se n te n c e s
contain "if” or its synonyms.
5. foot Л (pi feet) 1. нога (ниж е щ иколотки, ступня),
е. g. T he b o y ju m p e d to his feet. A d o g 's feet a re c a lle d
paw s.; 2. ф у т (около) 30,5 см, p i часто без изм енен и й ,
е. д. T he boy was too tall for his age and he was th ree foot
two in his shoes.; 3. подножие, ниж няя часть, основание,
as the fool of the m ountain, at the foot of the page, the foot
of the bed, e. g. This boy is at the foot of his class.
Ant. top, head, as the top of the m ountain, the top (head)
of th e page, at the head of th e bed, etc. e. g. This boy is at
the head of his class.
on foot (= w alking, not riding), e. g. W h en p e o p le are
having th eir w alking holiday they cover long d istan ces on
foot. (C/.: by train, by bus, etc.)
footnote л сноска
6. prescribe vi прописы вать л екарство, e. g. Doctor, will
you p resc rib e a tonic for me? W h at can you p resc rib e for
my headache (cold, etc.)?
prescription л рецепт; to m ake up a prescription for smb.,
e. g. Please call in at the chem ist's and have this prescription
m ade up for me; to write out a prescription.
7. bare adj 1. обнаж енны й, голый, непокры ты й (usu.
about some part of our body), e. g. His head was bare.
Syn. naked (= having no cloth es on), e. g.V ictorine was
shocked when she learned that she would have to sit for the
painter quite naked.
barefoot adj predic, adv = with bare feet, w ithout shoes
and stockings, e. g. Children like to go (run, walk) barefoot.
barefooted adj, attr. Barefooted people were standing on
the bank.
b a re-le g g ed (-arm ed) a d j = w ith b a re le g s (arm s),
e. g. W hen we speak of bare-legged children we m ean ch il­
d ren w earing shoes, but no stockings; bare-footed ch ild ren
wear neither shoes nor stockings

50
b are-h ea d ed , adj = w ith o u t a hat, e. g. It's alre ad y too
c o ld to go bare-headed.
2. пустой, голый, лишенный чего-л., as a bare room (with
little or no furniture), bare walls (without pictures or w allpa­
per), bare trees (without leaves), bare facts (only facts; n o th ­
ing but facts).
C/.: a bare room (no furniture), an em pty room (no p eo ­
ple), a vacant room (a room in which eith er no one is living
at present or no one is working; a room which can be o ccu ­
pied), e. g . After the piano was taken out, the room seem ed
quite bare. I thou g h t I heard voices in the next room, b u t it
was em pty. “W o n 't you look for a vacant room in w hich we
could have a co n su ltatio n ?” — “I'm told th at all the room s
are occupied.”
8. refuse v t /i отказы вать(ся), e. g . She refused my offer.
She c a n 't refu se her c h ild re n an y th in g . He refu sed to do
what I asked him.
N о t e: In the m eaning of sacrificing smth., parting with smth., the
English verb to give up is used, e. g. He gave up the idea of going there.
Roger promised to give up smoking, but he didn't keep his promise.
refusal n, e. g. He answered her invitation, with a cold re­
fusal.
9. like adj похожий, подобный, e. g. They are as like as
two peas. W h at is he like? ( = W hat sort of p erso n is he?)
W hat d oes he look like? ( = W h at kind of a p p e a ra n c e has
he got?) How does she look today? ( = W hat is her appear-
rance today?) It looks like gold. (= It has the appearance of
gold.) It looks like rain. It was ju st like him to take the b ig ­
gest piece of cake. There is nothing like home.
like prep or adv подобно, как, e. g. I ca n 't do it like you.
They are behaving like little children, I've never heard him
sing like that.
N o t e : to act like means to do smth. in the same way or in the manner of
other people, e. g. She can play like a real pianist.; fo act as means acting in
the capacity of smb., e. g. Some of our students act as guides during summer,
alike adj predic одинаковый, похожий, подобный, e. g. The
houses in this street are alike. (C/.: The houses in this street
а*е like those in the next street.)

51
likeness rx сходство, e. д. I cannot see m uch likeness b e ­
tween the twins.
unlike adj непохожий, e. g. She was unlike all other girls,
u nlike prep в отличие от, e. g. U n lik e o th e r g irls sh e
was not at all talkative.

NOTES ON STYLE

A. T he term s style, sty listic are g e n e ra lly u sed in two


different meanings. In lexicology the term functional style is
used which m ay be defined as a system of expressive m eans
p ecu liar to a specific sp h e re of com m unication. O therw ise
speaking, th e ch oice of w ords an d of m odes of ex p ressio n
depends on the situation in which the process of com m unica­
tion is realized, w hether it is a friendly talk, an official letter
or report, a poem , a scientific article, etc. A ccording to the
situ atio n (or the sp h ere of com m unication) we m ay d istin ­
g u ish form al (bookish, learn ed ) an d inform al (colloquial)
w ords. T he form er are p ec u lia r to fiction, scien tific prose,
lectures, official talks; th e latter are used in everyday talks
with friends and relatives. O ne should also k eep in mind that
there are a great num ber of words that are independent of the
sphere of com m unication, i. e. that can be used in a lecture, in
an informal talk, in a poem, etc. Such w ords are stylistically
neutral (e. g. bread, word, book, go, takes, white, etc.).
S tudents should be w arned against taking the term collo­
quial as a kind of encouragem ent to use words thus m arked
as m uch as possible. The term im plies th at the w ords called
colloquial are limited by their sphere of usage and, if used in
a w rong situation (e. g. in a stu d en t's com position, in a co n ­
versation with an official acquaintance or with one higher in
authority), m ay p ro d u ce the im pression of im p o liten ess 01
even rudeness.
E. g. He is a jolly chap. = Он парень что надо, (chap n,
coll.; jolly adj, coll.) The stylistically neutral way of putting it
is: He is a good (fine) man.
H ow a re th e k id s? = Как ваши ребята? (kid л, coll.)
The stylistically neutral way: How are your children?
I'm all right. = Со мной все нормально, (all rig h t coll.)
The stylistically neutral way: I feel (am) quite well.

Compare:
Neutral Colloquial Bookish
begin start com m ence
continue go on proceed
end, finish be over (through) term inate
buy get purchase

N ote also that such abbreviations as I'm, I've, Г11, you'd,


you're, etc. are ch aracteristic of colloquial style. Therefore,
students will be well advised to avoid them in their com posi­
tions, essays, precis, etc.
B. The term style may be also used with reference to the
m anner of w riting of som e p articu lar author. E. g. H em in g ­
w ay's style is ch aracterized by laconism and lack of detail.
The syntax of his sentences is very simple, the dialogues are
a lm o st m o n o sy lla b ic a n d s e e m in g ly u n e m o tio n a l. Yet,
through the au stere form the au th o r m anages som etim es to
create a narration of great tension.

ESSENTIAL VOCABULARY (I)

Words
ache v, n flue л painful adj
avoid v foot Л pneum onia л
bare adj medical adj prescribe v
barefoot adj predic, adv medicine л prescription л
bare-headed adj miserable adj shiver v
condition n naked adj trem ble v
epidem ic n pain л vacant adj
fever n

53
Word Combinations
to have (got) a headache to give smth. up
to take one's (or sm b.’s) to m ake a note (notes) of smth.
tem perature so far
to bring down the fever at the foot (head) of the bed
to be in (a) good (bad) to read to oneself (aloud)
condition to go to sleep (cf.: to fall asleep)
to live (work) under good to stay (be) awake
(bad) condition (s) flushed by the fever (anger,
to be in no condition to do excitem ent, etc.)
smth. to flush with
on condition that to take smth. easy
to write (put) smth. down

EXERCISES

1. Read the text and the Notes on Lexicology and Style and talk on the
following points (A. Grammar, B. Word usage, C. Style):
A. 1. W hy does the author use or drop the definite article
b e fo re th e w ord b ed in th e se n te n c e s : “ W e w ere still in
b ed .” “You'd better go back to b ed,” “I sat at the foot of the
bed.”
2. W hy is the Infinitive used with or w ithout the particle
to in th e sen ten ces: “ Do you w ant m e to read to y o u ? ” “ I
heard him say a hundred and two.”
3. In th e se n te n c e “ It's n o th in g to w orry a b o u t” if is a
p erso n a l p ro n o u n . W h a t n o u n d o e s it sta n d for? ( N o t e:
T he E nglish for «Нечего беспокоиться.» w ould b e “T h ere is
nothing to worry about.”)
4. Tick off the sentences with the Infinitive used as an a t­
tribute.
5. Tick off all the com plex sentences with clauses joined
w ithout the conjunction that, e. д. “I know (that) he is ill.”
B. 1. W hat did the father m ean w hen he said “You’d b e t­
ter go back to b ed ” ? (Add som e w ords to show the im plica­
tion.)
2. P araphrase the sentences: “I'd rather stay aw ake” and
“just take it easy.”
54
3. W hat is the difference betw een the boy's w ords "...if it
bothers you" and "...if it’s going to bother you." (Translate the
sentences with these phrases into Russian.)
4. H ow an d w hy d id th e boy p a ra p h ra s e his q u e s tio n
“about what time... I'm going to die?'*
5. T he boy lay with his eyes fixed at the foot of the bed.
W hat synonym s and w hy did the au th o r use to describe the
situation? (See V ocabulary N otes in Unit One.)
С. 1. C om m ent on th e ch oice of w ords in H em ingw ay's
story from the point of view of their stylistic colouring. W hat
style prevails, formal or informal?
2. W hat can you say about the dialogues in the story and
their stylistic peculiarities?
3. C om m ent on the syntax of the story and th e stylistic
effect achieved by it.
4. W h a t is th e g e n e ra l a tm o sp h ere of th e story? Is th e
tension g ra d u a lly in creased ? How is th e effect ach iev ed ?
W hat is the point of the highest tension (climax)?

II. a) Choose the best translation of each English sentence below (or
give your own variant) and reason out your choice:

I. I'd rather stay awake. 1. Я предпочитаю бодрствовать.


2. Я лучше не буду спать.
II. ...as though it ached to move. 1. ...как будто ему было
больно двигаться. 2. ...как будто движения причиняли ему
боль.
III. Не seem ed very d e ta c h e d from w hat was g o in g on.
1. Казалось, окружающее его не интересует. 2. Он казался
полностью отрешенным от всего происходящего. 3. Он, ка­
залось, не замечал того, что происходит вокруг.
IV. But his gaze at the foot of the bed relaxed slowly. 1. Его
взгляд становился все менее напряженным. 2. Он уже не с
таким напряжением смотрел перед собой. 3. Его взгляд, ус­
тремленный на спинку кровати, постепенно терял свою на­
пряженность.
V. The hold over himself relaxed too, finally, and the next
day it was very slack. 1. Сдержанность его тоже, наконец,

55
ослабла и на следующий день была очень незначительной.
2. Он перестал держать себя в руках и на следующий день
был совсем вялым. 3. В конце концов его контроль над со­
бой тож е стал слабеть, и на следующий день он совсем
раскис.

b) Translate the description of the father's walk»

III. a) Copy, transcribe and give Russian equivalents of these words:


ach e, fever, m ed icin e, ca p su le , p u rg ativ e , g erm , acid,
influenza, various, pneum onia, area, pirate, natural, bother,
prescribe, bush, brush, worry, therm om eter, absolutely, relax.

Ы Give the four forms of the verbs:


shut, overcom e, lie (лежать), lay (класть), wake, freeze,
worry, die.

c) Make four columns and write numbers I, II, III and IV at their tops
to represent four types of syllables. Then pick out from the list above (‘a’
and *b*) words with vowel sounds illustrating different types of syllables
and place them In right columns.

IV. Try your hand at teaching.


(Look up the words and phrases you may need to do the task in
“Classroom English**, Sections IV, VIII.)
A. P reparation, a) Pick out from the text and from the in­
tro d u c tio n to it w ords w ith th e le tte r с in them . D ivide a
sheet of paper into ten colum ns with the following letters at
th e top of each colum n: 1) с + e, 2) с + i, 3) с + a, 4) с + с
5) c + u, 6) с + а c o n s o n a n t, 7) с in th e e n d in g -ic.
8) с + h = Ml, 9) с + h = [k], 10) с + к = [к].
Classify the words under each heading.
b) M ake up your own list of w ords to illustrate the sam e
rules.
B. W ork in C lass, a) Show the table w ith 10 colum ns ti
y o u r fe llo w -s tu d e n ts a n d e x p la in how с sh o u ld b e p ro
nounced in each case.
b) D ictate th e w ords from your list to the stu d e n ts anti
ask one of them to spell them on th e b lack b o ard . C orrec
the mistakes.
56
V. Answer the questions:
1. W hat w ere the sym ptom s of the boy's illness? 2. W hy
did it seem to th e fa th e r th a t th e d o c to r k n ew all a b o u t
influenza? 3. W hat w o rried th e boy? Since w hen? 4, W hy
did the boy p refer to stay aw ake? 5. W h at w ere th e sy m p ­
tom s of the boy's nervous strain th at the father took for the
sy m p to m s of h is illn e ss? 6. W o u ld n 't it h av e b e e n m o re
natural if the boy had told his father about his fears? W hy?
7. Do you like the boy's behaviour? How does it ch a ra c te r­
ize him ? 8. How w o u ld you e x p la in th e c o n tra s ts in th e
b o y ’s b eh a v io u r on th e first an d th e seco n d d ay of his ill­
ness? 9. W hy did the author introduce the description of the
father's w alk? 10. Do you find the situation described in the
story true to life? (Give your reasons.) 11. Do you think you
w ould have b eh av ed in th e sam e w ay in th e b o y ’s p lace?
12. W hat do you consider to be the point of the story?

Begin when possible your answers with:


I believe; I think; I'd like to say; In my view; As I see it;
I don’t think it would...; This is my way of looking at it.

VI. Study Vocabulary Notes and a) write derivatives or compounds of:


refuse, prescribe, pain, ache, condition, bare, like.
b) Give the opposite of:
to read aloud, in good condition, at the foot of the bed
(mountain, page), the girl had shoes on, the seat is occupied,
the trees are covered with leaves, to be asleep.
c) Give English equivalents of these words and use them in sentences
of your own:
голый (2 words), дрожать (2 words), отказаться (2 words).

VII. Fill in
a) ache, hurt, pain, painful:
— W hat... you?
— I c a n ’t say I feel any sharp ... in som e definite place, I
just... all over.
— Does it ... you to move your arms, legs or head?
57
— M y h ead ... all the tim e, it ... m e to look at th e light
and each m ovem ent is ... .
— W ell, 1 m ust ex am in e you. D o n 't be afraid, it w o n 't
be ... .
— But, doctor, each touch gives me ... .
— Well, try and take it easy.
b) in, on:
— Your c h ild 's h e a lth is ... a ra th e r b ad co n d itio n , h e
m ust be thoroughly exam ined in the policlinic.
— But, doctor, he is ... no co n d itio n to leave th e house,
h e's too weak.
— Perhaps w e'd better take him to hospital then.
— Oh, doctor, isn't it possible to keep him at home?
— W ell, only ... condition that you follow all my instruc­
tions.
c) refuse, give up:

1. In spite of his father's wish he ... to leave the M edical


Institu te as he was fond of m edicine and d id n 't w ant to ... .
2, I d e c id e d to b reak w ith him after he had ... to h elp me
when I was in great need of help. 3. T hough she regularly ...
his proposals he co u ld n 't ... his dream of m arrying her so o n ­
er or later. 4. If she asks me for any favour I’ll never ... her.
5. If I were you I w ouldn't ... my plan so easily.
d) like, as:
t. The children jum ped and sq u ealed (визжали) ... little
puppies. 2. T he girl tried to behave ... a grow n-up person.
3. She w as in v ite d to th is c o n fe re n c e ... a s p e c ia lis t in
m edicine. 4. H e w orks ... a d o cto r in o n e of our hospitals.
5. You just listen to him, he speaks ... a real doctor, though
he do esn 't know anything about m edicine. 6. ... your doctor,
I d o n 't allow you to get up for some more days.

VIII. Write 5 questions after each pattern below. (Keep to the same
word order.) Discuss them in class:
1. Do you th in k the boy w ould have w orried ab o u t his
te m p e ra tu re if he had know n th e d ifie re n c e b e tw e e n the
F ahrenheit and the C entigrade therm om eters?
58
2. W hy, d o you think, th e m e d icin es w ere in differen t
coloured capsules?

IX. Retell the text In reported speech following the outline given below:

1. The boy looks ill.


2. The father calls for a doctor.
3. The doctor diagnoses the illness and leaves instructions.
4. The boy seems detached from what is going on around
him.
5. The father goes for a walk.
6. The boy's state troubles his father.
7. The father finds out what worries the boy.
8. The boy relaxes.

Use the vocabulary of the text and the words:


to ask [about, if, why), to wonder [whether, why, w h a t...), to
say (fhaf), to tell smb. (about smth.), to add [that), to answer
[that), to reply [that), to inquire after [smb.'s health), to declare
[that).

X. Supply articles where necessary:


1. ... clinical thermometer is ... small thermom eter for find­
ing ... tem perature o f ... body. 2. ... boiling point o f ... Fahren­
heit th erm o m eter is 212°, of ... C en tigrad e th erm o m eter —
100° and o f ... Reamur thermometer — 80°. 3.... kilometer is ...
measure of length as well as ... mile and ... fo o t;... kilogram and
... pound are ... m easures of weight. 4. His high tem perature
worried ... boy because he didn't k n o w ... difference b e tw e e n ...
Fahrenheit and Centigrade thermometers.

XI. Make up short dialogues starting with the sentences below. Try
end argue with each other:
1. The m other to the father: You shouldn't have gone for
a walk when the child was ill.
2. The father to the boy: You should have told me w hat
worried you.
3. T h e m o th e r to th e boy: You sh o u ld have let m e in,
why didn't you?
59
4. The m other to the father: You might have guessed that
something was worrying the boy.
5. The father to the mother: You m ight have d ro p p ed in
to see what state the boy was in.
6. T he m o th er to th e father (the next day): I d o n 't like
the boy's state. Perhaps we had better call the doctor again?

Use such phrases as:


But why should (shouldn't) 1?; Well, I don't (didn't) think...;
I wish 1 could, but...; I really couldn't imagine...; W hat a silly
way to talk!; 1 wish you w ouldn't...; I'm really sorry, but...;
I really feel bad about it...; W hat do you think I should have
done...?, etc.
E x a m p l e : F a t h e r : You should go to bed at once.
S o n : W hy should I? I'm all right.
F a t h e r : But you aren't. You're shivering and
your face is white.
S o n : Well, I just feel a bit cold, I'll sit down by
the fire.
F a t h e r : You are ill and you have a fever.
S o n : How do you know?
F a t h e r : I knew it just when I p u t my hand on
your forehead.

XII. Translate into English:


1. В каких условиях вы жили, когда были ребенком ? 2. Я зап и ­
сала все его зам ечания по этому вопросу. 3. Если бы ты вчера при
няла эти таблетки, ты сегодня чувствовала бы себя гораздо лучш е
4. У девочек был совсем несчастны й вид, когда им сказали о б о л ез­
ни их матери. 5. П озволь детям побегать босиком, это не причинит
им вреда. 6. Все больные одинаковы: нервничаю т по пустякам и
ведут себя как дети. 7. На ваш ем месте я бы не записы вала все этг
данны е, они не имею т большого значения. 8. Если ты не будеип
спать, ты будеш ь отвратительно чувствовать себя завтра. 9. М ж
н равится этот врач, потому что он не прописы вает слиш ком мноп
лекарств. 10. Он снова отсутствует? Это похож е на него: пропус
кать уроки, когда у нас письм енная контрольная. U . Я бы не ска
зала, что меж ду нами больш ое сходство. 12. К ак будто собирается
дождь. Думаю, нам лучш е посидеть дома.

60
XIII. a) Fill in prepositions or adverbs where necessary and summarize1
the passage:
“Well, y o u 'd better let me take your te m p eratu re,” said
Griffiths.
“It's quite unnecessary,” answered Philip irritably.
“Come on.”
Philip put the therm om eter ... his mouth. Griffiths sat ...
the side ... the bed and chattered brightly ... a moment, then
he took it ... and looked ... it.
“Now, look here, old man, you stay ... bed, and I'll bring
old Deacon ... to have a look ... you.”
“ N o n sen se,” said Philip. “T h ere's nothing the m atter. I
wish you w ouldn't bother ... me.”
“ But it isn ’t any bother. You've got a te m p e ra tu re an d
you must stay ... bed. You will, won't y ou?”
“Y ou've got a w onderful b ed sid e m a n n e r,” Philip m u r­
mured, closing his eyes ... a smile.
(From “Of Human Bondage” by Somerset Maugham)

b) Add question tags to the sentences below and answer them. Begin
your answers with “Yes, he did/was", “No, he didn't/wasn't*' or “But he
did/was” and then give full answers:
E x a m p l e : — Griffiths d id n 't w ant Philip to take his tem ­
perature, did he?
— Yes, he did. He saw that his friend looked
quite sick and miserable.
1. Philip was not irritated at Griffiths' advice, ...? 2. Philip
put the therm om eter under his arm, ...? 3. Philip's tem p era­
ture wasn't all right, ...? 4. Griffiths didn't even try to chatter
sitting at his friend's bed, ...? 5. Philip thought that there was
nothing the matter with him, ...? 6. There was really nothing
the m atter with Philip, ...? 7. Griffiths d id n 't w ant Philip to
stay in bed, ...? 8. Philip didn't want his friend to look after
him, ...? 9. Griffiths was going to bring a doctor to Philip, .,.?
10. Philip smiled because he wanted his friend to think, that
he was all right, ...?

1 to summarize (or to give a summary): to give a short version (usu.


in repo rte d speech) of a passage, story, novel, etc. co nt ain ing its main
points only.

61
XIV. Translate the following text into English:
М ать сидела рядом с кроваткой ребенка, не сводя с него глаз.
Ребенок бредил, у него был сильный ж ар. щ еки пылали, а под гла­
зам и были тем н ы е круги. Заш ла соседка, принесла терм ом етр и
какое-то лекарство. О на сказала, что это лекарство сн и зи т тем п е­
ратуру. Ч ер ез два часа мать изм ерила ребен ку тем пературу и у в и ­
дела, что лекарство не помогло.
П риш ел врач и сказал, что у ребен ка воспаление легких, но
сер ьезн ой опасности пока нет. О н спросил, когда мальчик заболел.
М ать вспомнила, что ещ е со вторника он все время говорил, что у
него болит голова и ломит все тело.
«Не волнуйтесь. Все будет хорошо, — сказал врач, — но вам
бы следовало отвезти ребен ка в больницу».
«Я лучш е сам а присмотрю за ним», — сказала мать.
«Что ж е, — сказал врач, — не буду настаивать. Н е нуж но рас­
страиваться. Если вы будете точно следовать моим указаниям , я
уверен, что ч ерез несколько дней ему будет лучше».
Врач ушел, но подумал, что было бы все-таки лучше отправить
ребен ка в больницу.

XV. Make up three short dialogues, using the phrases listed below:
a) to h av e a h e a d a c h e , to h av e a fever, to ta k e o n e 's
temperature, had better, to have a prescription made up;
b) to consult a doctor, a light epidemic of flu, to prescribe
th e m e d ic in e for, to be lig h t-h e ad ed , w ould rather, to do
good;
c) to ta k e smth. easy, to k ee p from d o in g smth., th e re
is n o th in g to w orry about, on c o n d itio n that, to be of no
importance.

XVI. Try your hand at teaching.


1. Say what you would do in the teacher's position:
During a music lesson, while the teacher tried to d em o n ­
strate the rhythm of a song, Pete took two pencils and p ro ­
ceeded to drum on a book. The teacher stopped playing and
d e m a n d e d to k n o w w ho was d ru m m in g . N o r e p ly ca m e
forth, so sh e resu m e d h er p laying . T his very in s ta n t th e
drum m ing started again. The teacher, who had been on the
alert, caught Pete in the act.
62
2. Practise your “Classroom English**.
Play the part of the teacher and get your pupils to write a spelling test
0n the board.
a) Prepare a test on the vocabulary of Unit Two at home.
b) Ask several pupils to write the words on the board.
c) Make sure that the board Is properly prepared for writing on it: the
writing is eligible; all the mistakes are corrected; the whole class is
involved. (See Classroom English”, Sections IV, VIII, IX.)

LABORATORY EXERCISES (I)

1. Listen to the text M A Day's Walt”, mark the stresses and tunes,
repeat the text following the model.
2. Paraphrase the following sentences, combining them into one
conditional sentence. Make all necessary changes. Remember that both
clauses become negative.
3. Respond to the following sentences according to the model. Use the
inverted form of conditional sentences in your responses.
4. Extend the following sentences according to the model. Use the
verbs suggested.
5. Write a spelling-t ranelation test: a) translate the phrases into English;
b) check them with the key.
6. Translate the sentences into English and check them with the key.
Repeat the key aloud.
7. Listen to the text “Patients Needed”. Find English equivalents of the
Russian phrases in the text. Retell the text in indirect speech.

II
T O P I C : ILLNESSES AND THEIR TREATMENT

TEXT A. A VICTIM TO ONE HUNDRED AND SEVEN


FATAL MALADIES
From “Three Men in a Boat” by Jerom e K. Jerom e

I remember going to the British M useum one day to read


UP th e tre a tm e n t for som e sligh t ailm ent. 1 got dow n th e
book and read all I came to read; and then, in an unthinking
f o m e n t, I idly turned the leaves and began to study diseas­
63
es, generally. I forgot which was the first, an d before I had
glanced half down the list of “premonitory symptoms”, I was
sure that I had got it.
I sat for a while frozen with horror; and then in despair 1
again turned over the pages. I came to typhoid fever — read
the symptoms — discovered that I had typhoid fever — began
to get interested in my case, and so started alphabetically.
Cholera I had, with severe complications; and diphtheria
I seemed to have been bom with. I looked through the twenty-
six letters, and the only disease I had not got was housemaid's
knee.
I sat and thought what an interesting case I must be from
a m edical po in t of view. S tu d en ts w ould h ave no n e e d to
“walk the hospitals” if they had me. I was a hospital in m y­
self. All they need do would be to walk round me, and, after
that, take their diploma.
Then I wondered how long I had to live. I tried to examine
myself. I felt my pulse. I could not at first feel any pulse at all
Then, all of a sudden, it seemed to start off. I pulled out m\
watch and timed it. I made it a hundred and forty-seven to the
minute. I tried to feel my heart. I could not feel my heart. It
had stopped beating. 1 patted myself all over my front, from
what I call my waist up to my head but I could not feel or hear
anything. I tried to look at my tongue. I stuck it out as far a>
ever it would go. and I shut one eye and tried to exam ine i
with the other. I could only see the tip, but I felt more certaii
than before that I had scarlet fever.
I h ad w alk e d into the re a d in g -ro o m a h ap p y , health;,
man. I crawled out a miserable wreck.
I w ent to my m edical man. H e is an old ch u m of mine
and feels my pulse, and looks at my tongue, and talks abou
the weather, all for nothing, when I fancy I’m ill. So 1 wen
straight up and saw him, and he said:
“Well, what's the matter with you?”
I said:
“I will not take up your time, dear boy, with telling yo:
what is the matter with me. Life is short and you might pas*

64
away before I had finished. But I will tell you what is not the
matter with me. Everything else, however, I have got.”
And I told him how I came to discover it all.
Then he opened me and looked down me, and took hold
of my wrist, and then he hit me over the chest when I wasn't
expecting it — a cow ardly thing to do, I call it. After that,
he sat down and wrote out a prescription, and folded it up
and gave it me, and I put it in my pocket and went out.
I did not open it, I took it to the nearest chem ist's, and
handed it in. The man read it, and then handed it back. He
said he didn't keep it.
1 said:
“You are a chem ist?”
He said:
“I am a chemist. If I was a co-operative stores and family
hotel combined, I might be able to oblige you.”
I read the proscription. It ran:
“ t lb.1 beefsteak, with
1 pt,2 bitter beer
every six hours.
1 ten-mile walk every morning,
1 bed at 11 sharp every night.
And don't stuff up your head with things you d o n ’t u nder­
stand.”
I followed the directions with the h appy result that my
life was preserved and is still going on.

NOTES ON SYNONYMS

1. (See Note 1 on p. 18.) Synonyms may also differ by the


d e g re e or in te n sity of th e p h e n o m e n o n d e s c r ib e d or by
certain additional implications conveyed by their meanings.
£• g. malady describes a more dangerous illness than disease,
som etim es a fatal one, w hereas ailm ent m ostly refers to a

1 lb. (pound) a mcMsuro of weight = *153.6 ^


2 pt (pint) [paint|: a measure tor liquids = 0.57 I
о
®* Д- А р а к и н . II «>(«■ 65
slight disorder. M alady implies a lasting, sometimes a chronic
illness, whereas ailment is short and temporary. Illness is the
most general word in the group (the synonymic dominant).
2. Synonyms may differ by their stylistic characteristics.
E. g. chum is a colloquial synonym of friend, to fancy sounds
less formal than to imagine. To pass away is a bookish synonym
of to die. (See Note A on p. 52.)

TEXT В . A VISIT TO THE DOCTOR

— Well, what's the matter with you, Mr. Walker?


— Y ou’d b etter ask me what is not the m atter with me,
doctor. I seem to be suffering from all the illnesses im agin­
able: insomnia, headaches, backache, indigestion, constipa
tion and pains in the stom ach. To m ake things still worse.
I’ve cau g ht a cold, I've got a sore throat and I'm constantly
sneezing and cou gh in g. To crown it all, 1 had an accident
the o th e r day, hurt my right sh ou ld er, leg and kneo, ann
nearly b rok e my neck. If I take a long walk, I get short o!
breath. In fact, feel more dead than alive.
— I'm sorry to hear that. Anyhow, I hope things aren't a^
bad as you imagine. Let me exam ine you. Your heart, ches*
and lungs seem to be all right. Now open your m outh am:
show me your tongue. Now breathe in deeply, through the
nose... T h ere d o e sn 't seem to be anything radically wronc
with you, but it’s quite clear that you're run down, and if you
d o n ’t take care of yourself, you may have a nervous break
down and have to go to hospital. I advise you, first of all, h
stop worrying. Take a long rest, have regular meals, keep l<
a diet of salads and fruit, and very little meat. Keep off a l e e
hoi. If possible, give up smoking, at least for a time. Hav<
this tonic made up and take two tablespoonfuls three times .■
day before meals. If you do this, I can promise you full rr
covery within two or three months.
— And if 1 don't, doctor?
— Then you'd better m ake your will, if you h av e n ’t ye
done so.
fifj
— I see. Well, thank you, doctor. I shall have to think it
o v e r and decide which is the lesser evil: to follow your advice
or prepare for a better world.

TEXT С . AT THE DENTIST'S


N e l l : Hello, is that you Bert? Nell here. I'm so glad I've
found you in.
B e r t : Hello, Nell. How's things?
N.: Fine. Listen, Bert. I'm bursting with news. Ju st im ag­
ine: yesterday I had the first real patient of my own.
B.: You d on 't say! W ho was it?
N.: A nice old d ear with a lot of teeth to be pulled out.
It's such wonderful practice for me!
B.: Are you quite sure that some of his teeth cou ldn 't be
filled?
N.: N one of them! I sent him to have his teeth X-rayed,
so it's all right.
B.: How did you m a n ag e to g e t such a m arvellous p a ­
tient, I wonder?
N.: He cam e with a bad toothache. It had been bothering
him for a day or two already.
B.: W ere there no other dentists in the surgery?
N.: No, I was the only one. It was Sunday.
B.: Poor old thing! I hope you d id n 't try to pull out all
his teeth at once, did you?
N.: D on't be silly. I ju st chose the easiest one to begin
with.
В.: I see... And how did you get along?
N.: W o n d erfu lly . I te sted his blood p ressu re an d gave
him a c o u p le of injections, th o u g h he said that my sm ile
worked better than any injection.
B.: Oh, he did, did he? And he d id n 't have heart attack
after the tooth was taken out? It would have been natural for
an old man.
N.: No, he ju st felt a bit sick an d giddy. I g ave him a
tonic and told him to stay in bed for a while and tak e his
temperature.
67
В.: Perhaps I'd better drop in and check his heart? I’m
on sick leave now and can do it at any time.
N.: You needn't. I'll ring him up and in case he's running
a h ig h te m p e r a tu r e I'll let you know . But I do h o p e he
won't. The day after tomorrow he's coming again.
B.: Are you sure he's not going to make an appointm ent
with some other dentist?
N.: I d o n ’t think he will. W hen he was leaving he said he
lo o k e d forw ard to having all his teeth p u lle d o u t and h e
would keep them all as souvenirs to remember me by.
B.: Well, I wish you good luck. H ope to hear from you
soon. Bye for now, Nell,
N.: Good-bye, Bert. Г11 let you know how things are going
on.

M em ory Work
For every evil under the sun.
There is a remedy, or there is none.
If there be one, try to find it.
If there be none, never mind it.

68
ESSENTIAL VOCABULARY (II)

Words
appendicitis л insomnia л
attack (of smth.) л prescription л
case (of a disease) л recover (from a disease) v
cholera л remedy л
complication л scarlet fever л
cough v, л sneeze v
cure of v sore (throat, eye, finger, etc.) adj
cure for л surgery л
die of v symptom л
diphthertia л tonic л
disease л treat v (smb. for a disease)
indigestion л treatment (for smth.) л
injection л typhoid fever л

Word Combinations

to feel smb.'s (one's) pulse


to write out a prescription (for pills, etc.)
to go to a chemist's (drugstore)
to follow the doctor's directions
to catch (a) cold
to have an accident
to be short of breath
to examine a patient (smb.'s throat, etc.)
to breathe in deeply
to consult (see) a doctor
to have a nervous breakdown
to keep to a diet (of ...); to be on (go on), follow a diet
to have a prescription (medicine, mixture, tonic, etc.) m ade up
to take medicine (a spoonful of, etc.)
to b e w ron g with (on e's heart, lungs, etc.); to h ave sm th.
wrong with
to be taken ill (to fall ill) with
to be laid up with
to feel sick (and giddy)
69
to fill smb.'s tooth
to have one's tooth filled, to have a filling
to pull (take) out a tooth = to have an extraction
to have one's tooth pulled out (taken out), extracted
to be (have one's teeth, chest, heart, etc.) X-rayed
to test smb.'s blood
to have o n e ’s blood tested
to test smb.’s blood pressure
to have one's blood pressure tested
to have, get (give) an injection (a needle)
to have a heart attack
to c h e c k sm b .'s heart, lungs, etc.; to so u n d sm b .'s heart,
lungs, etc.
to be on sick leave; to get sick leave
to m ake an appointm ent with a doctor

Examples
He was taken to hospital and operated on (underwent an
operation) for appendicitis.
After I’ve had some injections of tonic I feel quite cured
of all my ailments.
T h e child is ill (laid up) with ch ick en pox (ветрянка).
H e’ll soon recover if no complications set in.
Smallpox (оспа) is a catching (заразная) disease m arked
by fever and small red spots on the bod y and often leaves
perm anent marks.
I’ve been on sick leave for a fortnight already, but I d o n ’t
feel any better so far.
The doctor diagnosed the illness as tuberculosis (t. b.).
A doctor who performs (carries out) operations is called a
surgeon. Nowadays operations may be performed almost on
any part of the body.
W hen people have pain in their teeth they go to a dentist
to have the holes in their teeth filled (stopped). W hen neces­
sary they may have their teeth taken (pulled) out.
People who are treated in health centres (policlinics) are
called out-patients, those who stay in hospital are called in­
patients.

70
Som ething is wrong with my legs: all my joints ache and
when 1 bend my knee it hurts me.
The old man's sight is getting dim (слабеет), his eyes are
sore, swollen and itching.
N o t e : D on't say “He wrote me a proscription out", but "H e wrote
out a prescription for me".

EXERCISES

I. Study Text A and explain the meaning of the words and phrases
listed below:
in an u n th in k in g m om ent, idly turn the leaves, a fatal
malady, p rem o nito ry symptoms, com plication, to walk the
hospitals, to time the pulse, all for nothing, the prescription
ran, a family hotel, to follow the directions, his life was p re ­
served.

II. a) Write English equivalents of the following words and phrases.


Чае them in sentences of your own:
1. засты в от уж аса; 2. заинтересоваться чем-л.; 3. интересны й
случай с м едицинской точки зрения; 4. защ ищ ать диплом; 5. отни-

71
мать у кого-л. время; 6. каж ды е ш есть часов; 7. забивать голову н е ­
понятными вещ ами.

Ы Write these words in English and transcribe them:


болезнь, симптом, отчаяние, тиф, алф авит, диф терит, холера,
талия, скарлатина, аптекарь.

cl Find in the text synonyms of the following words and phrases and
explain how they differ:1
illness (4 words), friend, doctor, look quickly, imagine,
do a favour to smb., die.

III. Write 10 questions to Text A covering the main points. Prepare to


discuss the text using the words and phrases from Ex. II.

IV. Study Texts В and С and translate these sentences into English:
I. Я страдаю от бессонницы . 2. Я все время чихаю и кашляю.
3. У меня болит горло. 4. В доверш ени е ко всему я простудился.
5. Я задыхаюсь. 6. С легкими у вас все в порядке. 7. Глубоко вдох­
ните через нос. 8. У вас м ож ет быть нервное расстройство. 9. Регу­
лярно питайтесь и придерж и вай тесь овощ ной диегы . 10. По столо­
вой лож ке три раза в день. 11. О бещ аю полное вы здоровление в
течение трех месяцев. 12. Я это обдумаю. 13. Я рада, что застала
тебя дома. 14. У меня уйма новостей. 15. Ни одного’ 16, О на д о с аж ­
дала ему уж е два дня, 17. Я была единственны м врачом в п р и ем ­
ной. 18. Бедняжка! 19. Не говори глупостей! 20. Для начала я как
раз выбрала самый легкий зуб. 21. Ну, и как у тебя пошли дела?
22. Я сделала ему пару уколов. 23. М ож ет быть, мне лучше за б е ­
жать...? 24. Он их сохранит на память обо мне.

V. Reproduce Text В so that a question is asked about each sentence


said by the patient or the doctor. Recite the dialogue in class.
E x a m p l e : P a t i e n t : You'd better ask me what is not the
matter with me, doctor.
D o c t o r : Is it really as bad as that? W hat are
you complaining of?
P a t i e n t : Insomnia ... and pains in the stomach.
D o c t o r : Oh, dear, isn’t it too much for one
man?

1 Spp Notos on Synonyms and Antonyms on p. 18.

72
VI. Retetl Text С in indirect spech: a) speaking on the part of the old
n^n: b) reproducing Nell's talk with Bert over the telephone. You may find
the following phrases useful:
a) to lo ok a m iserab le w reck, to suffer from, to c h e e r
s m b . up, to be in d e sp a ir, to be in h ig h spirits; b) to be
afraid that, to be sorry for, to doubt sm b.'s skill, to w onder
if..., to feel hurt, to suggest that one should...

VII. Study Essential Vocabulary (II) and


a) translate the illustrative examples into Russian;
b) express in writing the suggested idea using do for emphasis. Add a
sentence to show that the emphasis is necessary:
Examples: Your brother did go to the chem ist’s to have
your p rescription m ade up th o u g h he was
pressed for time. M other told you to put on
y o u r c o a t b u t you w o u ld n 't a n d you did
catch a cold.
1. to have a nervous breakdown; 2. to keep to a diet; 3. to
try to make an appointm ent with; 4. to give (get) an injection;
5. to get sick leave; 6. to set in (about com plications); 7. to
prescribe pills for; 8. to un derg o a treatm ent; 9. to recover
from; 10. to d iag n o se sm b.'s illness (as); 11. to have o n e ’s
tooth filled; 12. to need the services of a surgeon.

VIII. a) Supply prepositions where necessary:


Scarlet fever is an infectious fever, marked .. the a p p e a r­
ance ... th e seco n d day ... a b rig h t red rash co n sistin g ...
closely-set red spots. Shortly after th e p atien t d ev elo p s a
high te m p e ra tu re and suffers ... painful sore throat. ... the
third or fourth day the rash starts to fade and ... favourable
cases the te m p e ra tu re falls and the patien t feels better. ...
the en d ... a w eek the rash usually d isa p p ea rs. C o m p le te
recovery may be expected ... the following month. The com ­
plications ... scarlet fever are very serious, th e com m o n est
being inflam m ation ... the ear. Scarlet fever is essentially a
disease ... children and young persons.
b) Give a short description of some other disease using a few phrases
«°m the text above.

73
IX. Correct the following statements, beginning each sentence with one
of the following phrases:
You're wrong. You're m ista ken. I ca n't agree with you.
Nothing o f the kind. But ... (if is, they don't, е/с.). I don't think
you're right. Of course not. Just the other way round. On the
contrary. Surely not\ By no means!
E x a m p l e : — You never take your tem perature w hen you
are ill.
— Oh, yes (of course), I do. I always take my
tem perature when I'm ill.
1. Sick people never stay in bed while they are ill. 2. You
were laid up with flu last week, I believe. 3. It is not d a n g e r­
ous to take care of a person who has got a catching disease.
4. People often feel sick and giddy when they are quite well.
5. W e seldom sneeze and cough when we have a cold. 6. You
never have a sore thro at w hen you have tonsillitis. 7. She
doesn't feel any pain in her heart when she has a heart attack.
8. C hildren have swollen eyes w hen they have been la u g h ­
ing too m uch. 9. P e o p le n ee d th e serv ices of th e d o cto r
when they are well, I think. 10. Probably you consult a dentist
when you have a stomach-ache.

X. Read the text. Summarize it in 5 -6 sentences without using direct


speech:
Hob sat in the doctor's waiting-room. On the chairs at the
wall other patients were sitting. They all looked sad except
Hob who was reading an exciting story in a magazine. Just
then the doctor cam e in to say that he was ready to see the
next person. Hob got up and went into the consulting room.
B efore H ob c o u ld say a w ord th e d o c to r said, “ Now
w hat's the trouble? Sit down there and we'll have a look at
you. Unfasten your jacket and your shirt, please. I'll listen h
your heart.” Hob tried to speak, but the doctor interrupted
him an d o r d e r e d him to say “ n in e ty - n in e ” . H ob said it
“Now let me see your throat, open your m outh w ide.” Tht
d o c to r had a g o o d look a n d th e n he said, “ W ell, t h e r e 4
nothing wrong with you.” “I know there isn't,” said Hob, “ !
just came to get a bottle of medicine for my uncle.
{From Essential English for foreign student^
by С. E. Eckersley, End., 1977
74
XI. Write 10 sentences to go with each of the pictures on pp. 68, 71.

XII. Answer the following questions:


1. W h a t are the sy m p to m s of flu (tonsillitis, m easles,
mumps, scarlet fever, etc.)? 2. W ho is treated at the policlin­
ic, a n d who is trea ted at the hospital? 3. W h at do you do
w h en y o u fall ill? 4. W h a t d o e s th e d o c to r do w h en he
comes to exam ine you? 5. W hat do you feel when you have
flu? 6. H ow d o es a sick p erso n look? 7. How sh o u ld we
translate into Russian “He is ill” and “He has ill m anners” ?
8. W h a t c a tc h in g diseases do you know? 9. Do p e o p le in
this country get their pay when they are ill?

XIU. Translate the following sentences into English:


1. Я, долж но быть, схватил грипп. 2. Вам лучш е обратиться к
врачу. 3. Врач пощупал мой пульс, прослуш ал сердце и легкие и
измерил температуру. 4. О на не в состоянии разговаривать, у нее
уж асно болит зуб. 5. Я вся дрож у. Д олж но быть, я простудилась.
6. Я не могу читать вслух, у меня болит горло. 7. Беспокоиться не о
чем, его успеш но прооперировали. 8. Я, пожалуй, приму эти пи\к>-
ли от головной боли. 9, Почему ты ходиш ь в такую погоду без ш ля­
пы? Ты ведь недавно серьезн о болел. У тебя могут быть о сло ж н е­
ния. 10. Вам сделали рентген? 11. Вот рецепт. П о столовой л о ж к е
микстуры три р аза в день. 12. Вы послали за доктором? 13. У вас
два больных зуба. Вам нуж но обратиться к зубному врачу. 14. Врач
попросил пац и ен та раздеться до пояса и вы слуш ал его. 15. Кто
пойдет в аптеку заказать лекарство? 16. Если бы ты не следовала
советам врача, ты бы не поправилась так скоро. 17. Па ваш ем м ес­
те я придерж ивалась бы диеты , у вас ведь не в порядке желудок.
18. Как жаль, доктор забы л вы писать мне лекарство от насморка.
19. П очему у вас одыш ка — у вас вы сокое давление или что-ни­
будь с сердцем ? 20. Ребенок болен скарлатиной. П ридется ему
Аней десять полеж ать в постели.

XIV. Make up stories and dialogues through mime1.


Have the students to prepare a mime and perform it twice (for tasks A
B). The performed actions should be rather slow to allow the other
*tudents to tell the story or speak for the mimes.

1 The noun mime has two meanings: 1 a performance without words


(пантомима); 2. an actor in such a performance Iмим}.

75
A. Describe the actions of the mimes using the PresentIndefinite,
Continuous or Perfect tenses, (for one or two students)
B. Speak for each mime, (for two students)
C. Tell the story in reported speech orally or in writing, (for one
student)
Suggested topics and stages for actions:
1. At the Doctor's
a) A patient enters the room and telis the doctor what
he (she) is suffering from.
b) The doctor asks the patient to strip to the waist and
examines him (her).
c) The patient asks the doctor w hat's w rong with him.
He seems to be worried.
d) T he d o cto r tries to com fort the p atien t and writes
out a prescription.
2. At the Dentist's
a) A patient complains of a bad toothache.
b) The dentist asks him to sit down an d exam ines his
mouth. O ne of his teeth should be pulled out.
c) The patient is afraid. He feels sick and giddy.
d) The dentist pulls out his tooth an d shows it to th<
patient who brightens up and looks happy.
3. At the Bedside
a) A boy complains of a sore throat.
b) His m other is worried. She tak es his te m p e ra tu re
it's normal. His throat is all right.
c) Then the boy pretends to have a stom ach-ache ant:
a headache, to be sick and giddy.
d) His mother understands his tricks and orders him U
go to school.

XV. Try your hand at teaching.


Find a picture on a medical subject and ask your “pupils" to describe it.
A. P reparation, a) M ake up a list of new words (in spell
ing and transcription) that might be needed to discuss it.
b) W rite questions about the picture, using the phrases
in the picture, in the foreground (background), in the right
(left-) hand corner, to the right (left) of.
c) Look up the words and phrases you may need to d b
cuss the picture in class in "Classroom English”, Section V.
76
В. W ork in C lass. Show the p ic tu re to the m em bers of
your group; write the new words on the blackboard, tran s­
late them (or explain their meaning) and make the students
repeat them in chorus; ask your questions.1

XVI. a) Give the idea of the text in English:

Сколько стоит аппендицит?


Бум аж ка была счетом за удаление у «мистера С трельникова»
аппендицита. О дному из нас с подобного рода бумагой приш лось
столкнуться впервы е, и было очень и н тер есн о читать: «А нализ
крови — 25 долларов. Плата хирургу за операцию — 200 долларов.
А нестезия — 35 долларов. Плата за каж ды й день пребы вани я в
госпитале — 200 долларов. П лата за т е л е в и зо р — 3 д о л л ар а в
день». И так далее. Всего расставан и е с аппендицитом м истеру
С трельникову стоило 1112 долларов! Сюда входит плата врачу за
постановку диагноза, за удаление ниток из шва...
Если бы мистер С трельников пож елал продлить пребы вание в
госпитале до сущ ествую щ ей у нас нормы (семь дней), бум аж ка
счета стала бы вполовину длиннее. Как граж данин страны, где м е­
дицинское обслуж ивание бесплатное, денег из своего ж алованья
мистер С трельников не платил. Уплатило за него государство. А в
больнице он был столько, сколько бы ваю т американцы , — три дня.
fСт рельников В., Песков Б.
Земля за океаном. М., 1975)
P r o m p t s : bill, anaesthesia, to take out the stitch, twice
longer.
b) Say what you know about the cost of health service in Russia and
in other countries nowadays.

XVII, a) Read and translate the texts below:


1. In Great Britain primary health care is in the hands of
family p ractitio n e rs who work within the N ational H ealth
Service. The family practitioner services are those given to
patients by doctors, dentists, opticians and p harm acists of
their own choice. Family doctors who are under contract to
the National Health Service have an average about 2,250 p a­
tients. They provide the first diagnosis in the case of illness

1 The first picture should be discussed with the whole group under
the teacher's guidance; the other pictures may be discussed in pairs.

77
and either prescribe a suitable course of treatm ent or refer a
patient to the more specialized services and hospital consult­
ants.
A large proportion of the hospitals in the National Health
Service were built in the nineteenth century; some trace their
origin to m u ch earlier ch a ritab le foundations, such as th e
famous St. Bartholomew's and St. Thomas' hospitals in London.
A bout 85 per cen t of th e cost of th e h e a lth services is
paid for through general taxation. The rest is met from the
N ational H ealth Service contribution and from the charges
for prescriptions, dental treatment, dentures and spectacles.
Health authorities may raise funds from voluntary sources.
(See: “Britain 1983“. Lnd., 1983}

2. N obody p reten d s that the N ational H ealth Service in


Britain is perfect. M any d octo rs com plain that th e y w aste
hours filling in National Insurance forms, and that they have
so many patients that they do not have enough time to look
after any of them properly. N urses com plain that they are
overworked and underpaid.

3. M any H ealth Service hospitals are old-fashioned and


overcrowded, and, because of the shortage of beds, patients
often have to wait a long time for operations. Rich p eo p le
prefer to go to private doctors, or to see specialists in Harley
Street, the fam ous "doctors" street in London. W h e n these
people are ill they go to a private nursing-hom e, for which
they may pay as m uch as £ 100 a week. Alternatively, they
may hire a private room in an ordinary hospital, for which
they will pay about £ 10 a day.
(Mus/nan R. Britain To-day. Lnd., 1974)

b) Write 10 questions about the facts mentioned in the texts that you
find interesting and discuss them in class.
XVIII. Find some jokes on a medical subject and tell them to your
fellow-students.
XIX. a) Give a very short description of each picture in the Present
Tense. Use prompt words and phrases listed in the Note.

78
79
b) Make up a story about the pictures in the Past Tense.
c) Find a short title to the story.
N o t e : сточная труба — sewer; носилки — stretcher; санитарии
машина — am bulance; санитар — am bulance man; операционная
operating-room; гипсовая повязка — plaster-bandage.

XX. Film "Mr. Brown's Holiday". Film segment 2 “Miss Peggy and №■
Pussy Cats” (Canterbury), a) Watch and listen, b) Do the exercises fror
the guide to the film.

STUDIES OF WRITTEN ENGLISH

II

This time you will learn more about the smallest though
units that build up writing, beginning with a paragraph an
how they work within the paragraph.
80
K ey-w ords are m ain w ords in the p assag e th a t h elp to
em phasize the m ain point and u n d e rsta n d the su b ject you
are w riting about. T hat is why key-w ords are th e first e le ­
m ents to ch o o se w hen se ttin g yo u r m ind on w ritin g on a
certain subject and there are different ways to use them in a
paragraph: repeating them, using synonyms, bringing them
in close semantic relation.
E. g. “H e read the letter slowly and carefully. It was not
the kind of case he wanted, it was not the kind of case he had
p ro m ise d him self. It was n o t in an y s e n s e an im p o r ta n t
case..." (From “The N em ean Lion” by A. Christie). H ercule
Poirot, the famous detective of A. Christie's had been dreaming
of an unusual case. That one about the kidnapping of a dog
was a disappointment. It was not a proper case for him.
The central th o u g h t of the p arag rap h is em phasized by
repeating the key-word, otherwise echo-word.

Assignments:
1. Go over the text MA Day's Wait" and pick out the key-words and
phrases that indicate the topic of illness and treatment. Arrange them
into three groups according to the w ays that are com m only used to
point out the central thought. Which is the largest group and why?
2. Prepare a list of key-words and phrases before writing a para­
graph: al d e scrib in g how the poor boy looked before the doctor came;
b) telling a story of his recovery; c) arguing about the turning point in
his illness; d) e xp la in in g the difference between miles and kilometers,
between the Fahrenheit thermometer and the Centigrade thermometer.

LABORATORY EXERCISES (II)

1. a) Listen to the text “A Victim to One Hundred and Seven Fatal


Maladies”, mark the stresses and tunes, Ы Repeat the text following the
model.
2. Listen to the dialogue “A Visit to the Doctor”. Repeat the text in the
Interval and record your version. Compare your version with the original
*nd correct your mistakes.
3. Respond to the following suggestions. Begin your sentences with
“Hadn't we (he) better...”?
4. Extend the statements. Begin your sentences with "It's time you (he,
otc.)” + a verb in the Past Subjunctive.

^ ® * Д . А р а к и н , I I к у (« 81
5. Write a dictation. Check the spelling using a dictionary.
6. Translate the sentences into English. Check them with the key.
7. Listen to the text “Doctor Sally”. Get ready to act it out in class.

CURIOSITY QUIZ FOR EAGERS

Crossword Puzzle

Across
1. Stop a hole in a tooth with cement, etc. 3. Seize som e­
thing with the teeth (also cause a sharp pain). 11. Fill a holt
in a tooth with cement, etc. 13. Fibers (волокна) connectin'
the brain with all other parts ot the body and carrying fee!
ings to the brain. 14. Let out the air su d d e n ly th ro u g h th«
nose and the m outh (usu. when having a cold). 18. An instru
ment for measuring temperature. 19. A kind of medicine ha\
ing good effects on the body. 23. The middle joint of the Ic<
w here the leg bends. 25. A hollow in the lungs (каверна
27. A p e rso n who p ra c tis e s m e d ic in e a n d tre a ts peopl-
28. The drink made by pouring boiling water on dried leav*
bearing the same name, often used as a tonic. 29. A colour*
liquid used for writing with a pen. 30. Take o n e ’s clothes o'
31. Come into two or more parts; crack a bone, joint.
82
Down
2. Breathing organs found in man and animal. 3. Take air
into the body and send it out. 4. Exist. 5. The d egree of heat
or cold in th e air, w ater, body, etc. 6. Be still, relax after
work, efforts, etc. 7. Small spots (red or pink) close together
on the skin (usu. a symptom of a disease). 8. Difficulty in di­
gesting food. 9. Be aware through the senses. 10. A catching
d ise a se m a rk e d by fever an d sm all sp o ts th a t co v e r th e
w hole b o d y (com m on am o ng ch ild ren ). 12. Give m edical
care to p eo p le in o rd er to cu re them. 15. A high te m p e ra ­
ture. 16. The red liquid in the body. 17. The regular beating
of th e a rte rie s as th e b lo o d is forced alo n g them . 20. An
open sore (язва, нарыв) on internal organs. 21. A special
choice of food o rd e re d by a do cto r. 22. Ill, unw ell. 24. A
p erso n sp e c ia lly tra in e d to loo k a fte r sick p e o p le . 26. A
short sleep. 27. Not clearly seen.
U N IT THREE

SPEECH PATTERNS

I. You like the way they work.

I like the way the doctor treats the child.


Do you like the way she wears her hat?
I d on 't like the way you speak to me.
The teacher d id n 't like the way the children behaved ir
class.

2. It is always interesting for tourists to take


a trip along the Thames in a boat.

It was difficult for the students to m ake notes of his le<


ture.
It will be convenient for you to live in our hostel.
It would be useful for him to give up smoking.
It would have been natural for the sick man to fall aslet
after the injection.

EXERCISES

I. Say whether you like or dislike the way:


1. the doctor treated the boy (in the story “A Day's W ait”
2. the boy behaved during his illness;
3. Hemingway described the boy's mood;
4. you spent your summer holidays;
5. the students of your group work at their English;
6. you were taught English at school;
7. women dress nowadays;
8. the girls in your group dress their hair.
II. Fill in missing adjectives + preposition:
1. Will it b e everybody to have our meeting after the
lessons? I believe so, but I d o n 't know if it will b e our
teach er. 2. W o u ld it be ........ the se c o n d -y e a r s tu d e n ts to
read English new spapers? If you m ean papers published in
Britain I th in k it w ou ld be ......... them so far. 3. W h ic h is
m ore a student: to read or to speak English well? If the
student is going to becom e a teacher, it’s e q u a l l y him
or her both to read and speak well. 4. Do you think it would
be students with bad spelling to copy English texts? It
might b e them, of course, but to tell you the truth it’s a
very tiresome job. 5. Will it b e students to take part in
the phonetic contest at our department? Of course. It will be
first-year students as it will give them a good chance to
brush up their pronunciation.

III. Translate these sentences into English:


1. Ей будет легко подруж иться с детьми — им нравится, как
она с ними играет. 2. М не было бы интересно принять участие в
экскурсии, если бы я был помоложе. 3. М не не нравится, как ты
читаешь, тебе надо уделять больше вним ания чтению вслух. 4. Я
считаю, вам необходимо посоветоваться с врачом по поводу голов­
ной боли. 5. М не не нравится, как эта м едсестра делает уколы.
6. П ервокурсникам будет и нтересно узнать об истории и тр ад и ц и ­
ях наш его института.

IV. Make up micro-dialogues using Speech Patterns 1—2:


Model: — W hy didn't you come to N's recital yesterday?
I liked the way he played.
— I’d have com e if I were a musician as you are.
But it’s difficult for me to u n d ersta n d serious
music, I prefer jazz.

TEXT. IN T R O D U C IN G L O N D O N

L ondon is an a n c ie n t city. It grew up a ro u n d th e first


point w here the Roman invaders found the T ham es narrow
enough to build a bridge. They found a small Celtic se ttle­

85
m ent then known as Londinium and by A. D.1 300 they had
turned it into a sizable port and an im portant trading centre
with a wall which enclosed the homes of about 50,000 p e o ­
ple.
O ne in seven of the population of the United Kingdom is
a Londoner. About 7 million people live in Greater London/2
London dom inates British life. It is the hom e of the n ation ’s
co m m erce an d finance, the main centre of its legal system
and the press. It has the largest university and the greatest
possibilities for entertain m ent and for sport in the country.
London is one of the famous capital cities of the world, and
every year attracts crowds of visitors from home and abroad.
They com e to explore, its historic buildings, to see its m u se­
ums and galleries, its streets and parks, and its people.
The built-up area of Greater London stretches 50 kilom e­
tres from east to west an d m any of its districts are linked
w ith p a rtic u la r activities, for exam ple, p a rlia m e n ta ry ano
g overnm ent activity centres on Parliam ent Square of W e s t­
m in ster an d W h ite h a ll. J u s t as “W estm inster'* s ta n d s fo-
P a rlia m e n t so “W h ite h a ll” is o ften u sed as the n am e fcr
central Government.
Off Whitehall in a small side-street Downing Street — is с.-
quiet, unimpressive house — No. 10 — the official hom e o<
Prime Minister.
Just as Wall Street in New York is the centre of commerce
an d finance so the C ity of London, som etim es called “ tht
s q u a r e m ile ” 3 is th e c e n tr e for m o n e y m a tte rs . H e re ir
T h re a d n e e d le Street is the Bank of E ngland — sometime.-

1 A. D. = Anno Domini ['аепзи ‘dominai] (Lat.): in the year of the Lore-


new era fiara]
2 G reater London includes the suburbs of the city ail of which ar
connected with the centre of London and with each other by undergroun
railway lines.
3 mile: a m easure of length, 1609 metres. English m easures of lengt
(yard — 91 cm, foot — 30 cm, inch — 2.5 cm), w eight (stone — 6 k<
pound — 454 g, ounce — 31 g), liquids (gallon — 3.79 lit, pint — 0.57 !i
are not based on the decimal system.

86
called “The Old Lady of Threadneedle Street” — the central
banking institution w hose p o u n d 4 notes form th e main
currency in the country. Fleet Street near St. Paul's Cathedral
used to be a busy street full of London, provincial and foreign
newspaper offices such as The Daily Express, The Daily Tele-
graph.5
T h o u g h m ost of the British natio n al n e w sp a p e r offces
have moved to W apping, an area in East London, the nam e
of Fleet Street is still used to describe the newspaper industry.
In S ou th K en sing to n th ere are several larg e m useum s.
The Victoria and Albert M useum with a m agnificent collec­
tion of fine an d a p p lied arts also in clu d es a w id e-ran g in g
display of ceram ics, m etalwork and a selection of C o n s ta ­
ble's6 m asterpieces which are well worth seeing. The N a tu ­
ral History M useum contains plants, anim als and minerals.
The Hall of H um an Biology enables visitors to learn abo u t
their bodies and the way they work. Exhibits in the Science
M useum display the discovery and developm ent of such in­
ventions as the steam engine, p h o to grap hy , glass-m aking,
printing and atomic physics. T here is a gallery w here chil­
dren can experim ent with working models. The M useum of

4 p o u n d : a m onetary unit circu latin g in G reat Britain. Up to 1971


English money with its pennies, shillings and pounds was not based on the
decim al system eith e r: 12 p e n ce for a sh illin g , 20 sh illin g s for a
pound, 21 shillings for a guinea, the latter got its name from the first coin
struck from gold on the coast of Guinea. In 1971 Britain changed over to
decimal currency system — 100 new pence to the pound (£). New coins
(or pieces) were introduced: the l/ 2 p., 2 p., 5 p., 10 p., 20 p. and 50 p, coins.
5 The Daily Express: a “popular” paper for those who prefer entertain­
ment to inform ation. It is largely filled with sporting news, accounts of
crime, advertisem ents (ads.), gossip of little worth (about private life of
society people, film stars, etc.) and strip cartoons. O ther popular papers
are The Sun, The Daily Mirror, The Daily Mail.
The Daily Telegraph: a daily London newspaper of conservative orien­
tation. It is a "quality" paper for educated readers who are interested in im­
portant domestic and foreign news. O ther quality papers are The Observer,
The Guardian, The Times. This kind of newspapers is called the tabloids.
6Constable, John (1776—1837): a famous English painter.

87
London in the City presents the biography of London, from
the founding of London by Romans to the G reater London
of today. Within a square kilometre or so in London's theatre-
land are over thirty theatres, showing a large range of old
a n d m o d e rn plays. Sm aller “ frin g e ” th e a tr e s 7 p erfo rm in
clubs, pubs and at lunch time.
London is full of parks and green spaces. H yde Park,
originally a royal hunting forest, is the largest park in Lon­
don. In sum m er the S erpen tine canal w hich flows th ro u g h
the park is always full of swimmers, rowers and sunbathers
J u s t so u th of th e S erp en tin e is Rotten Row, a fashionable
spot for horse-riding, and in one corner, near M arble Arch
is S p e a k e rs 1 C orner, w h ere ev eryo ne can go an d air their
views to a n y o n e w ho will listen. B eyond H y d e P ark lie^
another royal park, Kensington Gardens. Children gather b\
the sta tu e of Peter Pan, Ja m es B arrie's8 w ell-know n sto ry ­
book character, or sail their model boats on the Round Pond
In the north of London is R egent's Park with a zoo an d a*
open-air theatre. A trip along R egent's Canal in a w aterbm
gives a chance to see London Little Venice, a quiet country
side area for rich p eo p le only as the land h ere is very ex
pensive.
Like m any capital cities, London grew up along a majo;
river. T he T ham es divides London sh arply in two. M ost о
central London is on the north bank of the river. The T ham e-
a t L o n d o n is tid a l a n d th e r e h a v e b e e n se v eral seriou ^
floods. The risk of this is increasing as southern England \>
sinking in relation to sea level. T hreat of disaster, however
has been lessened by the construction of a flood barrier.
It is always in te re stin g for tourists to tak e a trip alone
the Thames in a boat as it gives a striking panoram a of Lon

7 a “fringe” theatre stages experimental theatrical plays performed I


amateurs.
8 Barrie, Jam es M. (1860—1937): a Scottish novelist. Peter Pan —
fairy-tale boy who refused to grow up preferring to lead children into h
magic “Never-Never Land” where they fought pirates.

88
don. The best way to see the city quickly is from the top of
London red d o u b le -d e c k e r buses. Special tourist b u ses go
on two-hour circular tours. The other quick and easy way of
g e ttin g a ro u n d L ondon is b y “ tube'* — th e U n d e rg ro u n d
railway. During the “rush hours”, when office workers hurry
to and from work, the tube train doors can hardly close behind
the crushed crowds.
London is an ancient city. But it is also a living city and
like all living cities it is constantly developing.

VOCABULARY NOTES

1. h isto ric adj исторический (имеющий историческое


значение, вошедший в историю), е. g. historic place, date,
speech, event, battle, etc. 1812 was a historic year for Russi­
an people.
h isto ric a l adj исторический (связанный с историей,
имеющий отношение к истории), е. д. historical m ateria­
lism, science, principles, m ethod, ap p ro ac h (to); historical
novel, picture, play, film; historical d ep a rtm e n t, m useum ,
etc.
history л история, e. g. the history of our country, the his­
tory of the language; a history lesson; the History Museum.
N o t e 1: In names of academic subjects no article is used, e. g. History
of the English language is a difficult subject.
N o t e 2: The Russian word история has several English equivalents:
л) история (ход развития чего-л.) — history, е. д. This town has an interest­
ing history.; b) рассказ, повествование — story, e. д. I d o n 't like stories
of such kind. He told us the story of his whole life.; с) происшествие —
event, e. g. Tell us something about this strange event. But: A funny thing
happened to him. (С ним произошла забавная история.) T here's a pretty
kettle of fish! (Вот так история!)

2. w orth л ценность, е. д. It's a discovery of great worth.


This information is of no worth.
w orth adj predic стоящий; w orth smth., e. g. This picture
is not w orth the m oney yo u've paid for it. This problem is
not worth our attention. This job is not worth the time we've
spent on it.; w orth doing sm th., e. g. This film is worth see­
89
ing. Books of that kind are not worth reading. This problem
isn’t worth discussing. His illness is hardly worth troubling
about.; worth while, e. g. It isn't worth while seeing the film.
It isn’t worth while sitting here till 5 o'clock. It is worth while
trying to catch the train. I think it's worth while speaking to
him ab o u t it. C/.: This book is worth reading. — It is worth
while reading this book.
worthy adj достойный, e. g. She is a very worthy woman.;
to be worthy of smth., smb., e. g. His behaviour is worthy of
great praise.
unworthy adj недостойный
3. masterpiece л шедевр
piece л 1. кусок, as a piece of chalk (wood, paper, etc.)
Syn. lump, slice. A slice is a thin, flat piece cut off from
a n y th in g , as a slice of b re a d (cheese, lem on, ham , etc.).
A lump is a small specially shaped or shapeless piece, as a
lump of sugar (butter, etc.).
to pieces на куски, e. g. The cup fell and was broken t<
pieces,
2. отдельный предмет, часть, e. g. a piece of furniture; u
piece of poetry (стихотворение); a piece of painting (карти
на); a piece of advice (совет); a piece of news (новость);
3. монета, e. g. a two-shilling piece, a gold (silver) piece
Syn. coin (used more often than piece)

4. hum an adj человеческий, свойственный человеку


e. g. a hum an nature, the hum an body, hum an affairs, a hu
man being (человек); hu'mane adj гуманный, человечный
A n t. cruel
inhuman adj бесчеловечный, as inhum an treatment
hum anity n (u n co u n ta b le) 1. человечество, as a crinm
against humanity
Syn. man'kind л (uncountable). But 'mankind мужчин!.'
мужской пол
2. гуманность, человечность, as to treat p eo ple with h 1:
manity
the Humanities гуманитарные науки; syn. the Arts, e. g Ar
you interested in the Humanities (the Arts) or in the science
(естественные науки)?
90
5. to strike (struck, struck) vt 1. ударяться, бить; to strike
smb., to strike smb. (smth.) on smth. e. g. He struck the boy
a violent blow. The man struck Lanny on the face. He struck
his fist on the table.
Syn. to hit (hit, hit), e. g. W hy did he hit the boy?; to hit
o n e 's hand (foot, head, etc.) on smth., e. д. I hit my head on
the low shelf.
N o t e : strike and hit may be used in the same sense — to strike or to
bit smb. — but care should be taken to use the proper verb in traditional
word combinations such as to strike a match чиркнуть спичкой, e. g. Some­
body struck a match so that we could see each other.

2. бить (о часах), e. g. It has ju st stru ck half p ast four.


This tower clock strikes the hours.
3. поражать, удивлять, e. g. W e were struck by his strange
b eh av io u r. It s tru c k me th a t he had g row n so old. M a n y
things might strike us as unusual in a foreign country.
Syn. to surprise, to astonish, to puzzle
N о t e: to be struck means “to be filled suddenly with a strong feel­
ing of surprise*'. That distinguishes the verb to strike from its synonyms
to astonish and to surprise; to astonish is stronger in m eaning than to
surprise, e. д. 1 shouldn't be surprised if it rained. I'm not surprised at see­
ing you here, I've been told about your arrival. I was astonished at seeing
him so changed. I was struck by his sudden death.; to puzzle m eans “ to
make a person think hard before finding an answer", e. g. His letter
puzzled me. (= I didn't know why he had written it.)

striking adjt as striking likeness (news, contrast)


stricken pp. terror-stricken; horror-stricken; panic-stricken
N o t e : th e verb to strike has hom onym s: a) strike vi бастовать,
b) strike л забастовка, e. g. All the railway workers joined the strike.; to
go on strike объявлять забастовку

6. circular adj круглый, круговой, e. g. T here is a circu­


lar railway ru nning round Moscow. A circular staircase led
to the top of the tower.
circulate v 1. циркулировать, e. g. Blood circulates in the
body.; 2. передаваться, распространяться, e. g. Bad new s
circulates quickly.
circulation n 1. циркуляция, e. g. The circulation of air is
rather bad here, that's why it is stuffy.; 2. распространение,
91
обращение [денежное), е. д. Only silver and copper coins are
in circulation now.
blood-circulation л кровообращение
circle n 1. круг, окружность, e. g. It's almost impossible
to draw a circle without a pair of compasses (без циркуля)
2. группа, круг людей, е. д. Н е b elo n g ed to the business
circle of the town.

NOTES ON HOMONYMS

H om onym s are words that coincide in form, but have dil


ferent m ean in gs an d may (or may not) b elong to different
categories or parts of speech. Homonyms may coincide both
in phonetic an d in graphic form, as ball, n (мяч) and ball, :
(бал) or fair, adj (светлый, справедливый и др. знач.) anu
fair, л (ярмарка). They may coincide only in pronunciation
but have different graphic forms, as sea, л and to see, v. The
may coincide in spelling, but be differently pronounced, a
lead [led] л (свинец) and fo lead [li:d] v (вести).

ESSENTIAL VOCABULARY (I)

Words
ancient adj finance л piece л
astonish v flood л possibility л
built-up adj historic adj pound л
circle n historical adj puzzle v
circular adj hum an adj sea level
circulation л humanity л settlement n
coin n (the) Humanities slice л
com merce n lump л stretch v
currency л mankind л strike v
double-decker л masterpiece n striking ad}
entertainm ent л Parliament л traffic л
exhibit v parliamentary adj worth л, ad)
worthy adj

92
Word Combinations
to break to pieces to go on a tour
to turn smth. into smth. a panorama (view) of
to have a possibility for to be a surprise to
to stand for smth. to strike a match
to be worthy of smth. to strike a blow
a piece of advice to go on strike
fine and applied arts to be a surprise to smb.
to take a trip

Proper Names

Roman the Victoria and Albert Museum


the Thames Constable
Londinium the Natural History Museum
Westminster the Science Museum
Whitehall the M useum of London
Downing Street Hyde Park
Fleet Street the Serpentine
St. Paul's Cathedral Marble Arch
South Kensington Kensington Gardens
Regent's Park

EXERCISES

1. Read the text and talk on the following points (A. Grammar, B. Word
usage, C. Word-formation):

A. 1. W hat tense group is mainly used in the text and why?


2. Find passive voice constructions and translate the sen­
tences with them.
B. Translate the sentences beginning with ju s t as ... so into
Russian.
C. Search the text for com pounds, com m ent on their stru c­
ture. Find derivatives with the suffixes -ment, -err -ly and
classify them according to the category of speech.

93
II. a) Search the text and the footnotes for the English equivalents of
the sentences and phrases listed below:
A. I. п реврати ть м аленькое кельтское п оселен и е в крупны й
торговы й город; 2. иметь возм ож ности для развлечений и занятий
спортом; 3. музей стоит осмотреть; 4. великолепное собран и е п ро­
изведени й изобрази тельного и прикладного искусства; 5. с о в е р ­
ш ить прогулку на речном трам вае по Темзе; 6. обозначать, п одра­
зумевать; 7. откры вается панорам а города.
B. 1. солидные, «серьезны е» газеты; 2. сообщ ения о собы тиях
внутри страны и за рубежом; 3. спортивны е новости; 4. сплетни,
не представляю щ ие интереса; 5. перейти на десятичную д е н е ж ­
ную систему; 6. монета в 50 пенсов.

b) Use them in sentences of your own.

III. a| Spell and give the four forms of the following verbs:
(g raul, [bild], [a'traekt], [send], [di'splei], [ f b u ] , [lai], [ ' t u n ] ,
[straik], ['pAzI].

b) Transcribe the following words:


Celtic, settlement, commerce, finance, explore, kilometre,
parliamentary, magnificent, ceramics, metalwork, p h o to g ra­
phy, atomic, royal, canal, sunbather, major, barrier, p an o ra­
ma, double-decker, disaster.
c) Write the degrees of comparison of:
narrow, small, great, old, quiet, worthy, busy, easy.

d) Find homonyms in Text of Unit Three.

IV. a) Analyse the morphological structure of the word sizable, explain


its meaning and give its Russian equivalent.
bj Form adjectives from these verbal stems by adding the negative
prefix [’piifiks] un-, and the adjective-forming suffix -able. Explain the
meaninq of the derivatives and translate them (in one word):
eat, read, break, forget, pardon, describe, desire, imagine
believe.
V. Write questions based on the text. Use in your questions th*.
suggested word combinations. Ask your questions in class:
1. to turn smth. into; 2. built-up area; 3. the home of; 4. b
stand for; 5. the official hom e of the Prime Minister; 6. “ thi
94
square mile” ; 7. the central banking institution; 8. to be full of;
g. fine and applied arts; 10. the Science Museum; 11. theatre-
land; 12. to air o n e's views; 13. to gather by; 14. to grow up;
15. th reat of disaster; 16. to give a panoram a; 17. the “ rush
hours” .

VI. Try your hand at teaching.


(See “Classroom English”, Sections VI, VIII, IX, X.)
A. P reparatio n . W rite 2—3 special questions ab o u t each
paragraph of the text and footnotes. See to it that new words,
phrases and patterns are used either in your questions or in
answers to them.
B. W ork in class. Put your questions to the class and com ­
ment on the answers (express your approval or disapproval;
correct the mistakes, if there are any; add some details if n ec­
essary, etc.).

VII. Make up a dialogue based on one of the paragraphs of the text or


the footnotes. Speak for a Russian and an English student. Try and give an
additional piece of information on the topic. Use the prompts:
Have you heard (about)...?; Do you h ap p e n to know...?;
Have you got any idea?; Someone has told me that...; T hat's
what I heard; I'm afraid I do n't know much about...; I w onder
if you remember...; Have I got it right?; Am I right to believe?;
Absolutely; Exactly; That's very surprising!; That's amazing!

VIII. a) Comment on the dialogue below:


A.: How can you be so stupid as to think that London is
beautiful!
B.: Stupid! W hat nonsense! Of course it's beautiful. Look
at all the parks and Buckingham Palace and all the c h u rc h ­
es.
A.: Rubbish! They're filthy and full of junk.
B.t For g o od ness sake, why d o n 't you o p en your eyes?
Walk around instead of just driving round in a taxi all day!
(H argreaves R. a n d F letcher M.
M ak in g P olite N oises. Lnd., 1982)

95
b) Make up similar dialogues on the sights of your native town. The
following phTases might help you:
I d o n 't agree at all. You must be joking! T here's no evi­
d e n c e for that. Oh, th at's ridiculous! N onsense! Rubbish! I
d o n 't believe that at all. You d o n 't know what you're talking
about. You're completely wrong about that.

IX. Fill in a suitable word or phrase:


a) surprise, astonish, strike, puzzle:
1. I won't be ... if he gets a “five”, he is a very bright boy.
2. W e were ... by the contrasts between wealth and poverty in
Delhi. 3. His question ... me. I d id n 't know how to answer it.
4. I was ... to meet him in town, I was sure he had not come
back yet. 5. His cruelty ... us. W e always thought that be was
kind and sympathetic.
b) piece, lamp, slice:
1. Pick up the ... of the broken cup and throw them out
2. Give me a ... of paper. I'll show you how to make a boat for
the child, 3. I'd like to take one more ... of cake. May I? 4. !
never put more than two ... of sugar into my tea. 5. I need ь
short ... of string to tie the parcel with. 6. I'd like to have a ...
of lemon with my tea.
c) historic or historical:
1. Red S quare is a ... spot: many ... events took p lace in
it. 2. In his ... novels W alter Scott gave a wonderful descrip­
tio n not only of ... events, b u t of w hole ... ep o chs. 3. The
ninth of May is one of our most important ... dates: we cele
b ra te our ... victory in W orld W ar II. 4. T h ere are m any ..
m onuments in Moscow.

X. Retell the Text. Use the map of London on pp. 114-115.

XI. a) Fill in prepositions wherever necessary:


Please rem em ber: traffic ... Britain k ee p s ... th e left! S(
w hen crossing a street look rig h t first then left. If possibb
c ro ss ... zebra cro ssin g s, som etim es in d ic a te d ... flash in g
orange lights ... either side ... the road.
96
Speed lim it ... Britain is 70 mph ( = miles per hour); ...
b u ilt-u p a re a s 30 mph. C areful rid in g is essential as th e re
are many narrow and w inding roads.
R o ad s ... fa st lo n g - d is ta n c e d riv in g are ca lle d m o to r ­
ways. The best known is the motorway ... London and Leeds.
Road sign s are m ostly the sam e as those used ... the c o n ti­
nent. The same goes ... traffic lights.

b) Speak about the traffic in this countiy using the word combinations
in bold type.

XII. a) Explain the meaning of these proverbs. Translate them. Give


their Russian equivalents:
A bird in the hand is worth two in the bush.
The gam e is not worth the candle.
An hour in the morning is worth two in the evening.
Between two evils 'tis not worth while choosing.

b) Say whether you agree with Lord Goring's opinion that MIt is always
worth while asking a question, though it is not always worth while
answering one.” (O. Wilde. “An Ideal Husband”)

XIII. Translate the sentences into English, using a) be well worth +


ger/n or b) just as... so:
1. H e стоит кататься сегодня по Темзе, ветер слиш ком силь­
ный. 2. С тоит прислуш аться к его с о в ет/. 3. Н е стоит трати ть в р е ­
мя на вещи, которы ми вы не интересуетесь. 4. С тоит посетить М у­
зей науки в Л ондоне и посмотреть, как дети заним аю тся модели­
рованием. 5. П одобно тому как В естминстер часто об озн ачает пар­
ламент Великобритании, так Сити — ее ф ин ансовы й центр. 6. П о­
добно том у как под «гуманитарными» наукам и подразум еваю т и с­
торию , литературу, иностранны е язы ки, так под «естественны ми»
науками — ф изику, химию, ботанику и др.

XIV. Arrange micro-dialogues on the following topics:


1. How old Moscow is. W here and how it started. 2. W hat
m oney is in circ u latio n in this cou ntry. 3. W h a t th e most
Popular papers in Moscow are. 4. W hy Muscovites like their
Underground railway. 5. W hat the most popular museum s in
Moscow are. W hat is e x h ib ite d th e re ? 6. W h a t y o u know
ubout p a rk s in M oscow . 7. The traffic in the capital.
97
XV. a) Read and translate the text:
Apart from more important news printed on the first page
with big h ea d lin e s in bold type there are m any o th e r s e c ­
tions in th e paper. Some p eo p le turn at o n ce to classified
ad s (called by th a t n am e b e c a u s e a d v e rtis e m e n ts are a r ­
ranged in groups like: “to let”, “property wanted*', “situation
v acan t” , etc.). For those who are interested in clothes there
are fashion pages. You can find out w h a t's on by looking
in the ad vertisem en t guide. Some like to look th ro u g h the
w hole p aper reading a headline here, glancing at an in te r­
esting article there, looking at a political cartoon, maybe, or
reading some of business news.
Ы Answer the suggested questions:
1. Do you read papers to catch up with the latest news oi
are you in te re ste d in som e p artic u lar problem s? W h y ? 2
W h e re can we find the most im p ortan t political, b usiness
and cultural news in our papers? 3. In which of our new spa­
pers can you find advertisements? Are they classified in any
way? 4, Are th e re an y p o litical c a rto o n s an d a m u s e m e n '
guides in our papers? 5. Are you used to studying a newspa
per thoroughly or just glancing at an article here and there?

XVI. Translate the sentences into English:


1. Д окладчик говорил о будущем человечества. 2. Эта картин.»
всегда п ри вл екает посетителей музея. 3. Н адпись на памятник»
озадачила туристов: никто из них не сталкивался с древнеанглий
ским язы ком. 4. Мы удивились, когда узнали, что в Гайд-парке .
М арбл-Арч лю бой человек м ож ет вы сказы вать свои суж ден и я П'
лю бому поводу, часто там м ож но услыш ать много чепухи, 5. Во.
объявление, которое вам нужно, 6. П оверьте мне, этот молодой ч*
ловек достоин ваш его уваж ения. 7. Т еперь в Англии в обращ ени
ф унты и пенсы. 8. 1945 тод — исторический год для всего челов<
чества. 9. К аж дая английская газета им еет определенны й круг ч;
тателей. 10. В Лондоне, как и в любом столичном городе с больши
дви ж ен и ем , бы ваю т д орож н ы е происш ествия. 11. С В оробьева
гор откры вается удивительная панорам а М осквы. 12. П ом ещ ена
обогревается горячей водой, циркулирую щ ей по трубам. 13. С отг
новых домов вы растаю т во всех городах наш ей страны. 14. Богата
коллекция произведений изобразительного и прикладного и с к у

98
ства п ривлекает посетителей этого музея. 15. Э кспонаты И стори­
ческого м узея в М оскве знаком ят посетителей с развитием ц иви­
лизации на терри тории России. 16. П редельная скорость в ж илы х
районах М осквы 60 км /час.

XVII. a) Read the text. Retell it adding some more information about
parliament:

T h e first W e stm in ste r P alace was b u ilt by Edw ard th e


Confessor in about 1050 and was used as a royal residence,
then as the seat o f Governm ent an d finally, after 1547, as
the m eeting place for Parliament. The fire of 1834 destroyed
most of the original buildings. The new building for Parlia­
ment was designed by Sir Charles Barry in 1840. The g e n e r­
al style is gothic.
There are two “Chambers” or “H ouses” of Parliament —
that of the Commons and that of the Lords. The more impor­
tant and powerful of these is the House of Commons, whose
members are elected by the public. The Prime Minister and
most of the Government are Members of the H ouse of C om ­
mons. The H ouse of Lords is made up of Lords who have in­
herited their titles and the right to sit in the House, an d “life
p eers” who are ap p o in te d by the Q u ee n on the advice of
the Government of the day.
Half of th e b uild in g of Parliam ent is used by th e C o m ­
mons an d the o th e r half by the Lords. At the W estm in ster
Bridge en d is the resid e n c e of the S peaker, who presides
over m eetin gs of the H ouse of C om m ons and at th e oth er
end is the resid en ce of the Lord C hancellor, who presid es
over the House of Lords.
Parliament's m ost important function is the m aking of
laws. Before a new law (or Bill) can come into effect, it must
pass through three stages in each H ouse and be given the
Queen's approval. It then becomes an Act of Parliament.
(See: M o u n te fie ld A. London. Lnd., 1979)

b) Say what you know about the Russian Parliament, 1. e. two chambers:
the Duma and the Council ot Federation.

99
XVIII. Give the idea of the text in English:
П осле более чем десяти лет споров по поводу того, стоит ли
допускать телевидение в британский парламент, лорды, наконец,
разреш или установить камеры в своей палате. О днако палата о б ­
щин отказы вается принять такое ж е реш ение. О дин из основны х
п роти вн и ков телетрансляций заседаний п арлам ента — прем ьер-
м и н и стр М. Т этч ер. О н а о п р а в д ы в а е т сво ю п о зи ц и ю тем , что
подобны е передачи потребую т слиш ком больш их затрат. Но, как
считает лондонский корреспондент ам ерикан ской газеты « К р и с­
чен сай ен с м онитор», п ричи н а упорного со п р о ти вл ен и я Т этчер
кр о ется в н еж елан и и делать достоянием гласности кри тически е
вы ступления в адрес ее правительства. А как заявил во врем я н е ­
давних дебатов лорд Уайтлоу, немалую проблему представляет и
т о т ф акт, что м н оги е п ар л а м е н т ар и и н а з а с е д а н и я х п оп росту
спят. П оявлен и е на тел еэк р ан ах дрем лю щ и х зако н о д ателей от
ню дь не послуж ит росту их авторитета.
(«За рубеж ом», № 9, 1986

XIX. Read and comment on the following:

REMEMBRANCE DAY (POPPY DAY)


Remembrance Day is observed throughout Britain in com
memoration of the million or more British soldiers, sailors and
airm en who lost their lives during the two W orld Wars. Oi
that day w reaths are laid at war m em orials th ro u g h o u t the
country and at London's Cenotaph (a war memorial in White
hall) w here a great num ber of people g ath er to observe th<
two-minute silence and to perform the annual Remembrance
Day ceremony. The silence begins at the first stroke of Bid
Ben boom ing 11 o ’clock an d is broken only by the crash i !
distant artillery. W hen the two-minute silence is over, men*
bers of the Royal Family or their representatives and politic d
leaders come forward to lay wreaths at the foot of the Cen<
taph. Then comes the march past the memorial of ex-servic*
men and women, followed by an endless line of ordinary cin
zens who have com e here with their perso nal w reaths arc1
their sad memories. On that day artificial poppies, a symbol >
m ourning, are trad itio nally sold in the streets an d p e o p "
wear them in their button-holes.
[From C ustom s, T rad itio n s a n d Festivals of G re a t Brito ■
by T. K him unina, N. K onon, L. W alsh e. M, 1 9 ; ■

100
XX. a) Collect information on English traditions and customs.
b) Arrange a talk between Russian and English students on their
national traditions, customs and habits. (One of the students should conduct
it: introduce the participants to each other, make a short introductory speech
on the subject, ask questions, etc. to keep the talk running on, sum up the
discussion.)

LABORATORY EXERCISES (I)

1. Listen to the text ‘introducing London”.


2. Respond to the following using the suggested models.
3. Complete the sentences using the given suggestions.
4. Translate the sentences into English, using the Essential Vocabulary
of Unit Three. Check your sentences with the key.
5. Listen to the text and write it as a dictation, check the spelling with
the key. Retell the text.
6. Listen to the text “The House of Commons’*. Retell the text, add
more Information on the topic.

T O P I C : CITY

TEXT A. SO M E M O R E GLIM PSES O F L O N D O N

London is one of the biggest and most interesting cities


in the world.
Traditionally it is divided into the W est End and the East
End. The W est End is famous for its beautiful avenues lined
with plane trees, big stores, rich mansions, expensive restau­
rants, hotels, theatres and night clubs. The East End used to
be a poor area filled with w arehouses, factories, slum s and
miserable houses. Q uite a lot of people lived from hand to
mouth here. For the recent years this area including D ock­
land has turned into a new housing development.
T he h eart of London is the City — its com m ercial and
business centre. Here is situated the Tower of London that
comes first am ong the historic buildings of the city. If you
want to get some glimpses of London it's just from here that
You had better start sightseeing.

101
The Tower of London was founded by Julius Caesar and
in 1066 rebuilt by William the C onqueror. It was used as a
fortress, a royal residence and a prison. Now it is a museum
of arm o u r a n d also the p lace w here th e C row n Jew els are
kept. In present days, just as many centuries ago, th e C e re­
mony of the Keys takes place at its gates. Every night when
the guard is changed at each gate there is the cry: “Halt! Who
goes there?*’ T hen the guard replies: “T he Keys.” “Whose
Keys?” “Q ueen Elizabeth's Keys!” “Pass, Q u een Elizabeth s
Keys! All's well.” And so the Tower of London is safely closed
for the night.
A twenty minutes' walk from the Tower will take you te
another historic building — St. Paul's Cathedral, the greatesr
of English churches. It was built by a famous English a rc h i­
tect, Sir Christopher Wren (1632—1723). St. Paul's Cathedra!
with its huge dom e and rows of columns is considered to b<
a fine sp ecim en of R enaissance arch itec tu re . In o n e of it
tow ers h a n g s o n e of the la rg e st bells in th e world, G res'
Paul, w eighing ab o u t 17,5 tons. W e llin g to n ,1 N elso n 2 am
other great men of England are buried in the Cathedral.

1The Duke of W ellington (1769- 1852): a famous British general who^


army defeated Napoleon at W aterloo in 1815
2 Nelson, H oratio (1758- 1805): an English admiral who won the batt.
of Trafalgar (the Atlantic coast of Spain)

102
Not far away, in Westminster, where most of the Govern­
m ent b u ild in g s are situated, is W estm in ster Abbey. M any
E nglish sovereigns, o u ts ta n d in g statesm en , p a in te rs a n d
poets (Newton, Darwin, and Tennyson among them) are buried
here.
Across the road from W estm inster Abbey is W estm inster
Palace, the se at of th e British Parliam ent. Its two g raceful
towers stand high above the city. The higher of the two co n ­
tains th e largest clock in the co u n try an d the fam ous bell
Big Ben that strikes every quarter of the hour.
If now we walk along W hitehall, we shall soon com e to
Trafalgar Square. It was so nam ed in memory of the victory
in the battle of Trafalgar, where on O ctober 21, 1805 the En­
glish fleet under N elson's com m and defeated the com bined
fleet of France and Spain. The victory was won at the cost of
N elson's life. In the middle of Trafalgar Square stands N el­
son's m onum ent — a tall colum n with the figure of N elson
at its top. The column is guarded by four bronze lions.
The fine building facing the square is the N ational G al­
lery and adjoining it (but just round the corner) is the Por­
trait Gallery.

103
Not far away is the British M useum — the biggest M use­
um in London. It contains a priceless collection of different
th in g s (an cien t m an u scrip ts, coins, sc u lp tu re s, etc.). The
British M useum is famous for its library — one of the richest
in the w orld.3 In its large circular reading room M arx, En
gels and later Lenin used to work.
And now, even if you have almost no time left for further
sightseeing, you cannot leave the city w ithout visiting Hydt
Park or “the Park” as Londoners call it. W hen you are walk
ing along its shad y avenues, sitting on the grass, a d m irin r
its beautiful flower-beds or watching swans and ducks float
ing on the ponds, it seems almost unbelievable that all aroum
there is a large city with its heavy traffic and smoke.

TEXT B. SIG H TSEEIN G

— Is it possible to see anything of London in one or tv.


days?
— Well, yes, but, of course, not half enough.
— W hat do you think I ought to see first?
— W ell, if y o u are in te re ste d in c h u rc h e s an d histoi
places you should go to W estm inster Abbey, the H ouses
Parliament, St. Paul's and the Tower. Do you like art galleries
— Rather!
— T h e n w hy n o t go to th e N a tio n a l G a lle ry a n d U
Tate?
— I'm told one ought to see the British Museum. Do y>
think I shall have time for that?
— Well, you might, but if I were you, I should leave t! '
for some other day. You could spend a whole day there. !
much too big to be seen in an hour or so.
— I suppose it is. W hat about going to the Zoo?

3 In 1973 the library of the British Museum and four other bigo
libraries were joined into one — the British Library, which is the big*;
national library in the United Kingdom and one of the biggest and *■
present-day libraries in the world.

104
— T h a t's not a bad idea. You cou ld sp e n d a c o u p le of
hours there comfortably, or even a whole afternoon, w atch­
ing the wild animals, birds and reptiles. You could have tea
there too.
— I'll do that, then. How do I get there?
— Let me see. I think your best way from here is to walk
across Regent's park.
— Is it much of a walk?
— Oh, no, a quarter of an hour or so, but, if you are in a
hurry, why not take a taxi?
— I think I will. Ah, here's one com ing. Taxi! The Zoo,
please.
(From “T h e L in g u ap h o n e E nglish C o u rs e ” )

TEXT C. RED SQUARE

Red Square has w itnessed many im portant events in the


life of Russian people. Though time has changed the face of
Red Square it has remained the main square and the heart of
the city.
Visitors from hom e an d abroad stream here to enjoy the
beauty of the historic buildings and m onum ents of which the
Kremlin com es First. The Kremlin rep re se n ts ce n tu ries of
Russian history and one is usually struck by the austere and
powerful appearance of its walls and towers.
Like the Tower of London the Kremlin was used as a for­
tress and a sovereign's residence. Now it houses the Presi­
dent's office and a number of museums including the Armory
Chamber and the Diamond Fund.
In the centre of the square by the Kremlin wall is the Le­
nin M ausoleum , erected in 1930 by A. Shchusev. The archi­
tect in terp reted the traditions of the pyram ids in a m odern
* a y an d g ave th e m o n u m e n t a laconic a rc h ite c tu ra l form
^rtiich was po p u lar in the twenties. Behind the M ausoleum
there is a necropolis of some outstanding statesmen and po­
etical leaders.
On the southern side of Red Square is St. Basil's Cathedral
(Vasily Blazheny), a masterpiece of ancient Russian architec­
105
ture. It was built in 1555 —61 in memory of the victory over
Kazan (1552). The m onum ent standing in front of the C ath e­
dral tells us of the people's victory over the Polish invaders in
1612. The inscription on the m o n u m e n t reads: “ To C itizen
M inin and Prince P ozharsky from a grateful R ussia” . Tfu
m o n u m e n t is th e work of I. M artos (1752— 1835). N o t far
from th e C a th ed ral is what is called the Lobnoye Mesto, c
platform of w hite stone more than 400 years old. The tsar'*
edicts were proclaim ed there and public executions carrier1
out. To the rig h t of the C a th e d ra l on th e te rrito ry of th<
Kremlin we can see a tall tower, m ore like a colum n, ovo'
80 metres high. It is the Bell Tower of Ivan the Great built in

106
the 15th century. There are twenty-two large bells and over
thirty small ones in it. For centuries the eastern side of Red
S q u are had b ee n asso cia ted with trad in g . T h e first sto n e
shops were built here in the 16th century. Today on their site
stands the State Department Store, better known as GUM.
If we walk up from St. Basil’s to the opposite en d of the
square we face a red brick building. This is the History M u ­
seum. In the west Red Square is adjoining the Kremlin. Ju st
on the other side of the Kremlin wall we can see the b uild­
ing of the former Senate, an outstanding architectural m onu­
ment built by Matvei Kasakov (1738— 1813), now the seat of
the A d m in istratio n of the P resident. T he main an d tallest
tow er of th e K rem lin is the S p assk ay a tow er. Ithas long
sin ce b e c o m e o n e of th e sy m b o ls of M oscow . P e o p le
all over Russia listen to the Kremlin clock on the Spasskaya
tower striking m idnight and it seems to them that th ey are
listening to the beating of the heart of our capita).

M em ory Work
Sonnet Composed upon Westminster Bridge
Earth has not anything to show more fair:
Dull would he be of soul who could pass by
A sight so touching in its majesty:
This City now doth like a garment wear
The beauty of the morning; silent, bare,
Ships, towers, domes, theatres, and temples lie
O pen unto the fields, and to the sky:
All bright and glittering in the smokeless air.
Never did sun more beautifully steep
In his first splendor, valley, rock or hill;
N e'er saw I, never felt, a calm so deep!
The river glideth at his own sweet will:
Dear God! the very houses seem asleep;
And all that mighty heart is lying still!
William Wordsworth

107
ESSENTIAL VOCABULARY (II)

Words
adjoin v defeat v jewel л
architecture л dome л mansion л
armour л erect v residence л
avenue л float v seat n
bury г fortress л shady adj
change v guard v specimen л
cathedral л huge adj statesman л
contain v

Word Combinations
to live from hand to mouth to win the victory
to be lined with (trees, houses) at the cost of smb.'s life
to be found (in some place) at the top
a new housing development round the corner
to have (get, catch) a to be famous for smth.
glimpse of to have no time (money,
in present days etc.) left
across the road (from some W hy not do smth.?
place) to do the sights of smth.
in memory of to do the city (museums,
under the command parks, etc.)

Proper Names

the W est End Big Ben


the East End Trafalgar Square
the Tower of London the Kremlin
Julius Caesar the Lenin Mausoleum
William the Conqueror St, Basil's Cathedral
Queen Elizabeth the Bell Tower
Christopher Wren of Ivan the Great
Wellington the History Museum
Westminster Abbey the Spasskaya Tower

108
EXERCISES

I. Study Text A and explain the meaning of the words and phrases
listed below:
mansion, to live from hand to mouth, m iserable houses,
to line the streets, dome, slums, to com e first, th e Crow n
jew els, h uge, statesm an, across the road, the seat (of th e
governm ent), at the cost of som eb od y's life, to face smth.,
shady avenues.

II. Learn the words of the texts and a) copy and transcribe these
words:
m an sio n , re s ta u ra n t, jew el, g u a rd , halt, c o lu m n , ton,
sovereign, national, float, sculpture, swan, weigh, conqueror,
specimen.

b) Translate into English and mark the stresses:


отель, церемония, Возрождение, Т раф альгарская площадь, ру­
копись, проспект, архитектор, Елизавета, сенат.

c) Form derivatives of these verbs by adding the prefix re- (meaning


“do smth. again"):
Example: build — rebuild
write, tell, construct, arm, elect, produce.

III. Answer the questions:


1. How do the two parts of London differ from each o th ­
er? 2. W hy is it better to start sightseeing from the Tower of
London? 3. W ho fo u n d e d th e T ow er an d w hen was it r e ­
built? 4. W hat was the Tower of London used for? 5. W hat
is the City? 6. W h at does the p hrase “a place of in te re st”
m ean? 7. W h at do you know ab o u t St. P au l's C a th e d ra l?
8. W hat is W hitehall and in which part of London is it situ­
ated? 9. W h a t d oes the C erem ony of th e Keys consist of?
10. W h a t do you call the building in which the H ouses of
P arliam en t are situ a te d ? It is one b u ild in g , w hy th e n do
we say “The H ouses of P arliam ent” ? 11. W hat is Big Ben?
12. W hat kind of museum is the British Museum? 13. W hat
do you know about Hyde Park?

109
IV. Read the text and show all the places of interest mentioned then-
on the map:
Trafalgar Square is the natural centre of London. Coulcl
we b u t stand 168 feet (about 50 metres) above the traffic,
beside the figure of the Admiral, we really could see all th<*
g re a t lan dm arks of London. W hitehall, w hich leads out o\
th e s q u a re to th e so uth , is the site of m an y G o v ern m en t
offices including Prime Minister's residence, Foreign Office
W a r Office; at th e far en d of W h iteh all stand, b e sid e the
T h am e s, th e H o u se s of P a rlia m e n t w ith th e Big C lock
Tower, and W estm inster Abbey; to the left C ovent Garder.
fruit m arket and Covent G arden O pera House, and beyom:
the Bank of England; another slight turn left w ould enabb
your eye to fall on the British Museum; further left still w *
should see theatreland around Piccadilly Circus (it is not a ;
all a circus b u t an open space of a circular form) and those
expensive sho p p in g p ro m en ad es — R egent Street, Oxforc
Street, Bond Street; a little further, and into view would conn
Hyde Park in the distance, with, nearer, Buckingham Palact
and Royal Drive known as the Mall, which leads into Trafa!
gar Square.

V. Use Text В to practise similar conversations on Moscow.

VI. Read and retell:


A. T h e fam o u s s q u a r e m ile of th e C ity of L o n d o n ;
a d m in istered as an in d e p e n d e n t unit, having its own Lor
Mayor and Corporation and its own police force. It was hei
th a t th e R om ans b u ilt th e ir w alled tow n of L ondinium ,
few traces of w hich rem ain today, and it was h ere that th
Medieval guilds established their headquarters. W h e n afti
the G reat Fire of 1666, the City was rebuilt, stone and brie ^
re p la c e d th e m a n y m ain ly w o o d en m ed ieval h o u se s an
from that tim e th e City g rad u ally b ec am e a financial an
commercial centre.
B. O n e of th e special joys of London is the am o u n t
space given over to parks, gardens, squares and open are<-
They provide a welcome visual and physical break from U
mass of b u ild in g s and the heavy traffic. Kew G ard en s a
no
famous Botanic G ard ens on the b an k s of the Tham es. The
g arden s an d h o th ou ses with rare flowers, trees an d shrubs
are well w orth seeing. W ithin a sto n e 's throw of B u cking ­
ham Palace are St. Jam es's Park and Green Park. St. Jam es's
park, the oldest in London, was created by H enry VIII and
redesigned by his successors. Green Park, as its nam e su g ­
gests, mainly consists of lawns and trees.
(From C olourful L ondon. N orw ich, 1981)

VII. Make up short situations or dialogues, using the following words


and phrases:
1. why not ..., let me see, to be found, across the road, to
have no {time, money) left; 2. in present days, to live from
hand to mouth; 3. under the com m and of, to be famous for,
to d e fe a t, to win th e v ictory, at th e c o st of; 4. fo rtress,
armour, in m emory of, to contain; 5. swan, lined with trees,
float, shady avenues, ancient.

VIII. Fill in prepositions:


S cotland Yard is the h e a d q u a rte rs ... the M e tro p o lita n
P o lice ... L o ndon. ...m ost p e o p le , its n am e im m e d ia te ly
brings ... mind the picture ... a detective — cool, collected,
efficient, ready to track down any criminal.
S co tla n d Yard is situ a te d ... th e T h am es E m b a n k m e n t
close ... th e H o uses ... P arliam en t an d th e fam iliar clo ck
tower ... Big Ben. The nam e “Scotland Yard” originates ...
the plot ... land adjoining W hitehall Palace where, ... about
the 14th century, the royalty and nobility ... Scotland stayed
when visiting the English C ourt. The p op u lar n ick n am e ...
the L ondon p o lic em an " b o b b y ” is a trib u te ... Sir R obert
Peel, w ho in tro d u ce d th e police force ... 1829, and w hose
Christian name attached itself ... members ... the force.
IX. Review Text “Introducing London”, texts A, B, Exercises IV, VI,
Vlll and study the map of London. Speak on the given topics:
1. London dominates British life. 2. The West End. 3. The
Hast End. 4. The City. 5. The Tower. 6. The district of W est­
minster. 7. T he British Parliam ent. 8. W h itehall a n d Fleet
^treet. 9. Trafalgar Square. 10. St. Paul's Cathedral. 11. The
in
p ark s of London. 12. London m useum s. 13. London traffi»
14. M onum ents in London.

X. Translate into English:


1. В самом центре Сити, напротив главного банка Англии, ст
ит статуя Веллингтона — знам енитого английского генерала и г
сударствеиного деятеля XIX в. П од его командованием английски
вой ска совместно со своими сою зникам и (allies) нанесли пораж<
ние арм ии Н аполеона под Ватерлоо в 1815 г. М ост Ватерлоо, од!
и з красивейш их мостов ч ерез Темзу, был назван так в честь эт<.
победы. 2. М элл (The M all) — это ш ирокий проспект, об саж ен н ь
деревьям и, ведущ ий от Т раф альгарской площади к Букингемско:
дворцу — резиденции английских королей. Н апротив дворца сто;-
огромны й пам ятник со статуей П обеды наверху. Этот памяти!
был воздвигнут в честь королевы Виктории, чье ш естидесятичет
р е х л е тн е е ц ар ств о в ан и е (reign) было сам ы м п р о д о л ж и тел ьн а
в истории (1837— 1901). 3. Х айгейтское кладбищ е (H ig h g ate Сеп:
tery) и зв е с т н о тем , что там н аход и тся м оги ла К ар л а М ар к '
В 1956 году на деньги, присланны е рабочими со всех концов сво
там был воздвигнут памятник Карлу М арксу.

XI. Read Text С. Say what landmarks you Would mention to a gn


of tourists standing in the middle of Red Square. Use the word combii
tions given below:
to witness, the heart of the city, the face of Red Squar
the seat of the Administration of the President, to honour ti
memory, to stream to, public executions, the beating of t:
heart of our capital.

XII. Act out a dialogue between a Russian tourist and a policem<


Choose the exact place (in Moscow or elsewhere) where you are havi-
your talk and the place you want to get to. Use in your dialogue ono
two phrases from each set given below:
1. Excuse me, I’ve lost my way ...; I’m trying to go to
W hich is the right (best, shortest) way to ...? Please show :■
the way to ...; How do I get there? Am I on the right гор.
2. How far is it? Is it possible to walk there? Is there a t:
from here to ...? Is it much of a walk? 3. Go right to the <
of the street, then turn left, go two blocks straight ahead
th en turn to ... ; Straight on and the second turning to i
rig h t You are going in th e op p o site direction. 4. W!
can I do for you? Now, w here is it you w ant to go? It
112
long d istan ce off. It's a lo n g (short) w ay to It's q u ite a
distance from here. 5. Be careful, the traffic keeps to the left
in this country; Look out; It isn't safe to cross here; Be sure
not to cross the street (square, etc.); O n e can never be too
careful; Wait for the break in the traffic; Don’t cross the street
when the traffic light has changed to red.

XIII. Try your hand at teaching.


1. Read the text. Discuss what you would do in the teacher's position:
Susan was absolutely impossible. O r so her teach er was
convinced, for Susan did not like to read (a problem every
teacher faces from time to time). But there were things that
Susan did enjoy. She liked ballet. And she ad o red her dog
Curly. “How can I,” th o u g h t the teacher, “ introd u ce Susan
to pleasures of reading?”
2. Get 4 -5 pictures of London (Moscow) attractions and be ready to
comment on them. (See “Classroom English”, Sections II, III, V.)

XIV. Translate the following sentences into English:


1. И з окн а такси вы м ож ете увидеть Л ондон лиш ь мельком.
Есть много других способов ознаком иться с его достоприм ечатель­
ностями: м ож но походить по городу пешком, м ож но отправиться в
двухчасовую поездку на тури стском автобусе, курсирую щ ем по
Лондону, м ож но посм отреть город с верхней площ адки д ву х этаж ­
ного автобуса: кроме того, мож но соверш ить речную поездку по
Темзе или Больш ому каналу в Ридж ентс-П арк. 2. Если бы вы смог­
ли пролететь над М осквой на вертолете (helicopter), вы бы увиде­
ли, как изм енилась и вы росла наш а столица: длинны е, о б саж ен н ы е
деревьям и проспекты , п ер есек аю т город во всех н ап равлен и ях,
кварталы новы х м ногоэтаж ны х домов появились на окраин ах го­
рода на м есте стары х деревянны х домиков, темны х от копоти и
Дыма. Н ад многочисленны м и стройкам и (building sites) столицы
возвы ш аю тся огром ны е подъемны е краны (cranes). 3. М етро — са-
мый удобный вид городского транспорта. Сотни ты сяч м осквичей
и п риезж и х еж едн евн о поднимаю тся и спускаю тся по его эскала­
торам, восхищ аю тся архитектурой и отделкой (decoration) чудес-
ных подземны х дворцов. 4. П амятник А. С. П ушкину, устан овлен ­
ный на С трастной (ныне П уш кинской) площади. — один из самых
лн>бимых пам ятников ж ителей столицы. У его поднож ия вы всегда
Увидите букеты ж ивы х цветов, которы е приносят сю да москвичи,
чтобы почтить память лю бимого поэта.
5 А п
° 'Д . Аракин. II кур- j|3
XV. Act out a dialogue between a Muscovite and a Londoner on his
first visit to Moscow. Imagine that you are standing in the middle of Red
Square. Your companion asks you about everything he sees, gives his opin
ion about this and that and says what buildings, monuments, etc. remind
him of London. Use the prompts of Ex. VII. p. 111.

XVI. a) Get ready to read the text aloud,


b) Write a translation of the text:

Morning City
This was one of those mornings when the smoke and tin
Tham es Valley mist decide to work a few miracles for the:;
London, and especially for the oldest part of it, the City. Th<
City, on these mornings, is an enchantm ent. There is a faint
ly luminous haze, now silver, now old gold, over everything
T he buildings have shape and solidity b u t no weight; the;
hang in the air, like palaces out of the Arabian Nights; yoi
could topple the dom e off St. Paul's with a forefinger, p u s 1
back the M ansion House, send the M onum ent floating inh
sp a c e . O n th e s e m o rn in g s, th e old c h u r c h e s c a n n o t
counted; there are more of them than ever. There is no les
traffic th a n u su al; the sc a rle t strea m of b u se s still flow
th rou gh the ancient narrow streets; the pavem ents are sli;
th ro n g e d w ith b an k m e ssen g e rs, office boys, p o lic em ei
clerk s, ty p ists, c o m m issio n a ire s , d ire c to rs , s e c r e ta r ie
crooks, busy-bodies, idlers; but on th ese m ornings all Ur
buses, taxicabs, vans, lorries and all the p e d e stria n s lc>
s o m e th in g of th e ir o r d in a r y so lidity ; th e y m ove behir..
gauze; they are tyred in velvet; their voices are muted; the:
m o vem ent is in slow m otion. W h atev er is new and vulgo
an d foolish contrives to lose itself in the d enser p atch es »
mist. But all the glim pses of a n c ie n t loveliness are ther*
perfectly framed and lighted: round every corner somebod
is whispering a line or two of Chaucer. And on these mor
ings, the river is sim ply not true: th e re is no g e o g ra p h
n o th in g b u t p u re poetry, down there; the w ater has got
and shapes out of an adventurous dream drift by on a tide
g ild e d an d silvered air. Such is the C ity on o n e of the
mornings, a place in a Gothic fairy tale, a mirage, a vision.
(From “T h ey W alk in th e C n
by J. B. Priestley. Abridg*

116
XVII. Role-playing:
A gro up of guides sug gests possible sig h tseein g routes
about London (Moscow) to their office director. Each one
speaks in favour of h is /h e r su g g e stio n trying to con vince
both the director and the guides that the route is the best. In
the en d the participants of the talk choose the most a p p ro ­
priate route.
XVIII. Describe (in writing) a sight or a view that once struck you as
picturesque, beautiful or unusual.
The best essays may be read in class and then placed in
a wall paper, a special bulletin issued by the literary club,
etc.
N o t e : The text above may serve as a perfect example of such descrip­
tion.

XIX. Film: “Mr. Brown's Holiday.” Film segment 3 “In Dear Old
England" (Broadstairs). a) Watch and listen, b) Do the exercises from the
guide to the film.

STUDIES OF WRITTEN ENGLISH

III

The central idea of a paragraph is built up with the help


of larger units than key-words, that is with the help of so-
called topic sentences.
Topic sentence is a summarizing sentence of a paragraph.
Topic sentences can also be used to tie up a grou p of para­
graphs together holding the unity of a passage.
Generally the topic sentence comes first in a paragraph. It
helps to understand the text and begin writing, e. g. “N um er­
ous artificial languages have been carefully constructed and
some of them are still in limited use. In 1887, an artificial lan­
guage, Esperanto, was created. Esperanto has little grammar
^ d drew its vocabulary from all the European languages...”
[Prom “O ne Language for the W orld” by M. Pei). The writer
proceeds from a general statem ent to particulars.
117
O c c a sio n a lly th e topic s e n te n c e com es last, w hen the
writer wishes first to prepare his reader for the general idea
or a conclusion, e. g. “Y ou're like two friends who w ant to
take their holiday together, but one of them wants to climb
G re en la n d ’s snowy m ountains while the other wants to fish
off India's coral strand. O bviously it’s not going to work"’
(From “The Razor's Edge” by W. S. Maugham).

Assignments:
1. Read the passage “Introducing London" and mark paragraphs with
topic sentences. What central idea do they summarize? Where are the\
placed within the paragraph?
2. Find the topic sentence that holds the unity of the whole passage.
3. Mark the key-words that emphasize the main points of the informatior
about London.
4. Paragraph 8 includes the key-word “parks", develop it into a topic
sentence summarizing the central idea of the paragraph.
5. Write a paragraph describing the picture on pp. 114-115. Try youi
hand at various topic sentences that help to hold the unity of the paragraph

LABORATORY EXERCISES (II)


1. Listen to the text “Some More Glimpses of London."
2. Listen to the dialogue “Sightseeing”. Repeat the text in the intervdi
and record your versions.
Compare your version with the original and correct your pronunciatiui
mistakes if any.
3. Translate the sentences into English, check them with the key.
4. Listen to the text “Behind the Scenes". Discuss the text in class.
5. Listen to the “Sonnet Composed upon Westminster Bridge". Mar
the stresses and tunes. Learn it by heart.

CURIOSITY QUIZ TOR EAGERS


1. Why is the clock on the Clock Tower of the Houses of Parliame.
called “Big Ben"?
2. What is the “Cenotaph”? Where can it be found? What is the oriq<
of the name?
3. The security of the Tower of London is mainly the responsibility >
the Yeomen Warders or “Beefeaters" as they are popularly called. What
the origin of the word “Beefeater”?
4. What is the "Union Jack"? What does it look like? What is -
origin? Where and when can it be seen?
5. Name five of the numerous bridges which cross the Thames. Sh .*
them on the map of London and comment on their names.
6. What is "Soho"? Where is it situated? What are its peculiar featurt

118
U N IT F O U R

SPEECH PATTERNS

I. M other is hardly ever able to have a treat like that.

a) They are hardly ever able to go sightseeing.


O ne is hardly ever able to get tickets for this show.
W e are hardly ever able to talk to each other alone.
He was hardly ever able to catch the 6.30 train home.
b) You'll hardly be able to get to the British M useum to­
day before the closing hours.
She will hardly be able to get over her fear of heavy
traffic.

2. Father was afraid that Mother might take cold if


she came.

I th ou gh t that she might spoil her com plexion if she


went on smoking.
He said we might be late if the bus didn't come soon.
E dw ard h o p e d he m ig h t m e et th e girl a g a in if he
came every day to the street she lived in.
The policem an told the boy he m ight be run over if
he was careless when crossing the street.

It will never do to underline words in a library book.


It will never do to throw cigarette-ends on the floor.
W hy are you sh o u tin g at the top of your voices? It
will never do.
You have treated her very badly. Rudeness will never
do.
119
T he b o y said it w ould n ever do for a y o u n g girl to
use so much make-up.

4. That kept Mother busy for a little while.

At night I always keep my window open.


They never keep their door shut.
Keep your feet warm or you'll catch cold.
He kep t his room scrupulously clean.
She told the child an in te re stin g story to k e e p hin
awake.
K e e p in g th e ch ild w arm is n o t th e sa m e th in g
keeping him healthy.

EXERCISES

I. Paraphrase the following, using some of the patterns above:

P a tte rn 1: 1. It is not often that our m other go*


to the theatre. 2. It is not often that our students can listei
to native English speech. 3. She very seldom can afford t
get herself a new dress. 4. They cannot afford to spend the:
h olid ay at th e seaside. 5. He can never refuse h elp in g hi*
comrades.
P a t t e r n 3: 1. It is bad m anners to stare at peopl*
2. The teacher said it was impolite and rude to hand in horn;
work written carelessly. 3. “I say, Turner, I don't like the wc
you treat your comrades. It's too bad.” 4. My mother said th -
it was too bad to let her do all the work alone. 5. It is wicke ■
to hurt animals. 6. “You have come unprepared again. It is u:
pardonable," said the teacher.

II. Describe the following situations in one sentence, using Pattern 2

E x a m p le : In such cold weather it was easy for the child


catch cold, if he went for a walk. That was 11-
cause of the mother's fear.
The mother was afraid that the child might cat
cold if he went for a walk in such cold weath*
120
1. She w o rk e d v ery little d u r in g th e term , a n d it was
quite possible for her to fail at her examination. W e all told
her so. 2. It was hardly possible to let the boy stay at home
alone. H e could m ake tro ub le if he did. W e all knew that.
3. She w orked too hard, and her friends were afraid that it
would result in her falling ill. 4. The m other w anted the boy
to becom e a great pianist, and so she m ade him practise day
and night. 5. W e w anted to go an d see our sick friend, but
the d octor d id n 't allow that saying that there was a chance
of our catching the disease.

III. Supply adjectives:


1. It is dangerous to keep the windows ... during a th u n ­
derstorm. 2. She kep t her door ... and d id n 't let anyone in.
3. Put the lem onade in the refrigerator to keep it ... . 4. The
epidem ic was at its height, an d all the d octors of the town
were kept ... . 5. I put the tulips in the water to keep them ....
6. Keep your eyes ... and your m outh ... . 7. This fur coat is
sure to keep you ... in any frost. 8. W hat is the teacher to do
to keep his pupils ...?

IV. Translate the sentences into English, using the patterns:


1. H e годится оби ж ать младших, 2. Нам почти никогда не уда­
ется вы браться за город в выходной день. 3. Я говорила тебе, что
ты м ож еш ь заболеть, если промочиш ь ноги. 4. Не давайте п ац и ен ­
ту спать, пока не придет врач. 5. Н ехорош о пользоваться тел еф о ­
ном для глупых шуток. 6. Займ ите детей и не давайте им шуметь,
пока я разговари ваю по телеф ону. 7. В такой ж арки й день надо
держ ать окн а откры ты ми. 8. Н ельзя курить так много, ты подо­
рвеш ь свое здоровье. 9. Д ж он написал своем у другу, что он во з­
м ож но навестит его в следую щ ем году.

V. Make up dialogues or situations, using the patterns.

T E X T . HOW WE KEPT MOTHER'S DAY1


by Stephen Leacock
Leacock, Stephen (1869—1944) — a fam ous C anadian w riter of the
20th century. His stories, full of humour and sarcasm, expose the contra­
dictions of life in modern bourgeois society.

1 See Exercise 15, p. 431

121
Leacock says that the basis of humour lies in the contrasts offered tn
life itself, but *4he deep background that lies behind and beyond what wt
call humour is revealed only to the few who, by instinct or by effort, hav<
given thought to it."
So we decided to have a special celebration of M other *
Day. W e th o u g h t it a fine idea. It m ade us all realize hov.
m uch M other had done for us for years, and all the effort^
and sacrifice that she had made for our sake.
W e decided that w e'd make it a great day, a holiday fu*
all the family, and do everything we could to m ake Moth*'
happy. Father decided to take a holiday from his office,
as to help in celebrating the day, and my sister Anne and
stayed hom e from college classes, and Mary and my broth*
Will stayed home from High School.
It was our plan to m ake it a day just like X m as1 or an-
big holiday, and so we decided to d eco rate the house wit
flowers and with mottoes over the mantelpieces,2 and all the
kind of thing. W e got Mother to make mottoes and arrancj
the decorations, because she always does it at Xmas.
The two girls thought it would be a nice thing to dress >
our very best for such a big occasion and so they both
new hats. M o th er trim m ed both the hats, an d they look*'
fine, and Father had bought silk ties for himself and us bo>
as a souvenir of the day to rem em ber M other by. W e won
g o in g to get M o th er a new hat too, but it tu rn ed out the
she seem ed to really like her old grey bonnet better than
new one, and both the girls said that it was awfully b ec o r
ing to her.

1 Xmas fknsmas] an abbreviated form of Christmas. In England C.hr


mas day (the 25th of December! is one of the biggest holidays, d e v c
especially to family reunion and merry-making with its traditional Chi
mas tree and Christmas pudding
■mantelpiece; a structure of brick, wood or marble above and aroui
fire-place — an open grate where a coal fire burns. Most old English hom
h a \e no central heating Up to now a great number of flats are warmed
coal fires. Sometimes instead ol a coal fire a gas fire or an electric fire n.
be used, which is more convenient, as it can be lit in a second and tur:
off as soon as it is not needed

122
Well, after breakfast we had it arranged as a surprise for
p o t h e r that we would hire a m otor car and tak e her for a
beautiful drive away into the country. M other is hardly ever
able to have a treat like that, because we can only afford to
keep one maid, and so Mother is busy in the house nearly all
the time.
But on the very morning of the day we changed the plan a
little bit, because it occurred to Father that a thing it would be
better to do even than to take Mother for a motor drive would
be to take her fishing; if you are going to fish, there is a defi­
nite purpose in front of you to heighten the enjoyment.
So we all felt that it would be nicer for M other to have a
definite purpose; and anyway, it turned out that Father had
just got a new rod the day before.
So we got everything arran g ed for th e trip, and we got
M other to cut up som e sandw iches3 and m ake up a sort of
lunch in case we got hungry, th o u g h of course we w ere to
come back hom e again to a big dinner in the m iddle of the
day, just like Xmas or New Year's Day. Mother packed it all
up in a basket for us ready to go in the motor.
Well, w hen the car cam e to th e door, it tu rn ed o u t that
th e re h a rd ly se e m e d as m u c h room in it as we h ad s u p ­
posed.
Father said not to mind him, he said that he could just as
well stay home; and that he was sure that he co uld p u t in
the time working in the garden; he said that we were not to
let th e fact of his not having had a real ho liday for th re e
years stand in our way; he w anted us to go right ahead and
be happy and have a big day.
But of c o u rse we all felt that it w ould n ev er do to let
F ather stay hom e, esp ecially as we knew he w o uld m ak e
trouble if he did. The two girls, Anne and Mary, would glad­

3 sandw ich: two slices of b u ttered bread with meat, egg, ch eese or
tomato, etc. between them (cf the Russian бутерброд). The word has one
Wore meaning: a sandwich (or a sandwich-man, a sandwich-boy) is a man
ta lk in g along the street with two advertisemcnt-boards hung one in front of
him and one behind.

123
ly h av e s ta y e d a n d h e lp e d th e m aid g e t d in n e r, o n ly it
seemed such a pity to, on a lovely day like this, having their
new hats. But they both said that Mother had only to say the
w ord, an d th e y 'd g la d ly stay h om e an d work. W ill an d 1
would have dropped out, but unfortunately we w ouldn't have
been any use in getting the dinner.
So in th e e n d it was d e c id e d th a t M o th e r w o u ld sta \
home and just have a lovely restful day round the house, anc
get the dinner. It turned out anyway that Mother doesn’t cart
for fishing, and also it was just a little bit cold and fresh on
of doors, th o u g h it was lovely an d sunny, and F ath er w ai
rather afraid that Mother might take cold if she came.
So we all drove away with three cheers for M other, ant
Father waved his hand back to her every few minutes till h<
hit his hand on the back edge of the car, and then said th<-t
he didn't think that Mother could see us any longer.
Well, — we had the loveliest day up am ong the hills the.
you could possibly imagine.
It was quite late when we got back, nearly seven o'clock
in the evening, but M o th er had guessed that we w ould b
late, so she had kept back the dinner so as to have it just nio
ly ready and hot for us. Only first she had to get towels an
soap for Father and clean things for him to put on, becau^
h e alw ays g e ts so m essed u p w ith fishing, and th a t ко;
M other busy for a little while, that and helping the girls g*
ready.
But at last everything was ready, and we sat down to tb
grandest kind of dinner — roast turkey and all sorts of thin
like on Xmas Day. M other had to get up and down a go-
bit during the meal fetching things back and forward.
T he d in ner lasted a long while, and was great fun, a>
when it was over all of us wanted to help clear the things
and wash the dishes, only Mother said that she would rca'
much rather do it, and so we let her, because we wanted \
for once to humour her.

124
It was q u ite late w hen it was all over, and w hen we all
kissed M other before going to bed, she said it had been the
most wonderful day in her life, and I think there were tears in
her eyes. So we all felt awfully repaid for all that we had done.

VOCABULARY NOTES

1. to get (got, got) v t / i 1. доставать, добывать; to get


smb. sm th., to get sm th. for smb., e. g. I can get this book
for you. (I can get you this book.)
2. получать, e. g. Did you get (= receive) my telegram?
3. покупать, приобретать, e. g. The two girls got new hats.
4. прибывать, добираться, достигать, e. g. W e can n o t
get to Moscow tonight. It was very late when he got home.
5. приготовить, подготовить, обеспечить, e. g. It was
d ec id ed th at M other w ould stay hom e and g e t th e d in n er
( = get it ready).
6. заставить кого-л. что-л. сделать, добиться, чтобы
кто-л. что-л. сделал, е. д . W e got M o th e r to a rra n g e the
decorations.
7. становиться (as a link-verb), e. g. It was g ettin g dark
when we arrived at the station. I got very cold while waiting in
the street.
Syn. to become
to get sm th . done, e. д. I g o t e v e ry th in g a r r a n g e d in
time.
have got = have, e. д. I have got som ething to tell you.
I h av e n 't got the book y o u 're talking about (с/.: I have no
books by this author.).
N о t e: In modern conversational English the word com bination have
9°t in the meaning of иметь, обладать is used much more often than the
verb have in the same meaning, especially with a concrete object.
have got to do smth., e. д. I have got to ( = must) finish
tny work in time. It has got to be done.
to get back = to come back, e. g. At what time shall we
get back?
to get over a disease (fear, difficulties, grief, etc.), e. g.
Don’t worry, the child will soon get over his illness.

125
to get up and dow n, e. g . M o th e r h ad to g e t u p an d
down a good bit during the meal fetching things back and
forward.
to get on smb.'s nerves, e. g. Don't get up and down ev ­
ery minute, you're getting on my nerves.
2. to turn v t / i 1. вращать(ся), поворачивать(ся), вер-
теть(ся), е. g. At h e a rin g h e r v o ice I tu r n e d ( tu rn e d m>
head). The car turned the corner.
2. превращать(ся), изменять(ся) (into smth.), e. g. The w a­
ter in the pond turned into ice as the night had been frosty.
to turn away (from smb. or smth.) отвернуться (от)
to turn back повернуть назад
to turn in sid e out вывернуть(ся) наизнанку, e. g. M \
umbrella turned inside out in the wind.
to turn out оказаться, e. g. He tu rn ed out a bad actor
T h e day tu rn e d out (to be) a fine one. It tu rn e d o u t tha*
there were no vacant seats in the bus.
as it turned out... = as it happened... как оказалось
to turn over перевернуть(ся), e. g. He turned over a page
He turned over in bed.
to turn up (по)явиться, прийти, e. g. W e expected him t
join us, but he never turned up.
to turn smth. upside down перевернуть вверх дном, pa •.
бросать, e. g. Someone has turned everything upside down 11
my drawer.
3. to treat vt 1. обращать(ся), обходиться, относиться; Г
treat smb. well, kindly, coldly, etc., e. g. Don't treat me as
I were a child. Better treat his words as a joke. You treat U
matter too lightly.
2. лечить; to treat smb. for smth. with smth., e. g. Wh
treated your child for scarlet fever? W hat m edicine are yo
treated with?
3. угощать чем-л. (перен. доставлять удовольствие); f*•
treat smb. to smth., e. g. ГИ treat you all to ( = I'll buy yo
some ice-cream . W o u ld n ’t you like him to treat you ( =
pay for y o u r ticket) to a b allet? 1 shall trea t m yself t<;
week-end holiday.
treat n 1. удовольствие, наслаждение, e. g. I've n e\
had a treat like that! W hat a treat it is not to have to get >

126
early! Every ch ance to listen to good music is a g reat treat
to her.
2. угощение
treatment n 1. обращение (с кем-л.), e. g. Her treatm ent
of the pupils is always kind and patient, (prep, “of” )
2. лечение, e. g. Have you heard of a new treatm en t for
pneumonia? (prep, “for”)
4. afford v t (быть в состоянии) позволить себе (usu.
with can, could, be able to)
smth., e. g. I can't afford time for
movies.
to afford
to do smth., e. g. Can you afford to go
away for a holiday?
5. to keep (kept, kept) v t/i 1. держать (в разных смыслах):
а) хранить, е. g. She always keeps old letters.; b) задержать,
не отдавать, e. g. You m ay keep the book, I d o n 't w ant it
yet.; с) (с) держать (слово и т. п.), е. g. Не always keeps his
prom ise.; d) содержать, e. g. Mr. W a tso n had a wife an d
family to keep.; e) задержать, заставить ждать, e. g. I'm
sorry I kept you waiting.
2. праздновать, справлять, e. g. “How W e Kept M other's
Day”; She always keeps her birthday.
to keep sm th. + adj., e. g. This work k ep t the children
busy. You must keep your feet warm.
to keep to smth., e. g. Keep to the diet. Let's keep to the
middle of the road.
to keep on doing smth., e. g. She kept on writing w hen 1
came in (not used of a state, but only o f activities. Cf.\ He kept
on standing up. But: He remained standing.).
to keep sm b. from d o in g sm th., e. g. It k e p t me from
joining you.
to k eep (sm th.) back, e. g. T h e y o u n g m an k e p t th e
crowd back. I'm sure he is keeping som ething back ( = not
telling all; concealing something). M other had guessed that
* e would be late, so she had kept back the dinner.
6. to occur vi 1. случаться, происходить, e. g. Such inci­
dents occur every day. It must never occur again.
127
2. приходить на ум, е. д. It o cc u rred to me that so m e ­
th in g m ig h t be w rong w ith her. D id n 't it o c c u r to you to
close the window to keep the noise back?
7. to enjoy vi получать удовольствие, наслаждаться, e. g
I enjoyed the trip very much. I've enjoyed seeing you.
to enjoy oneself, e. д. I enjoyed myself at the concert last
night.
enjoyment л удовольствие, наслаждение
8. fun л 1. веселье, забава, развлечение, е. g. C hildren
are fond of fun. W h a t fun we had w hen we w ere together!
He is full of fun.
to make fun of высмеивать, подшучивать, e. g. H e's fonci
of making fun of people. Nobody likes to be made fun of.
to do smth. in (for) fun делать что-л. в шутку, е. g. I saic
it only in (for) fun.
2. предмет шуток, источник веселья, удовольствия
е. g. The party (your friend) was great fun.
funny adj смешной, забавный, e. д. I have a funny stop,
to tell you.

NOTES ON STYLE

1. In Leacock's story “How W e Kept M other's Day” ycr-


will find num erous words and phrases of informal functions
style (See Note A on p. 52), e. g. all that kind o f thing (cf. ttv
Russian «и все такое»), awfully (in “awfully b eco m in g ” , ci
the Russian «ужас как идет; потрясающе к лицу»), a littl
bit («чуть-чуть»), have a big d a y («здорово провести вр*
мя»), get m essed up («перемазаться, вывозиться в грязи»
the d in n e r ... was great fun («весело было за обедом»), etc.
N o te also the interjection well intro d u cin g som e of tlv
passages (which normally occurs in oral speech), the omi-
sion of the conjunction that and the syntax imitating thai *
oral communication by its free and careless structures.
2. The story presents an interesting exam ple of the inn
rect method of characterization. The author does not say г
rectly that the m em bers of the family w ere selfish, c a llo l
and hard-hearted people (that would be the direct method
128
ch a ra cte rizatio n ) b u t m akes them a c t an d lets th e re a d e r
draw his own conclusion.
3. “ How W e Kept M o th e r's D ay” is a h u m o ro u s story.
H um our in fiction may be of two principal types. It m ay be
hum our of situation w hen the author makes us laugh at cer­
tain funny or absurd facts, e. g . the m em bers of th e family
buying presents for themselves on M other's Day, but buying
n o th in g for th e ir m o ther. T h e re is also h u m o u r of w o rd s
when the reader does not laugh at what is happening in the
story b u t at how it is p u t by the author. E. g. But of course
we all felt that it would never do to let Father stay at home,
especially as we knew he would make trouble if he did.

ESSENTIAL VOCABULARY (I)


Words
afford v funny adj repay v
effort n get v sacrifice v , л
enjoy v guess v treat v, n
especially adv hire v treatment л
fetch v keep v trim v
fun n occur v turn v
purpose n unfortunately adv

Word Combinations
for smb.'s sake to get over smth.
to stay (at) home from college to take smb. for a drive
(classes, school) in case
to dress in o n e ’s best just as well
(worst) to stand (be) in smb.'s way
for such an occasion to make trouble
to turn out to be no use
in the end to get on smb.'s nerves
to care for smb. (or smth.) to turn inside out
to keep back to turn over
for a little (short, long) to turn up
while to turn upside down
to get up and down for (in) fun
9®t to some place to make fun of smb.
129
E X E R C IS E S

1. Read Text of Unit Four and the Notes on Style and talk on the
following points (A. Grammar, B. Word usage, C. Style):
A. 1. W h ic h verbs u se d in th e te x t are m od al v erbs?
C om m ent on their m eanings and translate the sentences in
which they are used.
2. What are the meanings of the verbs to get, to m ake, to
keep, to take in the text? (Translate the sentences with these
verbs.)
3. Mother and Father are capitalized and used without a r­
ticles in the text. How would you use the words in reported
speech (oral and written)?
B. 1. in the phrases to decorate the house and to trim th(
hats we have two different equivalents of « украш ать». Whai
can be trimmed or decorated?
2. W e say in the morning [evening, afternoon), but in tho
phrase “on the very m orning of the d ay ” on is used. Why?
(C/.: on that evening, on the morning of his arrival.)
C. 1. Point out as many colloquial words and phrases a'-
you can find. Supply their Russian equivalents if possible
W hat is the au th o r's purpose in introducing so many unit-
of informal style?
2. Point out the passages which characterize the member-
of the family and their real attitu d e to the mother. W hat i -
the method of characterization used by the author?
3. W hich sentences or passages bear touches of h u m o u r'
Try to explain how the hum orous effect is achieved in eaci*
c ase. W h ic h ty p e of h u m o u r p rev ails in th e story ? (Se-
Notes on Style.)

II. a) Search the text for English equivalents of the phrases listed belo^
and write them in your exercise book:
отмечать (праздновать) Д ень М атери, не пойти в школу, одеи
ся по-праздничному (принарядиться), взять напрокат маш ину, по1
ти все время, на случай если .... мог бы с таким ж е успехом оста:*
ся дома, скоротать время, от нас бы не было никакой пользы, уш:-
бить руку обо что-нибудь, убирать со стола, хотя бы на этот p*i
о б ед продолж ался долго, ради такого случая, в такой чудесш .

130
день, повезти ее на м аш ине за город, вернуться домой к п разднич­
ному обеду, не так уж много места, не годится оставлять отца
дома, вы яснилось, что все равно..., махал ей рукой, сели обедать,
приносить и уносить что-л., мы чувствовали себя вполне в о зн а­
граж денны ми за...

b) Get the student sitting next to you translate half of the Russian
phrases into English (in writing) and check them with the key in your
notebook. Translate the other half yourself and ask your neighbour to cor-
iect your translation.

III. Translate in writing these passages. Compare and discuss different


variants of students' translation:
1. It occurred to Father that a thing it would be better to
do even than to take M other for a motor drive w ould be to
take her fishing; if you are going to fish, there is a definite
purpose in front of you to heighten the enjoyment. 2. Father
said not to mind him, he said that he could just as well stay
home; he said that we were not to let the fact of his not hav­
ing had a real holiday for three years stand in our way.

IV. Try your hand at teaching:


A. Preparation. Pick out from the text all the words with
the letter g in them. Classify them according to the way g is
pronounced and put them down in columns. M ake up a list
of words to illustrate the same rules.
B. W o rk in Class, a) Show the table to the class and let
the students com ment on it.
b) D ictate the w ords in class with on e s tu d e n t w riting
them on the board. Correct the mistakes on the board. (See
“Classroom English’*, Sections IV, VII, VIII.)

V. a) Write the words below in the Past Indefinite. Classify them into
two groups: one with the final r doubled, the other one with one final г in
tbe Past Indefinite.
b) Explain to the students when the final г should be doubled:
enter, occu r, offer, rem em ber, clear, refer [пТз:], ch eer,
bar, utter |4t3], star, prefer, stir [st3:].
131
VI. a) Write an outline of the text (see Ex. IX on p. 59). (The outline
may be written in the Present or Past Indefinite tenses.)
b) Discuss the outlines written by several students and choose the best
one. Improve it by using some variants from other students' works. Write it
down on the board and make the students copy it in their exercise books.
VII. Write two questions to each item of the outline: one should help
to reveal the contradictions between what the members of the family said
and did, the other (with a modal verb) — what they could or ought to
have done.
e .g . 1. Did the girls really think that their m oth er's old
bon net was “awfully beco m in g ” to her? 2. D on't you think
they should have bought som eth in g for their m other too?
(Make the students reason out their answers.)

VIII. Study the Vocabulary Notes and Essential Vocabulary (I) and
a) Paraphrase the following (in writing):
1. to make smb. do smth.; 2. to have smth. arranged; 3. to
recover after a disease; 4. to stand up and sit down; 5. to look
in the opposite direction; 6. to come to one's mind; 7. to a p ­
pear unexpectedly; 8. a great pleasure; 9, at last; 10. to be able
(to spend money on smth., etc.); 11. to continue to do smth.;
12. not to let smb. do smth.; 13. to conceal some fact; 14. to
enjoy oneself; 15. to love (take interest in); 16. for a short time;
17. to take a taxi; 18. to become dirty; 19. to laugh at (mock)
smb.; 20. to get other people into a mess.
b) Make up sentences with the phrases you have written.

IX. A word in one language may have different equivalents in another.


e. g. место — room, place
жертва — sacrifice, victim
приносить — fetch, bring

a) Look up the words given above in an English-Russian dictionary,1


find out the exact meaning of each pair of words and write sentences
illustrating the difference in their use.
b) Ask the students to translate the Russian variants of your sentences.

1 Use "New English-Russian Dictionary" («Большой англо-русский ело


варь»). Soviet Encyclopedia Publishing House, Moscow

132
X. Translate the sentences into English using Essential Vocabulary (I):
1. К акое удовольствие слуш ать ее пение! 2. П осле концерта д е ­
тей утощ али чаем с пирож ны ми. 3. Выключи радио, эта музы ка
действует мне на нервы. 4. Я повернула за угол и столкнулась л и ­
цом к лицу со своей подругой. 5. Почему нуж но п ереворачивать
все вверх дном, чтобы найти какой-то пустяк? 6. М альчика лечили
от кори, но оказалось, что у него скарлатина. ?. Д евочке н р ав и ­
лось, что с ней обращ аю тся как со взрослой. 8. О на не могла удер­
ж ать ребен ка от шалостей. 9. Мы п рекрасно провели время на пля­
ж е. Было очень весело. 10. Дэвиду не приходило в голову, что он
всех задерж ивает. 11. Детей нуж но приучать хорош о (kindly) о б р а ­
щ аться с ж ивотны м и. 12. Кто бы мог подумать, что она стан ет
талантливой актрисой! 13. Ах, вот как ты д ер ж и ш ь свое слово!
14. Ваш приятель — такой весельчак. — Да? П редставьте, мне это
никогда не приходило в голову. 15. Это случилось много лет назад.
Она, долж но быть, уж е забы ла обо всем. 16. Как весело играть в
эту игру! 17. Ш кольные товарищ и Роберта смеялись над его зел е­
ным костюмом. 18. Какая забавная шляпка!

XI. Retell the text following the outline (see Ex. VI, p. 132). Speak
about the contradictions between the words and the behaviour of the mem­
bers of the family;
e. g. ... T hey said, they realized w hat their m o th er had
sacrificed for their sake and w anted to thank her for every­
thing she had been doing for them. In fact, I believe, they
just w anted to make it a holiday for themselves. They stayed
at home ... etc.

XII. a) Translate these sentences into Russian.


I. W e may just as well dance now. 2. I would rather hire
a taxi. I'm very tired. 3. It will never do to punish the child
for what he has not done. 4. He never keeps people w aiting
if he can help it. 5. W e must keep him from making trouble.
6. T ake my gloves, they will keep your hands warm. 7. It's
no use trimming this old hat, it won't look better. 8. W e got
everything arranged for the trip by 9 o'clock. 9. W e got her
to believe our story. 10. The arrangem ents for the party will
keep me busy the whole day, I'm afraid. 11. You sh o u ld n 't
keep the children out after dark. 12. Keep the ticket if you
don't want to be fined.
133
b) Write sentences of your own using the phrases in bold type. Address
them to the other students who should reply them expressing their approval
or disapproval.

P r o m p t s : How nice (good, clever, bad, awful) of you


(him, her)! I d o n 't think you should have done it. Sure. But
th a t's n o t q u ite true. No w on d er. I am d e lig h te d at y o u r
idea.

XIII. Make up a conversation which took place after the day described
in the text between: the two girls, the two boys, the father and his son, the
mother and her friend, two neighbours. You may find the following openings
useful:

I say...; H onestly...; If you ask me...; You know w h at I


think...; T he p o in t is...; D o n ’t you a g re e that...; I m ust say
that...; Tell you what,..; Eventually.,.; Actually...; Definitely... .

XIV. Fill in prepositions or adverbs where necessary:

I. The dress is just wonderful. It is very becom ing ... you.


2. I h av e n 't seen you ... ages. How are you g ettin g ...? 3. I
liked th e c a k e you tre a te d m e ... . How do you m a k e it?
4. Turn ... the page and do Exercise 3. 5. He turned ... a very
goo d story-teller. I enjoyed ... his stories immensely. 6. W e
shall discuss the m atter ... our way home. 7. I'm sure you'll
get ... all the difficulties ... the end. 8. Pete d id n 't w ant to
ta k e his y o u n g e r b r o th e r fishing, he w as afraid th a t he
would be ... his way. 9. The students ... G roup 3 will help to
decorate the hall ... flowers an d mottoes. 10. The father had
prom ised to take the boys ... a drive ... the cou ntry ... S un­
day. But unfortunately the w eather changed ... the m orning
an d th ey had to stay ... home. 11. Celia waved her h an d ...
Lanny until the train was out ... sight. 12. ... such a big occa­
sion all the children were dressed ... their best. 13. W hen all
the things w ere packed ... a suit-case, it turn ed ... th a t my
ticket had somehow got there too, and I had to turn every­
thing in search ... it. 14. The children were allowed to
stay ... hom e ... school, as the m other's birthday was a great
occasion ... all the family.

134
XV. Translate the sentences into English, using Essential Vocabulary (I)
and Patterns 1-4;

1. У меня так много дел, что я просто не могу позволить себе


терять время. 2. Вот та сам ая шляпа, о которой я вам говорила. Я
уверена, что она очень пойдет вам. 3. Не могу себе представить,
как вы сум еете преодолеть все эти трудности. 4. Я не могла п озво­
лить себе купить такой дорогой подарок. 5. Я надеюсь, что мы ус­
пеем добраться до станции метро до того, как оно закроется. 6. С е­
годня я получила от него письмо. Он пиш ет, что у него м асса рабо­
ты и он почти никогда не м ож ет д аж е доставить себе такое удо­
вольствие, как сходить в кино. 7. Вы все время встаете и садитесь,
входите и выходите. Не годится работать таким образом. 8. Завтра
у нас вечер, и я хочу принарядиться по этому поводу. 9. Что-то
вы пало из м оей сумочки, вероятн о, авторучка. 10. Он, д олж н о
быть, все приготовил к отъезду. 11. Разве мог кто-нибудь подумать,
что она сказала это в шутку? 12. Н еуж ели ты не м ож еш ь заставить
ребен ка воврем я лечь спать? 13. Все сем ейство великолепно про­
вело время за городом, хотя героине дня приш лось остаться дома и
готовить обед. 14. Этот цвет тебе очень к лицу.

XVI. Review the text. Say a few words about the style and language of
Leacock's story. Be sure to touch on a) selection of words, b) syntax,
c) method of characterization, d) humour.

XVII. Try your hand at teaching.


1. Say what you would do in the teacher's position:
Jo h n 's first day in school went smoothly. On the second
day, a n o th e r child sat in the p lace Jo h n w anted. J o h n re ­
fused to sit in any of the v acant p laces and was given the
c h o ic e of sittin g dow n at a n o th e r p la c e or s ta n d in g . H e
chose to stand. His parents cam e to school several times in
th e n ex t few w eeks, very d is tre s s e d th a t all J o h n d id at
school was stand.
2. Practise your “Classroom English”.
Ask your pupils: a| to do Exercise XIV on p. 134 (written work); b) to
get ready with Exercise XVIII (orally).

XVIII. a) Translate the text below into Russian:


To me it has always seemed that the very essence of good
humour is that it must be without harm and without malice. I
admit that there is in all of us a certain vein of the old original
135
demoniacal hum our or joy in the misfortune of another which
sticks to us like our original sin. It ought not to be funny to
see a man, especially a fat and pom pous man, slip suddenly
on a banana skin. But it is. W hen a skater on the pond who is
describing graceful circles and showing off before a crowd,
breaks through the ice, everybody shouts with joy. To an orig­
inal savage, the cream of the joke in such cases was found if a
man who slipped broke his neck, or a man who went through
the ice never came up again. I can imagine a group of pre-his-
toric men standing round the ice-hole where he had d isa p ­
p ea re d and laughing till their sides split. If th ere had been
such things as a pre-historic newspaper, the affair would have
b ee n h ead ed up: “Amusing Incident. U nknow n G entlem an
Breaks Through Ice and Is Drowned” .
But our sense of hum our under the civilization has been
weakened. M uch of the fun of this sort of the thing has been
lost on us.
(From “Humour As I See It” by Stephen Leacock |

b) Discuss the following questions:

1. Do you agree with Leacock that good hum our must bo


w ithout harm and w ithout malice? 2. W h at purpose should
hum our serve? 3. Is Leacock right when he says that humour
has been w eakened under civilization? Does he really mean
it? 4. Do you a g re e to L e a co ck 's o p in io n th a t h u m o ro u s
sid es of life are rev ealed on ly to th e few who have g iv e r
thought to it? 5. Do you think that his story “How W e Kept
M o th e r's Day” an d the like may get p eop le to un d erstan d
their imperfections and try to get rid of them? 6. Is that stor\
tru e to life? 7. W h a t do you th in k is th e e ssen c e of good
humour?

LABORATORY EXERCISES (I)

1. Listen to the text “How We Kept Mother's Day", mark the stresst *
and tunes, repeat the text following the model.
2. Make your sentences less categoric by using the given model.

136
3. Write a spelling-translation test. Check it with the key. Check your
spelling with a dictionary.
4. Paraphrase the sentences using the given patterns.
5. Extend the following sentences.
6. Translate the given sentences. Check your translation with the key.
7. Listen to the text MBeing a Househusband". Find the English equiva­
lents of the given Russian phrases. Get ready to speak on the part of the wife.

II

T O P I C : MEALS

T E X T A. AN ENGLISHMAN'S MEALS

F o u r m e a ls a d a y a re se rv e d tr a d itio n a lly in B ritain:


breakfast, lunch, tea and dinner.
In many countries breakfast is a snack rather than a meal
but the English breakfast eaten at about eight o'clock in the
morning, is a full meal, much bigger than on the C ontinent.1
Some p eop le begin with a plateful of porridge b u t more
often cornflakes with milk and sugar. T hen com es at least
one substantial course, such as kippers or bacon and eggs.
Afterwards com es toast with b u tte r an d m arm alade or jam.
The meal is “washed dow n” with tea or coffee.
M ost British people now have such a full breakfast only
on S u n d a y m o rn in g s. O n w e e k d a y s it is u s u a lly a q u ic k
meal: just cornflakes, toast and tea.
English lunch, which is usually eaten at one o'clock, is
based on plain, simply-cooked food. It starts with soup or fruit
juice. English people sometimes say that soup fills them up
without leaving sufficient room for the more important course
which consists of meat, poultry or fish accompanied by plenty
of vegetables.

1 the Continent (remember the capital letter and the article): the main­
land of Europe, as distinct from the British Isles (the name is used by the
British)

137
A pple-pie is a favourite sweet, and English p u d d in g s ol
w hich th e re are very many, are an e x c e lle n t e n d in g to a
meal, especially in winter. Finally a cup of coffee — black
or white.
Tea, the third meal of the day, is taken between four and
five o'clock especially when staying in a hotel when a pot of
tea with a jug of milk and a bowl of sugar are b ro u g h t in.
Biscuits are handed round.
At the w e e k en d s afternoon tea is a very sociable time.
Friends and visitors are often present.
Some people like to have the so-called “high te a” which
is a mixture of tea and supper — for exam ple meat, cheese
and fruit may be added to bread and butter, pastries and tea
Dinner is the most substantial meal of the day. The usual
time is about seven o'clock and all the members of the fami­
ly sit down together. The first course m ight be soup. Then
com es the second course: fish or meat, p erh ap s the tradi
tional roast beef of old England. Then the dessert is served

138
some kind of sweet. But w hether a person in fact gets such a
meal d ep en d s on his housekeeping budget. Some people in
the towns and nearly all country people have dinner in the
middle of the day instead of lunch. They have tea a little lat­
er, betw een five an d six o'clock , w h en th e y m igh t have a
light meal — an omelette, or sausages or fried fish and chips
or whatever they can afford.
Then before going to bed, they may have a light snack or
supper — e. g. a cup of hot milk with a sandwich or biscuit.
T he ev en in g meal as we have said alre a d y goes u n d e r
various names: tea, “high tea**, dinner or su pp er d ep end in g
upon its size and also the social standing of those eating it.
(See: Potter S. Everyday English
for Foreign Students. Lnd., 1963)

TEXT A. AT TABLE

N i с к: I say, mum, I'm terribly hungry. I h av en't had a


thing all day. I could do with a snack.
M o t h e r : Why, you're just in time for dinner.
N i c k : No soup for me. I'd rather have beefsteak.
M o t h e r : Are you q u ite sure you w o u ld n 't like som e
soup? It tastes all right.
N i c k : There is nothing like steak and chips. I'll go and
wash my hands.
M o t h e r : How's the steak? I'm afraid it's underdone.
N i c k : Oh, it's d o ne to a turn, just to my liking. I d o n 't
like meat overdone. May I have another helping of chips?
M o t h e r : Yes, certainly. H and me your plate, please,
and help yourself to the salad. Just to see how it tastes.
N i c k : Oh, it's delicious.
M o t h e r : Shall I put some mustard on your steak?
N i c k : No, thanks, I d o n 't care for m ustard. I'd rath er
take a spoonful of sauce. Pass me the sauce, please.
M o t h e r : Here you are. Oh, isn't there a smell of som e­
thing burning?
139
N i с к: So there is.
M o t h e r : I've left the layer-cake in the oven.
N i c k : For goodness' sake get it out quick.
M o t h e r (co m ing back): Oh, Nick! How aw kw ard of
you to have spilt the sauce over the table-cloth. Get a paper
napkin from the sideboard and cover it up.
N i c k : I'm terrib ly sorry. I was q u ite u p se t a b o u t my
favourite cake getting spoiled.
M o t h e r : Don't worry. H ere it is, brown and crisp on
the outside. W hat will you have, tea or coffee?
N i с k: A cup of tea.
M o t h e r : Any milk? Shall I put butter on your bread?
N i c k : No, thanks. I can't see the sugar-basin.
M o t h e r : It's b e h in d the b re a d -p la te . H ave a b e tte r
look.
N i c k : I'm afraid it's the salt-cellar.
M o t h e r : So it is. In my hurry 1 m ust have left it in the
dresser.
N i c k : It’s all right. I'll get it myself.
M o t h e r : H elp yourself to the cake. T h e r e ’s n othing
else to follow.
N i c k : I've had a delicious meal.

TEXT C. IN THE DINING-HALL

— Let's go to the dining-hall. W e haven't much time left,


b u t we'll m anage it all right if you hurry. You tak e a place
in the queue and I'll see what we can get for dinner.
— All right. W hat is on the menu?
— C ab bage soup with meat, chicken soup with n o o d le s
and pea soup.
— I d o n 't know w hether I’ll have any. W h a t have th e \
got for seconds?
— Fried fish and mashed potatoes, beefsteak, bacon and
eggs.
140
— And for dessert?
— A lot of things. W e can have stewed fruit or cranberry
jelly or strawberries and cream.
— Then, I'll tak e c a b b a g e so u p with sour cream and...
Well, and w hat about som e starter? W e'v e co m pletely for­
gotten about it.
— As we are in a hurry I believe we can do w ithout it. I
never thought you were a big eater.
— N either did I. But I w ouldn't mind having som ething
substantial now.
— So we'll take one cucum ber salad an d one tom ato
salad. That'll do for the time being. I think I can m anage a
bit of fish-jelly as well and then chicken soup with noodles.
That'll be fine.

ESSENTIAL VOCABULARY (II)1

W ords

bacon л napkin л snack л


biscuit л noodle soup л sociable adj
bread-plate л omelet (te) л sour cream л
chips л pastry л starter л
cornflakes л pepper-box (pot) л (beef) steak л
cream л porridge л stewed fruit л
fruit juice л poultry л sugar-basin л
jelly л pudding л sweet л
jug л roast beef л table-cloth л
marmalade л salt-cellar л toast л
mustard-pot n sauce-boat л

1 Compare Essential Vocabulary given in this lesson with the first-year


vocabulary on the same topic
141
W o rd C o m b in a tio n s

to boil meat (potatoes, cabbage, to fry bacon, eggs, potatoes,


eggs, water, milk, etc.) fish (cod, perch, pike, h ad ­
to stew fruit (vegetables, meat) dock, trout, salmon)
crust of bread to ta s te g o o d (bad, d e l i ­
to sit at table (having a meal) cious, etc.)
(c/.: to sit at th e table writing to be d o ne to a turn (over­
a letter, etc.) done, underdone)
to have (take) smth. for dinner crisp toast
(for the first, second course, to help oneself to smth.
or dessert) to pass smth. to smb.
to butter one's bread (roll, etc.) to dine in (out)
to have a snack (a bite of food) it’s to my liking
to have another helping of smth. th e r e 's n o th in g lik e i c e ­
to roast meat (mutton, pork, cream (steak, etc.)
beef), fowl (chicken, duck, there's nothing else coming
goose, turkey), potatoes for a change

Study the meanings and use of these items of your Essential Vocabulary:

1. Food a n d M eal. Food is a general term for any th in g


th a t p e o p le eat: bread, m eat, fish, veg etab les, fruit, milk,
tinned goods, sweets, etc.
e. g. M an cannot live w ithout food. The doctor said that
the patient needed good nourishing food. W here do you buy
your food?
M e a l is a g e n e ra liz in g c o lle c tiv e te rm for b re a k fa s t,
lunch, tea, dinner and supper (с/, the Russian arch, трапеза).
e. g. How m any meals a day do you have? S upper is an
evening meal. I d on 't want any hot meal; I think I'll do with a
snack.
2. C o u rse is a d ish se rv e d at a meal; a p a rt of a m eal
served at one time.
e. g. D inner may consist of two or m ore courses. W hat
shall we take for our second course? Soup was followed by a
fish course.
3. To fry, to roast, to stew. To fry means “to cook (or bo
cooked) in boiling fat” . W e usually fry fish, potatoes, eggs,
bacon, pancakes, etc.
142
To roast means “to cook (or be cooked) in an oven or over
an open fire.” In this way we may cook meat (veal, pork), fowl
(chicken, turkey), etc.
To stew m eans “ to cook by slow boiling in a closed pan
with little water.” In this way meat may be cooked, also veg­
etables, fruit, etc.
4. Starter {pi -s) is a dish served before or at the b e g in ­
ning of a meal (it may be salad, fish, olives, soup, fruit juice,
etc.) Hors d'oeuvre (pi -s) is usually used on menucards.
5. O m elette is eggs b eaten to geth er with milk and fried
or baked in a pan. The English for яичница is “ fried e g g s” .
W e e a t frie d eg g s, s o ft-b o ile d eg g s, h a r d - b o ile d eg g s,
scrambled eggs, poached eggs, four-minute boiled eggs.
6. Porridge is a dish of o atm ea l or o th e r m eal (b u c k ­
wheat, semolina, millet, etc.) boiled in some water. Milk and
sugar or milk and salt are added to it.
7. Toast is sliced b re a d m ad e brow n an d crisp on th e
o utside by heating in a toaster. Toast is placed on a toast-
rack.
8. Chips are fried pieces of potato, often eaten with fried
fish.
9. Soft and strong drinks прохладительные и крепкие
напитки.
Soft drinks are lemonade, fruit drinks, fruit juice, etc.
Strong drinks are wine, liqueurs, brandy, vodka, etc.
10. Jelly is usu ally m ade by boiling fruit (cranberries,
straw berries, raspberries, gooseberries, cu rran ts, apricots,
etc.) and sugar. Something is added to make the mixture stiff.
11. M arm alade is a kin d of jam m a d e from o ra n g e or
lemon cut up and boiled with sugar.
12. Pudding is a very popular English dish. It is a thick
m ixture of flour, suet, meat, fruit, etc., cooked by boiling,
steaming or baking. There are many kinds of pudding. Some
of them are quite substantial and serve as the main course of
lunch or dinner. O thers are rather like sweet cake and eaten
for dessert.
143
E X E R C IS E S

I. Study Text A and


a) spell and transcribe English equivalents of the following:
(первый) завтрак, каша, корнф лекс, бекон, тост, мармелад, сок,
достаточны й, пудинг, компот; основательная (еда), ростбиф , омлет,
сосиски, сухое печенье.

b) give the four forms of the following verbs:


eat, fry, roast, accompany, fill, bring.

c) explain the meaning of the following phrases:


a full meal, plain food, a sociable time, a h ou sek eep in g
budget, to go under various names, social standing.

II. Try your hand at teaching:


A, Preparation. Write 15 questions about Text A. See to it
that a word or phrase from Ex. I is used either in each of your
questions or in answers to them.
B. W ork in Class. Ask your questions in class and correct
the students' mistakes (see “Classroom English” , Sections I,
II, III, VIII, IX).1

III. Study Texts В and С and


a) explain the meaning of:
deliciou s (about food), layer-cake, oven, napkin, a big
eater, done to a turn, seconds.

b) give the Infinitive of:


overdone, spilt, upset, mashed, stewed.

IV. a) Give a summary of Text В in reported speech.


E x a m p l e : T ext С is a talk betw een two friends in th<
d in in g hall of th eir Institute. T hey seem very hungry, b u t

1 O ne of the stu d en ts may ask questions, ano th er correct th e m is ta k e


after each question and answer.

144
they haven’t got m uch time left before the end of the break,
so one of them stands in the line, while the other reads the
menu. There is a rich choice of dishes in it but as they are in
a hurry th ey take only salads, fish jelly an d ch ick en soup,
w hich shows that they are obviously Russians: the English
are not overfond of soup, as you know.
b) Learn Text С by heart and recite it in pairs.

V. Study Essential Vocabulary II and the commentary to it and answer


the following questions:
1. W h a t k in d s of food do y o u know ? G ive as m a n y
n o u n s d e n o tin g food as you can. 2. W h a t m eals do you
know? 3. W h at dishes do you know? Give as many nam es
of dishes as you can. 4, W hat is understood by a “course” ?
W h a t a ttrib u te s m ay q u alify this w ord? 5. W h a t can b e
boiled? 6. Do we fry meat or do we roast it? 7. W hat is an
om elette m ade from? 8. W h at are cornflakes generally e a t­
en with? 9. W h at is the difference betw een fried po tato es
and chips? 10. W hat kind of meal is five o'clock tea in Eng­
land? Do you know o th e r nam es for this m eal? 11. W h at
kinds of fruit do you know? 12. Do we roast fish? W h at is
the way to cook it? 13. Do you ever have stew ed fruit for
dessert? 14. Do you usually have a starter before dinner or
do you do w ithout it? 15. W h ere do you have your meals
on weekdays and on Sundays?

VI. Fill in prepositions or adverbs where necessary:


1. T ak e a n o th e r h elp in g ... salad. 2. I th in k I'll tro u b le
you ... a se co n d cu p of tea. 3. Will you please pass ... th e
su g ar. 4. She is g o in g to m ak e som e fish so u p ... d in n e r.
5. M arm alade is m ade ... orange peel. 6. The egg is eaten ...
a sm all sp o o n . 7. T h e ir m eal c o n s is te d ... tw o c o u rse s.
8. W hat can you recom mend ... the first course? 9. The meat
is done ... a turn. 10. No sugar ... me, th ank you. 11. ... m id­
d a y p e o p le h av e th e ir m e als ... h o m e or ... th e c a n te e n .
12. C ustard is made ... eggs and milk. 13. The fish is just ...
my liking. 14, Evening meal goes ... various nam es ... Eng­
land. 15. I d o n 't tak e milk ... my tea. 16. H elp y ou rself ...
6 В. Д. Арпкии. II Ky|K- 145
som e pastry. 17. Broth is m ade ... boiling chicken. 18. Will
you please hand ... the salt-cellar? 19. W hat do you usually
order ... dessert? 20. The way to refuse ... a dish is ... saying
“No, thank you.’* 21. You may ask ... a second helping,

VII. Translate these sentences into English:


1. На завтрак подали корн ф лекс с молоком. Затем последовал
подж аренны й бекон. 2. Н евозм ож но представить себе английским
завтрак без тостов. Их нам азы ваю т маслом и дж емом. 3. Завтрак
часто едят наспех, так как все спеш ат. 4. О бед обы чно состоит и j
двух блюд. М ясное блюдо подается с большим количеством ово
щей. За ним следует компот. 5. Так назы ваем ы й «большой чай» -
весьма основательная трапеза. 6. Он всегда не прочь, как он в ы р а­
ж ается, «плотно закусить». 7. Ничего нет вкуснее зем ляники с»
сливками! 8. Биф ш текс вкусный? — По-моему, он недож арен.
А м не каж ется, он как раз такой, как надо. 9. Что ж елаете на втс
рое? — К акое-нибудь ры бное блюдо, как обычно. 10. Для меня ни
чего нет лучше ж арен ой картош ки, конечно, если она рум яная »*
подж аристая. 11. С колько вам кусочков сахара? — Благодарю вас
я пью чай без сахара. Ломтик лимона, пожалуйста.

VIII. a) Act out the dialogues below:


A. Inviting someone out
S.: Hallo, Bill, have you got any plans for this evening?
B.: No, really, no.
S.: Well, would you like to have a meal with me?
B.: Oh, well, I'm not sure I can manage that.
S.: T h e r e 's a n ice C h in e s e r e s ta u r a n t in tow n — thu
food's very good there.
B.: Oh, that sounds very nice, thanks.
S.: I'll call for you about 8, then.
B.: 8 o'clock. Fine, thanks.

B. Asking your friends to do you a favour.


J.: I'm just going shopping. Do you want anything?
М.: Are you going past the baker's by any chance, Jan ?
J.: Yes.
М.: Well, I w onder if you could get me fifteen D an is1
pastries.

146
J.: Fifteen? I can't imagine why you want fifteen.
М.: Well, I want to give everyone in the class one for tea.
J.: OK! I hope I'll get one of them.
М.: Of course, thanks a lot.
(Functions of English. T eacher's Book.
Cambridge Univ. Press, 1981}
b) Make up dialogues of your own using word combinations from the
texts.

IX. Ask your partner


1. A bout the dinner he usually has (time, place, dishes).
2. If he ta k e s any starter and w hat he likes for it. 3. W h a t
kind of soup he likes best of all. 4. W hat his favourite m eat
d ish e s are. 5. W h a t k in d s of fish he know s. 6. If he likes
stewed carrots. 7. W hat other stewed vegetables or fruit he
eats. 8. W h a t he w ants for dessert. 9. How m any lum ps of
sugar he takes with his tea. 10. If he prefers strong or w eak
tea. 11. W hat he usually does if he spills some liquid on the
table-cloth. 12. If he can cook any dishes. 13. About the way
he cooks meat (fry, roast, stew). 14. If he sometimes eats out.
15. If he prefers eating out.
X. Compose dialogues between a Russian and an English student
discussing a) English and Russian meals; b) their favourite dishes; c) where
each of them has his meals.

XI. a) Study the text:

Bread-and-Butter Pudding
Beat up two eggs and add to them one pint of milk and a
little flavouring. Butter the pie-dish and cut th ree slices of
bread-and-butter in fingers, removing the crusts. Put a layer
of bread in the dish, sprinkle with sugar and a few cleaned
currants or raisins, add more bread, fruit and sugar and then
pour over the milk and the eggs. Leave to soak for one hour,
then bake in a slow oven about an hour. Sprinkle with sugar
before serving.
b) Describe the way you cook your favourite dish. You may need some
verbs besides those in the text, such as mince, mix, grate, grind, chop,
sift, roll, bake.

147
XII. Try your hand at teaching:
A. P re p aratio n . Find 3 proverbs dealing with the topic.
Translate them and give their Russian equivalents.
B. W ork in Class. Get a member of the class to write one
of them on the blackboard. M ake an o ther stu d en t translate
it and give its Russian equivalent. Tell the class to think of a
short situation illustrating the proverb. Correct the mistakes.
(Look up the words you may need to do the exercise in class
in “Classroom English”, Section VIII.)

XIII. a) Read the text below and comment on it:

Tea
Britons drink a quarter of all the tea grown in the world
each year. They are the world's greatest tea drinkers. Many
of them drink it on at least eight different occasions during
th e day. T h ey drin k it betw een m eals and at meals. T hey
d rin k it w atch in g television. Jo in the Tea-V set! says on e
well-known tea advertisement.
(See: M usm an R. B ritain T o d ay . Lnd., 1974)

Ы What is the attitude towards tea drinking in this country?

XIV. Translate the following sentences:


1. «Сколько раз в день вы едите? — спросил врач. — Регуляр­
ное питание очень важ но для здоровья». 2. Он съел полную та р ел ­
ку каш и, хотя говорил, что совсем не хочет есть. 3. С егодня в
м еню есть м ясны е блюда, туш ены е овощи, сладкий пудинг, разны е
закуски и д аж е м орож еное с ф руктам и на десерт. 4. С колько вам
кусочков сахара? — Д остаточно двух. 5. Не хотите ещ е немного
салата? — Благодарю вас, мне достаточно. 6. Суп вкусны й? — Я
ещ е не пробовала, он очень горячий. 7. Вы сказали сестре, чтобь:
она принесла чистую посуду? 8. Вы какой лю бите чай — крепкий
или слабый? — Не очень крепкий, пож алуйста. 9. Что сегодня и-,
второе? — Ж а р ен а я ры ба с картош кой. 10. О бед подан в столовой
И . Тебе нам азать хлеб маслом? — Да, и вареньем. 12. У нас сегод
ня был легкий завтрак, и после прогулки мы проголодались. Был
бы неплохо сытно поесть. 13. Он наскоро поуж инал и принялся ^
работу. 14. О на лю бит к о н серви рован н ы е ан ан асы больш е, чс*-
свеж и е. 15. В этом доме гостей всегда угощ аю т соверш енно о с о ­

148
бенны м яблочны м пирогом (apple-tart). О н необы кновенно вкусен.
16. Ее м уж лю бит, как он говорит, вздрем нуть полчасика (tak e а
пар) после плотного обеда. — Это вредно для пищ еварения. Ему
бы лучш е пройтись с полмили. 17. Ты уж е накры ла на стол? — Н ет
ещ е. Не могу найти чистую скатерть.

XV. a) Study the text:

Pubs
For many British people, the pub is the centre of their so­
cial life. People from some countries find this rather shocking,
but for most people in Britain a pub is a place with a friendly
atm osphere where they can meet their friends and talk over a
drink — and often over a meal.
At lunchtim e you can often get sandwiches or a p lo u g h ­
m an 's lunch (bread and cheese). In the evening m any pubs
serve ‘basket meals* (especially chicken and chips served in
a basket) at the bar, and som e have restaurants w here you
can get a com plete meal.
It is qu ite normal for women to go into p u b s in Britain,
but like everybody else they must follow the licensing laws.
T hese are very com plicated an d control the tim e pubs are
allowed to open. (See “Approaches,” Cambridge 1979.)

b) Comment on the text adding some more information on the topic.

XVI. Make up dialogues:

Suggested Situations
A. Helen has invited some friends to a dinner party. She
has cooked all the dishes herself and proudly m entions the
fact. Her friends do not find everything quite to their liking,
b u t try not to show it. On the whole, every o n e is having
great fun.
B. An irritable husband is sitting at dinner and criticizing
his wife's cooking. He is trying to teach her the way this or
th a t d ish sh o u ld be c o o k e d th o u g h he know s v ery little
about it. The wife is doing her best to defend herself.
149
C. A hostess is treating a lady-visitor to a meal. The visi­
tor keeps repeating that she is on a slimming-diet, that she
never eats anything fattening and that, in general, she eats
like a little bird. Yet she helps herself to this and that very
heartily, till the hostess begins w atching the d isa p p ea rin g
food with some anxiety.
D. A slow waitress is taking an order from a hungry and
im patient client. All the client's efforts to order this or that
dish are refused on all kinds of pretexts: the pork is fat; the
b ee f is tough; they h a v e n 't g o t an y m ore p o ta to e s in th e
kitchen; the ice-cream has melted; the cook has a toothache,
etc.
E. Two very young and extrem ely inexperienced h o u se­
wives are advising each other as to the best way of feeding
their husbands. O ne of them is inclined to tak e the line of
least re sis ta n c e an d to serve on ly tin n e d food for all th e
meals. The other points out that tinned food alone will never
do and suggests other ways of solving the problem.

XVII. Brush up your table manners.


A. Answer the following questions and then check your answers by
comparing them with the answers below:
1. W hat is the correct way to sit at table? 2. Should you
use your fork or your knife for taking a slice of bread from
th e b re a d -p la te ? 3. How sh o u ld you g e t a slice of b re a d
from the plate standing on the far end of the table? 4. W hat
is the co rrect w ay of using spoon, fork and knife? 5. How
should you cut your meat? 6. W hat are the dishes for which
knife sh o u ld n ’t be used? 7. W hat is the way to eat chicken?
8. W h at is one supposed to do with the stones while eating
stew ed fruit? 9. W h a t sh ou ld you do with th e spoon after
stirring your tea? 10. W hat should you do if your food is too
hot? 11. W hat should you say to refuse a second helping?
12. W hat sh o u ld you say if you like th e dish very m uch?
13. W hat should you say if you dislike the dish? 14. W h at
sh o u ld n 't one do while eating? 15. W here should one keep
the newspaper or the book during a meal, on the table or on
one's lap?
150
В. Make up dialogues discussing good and bad table manners.
Use the material of Section A for questions and that of Section В for
answers.

Answers to Exercise XVII:


a) “ It tastes (really) fine” or “It is delicious.”
b) Never eat the stones (trying to be overpolite). N either
w o uld it be a goo d idea to d isp o s e of them by d r o p p in g
them u n d e r th e table, p la cin g them in y o u r p o c k e t or in
y o u r n e i g h b o u r 's w in e -g la ss. J u s t ta k e th e m from y o u r
mouth on your spoon and place them on your own saucer.
c) N ow here near the table. R eading at o n e 's m eals is a
bad habit; it is bad for your digestion and impolite towards
others sitting at the same table.
d) Sit s tra ig h t a n d clo se to th e table. D o n 't p u t y o u r
elbows on the table. Don't cross your legs or spread them all
over the place under the table.
e) Never lean across the table or over your neighbours to
get som ething out of your reach. Ju st say: “ Please pass the
bread.” O r “Would you mind passing the bread, please?”
f) N othing. Keep your impressions to yourself an d d o n 't
embarrass your hostess.
g) Fish dishes are generally eaten without using knife. If
o n e does, it is c o n s id e re d a serio u s b re a c h of g o o d ta b le
manners. The same refers to rissoles, cereal and, in general,
to anything that is soft enough to be comfortably eaten with
spoon or fork.
h) Neither. Your hand is quite correct for getting a slice
of bread for yourself. After all, it is you who is going to eat
it.
i) W h ile eating , on e sh o u ld p r o d u c e as little no ise or
sound as possible. It is decidedly bad manners to speak with
your m outh full. D on't put your bread in your soup. D on't
pour your tea in your saucer. Don't leave much on the plate:
it is im p o lite tow ards your hostess. If you have liked th e
dish, it d o esn 't follow that you should polish the plate with
your bread.
j) Don’t hold your spoon in your fist, do n't tilt it so as to
spill its contents. The fork should be held in your left hand,
the knife in your right.
151
к) It is w rong first to cut all the m eat you have g o t on
your plate in small pieces and then eat it. C ut off a slice at a
time, eat it, then cu t off another, holding your knife in the
right hand and your fork in the left.
1) “No more, thank you.”
m) C u t off a n d eat as m uch as possible by using y o u r
knife and fork; the rem aining part eat by holding the piece
in your hand by the end of the bone.
n) Never cool your food by blowing at it. Ju st wait a bit,
there is no hurry.
o) D o n 't leave y o u r sp o o n in the glass w hile drin k in g .
Put it on your saucer.

XVIII. a) Read and translate the following extracts:


1. Breakfast in the Jenssen hom e was not m uch different
from breakfast in a co u p le of h u n d red th o u san d hom es in
th e G re a t C ity. W a lte r J e n s s e n h ad his p a p e r p r o p p e d
a g a in s t th e v in e g a r c r u e t a n d th e s u g a r bow l. H e re a d
expertly, not even taking his eyes off the printed page when
he raised his coffee cup to his m outh. Paul Jenssen, seven
going on eight, was eating his hot cereal, which had to be
sw ee ten e d heavily to get him to to u c h it. M yrna Jen ssen ,
W alter's five-year-old daughter, was scratching her towhead
w ith h e r left h a n d w h ile sh e fed h e rs e lf w ith h e r rig h t.
M yrna, too, was ex p e rt in h er fashion: she w ould p u t th e
spoon in her mouth, slide the cereal off, and bring out the
spoon upside down. Elsie Jenssen (Mrs. Walter) had stopped
eating m om entarily the better to explore with her to n g u e a
bicuspid (коренной зуб) that seriously needed attention.
(From “The Ideal M an” by J. O'Hara)

b) Comment on the table manners of the Jenssen family and say what
you would do If you were the father or the mother
2. While Anna prepared herself to meet her class of forty-
six lively and inq u isitiv e c h ild re n h er la n d la d y was b u sy
preparing the high tea for her husband and the new lodger.
She had screwed the old mincer to the kitchen table and
now fed it with rath er to ug h strips of beef, th e rem ains of
the Sunday joint. There was not much, to be sure, but Mrs.

152
F ly n n 's p in c h -p e n n y sp irit had b e e n ro u se d to m e et this
challenge and the heel of a brown loaf, a large onion, and a
tom ato on the table w ere the ing redients of the rest of th e
proposed cottage pie.
“ If I o p en a tin of b ak ed b eans,” said Mrs. Flynn aloud,
“th ere'll b e no need for gravy, I sh a n 't w aste gas u n n e c e s ­
sarily!” She pursed her thin lips with satisfaction, rem em ber­
ing, with sudden pleasure, that she had bo ught the beans at
a reduced price as “This W eek's Amazing Offer” at the local
g ro cer's. She twirled the h an d le of the m incer with a d d e d
zest.
Y esterday's stew ed apple, she th o u g h t busily, could be
served out with a little evaporated milk, in three individual
dishes. A ch erry on top of each w ould m ake a nice festive
touch, decid ed Mrs. Flynn in a wild burst of extravagance.
She straightened up from her mincing and opened the store
cupboard where she kept her tinned and bottled food. In the
front row a small jar of cherries gleamed rosily. For one long
minute Mrs. Flynn studied its charms, torn between opposite
forces of art an d thrift. V ictory w as a c c o m p lish e d easily.
“ Pity to o p e n th e m ,” said Mrs. Flynn, slam m ing th e c u p ­
board door an d returned to her mincing. (From “Fresh from
the Country” by M. Reed)

c) Comment on the character of the landlady. Prove your statement.

XIX. Try your hand at teaching:


A. Preparation. Find some pictures and jokes on the to p ­
ic and p rep are to work with them in class. (See “Classroom
English”, Sections VII, VIII.)
B. W o rk in Class. 1. Tell a jo k e or show an d describe a
p ic tu re to th e class. 2. Ask so m e q u e s tio n s to se e if th e
listeners have grasped the m eaning of your story. 3. If you
want the students to use some new words write them on the
blackboard, translate them, practise their pronunciation (in
chorus) or usage (by making the students translate your sen­
tences from English or Russian). 4. Tell the joke or describe
the picture once more. 5. Make 1—2 students retell the joke
153
(describe the picture) or make up a dialogue on the subject.
6. Correct the mistakes after the student has finished sp e a k ­
ing. (See “Classroom English”, Sections IX, X.)

XX. Role-playing:
A rrange a tea-party (at hom e or in the canteen). Two of
th e s tu d e n ts are to act as host an d hostess, having som e
friends round (2 or 3 of them are English). T he main topic
discu ssed at the party is traditions c o n n e c te d with meals.
Each m em ber of the gro up must tell a short story, jo ke or
proverb to entertain the party.

XXI. Arrange short debates on the following questions:


1. Should we stick to our custom of giving our guests a
substantial meal? 2. How do you like the idea of celebrating
family holidays in a cafe or restaurant? 3. Are old traditions
worth keeping?

XXII. Film “Mr. Brown's Holiday". Film segment 4 “Making Friends a*


the Restaurant" (Brighton), a) Watch and listen, b) Do the exercises from
the guide to the film.

STUDIES OF WRITTEN ENGLISH

IV

R epeating key-w ords in different ways and using topic


sentences properly within a paragraph are not the only writ­
ing techniques. Good writing no matter w hether you are do
scribing, narrating, arguing, or explaining should be well or
ganized; that is, it sh ou ld be u n d er control of the centra:
idea of the topic. Before starting to write any piece of pro.->e
you should organize your thoughts around a topic, you mus
have a plan or an outline.
Plan is a list of points w hich you in ten d to dev elop p
your writing in logical order or in order of im portance wiP
reference to time, to point of view and to situation.

154
N o t e : The words "plan" and “outline” are som etim es used w ithout
sense discrimination. But it is better to use “plan” when the com position
is not yet w ritten or planning is made by the author. The word “o u tlin e”
is used rather when dealing with a work already written by someone else.
The best way to learn how to m ake a good plan of your
writing is to learn how to make an outline of original pieces of
prose. There are different ways of writing an outline. It can be
expressed in: 1) key-words or brief topic phrases (topic o u t­
line); 2) com plete sentences (sentence outline); 3) groups of
sentences containing the topic or main idea (paragraph o u t­
line). The choice d ep en d s on the length and com plexity of
the writing and experience of the beginner.

Examples: a) A sample topic outline of “A Day's W ait”.


1. A very sick boy of nine years old.
2. Doctor's visit.
3. Feeling the same.
4. Leaving the boy for a while.
5. The boy's talk about death.
6. Argument about temperature.
7. Relaxation and nervous breakdown.

b) A sample sentence outline of “A Day's W ait”.


1. The boy was shivering with fever, unw illing to go to
bed.
2. The doctor took the boy's tem peratu re and said there
was nothing to worry about.
3. The boy seemed detached and kept looking at the foot
of the bed.
4. The father went for a walk.
5. He cam e back an d found the boy still staring at th e
foot of the bed.
6. The boy was sure he was going to die.
7. The father explained the difference betw een the Fahr­
enheit and Centigrade thermometers.
8. The boy relaxed, but the next day he cried very easily
at little things that were of no importance.

155
Assignments:
1. Read the story “How We Kept Mother's Day'* and make a topic
outline of its contents.
2. Make a sentence outline of the story.
3. Make a plan of your narration about the people presented in the
picture (see p. 138).

LABORATORY EXERCISES (II)

1. a) Listen to the text “An Englishman's Meals”, mark the stresses and
tunes.
b) Repeat it in the intervals following the model.

2. a) Listen to the dialogue “At Table”.


b) Repeat it in the intervals following the model.
c) Learn the text by heart.
3. Answer the questions using the given patterns.
4. Make up sentences using the given patterns.
5. Write a dictation.
6. Paraphrase the given sentences.
7. Translate the sentences into English. Check them with the key.
8L Listen to the text “He Was Too Timid”. Get ready to give the summa­
ry in class.

CURIOSITY QUIZ FOR EAGERS

1. What is “Mother's Day”? Where and when is it celebrated?


2. What is a pub? What traditions are connected with it?
3. What is a bank holiday in Britain?
4. Describe some traditions or customs connected with family or public
holidays in England.
5. What do the terms “Welsh Rabbit”, “Pancake Day” and “Dutch
Treat" mean?
6. Find a story (an essay) or a passage in a novel by an English <>:
American writer describing a meal. Give its summary in class.
U N IT FIVE

SPEECH PATTERNS

1. I was sure to be put down in class next to the girl.


and she would whisper and giggle.

T he c h ild re n always cam e to see their g ra n d m o th e r on


Sundays, and she would give them delicious pastries.
W hen asked this question, he would smile and say n oth­
ing.
W hen people met him in the street they would turn away
and pretend not to know him.

2. Ju d y said she didn't know that people used


to be monkeys.

a) They used to be great friends.


There used to be a telephone-booth round the corner.
I used to know him. Used you to know him?
b) He used to travel by plane. Use(d)n't he? or Didn't
he? (colloq.)
He used to work late at night.
Did he use to work late at night? (colloq.)
Ju dy 's fellow-students used to laugh at her ignorance.

3. I'm not used to receiving presents.

She was not used to being treated unkindly.


It is too bad when a college student is not used to re a d ­
ing books.
T h e m o th e r was u sed to d o in g all the w ork a b o u t th e
house alone.
Our students are used to working with a cassette-recorder.
157
4. It was Judy who had to read plain books.

It was shame, not fear, that made her cry.


It was the last course that tasted especially good.
It was the mother who decorated the house and prepared
everything for the celebration.
It was my sisters who cooked all the dishes.

EXERCISES
I. Paraphrase the following using Patterns 1-3:
P a t t e r n 1: l.By the end of the working-day he usually
waited for her at the factory-gate and they went home togeth­
er. 2. The spring days were warm and sunny, and the children
spent much time out-of-doors. 3. W hen they sometimes asked
him about his college days, he always answered that he had
greatly enjoyed going to college. 4. The m other never co m ­
plained; usually she only sighed and went on with her work.
5. Her husband often came back home tired and angry; at ta­
ble he again and again found fault with the cooking. 6. W hen
we told the m other how good everything tasted, she always
said “H unger is the best sauce.”
P a t t e r n 2: 1. He was in the habit of saying that there
is no gam e like football. 2. She always left the dish es u n ­
washed in the kitchen sink and went away. 3. W h en he was
a stu d e n t he went to the library every o ther day. 4. M y
m other always m ade a splendid chocolate tart for my b irth­
day. 5. W hen I was a child, o u r family always w ent to the
seaside for sum m er holidays. 6. W h e n he was younger, he
was a pretty good dancer.
P a t t e r n 3 :1 . It's something new for me to be treated
in this way. 2. Being m ade fun of was som ething q u ite u n ­
usual for her. 3. It was not the first time that the doctor was
to treat this horrible disease. 4. I always work by such light,
it is normal for me. 5. The child was never refused anything and
coasidered it a normal state of things.
158
II. Make the following sentences emphatic using Pattern 4 as in the
example:
E x a m p l e : My friend told me everything about it.
It was my friend who told me everything about it.
1, D octor T em ple cu re d Mrs. G re e n e 's h u sb a n d of his
sto m ach disease. 2. Steve tre a te d them all to ice-cream s.
3. Her brother told us all about that terrible accident. 4. Your
rudeness m ade her cry. 5. My m other does the cooking for
all th e fam ily. 6. T h o se b o o k s m a d e a d e e p im p re s s io n
on him and decided his future. 7. This noise d oesn 't let me
concentrate on my work. 8. These students recited their own
poems at the last party with a great success.

III. Translate these sentences into English:


1. О н им ел о б ы к н о вен и е говорить, что лучш ее ср ед ств о от
нервны х болезней — труд. 2, Это мама, а не я, так красиво убрала
стол цветами. 3. Каж ды й раз, когда он приходил, он приносил мне
книги, которы е я долж на была прочитать. 4. Я не привы кла петь
перед такой большой аудиторией, но сегодня спою. 5. Его лечили
этим лекарством от ангины, а не от воспаления легких. 6. Раньш е
ты п р и ходи л дом ой гораздо п о зж е. 7. К аж ды й раз, когда ш ел
дождь, он чувствовал себя хуже. 8. Ребенок привык, чтобы с ним
о б р ащ али сь ласково. 9. Тебе, по-видимому, не н рави тся доктор
М арч? Но ведь именно он вылечил меня от этого уж асн ого кашля!
10. Время от врем ени он переворачивал страницу, делая вид, что
читает.

IV. Answer the questions; use would or used to.

N o t e : W hen the meaning is customary, repeated or habitual activity


in the past, used to or would are interchangeable, e. g. O ur teacher used
to give her students a written test every Thursday. She would read them a
story every week too.
For greater emphasis on the idea of past custom used to is preferable;
e. g. He used to watch a children’s program at that hour.
To express volition, or persistence referring to the past would is usually
used; e. g. Several times he tried to get away, but they would not let him go.

1. How often w ould you write a com position w hen you


w ere in th e n in th form ? 2. W o u ld y o u r te a c h e r s alw ays
159
co rrect y o u r com positions? 3. W h o used to h elp you with
your homework? 4. W hat would you do during the summer?
5. W here did you use to go for your vacation? 6. W hen you
were a child what did you use to do on Saturday afternoon?
7. W h a t w o u ld you u su ally do on Sunday? 8. W h e n y o u r
brother was younger, he used to play tennis, use(d)n't he?

V. Make up short situations (no more than two or three sentences) or


dialogues to illustrate Patterns 1-4.

VI. Search the books you read for sentences with these patterns (1-4)
to add up to your student's workbook; practise the best examples in class.

TEXT. A F R E S H M A N 'S E X P E R IE N C E
From ‘'D a d d y L ong-L egs” by J e a n W e b ste r
The book “ Daddy Long-Legs” by an American w riter Jean W ebster
(1876—1916) is a novel written in the form of letters. The author of these
letters, a young girt, Judy by name, writes them to her guardian, a rich man
whom she has never seen.
Judy was brought up in an orphan asylum where her life was hard. The
children were wholly dependent on charity. They were badly fed and had to
wear other people's cast-off clothes. Judy was a very bright girl and when
she finished school, her guardian sent her to college.
Judy feels very happy about it. She hopes to becom e a writer and pay
back the money spent on her education by her guardian. About the latter
the girl knows almost nothing: she knows that he is a very tall man. That is
why she jokingly calls him Daddy Long-Legs.
This text is one of her letters giving us a glimpse of her early college
impressions.

October, 25th
Dear Daddy Long-Legs,
C o l le g e 1 g ets n icer and nicer, I like th e girls an d th e
teachers and the classes and the cam pus2 and the things to
eat. W e have ice-cream tw ice a w eek and w e n ever have
corn-meal mush.

'■2 See notes, p. 161


160
T h e tr o u b le w ith c o lle g e is th a t you a re e x p e c te d to
know such a lot of things you've never learned. It’s very em ­
barrassing at times. I m ade an awful m istake th e first day.
Som ebody m entioned M aurice M aeterlinck,3 and I asked if
she was a freshman.4 The joke has gone all over college.
Did you ever h ear of M ichaelangelo? H e was a fam ous
artist who lived in Italy in the M iddle Ages. Everybody in
English Literature seemed to know about him, and the whole
class la u g h e d b e c a u se 1 th o u g h t he was an a rch a n g el. He
sounds like an archangel, doesn't he?
But now, when the girls talk about the things that I never
heard of, I ju st keep still and look them up in the en cyclo­
pedia. And anyway, I'm just as bright in class as any of the
others, and brighter than some of them!
And you know, Daddy, I have a new u n b re a k a b le rule:
never to study at night, no matter how many written reviews
are coming in the morning. Instead, I read just plain books —
I have to, you know, because there are eighteen blank years
behind me. You w ouldn't believe what an abyss of ignorance
my mind is; I am just realizing the depths myself.

1 college: a place of higher education both in the USA and in G reat


Britain. The oldest universities in Great Britain are Oxford and Cambridge
dating from the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, respectively; the largest is
the University of London. Admission to the universities is by examination
and selection. W om en are adm itted on equal term s with men, b u t the
general proportion of men to women students is three to one, at Oxford it
is nearly five to one, and at Cambridge eight to one.
A college is sometimes a part of a university. For instance the Universi­
ties of Oxford, Cambridge and London are composed of groups of largely
autonomous colleges. On the other hand a college may be quite indepen­
dent. There is a great number of such colleges in Great Britain (technical
and commercial colleges, colleges of art, etc.).
2 cam pus: the grounds of a school, college or university
3 M aeterlinck, M aurice (1862—1949): a Belgian poet and dramatist
4 freshman: (for both sexes) the same as the English fresher. First-year
students are called freshers only for about a month until they are used to
college (university) life.
161
I n ever read “ David C o p p e rfie ld ” , or “ C in d e r e lla ” , or
“lvanhoe”, or “Alice in W onderland” , or “Robinson C rusoe”,
or “Jane Eyre”. I did n ’t know that Henry the Eighth was m ar­
ried more than once or that Shelley was a poet. I d id n ’t know
that people used to be monkeys, or that G eorge Eliot was a
lady. I had never seen a picture of the “Mona Lisa” and (it’s
true b u t you w o n’t believe it) I had never heard of Sherlock
Holmes.
Now I know all of these th in g s and a lot of o th e rs b e ­
sides, but you can see how much I need to catch up.
November, 15th
Your five gold p ieces w ere a surprise! I'm not u sed to
receiving C hristm as presents. Do you w ant to know w hat I
bought with the money?
1. A silver watch to wear on my wrist and get me to reci­
tations in time.
2. Matthew Arnold's5 poems.
3. A hot-water bottle.
4. A dictionary of synonyms (to enlarge my vocabulary).
5. (I d o n 't m uch like to confess this last item, but 1 will.)
A pair of silk stockings.
And now, Daddy, never say I d o n 't tell all!
It was a very low motive, if you must know it, that
prom pted the silk stockings. Julia Pendleton, a sophomore,
co m es into m y room to d o g eo m etry , an d sh e sits cross-
legg ed on the couch and wears silk stockings every night
But ju st wait — as soon as she gets back from vacation, I
shall go in and sit on her couch in my silk stockings. You
see the miserable creature that I am — but at least I'm h o n ­
est; an d you knew already, from my asylum record, th at I
wasn't perfect, d id n ’t you?
But, Daddy, if yo u'd been dressed in check ed ginghams
all your life, y o u ’d understand how I feel. And when I sta rt­
ed to the high shool, I e n te re d upo n a n o th e r p erio d even
worse than the checked ginghams. The poor box.6

5 Arnold M atthew (1822 —1888): an English critic and poet.


6 poor box: a box (usually in a church) in which money may be placet:
to be given to the poor. Here things given as chanty (food, clothes, etc.).
162
You can't know how I feared appearing in school in those
m iserable poor-box dresses. I was perfectly sure to be pu t
down in class next to the girl who first owned my dress, and
she would whisper and giggle and point it out to the others.
To recapitulate (that's the way the English instructor b e ­
gins every other sentence), I am very m uch obliged for my
presents.
I really believe I’ve finished. Daddy. I've been w riting
this letter off and on for two days, and I fear by now you are
bored.
But I've been so excited about those new adventures that
I must talk to somebody, and you are the only one I know. If
m y le tte r s b o re you, you can alw ays to ss th e m in to th e
waste-basket.
Good-bye, Daddy, I hope that you are feeling as happy as
I am.
Yours ever, Judy.

VOCABULARY NOTES

1. b rig h t adj 1. яркий, светлый, e. g. T he leaves of the


trees are bright green in spring. Polished steel is bright.
2. умный, способный, смышленый, e. g. T here are sev­
eral bright pupils in her class. The boy had a bright face.
3. остроумный, e. g. Everybody was bright and gay at the
party.
b rig h t(ly ) a d v ярко, ясно, живо, остроумно, е. g. She
stood in th e d oo rw ay sm iling b rig h tly after him. T h e fire
Shines bright.
b rig h ten v i/t проясняться; придавать блеск, делать свет­
лее: улучшать, е. g. The sky is brightening. This w allpaper
will brighten our room. W hat can you do to brighten the life
of the sick man?
b rig h tn ess л яркость, блеск, живость ума

2. p lain adj 1. ясный, очевидный, понятный, е. g. T h e


m eaning of the word is quite plain, isn’t it? I like her plain
speech. She spoke plain English.
Syn. clear

163
2. простой, обыкновенный; гладкий, без рисунка (о тка­
нях), е. д. T hey like w hat they call plain food. She lo ok ed
very pretty in her plain white dress. She b ought a plain blue
material.
5yn. simple
N o t e : The difference in the meanings of the synonyms plain — clear
and plain — simple is so slight that we may often use one instead of the
other, e. g. plain (clear) meaning, plain (simple) food, plain (simple) man
Yet, there are some cases when only one of the two synonyms may be used
e. g. to speak plain English; to make a clear statement; to live a simple life,
to get a simple task.

3. некрасивый, e. g. He liked her plain, but honest face.


C/.: ugly некрасивый (безобразный)
3. blank adj пустой, незаполненный, as a blank sheet of
paper; a blank p age (form, etc.). Also fig., e. g. T here was a
blank look on her face.
blankly adv, e. g. She looked at me blankly. He sat oi,
the edge of the bed staring blankly before him.
blank л 1. пустое место, пропуск, в. д. Leave a blank
after each word. Fill in this blank.; 2. бланк, e. g. She bough!
two telegraph blanks.
N o t e : The Russian word пустой has several equivalents in English
1. пустой (незаполненный) blank sheet (page); 2. пустой (ничего н-
содержащий) empty room (box, bottle); 3. пустой (поверхностный) shallov.
person (ideas, interests); 4. пустой (незанятый) vacant room (house, flat).

4. ignorance л невежество; незнание, неведение


е. д. J u d y 's ignorance m ade th e girls laugh. He did it fron
(through) ignorance.
ignorant adj невежественный, не знающий, e. g. Th*
b o y has never b e e n to school and is q u ite ig n o ran t. I an
ignorant of his plans.
5. prompt vt. 1. побуждать, внушать, e. g. W hat prompto*
you to look for him in our town?
2. подсказывать; суфлировать, e. g. She'll prom pt you
you forget the words. No prompting, please.
prompt л, e. g. Aren't you ashamed to wait for a prompt
prompter n суфлер; подсказчик
164
6. re'cord vt 1. записывать, регистрировать, e. g. He re­
corded all the events of the day.
2. записывать на пластинку, на пленку, е. д. O n th e
very day of his arrival they recorded his speech.
'record л 1. запись, протокол, отчет; характеристика, све­
дения, е. д. A careful record was m ade of all those absent.
The b oy ’s school record leaves much to be desired.
2. гр ам м оф он н ая пластинка, e . g. H ave you g o t a n y
records of Bach?
cassette(tape)-recording n звукозапись, e. g. I'd rath er
make use of cassette-recording to review the material.
c a ssete (tape)-recorder n магнитофон, e. g. S om ething
has gone wrong with the cassette-recorder, it doesn't work.
7. point vt 1. показывать пальцем, указывать (to), e. g. He
pointed to the monument. The needle of the compass points
to the North.
2. направлять, нацелить (at), e. g. The boy pointed a stick
at the dog.
to point out smth., e. g. The teacher pointed out our mis­
takes.
to point out that, e. g. He pointed out that all the college
rules should be obeyed.
8. bore v t надоедать, докучать, e. g. Your friend bores
me.
to bore to death by smth. до смерти наскучить, e. g. I was
bored to beath.
bore л скучный, нудный человек, скучное занятие, е. g. I
don't want to see him again, he is such a bore.
boring adj скучный, e. g. This is a very boring book.
boredom л скука
9. excite vt 1. возбуждать, волновать, волновать, e. g. The
patient is very ill and must not be excited.
to be e x c ite d by, e. g. E verybody was e x c ite d by th e
news.
to get excited about (over), e. g. It's nothing to get excit­
ed about. Don't get excited over such trifles.
165
С/.: T here's nothing to worry about. She always w orries
about little things.
2. вы зы вать интерес (восхищ ение и т .д .) , e . g . T h e
newcomer excited everybody's interest.
excitin g adjr возбуждающий, волнующий, захватываю­
щий, e. g. W hat exciting news you've brought! I could hard ­
ly get over that exciting moment. She told such an exciting
story.
excited pp взволнованный
excitem ent л возбуждение, волнение, usu. to cause e x ­
citem ent, e. g. T he d ecisio n to keep M o th e r's Day c a u se d
great excitement in the family.
excitedlv adv, взволнованно
0

ESSENTIAL VOCABULARY (I)

Words
blank adj, n excite v item л
bore v, n excitement n plain adj
boring adj exciting adj point v
boredom n excited pp prompt v
bright adj excitedly adv 'record л
bright(ly) adv experience n re'cord v
brighten v freshman л recorder n
brightness n ignorance л sophom ore л
confess v ignorant adj

Word Combinations

the trouble with ... is that ... next to


at times to point out smth. (that)
to keep still every other (sentence, day, etc.}
you w ouldn’t believe what to be much obliged to smb.,
(how) ... for smth.
to be a surprise to smb. to be bored (to death)
to enlarge one's vocabulary to cause excitement
166
EX ER C ISES

I. Read the text and do the following (A. Grammar, B. Word usage):

A. 1. Search the text for passive voice constructions and


classify them according to tense groups. 2. Com pare the “i/-
clauses" used in the text and explain their meaning. 3. Iden­
tify the function of the -mg- forms used in the text. 4. Select
ex am ples to illustrate the co m p o u n d predicate. 5. Explain
w hy th e re is no a rtic le in with colleg e, from vacation, in
class.
B, 1. Explain the difference between the following words
used in the text: dictionary — vocabulary, giggle — laugh,
toss — throw, pair — couple. 2. Search the text for the verb
get, tran slate the sen tences. 3. W h at is the most favourite
word in Ju dy 's vocabulary? Would you recommend your p u ­
pils to use it?

II. Choose two or three paragraphs from the text of Unit Five for transla­
tion. Reason your choice and discuss possible variants of the translation.

III. Answer the following questions:

1. W hat did Ju d y mean by classes and cam pus? 2. W hy did


Ju d y mention ice-cream and corn-meal mush in her letter? 3.
W hat did J u d y think was the trouble with college? 4. W hat
jo ke had g on e all over college? 5. W hy did J u d y keep still
when the girls spoke about things she didn 't know? 6. W hy
d id n 't J u d y stud y at night, no m atter how many w ritten re­
views were coming in the morning? 7. In what way did Ju d y
want to catch up with the group? 8. W hat did Ju d y mean by
saying that she was at least honest? 9. W hat did Ju d y mean by
saying writing this letter off and on for two d a ysl 10. W here
had Ju d y studied before college? 11. W hy did Ju d y feel em ­
barrassed at times? 12. W hat did J u d y mean by blank years
and abyss o f ignorancel 13. What shows that the text was writ­
ten by an American writer?
167
IV. Write an outline of the letter. (Differentiate between significant and
insignificant events described in the letter. Leave out the insignificant
ones.)

V. Try your hand at teaching:


A. P re p a ra tio n . Search the texts of Units One, Two (I),
Three (I), Four (I), Five (I) for polysyllables1 with two stress­
es, practise their pronunciation.
B. W ork in Class, a) Pronounce distinctly each word fix­
ing the students' attention on the stresses.
b) M ake the students repeat the words after you.
c) Ask the stu d e n ts individually and co rrect their m is­
takes. (See "Classroom English", Section VIII.)

VI. Study Vocabulary Notes and translate the illustrative examples into
Russian.

VII. Explain (in English) what is meant by and give Russian equivalents
of:
A. blank wall, blank look, blank verse, blank sheet, blank
form, blank cheque, blank years, blank mind, blank face;
B. em p ty room, shallow interests, vacant house, shallow
girl, bright dress, bright face, bright child, bright eyes, igno­
rant person, incomparable bore.

VIII. Paraphrase the following sentences:


1. H e stared at her in u tte r asto n ish m e n t. 2. He opened
his eyes for a sho rt w hile b u t then lo st h is c o n s c io u sn e ss
ag a in . 3. A faint sm ile e n liv e n e d her face for a m o m e n t
4. There was a gap in my memory. 5. There are many in te re st­
in g item s in th e n e w s p a p e r tod ay. 6. T h e silk sto c k in g s
caused Judy's envy. 7. He used to be a capable pupil. 8. T h r
letter aroused great interest. 9. At times she felt very u n h a p ­
py. 10. The trouble with him is that he is a light-m inded per­

1 polysyllables: words of more than two syllables; they usually hav<


two stresses: the secondary (,) and the main () stress, e. g. .poly^syllabh
en, cyclopedia.
168
son. 11. This fruit is quite eatable, I'd say. 12. Your friend dif­
fers much from what he w as years ago.

IX. a) Write 20 questions about the second part of the text of Unit
Five using the following words and phrases:
1. Christmas present; 2. to be a surprise; 3. wrist; 4. to get
to (one's) recitations; 5. a hot-water bottle; 6. to enlarge one's
vocabulary; 7. to confess; 8. a low motive; 9. to do geometry;
10. to sit cross-legged; 11. a miserable creature; 12. to know
(from); 13. to be very much obliged for; 14. every other se n ­
tence; 15. to be bored; 16. to be excited about; 17. to toss into
the waste-basket; 18. to talk to (smb.); 19. at least.
b) Ask your fellow-students to give their responses.

X. Translate the following sentences into English:


1. Вы хорош о знаете свою роль или вам н уж ен суф лер? 2. К о­
нечно, у Дж уди были недостатки, но она по крайн ей м ере была
честна. 3. О на очень волновалась, так как им енно ее доклад был
первым. 4. Д евуш кам не разреш алось выходить с терри тори и кол­
ледж а после того, как колокол пробьет десять. 5. О ливер Т вист
воспиты вался в работном доме (w ork-house). С раннего возраста
детям приходилось много работать, одеваться в чуж ие обноски и
есть одну овсянку. Больш инство учителей, н евеж ествен н ы е люди,
очень ж е сто к о обращ али сь с детьми, 6. Не п одсказы вайте. О н а
зн ает урок и просто немного волнуется. 7. Вам нуж но заполнить
бланк и расписаться вот здесь. 8. П ростое белое платье Д ж ем м ы
очень шло ей. 9. К няж на М арья была некрасива, но улыбка, о св е­
щ авш ая ее лицо, была прелестна. 10. И рэн всегда одевалась про­
сто, но с больш им вкусом. 11. Глаза мальчика блестели от в о зб у ж ­
дения. 12. Д ж уди поняла свою ош ибку только тогда, когда ее по­
други. начали смеяться. 13. С веж ий воздух и простая пищ а — вот
что ем у нуж но сейчас. 14. Временами ей казалось, что она не см о­
ж ет вы нести такого горя. Но у н ее был сын, о котором надо было
за б о т и т ь с я . 15. Я е щ е н е п р и в ы к р а б о т а т ь с м а гн и т о ф о н о м .
16. Беда в том, что я потеряла билеты и не могу их найти.

XI. a) Retell the contents of Judy's letter in Indirect Speech.


b) Retell the contents of Judy's letter as her guardian might describe it
to a friend of his.
c) Describe Judy's first steps in college as Julia Pendleton might be
describing them to a friend of hers.
d) Give a summary of the text.

169
XII. Insert prepositions or adverbs where necessary:
1. The trouble ... the book is that it’s boring me ... death.
2. It will take m e ... least a m onth to c a t c h the group.
3. W hat did you buy ... the money you got ... your father? 4. I
need an alarm clock to wake me up ... time. 5, I've been writ­
ing the letter ... a n d two days, now I've finished it ... last.
6. I was perfectly sure to be p u t the desk next ... the girl
whom I didn't like to sit .... 7. His visit was a surprise ... me, I
didn't know he was ... town. 8. W hen I come ... some English
words which I d o n 't know I always look t h e m the dictio­
nary. 9. In his speech he pointed ... all the drawbacks ... our
work. 10. The drills on the English sounds bore me ... times,
but I know that they are very useful. 11. He helped me a l o t ...
my mathematics and I'm much obliged ... him ... it.

XIII. Revise Essential Vocabulary (I) and translate the following:


1. Вы долж ны догнать группу, как бы много ни приш лось вам
работать. 2. Он до смерти надоел мне рассказам и о своих приклю ­
чениях. 3. У него по крайней м ере пять ош ибок в каж дой к о н ­
трольной. 4. Вся беда в том, что у меня с собой только 50 копеек
Что я могу купить на эти деньги? 5. Как бы много новых слов ни
было в тексте, я все их смотрю в словаре. 6. Вы делаете ош ибки »
каж дом втором предлож ении. 7. Я не раз говорила Борису П етр о ­
ву, студенту второго курса, что, если он хочет вы держ ать экзамен,
ему надо больш е заниматься. 8. П редполагается, что все студенты
знаю т, когда начинаю тся экзам ены . 9. Трудно призн аваться в том.
что ты не прав, но он был вы нуж ден сделать это. 10. Я знаю , что
поступила плохо, но по крайней м ере я осознала, что мне не следо­
вало та к поступать. 11. Этот ж и вой , со о б р ази тельн ы й мальчик
очень понравился О ливеру, и они стали друзьям и. 12. Я вам п ри ­
знателен за помощь. 13. Вы долж ны читать больше, это п озволю
вам значительно расш и ри ть ваш запас слов. 14. Он см отрел ни
меня непонимаю щ им взглядом, как будто не слышал, что я говори»
15. С какой стати вам так волноваться из-за мелочей? 16. Учител*
указал на наиболее грубые ош ибки в диктанте, просто и ясн о о б ъ ­
яснил правила, которы ми нуж но пользоваться, чтобы и зб еж ать их
17. П одробно опиш ите свои впечатления от этой поездки. 18. Мн*
нравились в нем ясный ум и простая речь. 19. Что привело класс i
такое возбуж дение? — Волнующая для них новость: у них будг*
новы й учитель по геометрии. 20. О ни были когда-то хорош им и
друзьям и. П росто не могу себе представить, почему они поссорн

170
лись. 21. С тарик указал на картину, которая висела на п ротивопо­
лож ной стене.

XIV. Compose 20 sentences about the text, using modal verbs must,
con, may, ought, might with the perfect infinitive:
Models: a) J u d y ’s guardian must have (never) read her
letters (должно быть, (не) читал).
b) J u d y could have b o u g h t som e o ther things
w ith h er g u a r d ia n 's m o n e y (могла бы к у ­
пить...).
c) J u d y 's g u a rd ia n m ig ht have seen J u d y so ­
mewhere (он, возможно, видел ее...).
d) Don't you think that Ju dy 's guardian ought to
have answered her letter (ему следовало бы
ответить на ее письмо).

XV. a) Translate the text into Russian:


Dear Daddy Long-Legs,
You n ev e r an sw e r an y q u estio n s, you n ever show th e
slightest interest in anything I do. I haven't a doubt that you
throw my letters into the waste-basket without reading them.
Hereafter I shall write only about work.
M y re -e x a m in a tio n s in Latin a n d G e o m e try ca m e last
week. I passed them both and am now a Sophomore.
I cam e up a fortnight ago, sorry to leave the farm, b u t
glad to see the cam p us again. It is pleasan t to com e back
to s o m e th in g fam iliar, I am b e g in n in g to feel at h o m e in
college.
I am b e g in n in g chem istry , a m ost u n u su a l stud y . I've
never seen a n y th in g like it before. I am also tak in g logic.
Also history of the whole world. Also plays of William Shake­
speare. Also French.
I should rather have elected Economics than French, but
1 d id n 't dare, b ec au se I was afraid that unless I re-elected
French, the Professor w ould not let me pass — as it was. I
ju st m a n a g e d to sq u e eze th ro u g h the J u n e exam inatio ns.
But I will say that my high-school preparation was not very
9ood.
171
And here is news for you. I have begun to be an author. A
poem en title d “ From my T ow er” a p p e a rs in the F eb ruary
“M onthly” — on the first page, which is a very great honour
for a Freshman. My English instructor stopped me on my way
out of college last night, and said it was a charming piece of
work except for the sixth line, which had too many feet.
But som etim es a d readfu l fear com es over me th a t I'm
not a genius.
Yours truly,
Jud y
(From “ D a d d y Long-L egs” by J e a n W eb ster)

b) Comment on the letter above. Point out in what it differs from


Judy's earlier letters (see the text). Explain the last line of this letter. Is
Judy quite serious here?

XVI. Speak about Judy. Describe her as fully as you can. When pointing
out this or that trait in her character, give your reasons. (See the text of Unit
Five and Ex. XV.).

XVII. Compose dialogues and perform them in class:


1. between Judy and Julia Pendleton about Judy's guardian;
2. between two of Judy's fellow-students about Judy;
3. between Judy and the English instructor.

XVIII. Write a composition in the form of a letter describing some of


your (or your friend's) experiences as a fresher. Use words and phrases
from Essential Vocabulary (I). See also Judy's letter (Ex. XV).

XIX. Try your hand at teaching.


1. Say what you would do in the teacher's position:
Once, after having hastily w ritten an assignm ent on the
blackboard the teacher left the class alone for a few minutes
Upon her return she found several words on the blackboard
were circled with coloured chalk. At the bottom was written,
“Careless writing, please do over.”

2. Practise your “Classroom English”.


a) Every teacher is faced with the problem of keeping discipline in thi'
classroom. A teacher should know how to do it in good English. Describ*
the teacher's reaction in the following situation:
1) Ann is not paying attention.
2) Ted is standing up.
172
3) George — you can see only the back of his head.
4) Steve — finds it impossible to be silent for more than
a minute at a time.
5) Jenn y — is not looking at the blackboard.
6) Peter — is sprawled out across his desk.
7) Alison — is disturbing the girl sitting next to her.
8) Beth — is copying the answer from som ebody else.
9) Alan and Paul — are arguing about something.
10) Andy — the slowest and dreamiest boy in the class.
b) Play the part of a young teacher describing a lesson in a very unruly
class to his/her fellow teachers. (See “Classroom English”, Section VII.)

LABORATORY EXERCISES (I)

1. Listen to the text “A Freshman's Experience”, mark the stresses and


tunes, repeat the text following the model.
2. Paraphrase the given sentences.
3. Extend the given sentences.
4. Write a spelling-translation test. Check it with the key.
5. Translate the sentences into English. Check them with the key.
6. Listen to the text “Town and Gown”. Write the summary of the text.
Comment on it in class.

II
T O P I C : EDUCATION

Libraries full of books have been written on the education system in


Britain, but recently it has been changing considerably.
Compulsory education begins at 5, and children attend primary school
until they are 11. Normally the primary school is divided into Infants (5 - 7 )
and Juniors (7 - U)
At the age of 11 most children go to a com prehensive school w here
they stay until they are 16. In the past children went to different types of
secondary schools, but in most parts of the country everybody now goes
to a comprehensive
Some parents, who do not want their children to go to a comprehensive
pay to send them to a private school. The most expensive and prestigious
private schools are actually called public schools.

173
At the age of 16 people take their examinations. Most take General C er­
tificate of Education {G. С. E.). Ordinary Levels — normally called just ‘O ’
Levels. People take * 0 ’ Levels in as many subjects as they want to; some take
one or two, others take as many as nine or ten,
If you get good *0’ Level results, you can stay on at school until you are
18, in the Sixth Form. Here you prepare for Advanced Level Exams (‘A* Lev­
els). Again, you take as many of these as you want to, but most people take
two or three.
In case you pass your exams well you have a chance of going on to uni­
versity though this is not automatic. The number of people who study there
is strictly controlled. O ther types of further education are offered at poly­
technics and colleges of higher education. Polytechnics offer the chance to
study subjects in a more practical way, and many colleges of higher educa­
tion specialize in teacher training.1
(See: Johnson K. and Morrow K.
Approaches. Cambridge, 1979)

TEXT A. H IG H ER E D U C A TIO N A N D TEA C H ER


TR A IN IN G IN GREAT BRITAIN

N owadays teacher training in Great Britain is realized at


universities, polytechnics and colleges of higher education.2
S tu d e n ts w o rk in g for th e ir first d e g r e e at u n iv e rsity a re
called undergraduates. W hen they take their d egree we say
th a t th e y g r a d u a te and th e n th e y are ca lle d g ra d u a te s. If
they continue studying at university after they have g rad u at­
ed, th ey are called post-graduates. In general, the first d e ­
gree of Bachelor is given to students who pass examinations
at the end of three or four years of study.

1 Of the three universities are considered more prestigious and benefi­


cial. Their graduates have better chances of getting a job. Polytechnics are
usually formed on the basis of art colleges and colleges of technology.
They com bine science and technology, the arts, social studies m an ag e­
ment and business studies, law and other subjects.
2 From 1st August 1975 the system of teacher training in England is b e­
ing reorganized. All higher and further education outside the universities
including teacher training is being assimilated into a common system. A
number of the existing colleges of education are to be merged either with
each other or with other institutions of further education (polytechnics and
others).

174
F urther stu d y or research is required at the m odern u n i­
versities for the first post-graduate d eg ree of M aster, and at
all British universities for that of Doctor.
In Britain full-time university students (students who spend
all their time studying and have no other em ploym ent), have
three term s of about ten weeks in each year.3
U niversity teach in g com bines lectu res given by p ro fes­
sors, readers or lecturers,4 practical classes (in scientific su b ­
jects) and small group teaching in sem inars or tutorials.
The course of study for intending teachers is based upon
com pulsory and optional subjects.
T he P rogram m e u su a lly co n sists of th re e co re c o m p o ­
nents: School-based experience, Subject studies and E duca­
tion studies.5
T heory of E ducation is one of the m ain subjects. At the
end of th e first or seco n d year stu d e n ts are to m ake th e ir
choice as to the ag e-ran g e of children th ey wish to p rep are
to teach.
Ju n io r stu d e n ts go into schools for one d ay each w eek,
w atch in g ex p e rien ce d te ach e rs at w ork. T hey tak e p a rt in
the life of the school, help with games, societies or play pro­
ductions.
Senior students spend fifteen weeks on teaching practice.
They learn the use of different educational aids, audio-visual
facilities, observe lessons and take an active part in discuss­
ing them with a supervisor (tutor) on school practice.

3 O ther students who work during the day and study in the evening
are part-time students.
4 reader: a university teacher of a rank immediately below a professor,
lecturer: a person lower in rank than a reader who gives lectures,
especially at a college or university.
b By School-based experience teaching practice is meant {both “obser­
vation period" for junior students and block-teaching practice for senior
students).
By Subject studies a broad range of subjects is meant of which a student
is to choose two cores (the main subjects).
Education studies means essential knowledge of children, the curricu­
lum, the organization of schools and classes.
175
Exam inations are held at the end of each term. Final ex ­
am inations (or finals) are taken at the end of the course.
(See: Tibbits E. L. Exercises in Reading
Com prehension. Longman, 1974)

HIGHER EDUCATION

TEACHER I POLYTECHNICS I g
TRAINING I and some I r
AT COLLEGES , F. E. Colleges о
И|
GCE
AGE ’A’ Level Йш
18*
13 GRAMMAR SECONDARY All Two
3b
Sixth 8 e
17- ’ GCE

16-
'O'Levelm
SCHOOLS
(and
MODERN through tier
SCHOOLS
П
form
q[ ^
colleges!
I I «ud Technical
and
15- , CSE COMPREHENSIVE SCHOOLS
10 >.
Bilateral
14- Schools)

13-
. Iz
8 0 Middle
12- . 4Ш Schools
7 »
11 .
6
10-
S
9*
4 |
8-

7-
3 s JUNIOR . FIRST
2 INFANT SCHOOLS
6-
1
5-J
NURSERY SCHOOLS AND CLASSES

TEXT B. DIALOGUE

A n n: Hullo, Steve. Have you got a m inute?


S t e v e : Sure, yes. W hat can I do for you?
A.: I've read a num ber of books on the British system с
higher education b u t 1 can't m ake head or tail of it.
S.: Mm... no wonder. W hat's the problem?
176
A.: Q uite a lot of problem s. W hat 1 w ant to discuss is the
difference betw een a university and a college.
S.: It's like this, you see... The program m e is different. At a
university it is m uch wider. G reat attention is paid to scientif­
ic subjects.
A.: It sounds as though most people prefer a university.
S.: W ell... that rather depends.
A.: Speaking about universities I’m not q u ite clear ab o u t
tutorials there. W hat is a tutorial exactly?
S.: Oh, it's when students discuss topics with a tutor in very
small groups — usually there are not m ore than three or four
students and som etim es only one.
A.: I see... A nd com ing b ac k to co lleg es... I'm still not
terribly sure what a residential college is.
S.: Erm... It’s a co lleg e w ith a hall of re s id e n c e 1 on th e
sam e g ro u n d s as th e principal b uilding. In fact all th e s tu ­
dents live in hall.
A.: Really? and what about the teaching staff?
S.: A ctually th e m ajority of th e teach in g staff live th e re
too. But there are also quite a lot of non-residential colleges.
A.: And you studied at university?
S.: Yes...
A.: I'd like to find myself in that university. W hat was it
like?
S.: Well... a big grey building surrounded by trees.
A.: Beautiful?
S.: N o th in g very rem arkable. O f co u rse th e re w ere le c ­
ture halls, classroom s and a num ber of laboratories.
A.: Any facilities for sport and P. E.2
S.: Let me see... Yes... A gym nasium with changing rooms
and showers, a tennis court... W hat else... A playing field for
netball and football...

1hall of residence: a more modern term than hostel, used only of student
hostels (the abbreviated form hall, with no article, is widely used by students
in everyday situations). Hostel is a more general word (a nurses' hostel, a
factory hostel, a youth hostel, etc.).
2 P. E. = Physical Education.

7 В. Д . А л и к и н . II к у l**' 177
A.: I believe stu d en ts spend a lot of tim e together, d o n 't
they?
S.: Definitely. W e had students' societies and clubs.
A.: Am I right to believe that they are for those interested
in dram a and music?
S.: Q u ite... an d also politics, m o d ern lan g u ag es, lite ra ­
ture, science and athletics.
A.: Ah... that's w orth knowing.
S.: And what I'd like to add is that students them selves or­
ganize all those clubs and societies. T here is usually a S tu ­
dents' Council or Union.
A.: W ell S teve. T h an k s v ery m uch. Y o u 'v e b e e n m ost
helpful.

TEXT С . H O W T O GET A DEGREE

J.: W ell, A rnold, I rem em b er you said o n ce you w ere a


B. A. P erhaps you could tell m e how q u ick ly you g o t those
letters after your name?
A.: At university I studied history. It was a 3-year course
And after that I got a B. A. degree.
J.: B. A. stands for Bachelor of Arts degree, d o esn 't it?
A.: Yes, w hich rem inds me of my n eig h b o u r w hose son
had just got his B. A. A friend asked very seriously: “I s u p ­
p ose y o u r son will try to g e t an M. A. or Ph. D.” 3 n ex t to
w hich my neighbour answ ered: “N ot at all, now he is trying
to get a J-O-B.”
A.: Ah... he m eant a job! T hat's a good joke!
(See: E nglish 903, B ook 6. Lnd., 1978

3 Ph. D.: Doctor of Philosophy (title given to completion of any research


no m atter which subject you study)
178
ESSENTIAL VOCABULARY (II)

Words and Word Combinations

A. education system scientific subjects


com pulsory education an intending teacher
prim ary school optional
secondary school core com ponent (core)
com prehensive school school (teaching) practice
public school School-based experience
further education Subject studies
polytechnic Education studies
college of higher education (Theory of) Education
to specialize in main subject
teacher training age-range
deg ree junior students
undergraduate senior students
graduate play production
post-graduate educational aids
full-time student audio-visual facilities
part-tim e student visual aids
reader to observe a lesson
lecturer supervisor (tutor)
practical classes to hold exam inations
final exam inations (finals)

B. tutorial changing room


residential college students' society
non-residential college Students' Council (Union)
hall of residence С. a B.A., B.Ed., B.Sc., B.S.E.,
to live in hall B.S.M. degree (Bachelor of
principal building (the Arts, Education, Science,
Senate) Engineering, M edicine etc.)
teaching staff M.A., M.Ed (M aster of
Physical Education (P.E.) Arts, Education, etc.)
gym nasium (gym) Ph.D. (Doctor of Philosophy)

179
E X E R C IS E S

I. Study Text A and write English equivalents of the following words


and phrases. Transcribe them:
педагогическое образование (обучение учителей), политехни­
ческий институт, колледж высшего образования, степень, выпуск­
ник, аспирант, бакалавр, дальнейшее обучение, исследовательская
работа, магистр, студент дневного отделения, студент вечернего
отделения, лектор (2 words), практические занятия, будущий учи­
тель, быть основанным на чем-л., обязательный (2 words), факуль­
тативный, практика в школе, изучение основного предмета, ком­
плекс предметов педагогического цикла, педагогика, профилирую­
щая дисциплина, возрастная группа, студенты младших курсов,
постановка пьесы, студенты старших курсов, учебные пособия,
аудио-визуальные средства, посещать уроки, руководитель по пед­
практике (2 words), проводить экзамены, выпускные экзамены.

II. Write 15 questions on Text A, using new words and expressions in


each question. Ask your comrades to reply them. Summarise what you
have learned about the British system of higher education.

III. Study Texts В and С and write English equivalents of the following
words and phrases:
система высшего образования, практические занятия, колледж
с общежитием, колледж без общежития, общежитие (студенче­
ское), территория колледжа (университета), жить в общежитии
(о студентах), педагогический состав, лекционный зал, гимнасти­
ческий зал, раздевалка, студенческое общество, студенческий со­
вет, бакалавр гуманитарных наук, магистр гуманитарных наук,
доктор философских наук.

IV. Ask your fellow-students:


1. About the difference betw een a university, polytechnic
and co lleg e of hig h er ed u catio n . 2. W hy it is p referab le t<*
study at university. 3. W hat subjects the Program m e of a uni
v ersity is b ased u p o n . 4. W h a t you know ab o u t tutorial*
5. About the difference betw een a residential and a no n -res:
d e n tia l c o lle g e (university). 6. W ho lives in hall. 7. W ho'
room s can be found in a university building. 8. W h at spo:
facilities there are at a university. 9. W hat clubs and societies
are popular in British colleges and universities. 10. W ho run-
180
those clubs and societies. 11. W hat a B. A. is. 12. How quickly
one can get those letters before his name. 13. W hat a M. A. is.
14. W hich d egree is higher: M. A. or Ph. D.? 15. If it is easy
for a Bachelor of Arts to find a job.

V. Retell Text В in indirect speech using new words and word combina­
tions.

VI. Fill in prepositions. Ask the others to give their responses to the
given sentences so as to make up micro-dialogues:
1. ... G reat Britain the course ... study ... intending teachers
is b ased ... co m p u lso ry an d o p tio n al su b jects. 2. T h e P ro ­
gram m e usually consists ... th ree core com ponents. Do you
rem em ber w hat th ey are? 3. Are you go in g to sp ecialize ...
E ducation? 4. It is im portant ... a stu d en t to learn the use ...
d iffe re n t visual aids ... his b lo c k -te a c h in g p ractice. 5. My
school practice began w hen I was ... the first year. 6. ... our
departm ent exam inations are held ... the end ... each term; ...
each exam ination students are given several days w hich they
spend ... revising the material. 7. The English club organized
... th e stu d e n ts is c o n c ern ed ... e x tra -c u rric u la r activ ities.
8. Do you enjoy your lectu res ... T heory ... E ducation? Are
they supplem ented ... seminars?

VII. a) Retell Text С in indirect speech; b) act it out.

VIII. Speak about the English Department at your University (use


Essential Vocabulary on the topic).

IX. Make up dialogues, using Essential Vocabulary on the topic.

Suggested situations:
A. A R ussian s tu d e n t an d an E n g lish s tu d e n t a re e x ­
c h a n g in g in fo rm atio n on sy stem s of h ig h e r e d u c a tio n in
their countries.
B, Two students of the English departm ent are discussing
their co lleg e life. O ne of them is en th u siastic ab o u t ev ery ­
thing, the other is a dissatisfied grum bler and finds fault with
every little thing.
181
C. A student of the English departm ent is speaking about
the program m e and the course of study w ith a friend of his
(hers).
D. A strict father (mother) is d em an d in g an ex p lan atio n
from a son (daughter) after a failure in a college exam . The
so n is g iv in g all k in d s of lam e e x c u se s s p e a k in g a b o u t
“overcrow ded syllabus”, injustice of professors and bad luck
in general.

X. a) Read and translate into Russian:


Oxford
So this is O xford. As soon as we em erge into th e clean,
broad streets, there are signs enough that this is the ancient
seat of English learning. Gowns and m ortar b o ard s.1 Young
undergraduates in loose black thigh-length gowns. A g ra d u ­
ate's gown is generally of knee length and for cerem onial o c­
casions at least, has a hood lined in silk of th e co lo u r p re ­
scribed by the w earer's faculty.
O xfo rd 's m ain railw ay station is som e half a m ile to th e
w est of the area in which are clustered m ost of the colleges:
Q u een 's C ollege and U niversity C ollege, M agdalen C ollege
and quite a num ber of others.
All these together m ake up the University of Oxford.
T he central U niversity, in general, arran g es lectu res for
the w hole body of students in a particular subject and holds
exam inations and grants degrees; an individual college p ro ­
vides for residence and tutorials. G reat em phasis is laid at O x­
ford and C am bridge on w hat are called “tutorials”, in which a
D on2 gives personal instruction in his stu d y at least on ce a
w eek to students num bering not more than four at a sitting.
For a lover of old architecture, Oxford has m uch to offer.
M any of the colleges present a lovely picture of ancient pearl*
g rey walls, noble towers, p ic tu re sq u e g o th ic archw ays. AM
have grass law ns of velvet sm oothness w hich m ust be seen
to be believed, and many have, in summer, m ost magnificent
displays of flowers.
(A/ter “T he B ritish S c e n e ” by G e o rg e Bidw ell

1 mortar board: a flat-topped student's cap


2 Don: a college tutor who directs the studies of undergraduates
182
183
b) Argue the pros and cons of: 1. Tutorial system. 2. Students' uniform.
3. Residential colleges.

XI. Try your hand at teaching:


A. P reparation. G et ready for a talk on one of the follow­
ing topics:
1. H igher education in Russia.
2. H igher education in G reat Britain.
3. The Oxford University.
4. The C am bridge University.
5. T eacher training in G reat Britain and in Russia.
B. W ork in Class. Listen to the students' talk and say a few
w ords about the construction of each talk: its beginning, d e ­
velopm ent, conclusion, and the general balance of these parts.
Speak on w hat you think m ay surprise a Russian stu d en t
at an English University (Oxford, Cam bridge): a) program m e,
b) teaching m ethods, c) students' extra-curricular activities.
P r o m p t s : ! think (suppose, guess, believe, dare say)...;
Well, my opinion is that...; My view is that...; True, but...; You
may be right... but all the same...; I w ouldn't say that; But on
the other hand.

XII. Read the text. Comment on its content:

Students in Tents
T h re e sm all te n ts — tw o b lu e a n d o n e k h a k i — a re
pitched am ong trees on a hill above Sussex U niversity cam ­
pus. This w eek en d th ey are ‘h o m e ’ to th ree stu d e n ts w ho
cannot find a bed in the neighbouring town of Brighton.
T hey are an ap t symbol of an accom m odation crisis th at
is affecting th o u san d s of stu d e n ts th ro u g h o u t th e co u n try .
T onight 80 other Sussex students will bed down on m attress­
es on th e floor of th e university sen ate cham ber. It will be
the sixth — and probably final — night of a'p ro test o cc u p a­
tion!
In every m ajor city th ere are stu d e n ts on cam p b ed s in
nooks and cran n ies and o th ers ‘crashing* on th e floors of
friends' flats.

184
T he N ational Union of S tudents describes it as the worst
ever stu d en t accom m odation crisis! T he indications are th at
it is a foretaste of a massive problem.
U nless so m eth in g radical is done, th e c o n c ep t of a s tu ­
d en t having the right to go away to university m ay soon be
dead.
(See: Ttofi C., Creed T. S. E nglish in M ind. Lnd., 1982)

XIII. Speak on:


1. Your intentions as to your teaching career.
2. W h at you are going to do to b eco m e a h ig h ly -q u ali­
fied specialist.

XIV. Role-playing.
Work in two groups, one playing the university lecturers, the other
presenting students. Both groups are discussing one and the same exam.
Compare their versions and make your conclusion as to the difference in
approach:

Exam: English Literature.


Results: Dave Robertson — Sat
C harles H ope — Poor
Duncan Holmes — Good
D orothy Baird — Very Good
Jen n y Richards — Good

XV. Compose a short story to which the pictures on pp. 187-189


might serve as an illustration. Use prompt words and phrases listed betow:
physicist; theory of relativity; treading on air; full of sweet
rem iniscences;
cast a glance; a su d d en shock; com e to realize; a g u ilty
conscience;
first traces of fatigue; tired-out;
w ith a w et towel round his head; in frustration; a dazed
look; a tub of water; scattered all over; p eeping inside; puz­
zled;
strange visions; w elcom e cheerfully; arm-in-arm; a cane;
in a frenzy of enthusiasm ; leaning on; lunatic asylum.
185
186
188
XVI. Film “Mr. Brown's Holiday**. Film segment 5 “Is it Good to be a
Student?** (Chrichester). a) Watch and listen, b) Do the exercises from the
guide to the film.

STUDIES OF WRITTEN ENGLISH

A nother kind of w riting tech n iq u e th at helps to achieve


good results in w riting is sum m arizing the co n ten ts of w rit­
ten works.
Summary is a representation of the contents of com plete
w orks in brief. It is ex p ected to be ab o u t a sixth or a ten th
of th e original in length. It is easier to m ake a sum m ary of
stories, novels and plays which have a plot.
Plot is a system atic arran g em en t of ev en ts by m eans of
w hich the w riter builds up a m eaningful situation and shows
th e characters. U sually a plot consists of a good beginning,
a middle, and an end.
In o rd er to m ake a go o d clear sum m ary of a sto ry you
have to go through the following stages:
1. Read the story carefully so as to understand its plot.
2. M ake a list of all the points you find im portant. These
notes should be very brief, very much like the topic plan (see
the sam ple in Unit Four).
3. Using the list of points, write a rough draft of the sum ­
mary. You may paraphrase and modify topic sentences. This
will help you to rep roduce the contents of the story in your
own words.
4. After having w ritten a rough draft shorten it and write
a fair copy of your summary.
N o t e : Take care not to change the meaning of the original or add to it.
Your summary may follow the outline of the story in brief.

H ere is a sam ple sum m ary of “A D ay's W a it” (see U nit


Two).
A boy of nine fell ill. He was running a high tem p eratu re
(102°F). The doctor diagnosed the illness as flu. He said there
189
was nothing to worry about if the fever did not go above one
h u n d red and four degrees. T he boy lay still in the bed. H e
seem ed detached and was looking very strangely at the foot
of the bed. W hen th e father took his tem p eratu re again th e
boy asked him about the tim e he was going to die. He argued
with his father about the tem perature because when being at
school in France he learned from the boys that you c a n 't live
w ith the tem p eratu re of forty-four degrees. T he father reas­
sured him explaining the difference betw een the F ahrenheit
and C entigrade therm om eters. The boy relaxed after “a day's
wait**, though the next day he was still suffering from a n e r­
vous breakdow n.

Assignments:

1. Write a summary of the story uHow We Kept Mother's Day**. (See


Unit Four.)

2. Try to make a summary of Judy's letters. (Don't forget to make a list


of the most important points before writing a rough draft.)

3. Write a summary of the dialogue between Ann and Steve. (See


Text B.) Think of the best topic sentences introducing or/and completing
your summaiy.

LABORATORY EXERCISES (II)

1. Listen to Texts A and B, mark the stresses and tunes. Repeat them
following the model.

2. Listen to Text C. Mark the stresses and tunes. Repeat it following


the model.

3. Write a spelUng-translation test. Check it with the key.

4. Write a dictation. Check your spelling with a dictionary.

5. Translate the sentences and check your translation with the key
(written work).

6. Listen to the text "Cambridge". Write 15 questions to the text. Get


ready to discuss it in class.
190
CURIOSITY QUIZ TOR EAGERS

I. Test your "I. Q.’*1 and compare it to Judy's '‘abyss of ignorance". Say
what you know about:
1. Maurice Maeterlinck.
2. Micheleangelo.
3. "David Copperfield" and the author of the book.
4. “Ivanhoe" and the author of the book.
5. “Jane Eyre" and the author of the book.
6. "Robinson Crusoe" and the author of the book.
7. "Alice in Wonderland".
8. Henry the Eighth.
9. Shelley.
10. George Eliot.
11. Mona Usa.
12. Sherlock Holmes.

II. Give the names of humorists: a) you appreciate most of all; b) of


British or American origin; cl of world reputation.

1 1. Q.: Intelligence Quotient — a number indicating the level of a per­


son's mental development obtained by multiplying his mental age by 100,
and dividing the result by his chronological age, the latter generally not
exceeding 16.
191
U N IT SIX

SPEECH PATTERNS

1. I needn't have hurried.

Cf. You n e e d n 't g o th e re tom orrow . — You n e e d n 't have


gone there yesterday.
I n e e d n 't tell him that; he know s it. — I n e e d n 't have
told him that; he knew it already.
T he teacher n e e d n 't explain such sim ple things; th e pu*
pils know them . — T he teach er n e e d n 't have exp lain ed
such sim ple things; the pupils knew them.
You n e e d n 't ask th is q u e s tio n . — You n e e d n 't h av e
asked this question.

2. H e'd been talking more than usual.

You've com e later than usual.


O ur homework today is longer than usual.
Yesterday this actress played better than usual.
Tomorrow I am to get up earlier than usual.

3. He looked at me with those kind blue eyes o f h is.

I knew too well that charm ing smile of hers.


You n eed n 't repeat to me those lies of yours.
I really d o n 't know what to do with this naughty child ol
mine.
I d o n 't like that sharp voice of your friend's.
W ho said that? Of course, that dear husband of M ary’s.
192
E X E R C IS E S

I. Paraphrase the following sentences* using Patten 1:


P a t t e r n 1:1. W hy did you answ er this q u estio n ? It
was not m eant for you. 2. He spoke too long, it bored every­
body present. 3. There was no reason why she should get so
ex cited over a little th in g like that. 4. W as it n ecessary to
b o th e r su c h a b u sy m an w ith th is u n im p o rta n t q u e s tio n ?
5. W hy have you com e to m eet me? T here was no n eed for
you to bother.

II. Complete the following sentences, using the patterns:


P a t t e r n 2 :1 . Today she has b een answering her task
even b e tte r ... . 2. A re you ill? You are lo o k in g ... . 3. The
way to his office seem ed to him on that day ... . 4. He was in
love, and the sun seem ed to shine ... . 5. ... earlier th an u su ­
al. 6. The soup tastes even ... . 7. ... later than usual.
P a t t e r n 3 :1 . She ad d ressed us an g rily in th a t harsh
... . 2. Did you h ap p en to see that charm ing ... ? 3. I d id n 't
w ant to com e up to you, because you were so busy speaking
to that dear ... . 4. I d o n 't like the way she treats that m isera­
b le ... . 5. I wish 1 knew how I should b rin g up th is dear ... .
6. N o one an y lo n g er believes th o se . . . . 7. If I w ere you, I
should throw away these ... . 8. W ho could have done such a
thing but ...? 9. I have heard a lot about t h a t ... .

III. Translate these sentences into English:


1. Вам не нужно было приходить сюда так рано. Никто еще не
пришел. 2. Из-за этих своих тесных туфель она еле-еле шла. Мы
добрались до остановки автобуса позже, чем обычно, и, конечно,
автобус уже ушел. 3. В этот день Джуди была больна и чувствовала
себя несчастней, чем обычно. Она не поверила своим глазам, когда
ей принесли большую коробку с полураспустившимися розами —
подарок этого ее таинственного опекуна.

IV. Make up short situations to illustrate Patterns 1, 2, 3 (three situa­


tions for each pattern).

V. Make up dialogues, using all the patterns.

193
TEXT. A FRIEND IN N EED
by W illiam S o m erset M au g h am
(abridged)

Maugham, William Somerset (1874- 1965): an English writer. He achieved


a great success as a novelist with such novels as “Of Human Bondage”, “The
Razor's Edge” and others, as a dramatist with his witty satirical plays “O ur
Betters”, “The Circle”, etc., but he is best known by his short stones.
At the beginning of his literary career Maugham was greatly influenced
by French naturalism. Later on, his outlook on life changed. It became cool,
unemotional and pessimistic. He says that life is too tragic and senseless to
be described. A writer can't change life, he must only try to amuse his read­
er, stir his imagination. And this is where Maugham achieves perfection: his
stories are always fascinating. M augham 's skill in depicting scenes and
characters with a few touches is amazing and whether he means it or not his
novels, stories and plays reveal the vanity, hypocrisy and brutality of the
bourgeois society. So does the story “A Friend in N eed”. Burton, a prosper­
ous businessman, is not in the least concerned about the troubles and needs
of those who have failed in life. W ithout a moment's hesitation he sends a
man to death just because his presence bores him, and later on he remem­
bers the fact with a “kindly chuckle”. “Homo homini lupus est” is an u n ­
written law of the society Burton lives in.

“It's rather a funny story,” he said. “He w asn't a bad chap.


I liked him. He was always w ell-dressed and sm art-looking.
H e was han d so m e in a way, w ith curly h air an d p in k -an d -
white cheeks. W om en thought a lot of him. There was no harm
in him, you know, he was only wild. Of course he drank too
m uch. T hose sort of fellows always do. A bit of m oney used
to com e in for him once a quarter and he m ade a bit more by
card-playing. He won a good deal of mine, I know th at.”
Burton gave a kindly little chuckle. I knew from my own
ex p erien ce that he could lose m oney at b rid g e with a good
grace.
“ I s u p p o s e th a t is w hy he cam e to me w h en he w ent
broke, that and the fact that he was a nam esake of mine. He
cam e to see me in my office one day and asked me for a job.
I was rath e r surp rised . He told me th a t th e re was no m ore

194
m oney com ing from hom e and he w anted to w ork. I asked
him how old he was.
“Thirty-five,” he said.
“And what have you been doing hitherto?” I asked him.
“W ell, nothing very m uch,” he said.
I co u ld n 't help laughing.
“ I'm afraid I c a n 't do an y th in g for you ju st y e t,” I said.
“Com e back and see me in another thirty-five years, and I'll
see w hat I can do.”
H e d id n 't move. He w ent rather pale. He h esitated for a
m om ent and then told me that he had had bad luck at cards
for som e time. He h ad n 't been willing to stick to bridge, h e'd
been playing poker, and h e'd got trim m ed. He h ad n 't a p en ­
ny. H e'd paw ned everything he had. He co u ld n 't pay his ho­
tel bill and they w o u ld n 't give him any m ore credit. He was
dow n and out. If he co u ld n 't get som ething to do h e'd have to
com m it suicide.
I looked at him for a bit. I could see now that he was all to
pieces. H e'd been drin k in g m ore than usual and he looked
fifty. The girls w ouldn’t have thought so much of him if they’d
seen him then.
“Well, isn’t there anything you can do except play card s?”
I asked him.
“I can swim,” he said.
“Swim!”
I could hardly believe my ears; it seem ed such an insane
answer to give.
*“I swam for my university.” 1

1 to swim for one's university: to take part in swimming races held


between one's university team and some other teams.
Practically every school, college and university in Great Britain has its
own sports clubs, and there are various outdoor sports com petitions held
annually within each school, as well as between different schools, colleges,
and universities. These are, as a rule, attended by spectators drawn from all
sections of the public, and the Oxford and Cambridge boat races, in which
crews from these two universities com pete every spring on the Thames,
arouse national interest.
195
I g o t som e g lim m erin g of w hat he was d riv in g at. I'v e
known too m any m en w ho w ere little tin gods at th eir u n i­
versity to be im pressed by it.
“I was a pretty good swimmer myself w hen I was a young
m a n /’ I said.
Suddenly I had an idea.
Pausing in his story, Burton turned to me.
“ Do you know K obe?” he asked.
“ N o,” I said, “I passed through it once, but I only spent a
night there.”
“T h en you d o n 't know th e Shioya C lub. W h en I w as a
young man I swam from there round the beacon and landed
at the creek of T arum i. It’s over th ree m iles and it's rath er
difficult on acco u n t of the currents round the beacon. W ell,
I told my young nam esake about it and I said to him th at if
h e'd do it I'd give him a job, I could see he was rather taken
aback.
“You say you're a swimmer,” I said.
“I’m not in very good condition,” he answered.
I didn't say anything. I shrugged my shoulders. He looked
at me for a m om ent and then he nodded.
“All right,” he said. “W hen do you want me to do it?”
I looked at my watch. It was just after ten.
“The swim sh o u ld n 't tak e you m uch over an hour an d a
quarter. I'll drive round to the creek at half past twelve and
m eet you. I'll take you back to the club to dress and then we'll
have lunch together.”
“Done,” he said.
W e shook hands. I wished him good luck and he left me.
I had a lot of w ork to do th at m orning an d I only ju st m an ­
aged to get to the creek at Tarum i at half past twelve. But I
n ee d n 't have hurried; he never turned up.”
“Did he iunk it at the last m om ent?” I asked.
“ No, he d id n 't funk it. He started all right. But of course
h e 'd ru in ed his co n stitu tio n by d rin k and d issip atio n . The
c u rre n ts round th e b eaco n w ere m ore th an he co u ld m a n ­
age. W e didn't get the body for about three days.”

196
I d id n 't say anything for a m om ent or two, I was a trifle
shocked. Then I asked Burton a question.
“W hen you m ade him that offer of a job, did you know
h e'd be drow ned?”
He gave a little mild ch u ck le and he looked at m e w ith
those kind and candid b lu e eyes of his. He ru b b ed his chin
with his hand.
“ W ell, I h a d n 't g o t a v ac an c y in m y office a t th e m o­
m ent.”

VOCABULARY NOTES

1. to curl v t/i. 1. завивать(-ся), закручивать(-ся), e. g. She


has curled her hair. The old man was curling his long m ous­
tache.
2. виться, клубиться, e. g. Does her hair curl naturally or
does she curl it in curlers? T he sm oke from our cam p-fires
curled upw ards am ong the trees.
to curl o n e's lip презрительно кривить рот, e. д. I d o n 't
like the way she curls her lip when talking to me.
to cu rl up свертывать(-ся), e. g. T he child c u rle d up in
the arm -chair and w ent to sleep.
cu rlin g adj вьющийся (о волосах)
С/, c u rle d adj завитой an d c u rly ad j кудрявы й, e. g. I
d o n 't like curled hair. But: I liked this plum p cu rly -h ead ed
little boy.
cu rl n 1. локон, завивка; 2. все, что имеет ф орм у з а ­
витка, е. д. The girl had long curls over her shoulders. How
do you k ee p y o u r h air in cu rl? Soon we saw th e cu rls of
sm oke rise upwards.
2. to b re a k (broke, b ro k en ) v t / i 1. ломать(-ся), р азб и ­
в а т ь с я ) , e. g. H e fell a n d b ro k e his leg. W h o b ro k e th e
window? Glass breaks easily.
to b reak (sm th.) in tw o (three, etc.) разбить(-ся), разло­
м а т ь с я ), разорвать (-ся) на две (три и т.д.) части, е. д. The
m other broke the bread in two and gave each child a piece.
to b reak to pieces разбить(-ся) вдребезги, e. g. T he vase
fell and broke to pieces.
197
2. чувствовать себя разбитым (морально, физически), разо­
риться, usu. to be broken, е. д. Н е was com pletely broken as
the result of the failure of his business. She was broken after
her husband's death.
3. нарушать, as to break the law, a promise, o n e's word, an
appointm ent
A n t. to keep, e. g. She broke the appointm ent. = She did
not keep it.
to b re a k w ith sm b. or sm th. (old habits, traditions, etc.)
порвать с..., покончить с..., е. д. Не c a n 't break with his bad
habits.
to b re a k off п рекрати ть внезап н о [разговор, беседу),
е, g. W h e n she cam e in he b ro k e off. He b ro k e off in th e
m iddle of a sentence.
N o t e : No object after break off. Cf. in Russian: прекратить раэговор.

to b re a k o u t начинаться внезапно, вспыхнуть (об эпи­


демии, пожаре, войне), е. д. A fire b ro k e o u t d u rin g th e
night.
to b reak th ro u g h (smth.) прорывать (-ся), e. g. T he p arti­
sans broke through the enem y's line.
to break th e record побить рекорд
b re a k n перем ена, переры в (в работе, учебе и т. д.),
е. g. I feel tired, let's have a break. W e're w orking since nine
o'clock w ithout a break.

3. to stick (stuck, stuck) v t / i 1. приклеивать(-ся), накле­


ивать; липнуть; прикреплять, as to stick a stam p on a letter,
to stick a notice on a board. T hese stam ps w on’t stick. The
nicknam e stuck to him.
2. оставаться; держ аться, придерж иваться; стоять на
своем, е. g. Friends should stick together. You m ust stick to
your prom ise. T h o u g h Tom saw th at n o b o d y believed him,
he stuck to his words. Stick to business! (He отвлекайтесь!)
3. втыкать, затыкать; засовывать, е. д. T he girl stu ck а
flower in her hair. He stuck his hands in his pockets.
4. застрять, завязн уть, e. g. T h e sp lin te r stu c k in my
finger. The car stuck in the m ud. T he key stuck in the k e y ­
hole.
198
4. to drive (drove, driven) v t /i 1. гнать (скот); преследо­
вать (неприятеля)р е. д. Не drove the horses into the forest.
2. править, управлять (машиной, автомобилем), е. д. H e's
learning to drive.
3. ехать (в автомобиле, экипаж е), е. д. Shall we drive
hom e or walk?
N o t e : W ith reference to travelling on a bicycle, on a horse or other
animal the verb to ride is used, e. g. He jumped on his horse and rode away.
He rode over on his bicycle to see me yesterday.
to d riv e up (aw ay) подъезж ать (отъезж ать), e. g. W e
drove up to the house.
to drive a t (colloq.) клонить к чему-л., намекать на что-л.,
е. д. I could not understand w hat he was driving at.
to drive sm b. m ad сводить с ума
d riv e л катание, езда, прогулка (в автомобиле, экипа­
же), е. д. W e had a nice drive.
to go for a d riv e прокатиться, соверш ить прогулку в
автомобиле, е. д. Shall we go for a drive round the town?
d riv e r n шофер, водитель, машинист, as a b u s-d riv er,
tram-driver, taxi-driver, engine-driver

5. p au se л пауза, перерыв; передышка, е. д. T here was а


short pause w hile the next speaker got on to the platform . A
pause is m ade because of doubt or hesitation or for the sake
of expressiveness when speaking, singing, reading, etc.
Syn. break
to m ak e a p a u s e делать паузу, останавливаться, e. д.
The speaker m ade a short pause to stress his words.
to p a u s e v i д елать п ау зу , о стан авли ваться, e. g . H e
paused to collect his thoughts. He w ent on w ithout pausing.
Syn. stop
N о t e: to sto p is usually used when the action is not su p p o sed to
continue; to p au se is used when there is only a tem porary break in the
action, especially in speech or writing, e. g. He paused until the noise
stopped.

6. to nod v i / t 1. кивать головой, e. д. I ask ed him if he


could ring me up and he nodded. She n o d d ed to m e as she
passed.
199
Syn. bow
N о t e: to nod refers lo a quick motion of the head only, and is less
formal than to bow, which is a slower, formal bending, usually of the body
as well as the head, e. g. The servant bowed and left the room.
A n t. to shake one's head
2. дремать, клевать носом, e. g. She sat in the arm chair
nodding over her book.
nod л кивок, e. g. She p assed me w ith a nod. She gave
me a nod.

7. ruin n 1. гибель, круш ени е, р азо р е н и е, e .g . T h e


d eath of Davy's m other was the ruin of his hopes.
to bring smb. (smth.) to ruin разорить, погубить, e. g.
He brought his family to ruin.
2. развалины (often pi), руины, e. g. The ruins of Rome.
The enem y left the city in ruins.
ruin vt губить, разрушать, разорять
to ruin one's life (hopes, business, constitution), e. g. He
k n ew th a t he h im self h ad ru in e d h is life b y s te a lin g th e
money.
to ruin on eself разориться, e. g. T he fellow ru in ed him ­
self by card-playing.
ruinous adj разорительный, губительный, разруш итель­
ный

8. to rub v t / i тереть(-ся), натирать, e. g. T h e g y m n ast


rubbed his hands with talc. T he dog rubbed its nose against
my coat.
to rub sm th. dry вытирать насухо, e. g. He ru b b ed his
face (hands) dry.
to rub in втирать (мазь и т. д.), е. g. Rub the oil in well,
to rub off стирать (удалять с поверхности), е. g. Rub
the words off the blackboard.
to rub ou t сти р ать (написанное чернилами, каранда­
шом), е. д. She rubbed all the pencil m arks out.
to rub on e's hand s (together) потирать руки от у д о ­
вольствия, е. g. His m anner of rubbing his hands gets on my
nerves.
rub n, e. g. She gave the spoons a good rub.

200
9. v a c a n t a dj незаняты й, свободный; вакантный, пус­
той, е. д. The telep h o n e booth was vacant and 1 was able to
telephone at once. She gazed into vacant space.
N o t e : The Russian words свободный and пустой have different English
equivalents:
1. свободный m ay be tran slated by v a c a n t free, n o t e n ­
gaged, spare, loose.
v a c a n t m ean s “ not o c c u p ie d ," as a v acan t se at (room ,
house, flat); a vacant post (position); a vacant mind
free m eans “in d ep en d en t," as a free person; a free state;
free will
n o t e n g a g e d m eans “not o ccupied, not b u sy ,” e. g. You
are not engaged now, are you?
A n t. engaged, busy
Spare m eans “additional to what is usually n eed ed ," e. g.
I have sp are tim e today. I've g o t sp are cash ab o u t me and
can lend you 3 or 5 roubles.
loose m eans “ not tight or not fitting close," e. g. H e had
loose clothes on. All the window frames in my flat are loose.
Ant. tig h t
2. пустой has the following English equivalents: v a c a n t,
em pty, blank, shallow .
(See the notes to the word blank on p. 164.)
vacan cy n вакантная должность, e. g. W e have a v acan ­
cy on our staff. W e adv ertised for a secretary to fill the va­
cancy.

NOTES ON WORD-FORMATION

The verb to land was m ade from the noun land by m eans
of c o n v e r s i o n which is a very productive way of m ak­
ing new words in m odern English.
In conversion, a new w ord and the one from w hich it is
produced have the same phonetic shape but always belong to
different categories or parts of speech, so that verbs may be
produced from nouns or adjectives (e. g. to hand вручать; to
com b п ричесы вать; to p o c k e t класть в карм ан; to p a le
201
бледнеть), n o u n s from v e rb s (e. g. b re a k переры в; d riv e
поездка; find находка), etc.
T he other two m ain ways of w ord-building are a f f i x ­
a t i o n (or so called derivation) and c o m p o s i t i o n .
In affixation new words are produced with the help of af­
fixes (that is suffixes and prefixes), e. д.: beautiful, swimmer,
unbelievable.
In com position new words are produced from two or m ore
stem s, e .g .: classroom , wall new sp ap er, g o o d -fo r-n o th in g ,
blue-eyed, etc.

ESSENTIAL VOCABULARY (I)

Words

break v, n hesitate v ruin v, n


curl v f n land v ruinous adj
curled adj nam esake n shock v
curling adj nod v, n sm art (-looking) adj
curly adj pause v, n stick v
current n rather adv vacant adj
drive v, n rub v vacancy л
driver n

Word Combinations

in a way to break off


to be willing to do smth. to break out
to stick to smth. (smb.) to break the record
to be down and out to break with
to com mit suicide to curl one's lip
to drive at to curl up
on account of to drive up (away)
to be taken aback to drive smb. mad
to shrug one's shoulders to m ake a pause
to have bad (good) luck to rub one's hands (together)
to turn up to bring smb. (smth.) to ruin
202
EXERCISES

I. Read the text and do the following (A. Grammar, B. Word usage,
C. Word-formation).
A. 1. P ick o u t from th e te x t all th e irre g u la r v erbs an d
give th eir four forms. 2. Search the tex t for -m g-form s and
classify them acco rd in g to their functions in the sentences.
3. M ark all the cases of S equence of T enses in the tex t and
co m m en t on them (explain the rules). 4. S elect se n te n c e s
w ith the verb go used as a link verb; w hat other verbs can be
used in the sam e function?
B. 1. Pick out from the text words and phrases describing
appearance, 2. Tick off all introductory phrases used by Bur­
ton; use them in sen ten ces of your own. 3. Pick o u t all th e
sentences w ith the w ord rather and tran slate them into Rus­
sian. 4. Paraphrase all the sentences with the verb get.
C. 1. P ick o u t from th e te x t all co m p o u n d w o rd s a n d
identify their type. 2. C onstruct som e com pounds m odelling
them after well-dressed and smart-looking. 3. Search the text
for verbs and nouns formed by m eans of conversion.

II. Translate In writing three paragraphs from the text: 1) the first
paragraph, 2) the paragraph beginning with “He didn't move'* and 3) the
paragraph from “Swim!” up to “Suddenly I had an idea”.
Read the translation in class and discuss it with your fellow-students.

III. a) Transcribe these words:


handsom e, w ell-dressed, q u arter, ex p erien ce, lose, su i­
cide, pausing, current, aback, shoulder, drowned.

b) Transcribe and explain the rules of reading these words:


wild, rath er, curl, paw n, pass, co n stitu tio n , d issip atio n ,
beacon, question, half, vacancy, poker, trifle.

IV. Write twenty special questions about the text. In each question use
one of the phrases from Essential Vocabulary (I).

203
V. Fill in prepositions:
1. handsom e ... a way; 2. to know ... one's own experience;
3. He could lose m oney ... bridge ... a good grace. 4. to have
bad luck ... cards; 5. He did not want to stick ... bridge. 6. H e
was all ... pieces. 7. I understand what he was driving ... . 8. I
landed ... the creek of Tarumi. 9. ... account ... ; 10. He never
turned ....

VI. Study Vocabulary Notes and translate the illustrative examples into
Russian.
VII. Answer the following questions:
1. B urton th o u g h t th a t w hat he w as tellin g w as “ ra th e r
a funny story.” Do you also think so? W hy d o n 't you? W h y
did Burton th in k it funny? 2. W hat kind of m an was you n g
B urton? W h a t d o you th in k of his w ay of living? Do you
approve of it? W hy not? 3. W hy do you think young Burton
turned to his nam esake for help w hen he was ruined? 4. W hat
w as th e situ a tio n in w hich h e found him self? 5. W h a t did
Burton m ean by saying that his young nam esake was “down
an d o u t” ? th a t h e was “all to p ie c e s” ? 6. W h a t d id y o u n g
Burton m ean w hen he said that he “swam for his University” ?
7, O n what condition did Burton prom ise a job in his office to
his nam esake? W hat do you think of this condition? 8. W hy
did young Burton accept it? He knew he was not in good co n ­
dition, d id n 't he? 9. W hat happened to him? 10. Do you think
old Burton knew that his nam esake w ould be drowned? W hy
do you think so? 11. W hy did Burton send his nam esake to al­
m ost sure death? 12. W hat kind of m an do you think old Bur­
ton was? 13. W hy does the author em phasize w hen speaking
a b o u t old B u rto n his “ k in d ly c h u c k le ,” “ m ild c h u c k le ,”
“those candid and kind blue eyes of his” ?

VIII. Write an outline of the story. You may try three ways:
a) following the chain of true events; b) sticking to the story as told
by the author or c) building it up round the main idea of the story.
IX. a) Fill in different English equivalents of the Russian words з а н я т
and свободен (engaged, busy, occupied or vacant, free, spare):
1. As he was ... yesterd ay he c o u ld n 't join our com pany.
2. I tried to g e t him on the pho n e b u t the line was ... . As 1
204
was ... I decid ed to ring him up later. 3. Is the p lace next to
you ...? — No, it is ... . 4. W h en I e n te re d th e h all all th e
seats w ere ... and I could hardly find a ... seat. 5. W ill you be
... tom orrow ? Let's go to the country. — No, I'll be ... at my
office. 6. Let's find a ... classroom and rehearse our dialogue
there. — I'm afraid at this h o u r all the room s are su re to be
... . 7. H ave you an y ... tim e today? 8. At this late h o u r all
tax is will be ... . 9. I am young, h ealth y , an d ... to do as I
please.
b) Think of situations or microdialogues consisting of a statement (or a
question) and a reply to it using the words mentioned above.

X. Translate these sentences into English:


1. Она наклеила на письмо несколько марок и бросила его в
почтовый ящик. 2. Друзья всегда держались вместе. 3. Ключ заст­
рял в замке, и я не могла открыть дверь. 4. Вы сегодня заняты? —
К сожалению, у меня вряд ли будет свободное время. 5. Смерть
единственного сына была крушением всех его надежд. 6. Есть в
гостинице свободные номера? — К сожалению, все номера заня­
ты. 7. Лондонские туманы губительны для здоровья, 8. Все списали
эти предложения? Я стираю их с доски. 9. У него была странная
привычка потирать руки, когда он был взволнован. 10. Холод, го­
лод и нужда подорвали здоровье Герствуда. 11. Оратор остановил­
ся, чтобы собраться с мыслями. 12. Вам не следует беспокоиться,
он хорошо водит машину. 13. Звук выстрела нарушил тишину.
Мистер Кэртел, который до этого времени мирно дремал в кресле,
вскочил и стал оглядываться по сторонам. 14. Я не любил купаться
в реке из-за сильного течения. 15. Учитель подождал, пока не стих­
ли разговоры, и только после этого продолжал объяснение.
16. Они прервали беседу, как только я вошел. 17. Он обещал по­
мочь мне, но не сдержал обещания. 18. Увидев меня, он презри­
тельно скривил рот и только кивнул головой в знак приветствия.

XI. Read the story carefully and answer the following questions:
1. W hen do you usually: rub your chin; give a little chuck­
le; ask about sm b.'s age; go pale; hesitate; shrug your shoul­
ders; look at your watch; shake hands?
2. In what situations did old Burton and his nam esake per­
form the sam e actions as in Point 1. C om m ent on each situa­
tion.
205
XII. Try your hand at teaching:
A. P re p a ra tio n . 1. P repare to ex p lain th e d ifferen ce b e ­
tw een the verbs: stop and pause, nod and bow so as to m ake
su re th at your pu p ils can use these verbs properly. 2. W rite
an exercise to practise the following antonym s: fo break and
to keep, to nod an d to sh a k e , free an d engaged, loose an d
tight, 3. Think of th e answ ers you w ould give if your pupils
asked you: I ) How long is a mile? 2) Did Burton m ean land
m iles or nautical m iles w hen he said th e re w ere over th re e
m iles b etw een th e S hioya C lu b an d th e c re e k of T arum i?
3) In w hat part of the world did the events take place?
B. W o rk in C lass. 1. A sk th e class to answ er th e q u e s ­
tio n s given in Item s I an d 3 an d to do y o u r ex e rc ise from
Item 2.
2. C orrect the mistakes, com m ent on the answers and say
a few w ords by w ay of ex p lan atio n if n eed ed . (Use “C lass­
room English”, Sections I, IV, VUI.)

XIII. Write a summary of the story “A Friend in Need”. Before writing


it find answers to the following questions that may serve as the key points
of the story.
E, д.: W hat did young Burton ask for?
W hat did he get?
W hat was his occupation and that of old Burton?
W h at w ere th e ad v an tag es an d d isa d v an ta g es of old
Burton's position and those of his nam esake?
W hat w ere young B urton's chances?
Could he m anage to cover three miles?
W ho gained anything from this perform ance?
W hat do you think both of them should have done u n ­
der the circum stances?
W hat w ere your feelings after reading the story?

XIV. Speak on the characters of the story:


a) Old Burton (his appearance, character and what you think of him).
b) Young Burton (his appearance, character and what you think of
him).
c) The story-teller (what kind of person he was: how he was impressed
by Burton's story; with whom his sympathies were).

206
XV. Paraphrase the following sentences, using colloquial words and
phrases from the text instead of the words in italic type which are stylistical­
ly neutral:
1. M y sister's husband was killed in the war, and soon af­
ter th at her eld er child died of pneum onia. No w o n d er she
was broken physically and spiritually. 2. He ru in ed h im se lf
b ec au se he played cards an d d ran k a lot. W hen I m et him,
there seem ed to be no w ay out for him. Yet, he h ad alw ays
b een a nice m an and had n ever done a n y harm to a n yb o d y.
3. I began to u n d ersta n d w h at sh e m e a n t to say. 4. She is
rather a good cook, isn't she? — W om en o f that kin d always
are. 5. M en o f th is k in d are a lw a ys a g rea t su c c e s s w ith
women. 6. You said you d id n 't come to the exam on M onday
because you were so ill you couldn't move. I d o n 't believe it.
I’m sure you were sim ply afraid. 7. C o u ld n 't you lend me a
little more money? I am in a hopeless position.

XVI. Read the story and discuss the following:


1. How does the author make the reader realize what kind of man
Burton the Elder was? Which method of characterization does he use,
direct or indirect? (See Notes on Style, p. 120.)
2. Point out the lines and passages in which the ironical attitude of the
author towards Burton the Elder is felt. Is it expressed by lexical or syntac­
tical means? (Analyse each case.) Comment on the title of the story.
3. W hat is the message (the main idea) of the story?

XVII. Perform a dialogue between old Burton and his namesake.


Don't forget that old Burton was busy in his office, not very easily
impressed, indifferent to other people's troubles; his namesake was down
and out, all to pieces and not in very good condition to swim.

XVIII. Role-playing.
Role-play a Trial at which you will try Burton for wilful murder. It may
be arranged in the following way:
Student A — speaking for the judge.
S tu d en t A — sp e ak in g for th e p ro sec u tio n (he will d e ­
scribe all the facts proving Burton’s guilt).
S tu d en t С — sp eak in g for th e d efen ce (he will try an d
present all the facts that m ay speak in B urton's favour).
S tudent D — rep resen tin g Burton (he will, naturally, try
to defend himself).
207
S tudents E, F, G — actin g as w itnesses for th e p ro se c u ­
tion or the defence.
The rest of th e g ro u p are actin g as m em bers of th e ju ry
and will bring a verdict of “guilty” or “not guilty”.
T he ju d g e co n d u c ts th e trial, p u ts q u estio n s, ex am in es
the docum ents and evidence.
C ounsel for the prosecution (прокурор) addresses the jury
an d p re se n ts his case, after w hich he calls w itn esses w ho
sw ear to tell th e truth, the w hole truth, and nothing b u t the
truth.
C ounsel for the d efen ce p ro ceed s in th e sam e way. T he
ju d g e m ay interfere at any point and ask questions.
W hen the two sides have presented their cases, the ju d g e
gives his sum m ing up. T he ju ry retires to co n sid er its v e r­
dict: G uilty or N ot G uilty. If the d efen d an t is found guilty,
the ju d g e passes sentence on him.

XIX. Think of a different end to the story (comical, puzzling, etc.К

XX. Write a short story to illustrate the proverb “A friend in need is a


friend indeed”. Use Essential Vocabulary of the lesson. Retell your story in
class.

XXI. Translate the following sentences into English, using the word
rather.
1. Эта книга довольно скучная, возьмите лучше другую. 2. Че­
модан маловат, боюсь, что вы не уложите в него всю одежду.
3. Еще чашечку чая? — Да, пожалуйста. 4. Эта новость немного
взволновала его. 5. Я, пожалуй, возьму эту пластинку. 6. Он скорее
невежественен, чем глуп. 7. Нас несколько удивил его ранний при­
ход. 8. Она выглядела несколько усталой после двухкилометровой
прогулки. 9. Она показалась мне довольно красивой девушкой.

XXII. a) Read the text;


Every sum m er m any people, girls and w om en as well as
boys and men, try to swim from E ngland to F rance or from
France to England. The distance at the nearest points is only
abo u t tw enty miles, b u t because o f the strong tides the d is ­
tance that m ust be swum is usually more than twice as far.
T here is a stro n g tide from the A tlantic O cean. This d i­
vides in two in order to pass round the British Isles. The two
208
tid e s m eet n ear th e m o u th of th e T ham es, an d stro n g c u r­
re n ts th e y ca u se m ak e it im p o ssib le to swim in a stra ig h t
line across the Channel.
T he first m an to su cceed in sw im m ing the C h an n el w as
C aptain W ebb, an Englishm an. This was in A ugust 1875. He
landed in F rance 21 hours 45 m inutes after en terin g the w a­
ter a t D over. S ince th e n th e re have b e e n m any su c cessfu l
sw im s and the tim e has been sh o rten ed . O ne F ren ch sw im ­
m er crossed it in 11 hours and 5 minutes.
B ecau se th e se a is u su a lly co ld , sw im m ers cover th e ir
b o d ie s w ith g re a se . T his, th e y say, h e lp s to k e e p o u t th e
cold. T h e y a re fed d u rin g th e swim b y m en w ho go w ith
them in small boats.
b) Retell the text above using the phrases in italic type.
c) Comment on the text. Say if you think such a competition is a
sport.

XXIII. Try your hand at teaching.


1. Say what you would do in the teacher's position:
A nna, a fo u rth form p u p il, su rp rise d an d sh o c k e d th e
child ren in class because of the long d an g lin g earrin g s she
was wearing. At first the teacher decided to ignore this, h o p ­
in g th e c h ild re n w o u ld so o n ig n o re it also. H ow ever, th e
su b d u e d b u t ex cited noise co n tin u ed . E veryone w an ted to
see and touch the earrings.
2. Practise your Classroom English.
Prepare a short test on the vocabulary of Unit Six. Play the part of the
teacher and give the test in class, check it and comment on each work.
(See “Classroom English”, Sections VIII, IX.)

LABORATORY EXERCISES (I)

1. listen to the text “A Friend in Need”, mark the stresses and tunes.
Read the text following the model.
2. a) Paraphrase the given sentences.
b) Make up sentences contrasting to the given ones using the verb
need and a suggested noun.
c) Respond to the remarks using the given pattern.

8 в.д. А ракин, II курс 209


3. Write a spelling-translation test.

4. Change the given sentences according to the model.


3. Task I. Listen to the English sentences and write down the Russian
translation. Check your translation with the key (written work).
Task II. Translate your phrases back into English and check them with
the key.

6. Listen to the text “The Story of Arthur Bloxham”;write 10questions


to the text. Get ready to discuss it in class.

II

T O P I C : SPORTS AND GAMES

TEXT A. WHAT MAKES ALL PEOPLE KIN

People all over the world are very fond of sports and games.
T h at is one th in g in w hich p eo p le of every n atio n ality and
class are united.
The most popular outdoor winter sports are shooting, h u n t­
ing, hockey and, in the countries w here the w eather is frosty
and there is m uch snow — skating, skiing and tobogganing.
Some people greatly enjoy figure-skating and ski-jum ping.
Sum m er affords e x c e lle n t o p p o rtu n itie s for sw im m ing,
b o atin g , y achtin g , cycling, g lid in g an d m any o th er sports.
Among outdoor gam es football takes the first place in public
interest; this gam e is played in all the countries of the world.
The other gam es th at have firmly established them selves in
favour in d ifferen t co u n tries are golf, law n-tennis, cricket,
volley-ball, b ask et-b all, an d so on. B adm inton is also v ery
popular.
All the year round m any people in d u lg e in boxing, w res­
tling, athletics, gym nastics and track and field events. Scores
of young girls and wom en go in for callisthenics.
A m ong indoor gam es the m ost p o p u lar are billiards, ta ­
ble tennis, d rau g h ts and some others, b u t the g reat in te rn a­
tional gam e is chess, of course. The results of chess to u rn a ­

210
m ents are studied and discussed by thousands of enthusiasts
in different countries.
So we m ay say that sp o rt is one of the things th at m akes
all people kin.

TEXT B. SPORTS AND GAMES POPULAR IN ENGLAND

— W h a t w ould you say are th e m ost p o p u la r gam es in


England today?
— W ell, I suppose football, that is, soccer or rugger, and
cricket.
— W hat are the other outdoor gam es?
— Oh, th e re 's tennis, hockey, golf, and so on, T ennis is
p layed all the year round — on hard courts or grass courts
in summer, and on hard or covered courts in winter.
— W hat about horse-racing?
— I should say th a t is o n e of the m ost p o p u lar sports in
G reat Britain. T hen th ere are, of course, w alking-races, ru n ­
ning, swimming and boxing.
— I've b e e n to ld th a t th e re are no w in ter sp o rts in E n­
gland.
— W ell, you see, the English w inter isn 't very severe as a
rule, and we d o n 't often have the chance of skiing, skating or
tobogganing, bu t w inter is the great tim e for hunting, provid­
ed the ground is not too hard.
— Is there any golf to be had near London?
— O h, yes, an y am ount. T here are dozens of go o d golf-
lin k s w ithin an h o u r or so of L ondon. You o u g h t to jo in a
golf club if y o u 're keen on the game.
— I th in k I shall if I g et th e chance. W hat ab o u t indoor
gam es?
— W ell, th e re 's chess, billiards, cards, table tennis... By
th e way, do you play billiards?
— W ell, I do, b u t of course, I'm n o t a professional or a
cham pion, just an ordinary am ateur, and not a very good one
at that.

211
TEXT С. THE FOOTBALL MATCH

(A Conversation)

Characters — Mr. Priestley, Lucille, Frieda, Pedro, Olaf, Hob.

L u c i l l e : W h a t s p le n d id seats! W e 'll b e ab le to see


everything from here.
P e d r o : Yes, J a n has c e rta in ly lo o k e d a fte r us w ell.
W e'll have to take him out to dinner after the m atch.
T h e o t h e r s : Good idea, Pedro, we certainly must.
H o b : A nd we m ust sh o u t for his team . I h o p e Ja n is in
form today.
M r. P r i e s t l e y : I hope he is. I hear they are to choose
th e players tom orrow for th e in tern atio n al m atch and if he
plays well today Jan may be chosen.
P e d r o : Yes, I h e a rd th a t th e S e le c tio n C o m m itte e
w ould be at the m atch and I told Jan he was to play his best
today because they were w atching him.
О 1 a f: It m ust be ex citin g to p lay in an in te rn a tio n a l
m atch.
P e d r o : H ere are th e team s com ing out. J a n is lead in g
the London team. He m ust be the captain.
F r i e d a : Yes, he is.
H o b : Jan m ust be a good player.
О 1 a f: He is; you have to be a good player to be captain
of London team.
L u c i l l e : If Ja n is ch o sen for th e in tern atio n al m atch,
will he have to give up his studies and go into training?
F r i e d a : H e m u stn ’t do th at. H e m u st go on w ith his
studies. They are m ore im portant than football.
M r. P r i e s t l e y : H e n e e d n 't give u p his stu d ies. H e
has been playing regularly and is in good form.
H o b : J a n 's lost the toss and the O xford captain has d e ­
cided to play with the wind.

212
O l a f : Oh, well, th ey 'll have to play against the w ind in
the second half. I see Jan is playing centre-forw ard. H e's just
getting ready to kick off. There they go.
H o b : Com e on, London!

(About an hour and a h a lf later)

M r. P r i e s t l e y : This has been a grand gam e. I hardly


rem em ber ever seeing a better one. Jan has played the gam e
of his life.
L u c i l l e : I'v e n e a rly lo st m y v o ic e w ith s h o u tin g
“Com e on, London!” Oh, I wish London could win.
M r. P r i e s t l e y : I d o n ’t think they can. It m ust be near­
ly tim e now. It's one goal each, an d the O xford d efen ce is
m agnificent.
O l a f : Yes, if m y w atch is right, th ey have three m inutes
to go.
F r i e d a : Look! J a n has g o t th e ball. H e 's g o in g lik e
lightning tow ards the Oxford goal. Oh, go on, Jan!
P e d r o : T hat Oxford centre-half is trying to stop him.
L u с i 11 e: Go on, Jan. You m u stn 't let him stop you.
M r . P r i e s t l e y : J a n p assed th e ball to th e in sid e
right, a w onderful pass.
L u c i l l e : Oh! The inside-right is down; h e's had to p art
with the ball.
O l a f : Look, J a n 's got it again, h e 's b eaten the fullback
and is racing towards the goal.
H o b : Shoot, Jan, shoot! It's a goal!
P e d r o : O h, w h at a shot! T h e g o a l-к е е р е г h a d n 't a
chance.
M r. P r i e s t l e y : A nd th ere's th e w histle for full time,
and London have won. W ell, they have to choose Jan for the
international m atch now.
[From “Essential English for Foreign Students”,
Book 4, by С. E. Eckersley. Abridged)

213
ESSENTIAL VOCABULARY (II)
W o rd s

Some popular sports


archery skating
artistic gym nastics (callisthenics) skiing
boxing cross-country skiing
car (motorcycle) racing down-hill skiing
cycling ski-jump
diving slalom
fencing sky diving (parachuting)
figure-skating swimming
gym nastics weight-lifting
gliding w indsurfing
hang gliding w restling
m ountaineering arm -wrestling
rowing and canoeing yachting
athletics (track-and-field) m arathon (race)
discus (hammer, javelin) pole vault (vaulting)
throwing race /ru n
high (long, triple) jum p shot putting
hurdle races steeplechase

Some popular gam es


O pen-air gam es
badm inton л net-ball л 1
basket-ball л rugby л (colloq. rugger)
cricket л (lawn) tennis л
football n (colloq. soccer) volley-ball л
golf л water polo
hockey л
Indoor gam es
chess л squash л
draughts л table-tennis л

1net-ball: an English game, basically the same as basket-ball (played by


women)
214
Sports Terms
am ateur (professional) cup (final, semi-final) m atch
sport indoor (outdoor or open-air)
cham pionship n, e. g. national sports
football cahm pionship sport л
com pete v sports n = events
com petition n, e. g. inter­ sports adj, e. g. sports jacket
college cup com petition (shirt)
con'test v sporting adj
'contest n , e. g. world gym ­ tournam ent л
nastics contest (rivalry in
singing, beauty)

Participants
crew л (used for sportsm en o pponent (rival) л
rowing or sailing a boat) sportsm an (athlete) л
national (Olympic, college) sportswom an n
team
official (umpire, referee,
judge) n

A udience
fan (colloq.) n, e. g. a foot­ spectator л
ball fan sports enthusiast
shout for v support v

Scoring system
best (record, fastest) time point n, e. g. How m any
defeat v points have they won?
draw л, e. g. The m atch runner-up n
ended in a draw, score л, e. g. The score of the
draw v, e. g. The two team s gam e was 6 : 4 (six to
drew, four).
goal л score v , e. g. He scored
lose v 20 points. N either side
loser л scored in the gam e (не
victory л заби ла гол).

215
C om petition sites and sports equipm ent
barbell л net л
beam л play-ground л
chessboard л puck л
chessm an n racket л
club (stick) л rings л
discus л ski jum p
draughtsm an n sports hall
gym л boxing gloves
javelin л tram poline (батут) n
jum ping (spring) board uneven (parallel), asym m etric
bars
Word Combinations
athletic training to win the team (personal,
to follow a tournam ent national, world) cham pion­
(competition, etc.) ship
to kick the ball to win by 2 (3, etc.) goals
to score a goal (20 points) (points)
to keep the score to win with the score 4 to 0
to end a gam e in a draw in sm b.'s favour
(to draw a game) to set up (break) a record
to win a prize (a cup, the record holder
victory) the world (national, European)
record

EXERCISES

I. Study Texts A and В and transcribe these words:


tobogganing, yachting, law n-tennis, w restling, athletics,
gymnastics, callisthenics, billiards, draughts, tournam ent, e n ­
thusiast, soccer, rugger, court, am ateur.

II. Write 15 questions about Texts A and B; b) Retell Texts A and В (in
indirect speech). Evaluate the reports of your fellow students according to
delivery: general clarity, pronunciation, fluency, rythm, intonation.
III. Study Essential Vocabulary (II), Explanatory Notes and name: a) as
many kinds of sport as you can; b) some open>air games; c) some indoor
games.

216
IV. W hat do you call a person who goes in for:
w re stlin g , c y c lin g , w e ig h t-liftin g , sw im m ing, d iv in g ,
ru n n in g , m o u n tain eerin g , boxing, skiing, racin g , h u n tin g ,
playing football, playing chess, playing drau g h ts, athletics,
sk a tin g , p la y in g v o lley -b all, p la y in g b a sk e t-b a ll, p la y in g
hockey?

V. a) Fill in prepositions if necessary:


S port is v ery p o p u la r ... B ritain. ... o th e r w ords a lo t ...
British p eo p le like the idea ... sport, a lot even w atch sport,
especially ... th e TV. However, the num ber who actively take
p a rt ... sp o rt is p ro b ab ly q u ite sm all. ... th e w h o le B ritish
people prefer to be fat rather than fit.
T he m ost p op u lar sp ectato r sp o rt is football. Football is
played ... a Saturday afternoon ... most British towns and the
fans, or supporters ... a particular team will travel ... one end
... the country ... the other to see their team play.
M any other sports are also played ... Britain, including golf
... w hich you try to kno ck a ball ... a hole; cro q u et ... w hich
you try to k n o ck a ball ... som e hoops; basket-ball ... w hich
you try to g et a ball ... a net; tennis ... w hich you try to hit a
ball so that your o p p onent cannot hit it and cricket w hich is
played ... a ball, b u t is otherw ise incom prehensible. As you
can see, if the ball had not b een invented, th ere w ould have
been no sport.
A ctually th a t's not q u ite true. A thletics is n o t played ... a
ball, nor is horse-racing. Perhaps that explains w hy th ey are
not so popular as football.
(See “Approaches”. Cam bridge 1979)

b) Retell the text.

VI. Answer the following questions. Do not answer in one sentence.


Add something:
1. W h a t kind of sp o rt do you go in for? 2. Do you p lay
draughts? 3. Do you atten d hockey m atches? 4. W hat football
team do you su p p o rt? 5. Did you ever try fig u re -sk atin g ?
6. W ho usually likes tobogganing? 7. W h at do spectators do
at th e stadium s? 8. W h ere are b o at-races held in M oscow ?
217
9. W hat is the m ost popular sport in Russia? 10. Do Russain
team s participate in international m atches? 11. W ho coaches
your volley-ball team ? 12. W here are th e O xford and C am ­
b ridge boat-races held? 13. W hat is the difference betw een a
“sp o rt” and a “g am e” ? 14. W h at sp o rts an d gam es do you
know? 15. W hat gam es take the first place in public interest?
16. W hat is the g reat national sport in England?

VII. Read Text С and try to explain the phrases listed below. Do not
merely translate them into Russian. Change them into a type of English
that is more easily understood and explain what they mean in the context
of the conversation.
shout for his team; is in good form today; lost the toss; to
p lay with (against) the wind; to kick off; com e on; the gam e
of his life; 3 m inutes to go.

VIII. Translate the following sentences into English:


1. Я предпочитаю легкую атлетику боксу и борьбе. 2. Я мечтаю
поставить рекорд по плаванию. 3. Сегодня я не могу бежать, я не в
форме. 4. Люди во всем мире следят за Олимпийскими играми.
5. Он уделяет много времени физической подготовке. 6. Я болею
за футбольную команду «Спартак». 7. Наша игра закончилась
вничью. 8. Он охотно будет тренировать нас в фехтовании, 9. Вы
занимаетесь легкой атлетикой? 10. Виндсерфинг и дельтаплане­
ризм появились совсем недавно. 11. Мальчик мечтает стать хокке­
истом и просит купить ему клюшку и шайбу. 12. Сколько человек
примут участие в институтском шахматном чемпионате? 13. Разве
вы не хотели бы завоевать кубок в этом соревновании? 14. Кто
первый забил гол? 15. Вы пойдете на этот матч? 16. Стрельба из
лука стала достаточно популярным видом спорта. 17. Никто не
ожидал, что они выиграют со счетом 2 :0 . 18. Ему хорошо дается
фигурное катание. 19. Женщины не играют в футбол, правда? —
Играют, но редко. 20. Кто завоевал первенство вашего института
по шашкам? — Один из наших первокурсников. 21. Не стоит всту­
пать больше чем в два спортивных кружка одновременно. 22. Я
предпочитаю художественную гимнастику любому другому виду
спорта. 23, Мы не сможем с вами соревноваться, мы недостаточно
подготовлены. 24. Вы собираетесь участвовать в соревнованиях по
гребле? — Обязательно. 25. Я уверен, что игра закончится вничью.
26. У нас прекрасный зал и все возможности для хорошей ф изи­
ческой подготовки.

218
IX. Correct the wrong statements. Add a few more sentences to make
up a dialogue:
1. There is no difference betw een "soccer" and "rugby".
2. B adm inton can be played only indoors. 3. The goal-keep-
er acts as a ju d g e in football. 4. Ice h o ck ey is p o p u lar w ith
wom en. 5. A tennis ball is struck w ith a club. 6. W om en are
good football players as a rule. 7, People who play d rau g h ts
are called draughtsm en. 8. W e use balls w hen p laying b a d ­
m inton. 9. Golf is played on ice fields. 10. H ockey is o n e of
the m ost popular sum m er gam es. 11. T able-tennis and lawn-
te n n is are o n e an d th e sam e gam e. 12. In h o c k e y a h a n d ­
ball and rack ets are used. 13. Boxers fight w ith b are hands.
14. T rack a n d field ev e n ts are n ev er in c lu d e d in O lym pic
G am es. 15. You m ay to u c h th e ball w ith y o u r h an d s w h en
playing football.
P г о m p t s: I ju st d o n 't agree...; I'm not so sure...; All I
know is... b u t at least...; How can you say such a thing! You
seem to th in k that...; T hat is ju st th e o th er w ay ro u n d . You
are badly mistaken.

X. Try to describe your favourite game. Use a dictionary to look up


any special words. Let your partners guess which game you are describing.
Speak according to the plan that is given in the example:

E x a m p l e :

1. N um ber of players (per team):


Two team s of eleven players each.
2. E quipm ent necessary: a ball.
Each player wears shorts and special boots.
3. P la c e w h e re p la y e d : a sp e c ia l field w h ich has g o al
posts at both ends.
4. How to play an d win: the players kick the ball to each
other. T hey try to kick it betw een th e goal p osts of the o p ­
posing team . The opposing team try to stop them . The team
scoring the greatest num ber of “goals” wins.
5. L ength of gam e: o n e hour an d a half, w ith a b reak in
the middle.
6. Som e of th e ru le s: o n ly th e tw o g o a l-k e e p e rs (who
stand in front of the two goals) are allowed to touch the ball
with their hands; no one can kick or push another player.
(See “Approaches.1’ Cambridge, 1979)

219
XI. a) Speak on each kind of sport on the list below; briefly describe it
as well as the qualities it requires from the sportsman, e. g. strength,
endurance, quickness of reaction, courage, etc. Say a few words about its
advantages and attractive features:
m o u n ta in e e rin g , ro w in g , y a c h tin g , h o c k e y , te n n is ,
b ask et-b all, volley-ball, chess, boxing, w restlin g , fencing,
artistic gym nastics, figure-skating, skiing, skating, ski-jum p­
ing, sky-diving, archery, discus throwing, w ind-surfing, ste e­
plechase, m arathon.
b) Make up dialogues discussing one (or several) of the sports from
the list above. Use the following:
in my opinion th ere's nothing like I d o n 't quite see
w h a t p e o p le fin d in how can y o u say su c h a th in g !;
I d o n 't know an y th in g m ore exciting th an I see n o th in g
exciting in I c a n 't ag ree w ith you there; ab so lu tely m ar­
vellous; I like it immensely.

XII. a) Read the text and comment on it:

Hang Gliding
The Sport of the 1980s
H ang gliding, like windsurfing, com es from America. The
p erso n w ho th o u g h t of this sport, F rancis Rogallo, g o t th e
idea when he was w atching space capsules falling towards the
sea. The capsules had a sort of wing w hich helped them to go
m ore slowly until they reached the sea.
But this idea isn ’t as new as you m ight think: in the fif­
teen th century, Leonardo da V inchi drew pictures of a hang
glider; it was a sort of kite which could carry a person.
The m odern hang glider can go with the w ind or against
it, and the pilot can change direction by moving the control
bar. Hang gliders rise and fall with the movements in the air —
near hills, for example, they usually go up.
All over th e world, these gian t b u tterflies are b ecom ing
more and m ore popular, as people discover the fun of flying.
(From “M odern English International”.
Mozaika, 1984, No. 264)
220
b) What do you know of the kinds of sport which recently appeared?
Describe them and say what attracts people in them.

XIII. Act out the following situations:


1. Two friends are talk in g after a football m atch. O ne is
h ap p y — his favourite team has won; the other is not as his
team has lost the match.
2. Im agine a dialogue betw een two sports fans about their
favourite sports.
3. A frie n d of y o u rs claim s to b e an “all-ro u n d s p o rts ­
m an” . O nce you call on him and find him su rro u n d ed by a
thick cloud of cigarette smoke. You have a talk with him.
4. It's Sunday afternoon. In a few m inutes, th ere will be a
football m atch on TV, w hile on an o th er ch an n el th e re will
be a fashion show. A rgum ent betw een husband and wife.
5. You are in the hall of your institute. You are an ard en t
athlete and like to get up at sunrise, at which your room -m ate
is grum bling. You try to m ake him do at least his m orning ex­
ercises.

XIV. Translate into English:


1. Я, кажется, знаю этого человека. Он был когда-то отличным
бегуном, а теперь он тренирует молодых спортсменов. 2. Неужели
правда, что он не принимал участия в игре на кубок? — Да, ему не
повезло; накануне игры он слег с воспалением легких. 3. Я едва
мог поверить своим ушам, когда мне сказали, что команда нашего
института выиграла со счетом 6:0. 4. Напрасно вы торопились.
Соревнования не состоятся из-за плохой погоды. 5. Он был страш­
но расстроен, когда ему сказали, что его команда проиграла.
6. Моя старшая сестра занимается художественной гимнастикой
уже три года. 7. Я рад, что сегодняшняя игра закончилась вничью.
Мы могли проиграть, многие из нас не в форме. 8. Соревнования
по легкой атлетике еще не начались. 9. Кем был установлен по­
следний мировой рекорд по прыжкам в высоту?

XV. a) Translate the text into Russian:

The Football Match


S om ething very q u eer is h ap p en in g in that narrow th o r­
o u g h fare to th e w est of th e tow n. A g re y -g re e n tid e flows
sluggishly down its length. It is a tide of cloth caps.
221
T hese caps have ju st left th e ground of the Bruddersford
U n ite d A sso ciatio n F o o tb all C lub. To say th a t th e se m en
paid their shilling to w atch tw enty-tw o hirelings kick a ball
is m erely to say that a violin is wood and catgut, that “H am ­
le t” is so m uch p ap er an d ink. For a shilling the B ru d d ers­
ford U nited A.F.C. offered you C onflict an d Art; it tu rn e d
y ou in to a critic, h ap p y in y o u r ju d g e m e n t of fine points,
re a d y in a se c o n d to e stim a te th e w o rth of a w e ll-ju d g e d
pass, a ru n dow n th e to u ch line, a lig h tn in g shot, a c le a r­
ance kick by back or goal-кеерег; it turned you into a p arti­
san, h o ld in g y o u r b re a th w h en th e ball cam e sa ilin g in to
y o u r ow n g o a lm o u th , e c s ta tic w h en y o u r fo rw ard s ra c e d
aw ay tow ards the opposite goal, elated, dow ncast, bitter, tri­
u m p h a n t by tu rn s a t the fo rtu n es of your side, w atch in g a
ball shape Iliads and O dysseys for you; an d w hat is more, it
tu rn ed you into a m em ber of a new com m unity, all brothers
to g e th e r for an h o u r an d a half, for n o t o n ly h ad y o u e s ­
c a p e d from th e clan k in g m achinery of this lesser life, from
work, wages, rent, doles, sick pay, insurance cards, nagging
w ives, ailin g ch ild ren , b ad bosses, id le w orkm en, b u t you
h ad escaped w ith m ost of your m ates and your neighbours,
w ith half th e town, an d th e re you w ere, ch eerin g to g eth er,
th u m p in g o n e a n o th e r on th e sh o u ld ers, sw opping ju d g e ­
m e n ts lik e lo rd s of th e e a rth , h a v in g p u s h e d y o u r w ay
th ro u g h a turn stile into an o th er and alto g eth er m ore sp len ­
did kind of life, hurting with Conflict and yet passionate and
b e a u tifu l in its Art. M oreover, it offered you m ore th a n a
s h illin g 's w o rth of m aterial for ta lk d u rin g th e rest of th e
week.
[From “Good Com panions” by J, B. Priestley. Abridged)

b) Comment on the extract:


1. E xplain th e w ords: “To say th a t th ese m en p aid th eir
shilling to w atch tw enty-tw o hirelings kick a ball is m erely
to say th at a violin is w ood an d catgut, th a t “Hamlet*1 is so
m uch p ap er and in k .” 2. Explain th e words: “ For a shilling
th e B ru d d ersfo rd U n ited A.F.C. offered you C o n flic t an d
A rt.” 3. W hat, in th e a u th o r's o p in io n , d o es fo o tb all give

222
p eo p le? 4. Do you ag ree w ith the au th o r in that? W h at do
you think about such gam es as football and h ockey and the
secret of their popularity?

XVI. a) Study the text and search for some arguments in favour of
sport. Summarize the text:

How Healthy Are You?


C heck your know ledge.
W hat sort of shape are you in? Are you the sort of person
w ho goes for a run each m orning, or are you the other kind
who gets out of breath w hen reaching for a cigarette?
M aybe you have a lot of energy. You go to work or school,
you make decisions all day, you do extra w ork at home. Exer­
cise? You d o n 't have enough tim e — why bother anyway?
W ell, th e answ er to th a t q u estio n is y o u r b o d y d esig n .
H um an beings w eren't built for sitting at a desk all day: your
b o d y is co n stru c ted for h u n tin g , ju m p in g , lifting, ru n n in g ,
clim b in g an d a v ariety of o th er activities. If you d o n 't g et
the exercise th at your body wants, th en things can go bad ly
w rong. Your m ind w orks all day, an d your bo d y d o es n o th ­
ing: the results can vary from depression to severe illness to
early death.
N ot a v ery ch eerfu l th o u g h t, and of co u rse th e n atu ra l
reaction is “ It's not going to h ap p en to m e.” M aybe, m aybe
not. H ere are two ways of looking after yourself: firstly, b y
seeing if you are doing the right sort of exercise, and secondly
by seeing if you have the right kind of diet.
{From “M odern English International”.
Mozaika. 1984, No. 263)

b) Persuade your partner to start practising sport immediately.

c) Speak on: 1. the role of sport in modern life; 2. sport as part of


school and college life.

XVII. Role-playing.
Work in groups of four or five. You are people of different age and
social standing. Express your attitude to sport and sportsmen in general.

223
XVIII. Describe these pictures in such a way as if you have seen the
event with your own eyes. Use some details, try to sound as convincing as
possible. Use some words and phrases given below:

th e stadium with a seating capacity of a pole-jum per;


in good form; a referee; a starter; a cross-bar;
wave a start; rushing towards; like lightning;
race past; carrying the pole; puzzled;
plant the pole; up in the air; with a smile on his face; awe-
stricken;
p re tty -lo o k in g ; e m b arra ssed ; w ith h e r ey es d o w n cast;
w ith h is h a n d s p resse d ; la n d o n to ; b re a k th e reco rd ; th e
record of his life; candidate m aster of sports of Russia.

224
V Г/
о:
XIX. Film “Mr. Brown’s Holiday”. Film segment 6 “A Game of Ping-
Pong” (Southampton), a) W atch and listen, b) Do the exercises from the
guide to the film.

STUDIES OF WRITTEN ENGLISH

VI

The plot is a very im portant aspect of w ritten works. But


th e re is so m eth in g even m ore im p o rtan t, th a t is, th e m ain
idea or the message.
M essage is the main idea that a w riter wants to com m uni­
cate in his w ork through the characters and their behaviour,
the physical and emotional background or sometimes through
his own generalizing statem ents. To m ake it clear and u n d er­
standable you have to learn how to write the gist.
G ist is com m only understood as the essence or main point
(of an article, p arag rap h or argum ent), also as th e essential
p art of a story, novel, or p lay th at h elp s to u n d e rsta n d th e
m ain idea.
Sum m ary deals with the plot of com plete w ritten works,
such as a story, novel or play. Gist deals with the m ain idea
of any thoughtful writing, no m atter w hether it is a paragraph
or a novel. It is expected to be very short and clear.
In o rder to w rite the gist of a story (“A D ay's W a it” , for
example) you have to do the following:
1. Read th e story carefully, paying attention to the charac­
ters, general atm osphere an d the au th o r's rem arks or sta te­
m ents (e. g. a bright cold day, a pale-faced and shivering boy,
the growing strain), the atm osphere of suspense.
2. Jo t dow n th e m ain points and see how th ey are linked
(e. g. the boy is ill b u t he w on't go to bed; he is still w orried
and k eep s starin g at th e foot of the bed; he can h ard ly b e ­
lieve that he has no reason to worry about his health).
3. Point out the au th o r's rem arks (the boy was looking at
th e foot of th e b ed stran g ely ; th a t's a silly w ay to talk; h e
had been w aiting to die all day; relaxation was very slow).
227
4. Go over th e se points, reco n sid er th em carefu lly an d
form ulate the main idea, e. g. It is a story telling us how fear
and self-pity th ro u g h ig n o ran ce or m islead in g inform ation
m ay cau se w orry an d suffering or how rem ark ab ly p a tie n t
the child's endurance may be.

Assignments:

1. Give your own version of the gist of “A Day's W ait” and “How We
Kept Mother's Day”.
2. Write the gist of “A Friend in Need”. When writing analyse the title
of the story.
3. Write the gist of two letters written by Judy and compare them.
W hat is their message?

LABORATORY EXERCISES (II)

1. Listen to the dialogue “Sports and Games Popular in England”.


Mark the stresses and tunes. Repeat the text following the model.
2. Listen to the text “The Football M atch”, mark the stresses and
tunes. Repeat it following the model.
3. Write a spelling-translation test. Check it with a dictionary.
4. Task I: Translate the English sentences into Russian (in writing) and
check them with the key.
Task II: Translate your sentences back into English (orally) and check
them with the key.
5. Listen to the text “Sport in Great Britain”.
Task I: Write down the Russian equivalents given in the exercise.
Task II: Listen to the text again and write down the English equiva­
lents of the Russian phrases.
Task III: Write 10 questions on the text. Be ready to discuss it in class.

CURIOSITY QUIZ FOR EAGERS

I. Say in what countries the following sports and games are popular:
cricket, surfing, karate, reindeer racing, rugby, baseball,
judo (jujitsu), lacrosse, lasso-throwing, soccer, croquet.

228
II. Which is better — to be a specialist or a generalist?
Divide your class into 2 teams. Match each specific term in column I,
with the generic term in column II. The team which is the first to match
the terms correctly wins the score.
I II
barbell bascket-ball
racket cricket
w icket golf
alpenstock fencing
knockout figure-skating
bishop tennis
catcher ice-hockey
gauntlet m ountaineering
puck baseball
tee boxing
spin chess-playing
spike w eight lifting

III. Read one of the short stories by W. S. Maugham and speak about
it in class. Speak not only on the contents, but also give analysis of the
characters, the author's mastership, methods of characterization, style and
language. See Notes on Style, p. 52.
UNIT SEVEN

SPEECH PATTERNS

1. There is hardly a country in the w orld w here such


a variety of scenery can be found.

T h ere is h ard ly a b o o k b y this au th o r w hich he has not


read.
There was hardly a football m atch w hich he missed.
T here is hardly an other team with b etter opportunities to
win.

2. T hat w ould m ake you think you w ere in Holland.

T he te a c h e r m ade Ja c k rub out all th e in k m arks in his


textbook.
T hey c o u ld n 't m ake W illiam Tell bow before the ty ran t's
cap.
The slightest noise would m ake him start.
M ake him re p e a t th e rule. (But: H e was m ade to rep ea t
the rule.)

EXERCISES

I, Change the following sentences so as to use the patterns:


Pattern 1: 1, 1 d o n 't th in k th ere is an o th er hockey*
team of eq u a l p o p u larity . 2. T h ere w as n o t a sin g le w orld
cham pionship he m issed. 3. I'm not sure we have a vacancy
on our staff. 4. W e'v e no m ore tim e, b u t you can finish the
com position off at home. 5. T here was scarcely a living soul
at th e stadium . 6. I d o n 't th in k th ere is any reason for their
losing the game.
230
P a t t e r n 2 :1 . T he coach forced the ath letes to p o st­
pone their training. 2. T he strangers w anted Roger to drive
up to the back yard, and he obeyed. 3. They will never force
Andrew to break his promise. 4. D uring the conversation she
felt uneasy. 5. He will not break with his bad habits, no m at­
ter what you are saying.

II. Complete the following, using Pattern 2:


1. W hat events m ade you ...? 2, W ho could make your
friend 3. W hich of the experim ents m ade the scientist ...?
4. W hat kind of lesson m akes you ,..? 5. W hat m ade Leo Tol­
stoy ...? 6. T he new coach m ade us ... .

III. Translate the following sentences into English, using the patterns:
1. Едва ли найдется страна, в которой не побы вал бы стары й
моряк. 2. Едва ли есть другой город с таким населением, как То­
кио. 3. Едва ли у них была другая возм ож н ость освободить Овода.
4. Едва ли найдется человек, которы й не лю бит представлений ку­
кольного театра. 5. Ужас! П ож алуй нет другого слова, чтобы оп и ­
сать мое состояние в тот момент. 6. П ож алуй не было ни одного
соревн ован и я по шахматам, которое бы он пропустил. 7, Едва ли
найдется другой тренер, такой вним ательны й и терпеливы й. 8. Что
заставило ваш его брата бросить бокс? 9. Д вое вори ш ек заставили
О ливера л езть ч ер ез окно. 10. Д ориан думал, что ничто не заставит
его наруш ить обещ ание, данное Сибилле Вейн. 11. И гра актера за ­
ставляла зрителя не только чувствовать, но и думать. 12. Что заста­
вило Б айрона сраж аться н а стороне греческого народа? 13. Что за­
ставило А энни вернуться в Стилвелд? 14. Этот эпизод рассм еш ил
мою сестру, а м ен я опечалил.

IV. Respond to the following statements and questions, using the


patterns. (Make use of the conversational formulas given in the Reminder.)
1. I believe the Tow er of London com es first am ong th e
h isto ric b u ild in g s of L ondon. 2. I th in k V asily B lazh en y
C a th ed ral is q u ite u n iq u e . 3. T he C ity of L ondon is o v e r­
crow ded in th e daytim e. 4. C h risto p h er W ren was the m ost
talented British architect of th e XVII century. 5. Since 1927
up to 1946 A. A lekhin was the m ost outstan d in g chess-play­
er. 6. M ost schools in Britain have ad opted the core cu rricu ­
lum. 7. C an you lend me a rouble? 8. All of them are staring
at th e advertisem ent. I w onder, why? 9. W hen I m en tio n ed
231
his nam e M ary buried her face in her hands and w ould never
answer m y question.
R e m i n d e r . You don't sa y so\ Just (only) fancyl indeed?
Why\ Is that so? Dear me\ W ho'd have thought it? I am sur­
prised. 1 am shocked. It's am azingl It's incrediblel Certainlyl
O f course. Naturallyl Yes indeed! Looks like th a t Well, I think
.... I have no idea. Goodness knows. Generally speaking ... . It
depends.

T E X T . THE BRITISH ISLES

T he British Isles consist of two m ain islands: G reat B rit­


ain and Ireland. T hese an d over five h u n d red sm all islands
are know n collectively as the U nited K ingdom of G reat Brit­
ain an d N o rth e rn Irelan d . T heir to ta l area is som e 94, 250
sq u a re sq u a re m iles.1 G reat Britain p ro p e r co m p rises E n g ­
land, W ales and Scotland. T he so u th ern p a rt of th e isle ot
Ireland is the Irish Republic (or Eire).
Britain is com paratively small, b u t there is hardly a coun
try in th e w o rld w h e re su c h a v a rie ty of sc e n e ry ca n b^
found in so sm all a com pass. T here are wild deso late m oun
tains in the northern Highlands of Scotland — the home of the
d eer and th e eag le — th a t are as lonely as an y in Norway.
T h ere a re flat tu lip fields ro u n d th e F e n s2 — a b la ze o!
colour in spring, that would m ake you think you w ere in Hoi
land. W ith in a few m iles of M an ch ester and Sheffield you
can be in glorious heather-covered moors.3
O nce the B ritish Isles w ere p art of th e m ain lan d of Eu
rope — the nearest point is across the Strait of Dover, w here
the chalk cliffs of Britain are only twenty-two miles from those
of France.

1 94, 250 square miles: this is about the same si/e as New Zealand о
half the size of France.
2 the Fens: low marshy land with lots of waterways (Фенленл)
3 moors (pi), moor: an area of open waste land; moors in England an с
Scotland are often used for preserving game.

232
T he seas rou n d th e British Isles a re shallow . T he N o rth
Sea is now here more than 600 feet deep, so th at if St. P aul's
C athedral w ere put down in any part of it som e of the cath e­
dral w ould still b e above water, This shallow ness is in som e
ways an advantage. Shallow w ater is warmer than d eep w ater
and helps to k eep the shores from ex trem e cold. It is, too,
th e hom e of m illions of fish, an d m ore th an a m illion tons
are caught every year.
You have n o ticed on th e m ap how d e e p ly in d e n te d th e
coast line is. This in d en tatio n gives a good su p p ly of sp len ­
did harbours for ships; an d you will note, too, that ow ing to
the shape of th e co u n try th ere is no point in it th at is m ore
than seventy miles from the sea — a fact that has greatly fa­
cilitated th e ex p o rt of m an u factu res and has m ade th e En­
glish race a sea-loving one.
O n th e n o rth-w est th e coasts are b ro k en b y h ig h ro ck y
cliffs. This is esp ecially n o ticeab le in north-w est Scotland,
w here you have long w inding inlets (called “ lo c h s” ) an d a
great m any islands.
In S c o tla n d you h av e th re e d is tin c t reg io n s. T h ere is,
firstly, the H ighlands, th en there is the central plain or Low­
lan d s. F in ally th e re are th e so u th e rn u p la n d s, “ th e S co tt
co u n try ,”4 w ith th eir g en tly ro u n d ed hills w here th e sh eep
w ander. H ere th ere are m ore sheep to the square m ile than
anyw here in the British Isles.
In England and W ales all the high land is in the west and
north-w est. T he so u th -eastern plain reach es th e w est coast
only at one or two p laces — at th e Bristol C h an n el and by
the m ouths of the rivers Dee and M ersey.
In th e n o rth you find the C heviots5 se p aratin g E ngland
from S c o tla n d , th e P e n n in e s g o in g dow n E n g la n d lik e a

4 “the Scott country”: a hilly country in the south-east of Scotland where


Sir W alter Scott (1777 - 1832), the famous British poet and novelist, lived.
s the Cheviots (the Cheviot Hills): a wool-producing country in Britain.
The Cheviot breed of sheep has given its name to a woollen cloth of high
quality.

233
backbone and the Cum brian m ountains of the Lake D istrict,6
one of the loveliest (and the wettest) parts of England. In the
w est are the C am brian m ountains w hich o ccupy the g reater
part of W ales.
The south-eastern part of England is a low-lying land with
gen tle hills and a coast which is regular in outline, sandy or
m uddy, with occasional chalk cliffs, and inland a lovely p a t­
te rn of g re e n a n d g o ld — for m ost of E n g la n d 's w h e a t is
grow n h e re — an d brow n p lo u g h -lan d w ith p leasan t farm s
and cottages in their midst. Its rich brown soil is deeply culti­
v ated — m uch of it is u n d er w heat; fruit-grow ing is e x te n ­
sively carried on. A quarter of the sugar used in the country
com es from sugar-beet grown there, b u t the most im portant
crop is potatoes.
T he position of the m ountains n atu rally d eterm in ed th e
direction and length of the rivers, and the longest rivers, ex ­
cept the Severn and Clyde, flow into the N orth Sea, and even
the Severn flows eastw ard or south-east for the g reater part
of its length.
The rivers of Britain are of no great value as water-ways —
the longest, the Thames, is a little over 200 miles — and few
of them are navigable except near the m outh for anything but
the sm aller vessels.
In the estuaries of the Thames, Mersey, Tyne, Clyde, Tay,
Forth and Bristol Avon7 are some of the greatest ports.
{From “ E ssential E nglish for F o reig n S tu d e n ts ”
by С. E. E ckersley, B ook 3, Lnd., 1997. Adapted)

6 the Lake District: a beautiful place that has become famous thanks to
a distinguished trio of poets — William Wordsworth (1770—1850), Samuel
C oleridge (1772 —1834) and Robert Southey (1 7 7 4 - 1843} — who made
their homes there. (“Lake poets” is the name that was given to them.)
7 There are several rivers in Britain that bear the name of Avon. The
longest is the Bristol Avon flowing into the Bristol Channel, but best known
throughout the world is the one flowing into the Severn. O n its banks, in
Stradford-on-Avon, the greatest English poet William Shakespeare (1564-
1616) was born and spent his youth.

234
M em ory W ork
The sea is calm to-night,
The tide is full, the m oon lies fair
Upon the Straits; — on the French coast, the light
Gleams, and is gone; the cliffs of England stand,
Glimm ering and vast, out in the tranquil bay.
Com e to the window, sweet is the night air!
Only, from the long tine of spray
W here the ebb m eets the m oon-blanch'd sand,
Listen! you hear the grating roar
Of pebbles w hich the waves suck back, and fling,
At their return, up the high strand,
Begin, and cease, and then again begin,
W ith trem ulous cadence slow, and bring
The eternal note of sadness in.
(From “ D over B each ”
by M atth ew A rn o ld (1822 — 1888)

VOCABULARY NOTES

1. v ary v t / i 1. менять(ся); изменять(ся); разнообразить,


e. g. M arket prices often vary. I try to vary m y diet.
Syn. ch an g e
2. разниться, расходиться, e. g. O ur opinions vary.
Syn. differ
N o t e : vary is to change or differ partially.
v a ria n t л вариант, e. g. This w ord has two sp ellin g v ari­
ants.
various adj (a noun in the singular is never used after it)
1. различный, разный, e. g. T here are various reasons for
my refusal.
2. разнообразный, e. g. I’ll give you various exercises on
that rule.
Syn. different, e. g. They are quite different people.
v a rie d adj разнообразны й (used w ith n o u n s b o th sing,
and pi.), e. g. varied clim ate, scenery, surface, tem p eratu re,

235
opinions, sports, etc., e. g. The novel describes the varied ca-
reer of an adventurer.
variety n 1. разнообразие, e. g. You m ust have m ore v a­
riety in your food.
2. разновидность; вид, e. g. I've got som e rare varieties
of such stam ps. There are som e rare varieties of leaf-bearing
trees in the park.
variety-show варьете, эстрадный концерт
2. sc en e л 1. сцена, явление (jb пьесе), е. д. T h e d u el
sc e n e in “ H a m le t” im p ressed us g re a tly . H er a c tin g w as
w onderful in the last scene.
2. место действия (в пьесе, в книге, в жизни), е. д. In
th e first a c t th e scen e is laid in F rance. T rafalg ar w as th e
scen e of a fam ous b a ttle b etw een th e B ritish fleet an d th e
com bined French and Spanish fleets.
3. пейзаж , картина, зрелищ е, e. д. I lik e th e w ay th is
w riter d e sc rib e s rural scenes. You co u ld see aw ful scen es
after the earthquake.
scenery Л (uncountable) 1. декорация, e. g. T he scenery
was im pressive in the last act. T hey have alm ost no scenery
in th a t play.; 2. пейзаж , ландш афт, e. д. I p refer p lain s to
m ountain scenery, I looked o u t of th e w indow enjoying the
scenery.
3. shallow adj 1. мелкий, as shallow water, a shallow dish
Ant. deep
2. поверхностный, пустой; несерьезны й, as a shallow
mind, argum ent; shallow interests; a shallow man, person
A n t. serio u s (ab o u t a p e rso n , b o o k , a rg u m e n t), d eep
(love, feelings)
N o t e : the Russian w ord мелкий has different m eanings w hich are
rendered in English by means of different words: 1) fine — с о с т о я щ и й и *
мелких частей, as fine sand, buckwheat', 2) small — некрупный (о достоин
стве монет), as s/nadt change (uncountable); 3) flat — неглубокий, п о ч т
плоский, as a flat pan {plate}.

4. extreme adj 1. крайний (at or near the end or edge), a-


the extrem e end (edge, border, etc.), in the extrem e N orth
2. чрезвы чай н ы й ; чрезм ерн ы й, as e x tre m e p a t ie n o
(love, kindness, interest)
236
extrem ely adv чрезвычайно, as to be extrem ely in terest­
ed in smth., to be extrem ely sorry for smb., smth., etc.
5. su p p ly v t снабжать, e. g. In o u r hall th e stu d e n ts are
supplied w ith all the necessary furniture and bedding. W ho
will supply the expedition with all the necessary equipm ent?
su p p ly л (often pi) запас(ы), e. g. This shop has a large
supply of w inter coats.
to give a good su p p ly of, e. g. These forests give a good
supply of timber.
6. sh a p e л форма, очертание, e. д. I d o n 't like the shape
of his nose. This sc u lp tu re h a sn 't got m uch shape, I sh o u ld
say.
Syn. form, outline
in th e sh a p e of, e. д. I w ant to g et a brooch in the shape
of a horseshoe.
shap eless adj бесформенный, e. g. He had a rag g ed coat
and a shapeless hat on.
s h a p e ly a dj красивой формы; стройный, хорош о сло­
женный, as a shapely figure
7. c h a n n el n канал, a stretch of w ater w ider than a strait,
jo in in g tw o seas or se p a ra tin g two b o d ie s of lan d , as th e
English Channel, the Bristol Channel
Syn. 1. ca 'n al канал — a channel for w ater m ade by man,
not by nature, used for ships or for carrying w ater to places
that need it, as the Suez Canal, the Panam a Canal, the Vol-
ga-D on Canal, the F ergana Canal; 2, stra it пролив — a n ar­
row channel of w ater co n necting two large b odies of w ater,
as the M agellan Strait, the Strait of Dover
8. v alu e л ценность, значение, e. g. T he literary value of
that book is not great. I d o n 't believe you realize the value of
his advice.
to be of g re a t (little, som e, no) v a lu e to sm b., e. g. In
some years his pictures will be of great value. This book will
b e of no value in your studies.
v a lu e v t 1. ценить, дорож ить, e. g . I g re a tly v a lu e his
friendship.
237
Syn. a p p rec iate (о)ценить высоко, по заслугам, е, д. W e
ail ap p rec iate a h oliday after a year of h ard work. I g reatly
appreciate your kindness.
2. оценивать, e. g. He valued the house for me at £ 800.
valuable adj ценный, e. g. It's a valuable picture.

ESSENTIAL VOCABULARY (I)

Words
advantage n flow V shapely adj
canal л harbour n soil л
channel л lonely adj strait л
cliff n m anufacture л supply V
com paratively adv plain n valuable adj
crop л plough v value v , n
cultivate v rocky adj varied adj
deer л scene n variety л
distinct adj scenery n various adj
eagle л shallow adj vary v
extrem e adj shape n w ander v
extrem ely adv shapeless adj w heat л

Word Combinations

to the w est (east, north; in the north (south, east,


south) of west)
within a few miles (metres, to separate smth. from
etc.) of smth.
to keep smth. from (cold, regular in outline
heat, bad influence, etc.) u nder w heat (rye, etc.)
on the map to flow into (the sea, lake,
to give a good supply of river)
owing to the shape (rain, to flow (from, out of)
etc.) to be of great (little, some,
no) value

238
E X E R C IS E S

I. Read the text and do the following (A. Grammar, B. Word usage,
C, Word-formation):
A. 1. Pick ou t all p ro p e r nam es an d a rra n g e them into
two groups — nouns with the definite article and w ithout it;
explain the use of the article. 2. Search the text for sen ten c­
es w ith inversion. T ransform them in to re g u la r se n te n c e s
and com pare them with the original ones. Specify w hat kind
of inversion it is. 3. W hat tense group is predom inant in the
text and why?
B. 1. Pick out all the adjectives that go together with the
following nouns: sea, lake, river; m ountains, hills, cliffs; area,
land, field , m oors, upland, low land. 2. M ark all th e cases
w hen nouns are defined by two adjectives; com m ent on th e
w ord order; is it p o ssib le to ch a n g e it? 3. P ick o u t all th e
nouns defined by the adjective small; is it possible to use lit’
tie in s te a d ? 4. S e a rc h th e te x t for th e c o m b in a tio n s of
A dv + A dj ending in -ed, translate them into Russian and use
them in sentences of your own.
C. 1. P ick ou t all th e d eriv ativ es an d classify th em a c ­
cording to the suffix, 2. Search the text for com pounds and
com m ent on their structure. 3. Pick out from the text all the
w ords th a t have hom onym s. Spell, tran sc rib e an d classify
them.

II. Write English equivalents of the following:


более миллиона тонн, миллионы людей, двести озер, глубиной
600 футов, сотни миль, длина Темзы немногим больше 200 миль,
сотни островков, общая площадь Великобритании около 94 250 кв.
миль или 244 000 кв. километров, население — 56 миллионов чело­
век.

III. a) Make up a list of geographical names used in the text (mind the
articles) and transcribe them.
b) Transcribe and translate the following words:
advantage, canal, channel, comparatively, desolate, d eter­
m ine, estu a ry , ex trem ely , g lo rio u s, h e a th e r, in d e n ta tio n ,
m anufacture, moor, navigable, occasionally, plough, scenery,
strait, total, vague, value, vary, wander, wheat, wind.
239
240
c) Translate the following verbs into English. Give their four forms:
пахать, течь, извиваться, меняться, бродить, ценить, снабжать,
ломать, выращивать.
d) Give the plural of the following nouns. Translate them into Russian:
deer, sheep, fish, m outh, foot.

IV. Supply adjectives:


\
1. ... w ater is w arm er than ... w ater. 2. Cornwall is famous
for its ... cliffs. 3. Its ... soil is deeply cultivated. 4. This part of
the co u n try is noted for ... cold. 5. The U. K. ... area is som e
94,250 square miles. 6. There are ... fields in the east of Eng­
land. 7. T h ere are ... h arb o u rs for ships. 8. In the n o rth e rn
H ighlands of Scotland you'll enjoy the sight o f ... m ountains.
9. T h ey w ere m ak in g th e ir w ay th ro u g h ... hills. 10. T h ere
were ... plains stretching for miles and miles. 11. Lowlands is
the ... plain of Scotland.

, V. Answer the following questions (use the map on p. 240):


1. W h a t do we call th e group of islands situ a te d to th e
north-w est of Europe? 2. W hat are the nam es of the biggest
islands? 3. Do th e U nited K ingdom and G reat Britain m ean
th e sam e? 4. W h a t c o u n trie s a re s itu a te d on th e B ritish
Isles? W hat are their capitals? 5. W hat is G reat Britain p ro p ­
er? 6. W hat are the nam es of the w aters w ashing the coasts
of the British Isles? 7. W hy do the English call the strait b e ­
tw een G reat Britain an d th e m ainland the "Strait of Dover"
and the F rench call it “Pas-de-C alais” (international term )?
8. W h a t a re th e m o st im p o rta n t riv ers in G re a t B rita in ?
9. W h at are th e nam es of the chief m ountain ranges on th e
isla n d ? 10. W h e re a re th e C u m b ria n an d th e C a m b ria n
m ountains situated?

VI. Translate the following sentences in writing. (Consult Essential


Vocabulary (I).) Respond to the questions and statements, using the
conversational formulas (see p. 184, Ex. XI B):
1, Вы можете показать на карте важнейшие порты Великобри­
тании? 2. Эта карта не представляет большой ценности. 3. Знаете
ли вы, куда впадает река Северн? 4. Благодаря постоянным до­
ждям реки Англии служат хорошим источником пресной воды.
® В. Д . А ракин, I! курс 241
5. К акие горы отделяю т Англию от Ш отландии? 6. К северо-восто­
ку от Ш отландии находятся острова. К ак они назы ваю тся? 7. О ст­
ров М эн и м е ет с р ав н и тел ь н о п р ав и л ьн ы е о ч ер т а н и я , судя по
карте. 8. Ч то м о ж ет п редохран ить посевы от сильного холода?
9. С равн и тельн о больш ая часть пахотной зем ли н а ю го-востоке
Англии занята под пш еницей. 10. В каком районе страны находят­
ся больш ие запасы угля? 11. В нескольких милях от Л ондона н ахо­
дится город К ройдон {Croydon}, в котором им еется больш ой а э р о ­
порт.

VII. Study the following derivatives and compounds:


sandy, noticeable, plough-land, sea-loving, h eath er-co v ­
ered, m uddy, navigable, su g ar-b eet, low -lying, w aterw ays,
fruit-growing.
a) Write out the sentences in which they are used in the text.
b) Use them in sentences of your own.
c) Give English equivalents of the following:
солнечный, туманны й, дождливый, снеж ны й, скалисты й, гр я :1
ный, дымный, водянисты й, холмистый, песчаный, сахарны й, удли
ненны й, предпочтительный, ценный, судоходный, заметны й, отдо
лимый, определимы й, подходящий.

d) Give Russian equivalents of the following:


variety-show , w h eat-field , c o a l-su p p lie r, p lo u g h m an
heather-m oor, horseshoe, seashore, seascape, earthquake;
d e e r-h u n tin g , w h ea t-g ro w in g , s h e e p -b re e d in g , cro p
gathering, land-ploughing, snow-ploughing;
sh ip b u ild in g (yards), leaf-b earin g (trees), nature-loving
(nation), furbearing (animals), ocean-going (steamers), food
producing (industries);
sn o w -co v ered (fields), sm o k e-filled (room ), m an-m ad
(canal), g rass-co v ered (plain), se a-b o u n d (ship), w eath ei
beaten (face), moon-lit (path).

VIII. Supply articles where necessary. Write answers to the questions:


1. Look at ... map of ... British Isles. Do you know what. .
two largest islands are called? 2. ... right-hand side of ... ma.
is ... East. W h at sea is east of ... G reat B ritain? 3. In wh<
242
direction is ... Irish Sea from ... G reat Britain? 4. Point to ...
body of ... w ater w hich is west of ... Ireland. W hat do we call
it? 5. T ow ards ... b o tto m of ... m ap is ... South. W h at is to ­
w ards ... top o f ... m ap? 6. In w hat direction is ... G reat Brit­
ain from ... English C hannel? 7. W hat co u n try is w est of ...
England? 8. Find ... Thames. ... rivers always flow tow ards ...
sea. In w h at d ire c tio n d o es ... T h am es flow? 9. ... S ev ern
flows into ... Bristol C hannel, d o e sn 't it? 10. W h ere d o es ...
Severn rise? 11. W h at do we call ... highest p art of ... S cot­
land? 12. Find ... E dinburgh and ... Glasgow. In w hat p art of
... S c o tla n d are th e y situ a te d ? 13. W h e re a re ... C h e v io t
Hills? 14. In w hat direction are ... British Isles from ... m ain­
land? 15. W hat w ater bo d y separates ... British Isles from ...
Continent?

IX. Study Vocabulary Notes and translate the illustrative examples


Into Russian.

X. Supply suitable words (consult Essential Vocabulary I);


1. The English .... in its narrow est part (the ... of Dover) is
only 32 km wide. 2. T he ... of S cotland is n o ted for its wild
and desolate beauty. 3. T he rivers of G reat Britain are of no
great ... as waterways, som e of them are jo in ed by m eans of
... . 4, T he relief of G reat Britain ... to a rem arkable deg ree.
5. T h ey to o k ... of th e ir sta y in L ondon to b ru sh u p th e ir
E nglish. 6. T he ch ief grain., are oats an d b arley . 7. Rivers
in E n g lan d a re seld o m frozen. ... a re ic e-free . 8. N e x t to
co a l a n d iro n , s to n e a n d s la te a re m o st ... m in e ra ls in
E ngland. 9. The rich ... of so u th -east E ngland is w ell c u lti­
vated. 10. The W elsh M ountains are very ... and difficult to
climb. 11. The seas surrounding the British Isles are very ...,
usually less than 300 feet deep. 12. Britain's com plex g eo lo ­
gy is one of the main reasons for its rich ... of scenery. 13. In
w in ter e a ste rn B ritain faces th e c o ld e r c o n tin e n t w h ereas
w estern Britain faces the ... warm Atlantic. 14. In m ost areas
th e farm er ... only th e v alley la n d s an d th e ... w h ere soils
are d ee p er and richer. 15. There are ... types of wild v eg eta­
tion, including the natural flora of woods, fens and m arches.
16. The Lake District is famous for its ... .
243
XI. Express the same idea in your own words or explain the following
substituting synonyms for the words in italics:
1. Tom Ramsay spent two happy years in the various cap ­
itals of E urope. 2. Blodwyn, g azin g at th e d ark o u tlin e of
m o u n ta in s b e fo re her, k n ew th a t ra in w o u ld fall b e fo re
night-tim e. 3. T he w indow s of sem i-circular shape w ere on
th e level of th e floor. 4. H e was w andering ab o u t w ith two
p en c e in his p o c k e t an d now here to go for th e n ig h t. 5. It
w as th e strin g of p earls M iss R obinson was w earing an d it
was valued at 50 thousand pounds. 6. Larry had a w onderful­
ly m elo d io u s vo ice w ith a sin g u lar va riety of tone. 7. T he
c h ild re n a p p re cia te d th e m e ch an ical toys th e y h ad n ev er
seen before. 8. His h an d s w ere long, b u t n o t larg e for his
size, beautifully shaped and at the sam e tim e strong. 9. She
has tw en ty y ears a dvantage over me. 10. Both h ad the a d ­
vantage of speaking good and fluent French. 11. T hey have
ju s t h a d a te rrific scen e. 12. I u se d to w a n d er a b o u t th e
sw eet-sm elling m eadow s in the evening. 13. He was not in ­
terested in your views on the social and moral value of their
relationship. 14. Though she had lost the fresh bloom of e x ­
trem e youth, there was not a line on her forehead or under
her hazel eyes. 15. The clim ate is sufficiently varied for both
sub-tropical and sub-arctic plants to be cultivated within the
extent of the British Isles. 16. The British farm er cultivates a
co m p a ra tiv e ly sm all tra c t of la n d p ro d u c in g a v a rie ty ol
products. 17. Tom ran aro u n d and sto p p ed w ithin a foot or
two of the flower. 18. O wing to num erous rapids the river is
no t navigable. 19. Ju lia P en d leto n lik ed to sit cross-legged
on the couch just to show her shapely legs in silk stockings.

XII. Fill in prepositions. Make a study of the text:


J u s t off the co ast ... the m ain lan d ... n o rth -w estern E u ­
ro p e an d o n ly n in e te e n m iles d is ta n t ... it ... th e n e a re st
p o in t lies th e sm all g ro u p ... islan d s know n as th e British
Isles.
T h e B ritish Isles in c lu d e G re at B ritain , Ire la n d a n d ь
n um ber ... sm all islands. G reat Britain consists ... England,
Scotland and W ales. The so u th ern two thirds ... Ireland art
o c c u p ie d ... th e Irish R epublic w hich b o rd ers ... N o rth ern
Ireland.
244
G reat Britain is a region ... varied low lands, rolling hills
and few m ountains. A lthough the highest peak, Ben Nevis ...
the G ram pians ... Scotland, rises ... 4,400 feet, su ch -h eig h ts
seldom occur. The Pennine Range ... northern E ngland rises
only slightly ... 3,000 feet, as do the C am brian m ountains ...
Wales.
... th e extrem e south ... England are th e fam ed chalk hills
some ... w hich form the Dover Cliffs.
The rivers ... th e reg io n are sh o rt an d ... g en eral flow ...
the cen tral an d so u th ern low lands ... the su rro u n d in g seas.
M any ... them are c o n n e c te d ... each o th e r ... can als. T he
coasts ... the British Isles are w ashed ... the A tlantic O cean,
the N orw egian, N orth an d Irish seas an d two big ch an n els
(the English Channel and the N orth Channel).

XIII. Write questions about the text, using new words and phrases in
each question. When asking and answering the questions use the map.

XIV. Give English equivalents of the Russian word мелкий in its


different meanings. Use them in sentences of your own.

XV. a) Read and translate the following text:


T he w arm cu rren ts in th e A tlantic O cean in flu en ce th e
clim ate of G reat Britain. T he w inters are not severely cold,
while sum m ers are rarely hot.
Rainfall is evenly distributed throughout the year.
T he p erce n tag e of the cloudiness is high, well over half
the days of th e year being overcast; fogs along the coast as
well as occasionally in the interior freq u en tly h id e the sun.
The fogs of London, often m ade severe by m ixture w ith city
sm oke (smog), have a w orld-w ide reputation, b u t one not to
be envied.

b) Talk (or make up a dialogue) on the climate of the European part of


Russia using the terms from the text above.

XVI. Translate these sentences into English:


1. Разные л ю д и , которых мы не ожидали, появились в зале.
2. Ангара вытекает из озера Байкал и впадает в Енисей. 3. Едва ли
вы найдете в нашей стране такой район, где бы не выращивались
сельскохозяйственные культуры. 4. Просто удивительно, как мо­
245
жет водиться столько рыбы в таком мелком озере. 5. Орел — боль­
шая птица, сильная, с острым зрением. Он обычно живет в скалах
или на вершинах гор. 6. Этот одинокий утес напоминает мне по
форме древнюю башню. 7. Если бы вам удалось защитить эти
тюльпаны от жары, они бы не завяли (fade) так скоро. 8. Гористый
ландшафт встречается главным образом на юге и на востоке на­
шей страны. 9. Он не раз видел, как олени бродят по тундре (the
tundra). 10. Детей следует ограждать от дурного влияния. 11. Те­
перь уже едва ли вы найдете на карте белые пятна (blank spaces).

XVII. Fill in:


a) to change, to vary or to differ.
1. T he soil ... w ithin a few m iles in m any districts, p ro ­
ducing sharp contrast of scenery and flora. 2. The clim ate of
G reat B ritain ... g re a tly from th a t of th e C o n tin en t. 3. The
w eather ... very often in England. 4. T he face of Scotland ...
from that of South East E ngland. 5. T he educational system
of G reat Britain ... from that of the United States. 6. Tastes ....
7. H e looked exactly as sh e rem em bered him, as young, as
frank, bu t his expression was .... 8. T he average w inter tem ­
p e ra tu re ... b e tw e e n —3°C an d —7°C. 9. W h a t can have
h a p p e n e d to ... him so m uch? 10. T hat is a p o in t on which
you and she w ould certainly ....
b) different, various or varied:
1. Russia has a ... clim ate because of its vast territory. 2. ..
b ran ch e s of in d u stry are fo u n d in G reater London. 3. This
good w heat lan d is q u ite ... from th o se b ein g cu ltiv ated ir.
n o rth e rn regions. 4. B ritain is im m ensely ... w ithin a sm a r
area. 5. The insect fauna in Britain is less... than that of Conti
n en tal E urope. 6. H e has b ee n to ... p laces of th e extrem e
N orth. 7. A glance at the map is enough to see how ... the sur
face of England is. 8. A hom e in the country is very ... from ai>
a p a rtm e n t in th e city. 9. I have com e acro ss him in re c e n 5
years on ... occasions. 10. The young m an asked me ... k in d 5
of q u estio n s. 11. T he n ew sp ap ers carried ... re p o rts of th<
storm. 12. W hat we wear nowadays is quite ... from w hat ou:
ancestors wore. 13. He started to teach me German. He woulc
tell m e th e G erm an for th e ... o b jects we p assed , a cgw, <
horse, a m an and so on, and then m ake m e rep eat sim ple Gei
246
m an sentences. 14. T hrough m any years of ... conditions he
kept thinking of his family. 15. Having tried ... topics of con­
versation I felt exhausted.
c) to value or to appreciate',
1. She told C ount Borcelli that her necklace was ... at eight
th o u san d pou n d s. 2. Ju d g in g by his w ords h e ... y o u r help.
3. Being asked w hat he th o u g h t of a possible ch an g e in th e
plan he said he ... it. 4. But I would not like him to think that I
do n o t ... the honour that he has done me. 5. The picture is ...
at a thousand dollars. 6 . 1 suppose only a Frenchm an can ... to
the full the grace of Racine and the music of his verse. 7. Jan e
A usten's work is to be ... primarily as satire. 8. Mr. C ook ... his
secretary for her accuracy.
d) lonely or oJone:
I . She stayed ... in her room refusing to com e downstairs.
2. Theirs was a ... house isolated by the m ountains. 3. He felt
m iserable an d .... 4. ... in th e h o u se was M iss Sarie V illier.
5. Elliot in his w ell-cut dinner jack et looked elegant as he ...
could look. 6 . “Do you know th at m eetin g you for the first
tim e is to m e like a ... trav eller com ing across som e b rig h t
flowerlet in the desert!” — said Sir Francis. 7. H e was ... w hen
I was ushered in. 8. Frau Becker seem ed to look for o p p o rtu ­
nities of being ... with Larry. 9. The British farm house is often
some distance from a public road. The life there is hard and ....
10. Y oung Jo ly o n ... am o n g th e F o rsy tes w as ig n o ra n t of
Bosinney's nicknam e.
XVIII. Translate the sentences into English:
I . Чем лучше обрабатывается почва, тем выше урожай, 2. Об­
ширная равнина простирается от Уральского хребта до реки Ени­
сей. 3. Волго-Донской канал — одна из наших главных водных ма­
гистралей, он судоходен на всем своем протяжении. 4. Во Влади­
востоке прекрасная гавань, многие российские иностранные паро­
ходы бросают в ней якори (cast anchor). 5. Па-де-Кале отделяет Ве­
ликобританию от материка, а Северный пролив — Шотландию от
Ирландии. 6. Эта культура ценна как корм для скота. 7. Едва ли
приходилось вам наслаждаться более живописными видами.
8. Бблыная часть пахотной земли в этом районе занята под пшени­
247
цей. 9. Уже на расстоянии мили от берега мы видели отчетливы е
очертан и я кораблей, стоящ их в гавани. 10. Л иния побереж ья К ас­
пийского м оря сравнительно ровная, только у устья Волги б ерег
и зр езан и и м еет много островков и бухт.

XIX. The table below (April, 1981) shows some similarities and differ­
ences between the four countries of Great Britain:

England Scotland W ales N orhem


Ireland

Area 130,439 78,772 20,768 14,121


(sq km)

Population 46,221,000 5,117,000 2,790,000 1,547,000

Highest Scafell Ben Snowdon Slieve


m ountain Pike Nevis 1,085 m Donard
(height) 978 m 1,342 m 852 m

Largest London Glasgow Cardiff Belfast


city (po­ (Greater ■
pulation) London)
6,696,000 762,200 273,900 297,900

W e can point out the similarities like this:


In spite of the obvious differences in size and population,
th e co untries of th e UK have quite a lot in common. W ales
and N o rth ern Irelan d are fairly sim ilar in size, th o u g h th e
area of W ales is slightly larger. T here isn't much difference
in population betw een Cardiff and Belfast, th o u g h Belfast is
just a little larger.
S cafell P ik e an d S now don a re more or le ss th e sam e
h eight, th o u g h Snow don is just a few m etres higher. Both
Snow don and Ben N evis are over 1,000 m h eig h t, th o u g h
neither of them is all that high com pared with the Alps, for
example.
a) Practise using the words and word combinations in bold type to
make other comparisons between some two-four regions of Russia. Write
your best sentences down.

248
b) In small groups, compare your own country (republic) with another
country (republic) you know well. What are the similarities in Climate,
Industry, People, Traffic, Railways, Scenery, City life, Food, Agriculture,
Education, Clothes?

XX. Talk about your home town. Use the following dialogue as a
model:
A.: Y ou're from W ales, aren 't you?
D.: Yes, that's right. I com e from Swansea actually.
A.: Ah, Swansea! I've never been there. It's a port, isn't, it?
D.: O h yes — big docks, steel w orks an d a lot of heavy
in d u stry ro u n d about. But it's funny, ju st o u tsid e th e town
there's really beautiful country. It’s extrem ely beautiful along
the coast — the Gower Peninsula, No industry or nothing —
ju st like it was a hundred years ago.
A.: Sounds great. And how large is Swansea?
D.: Oh, it's a big city. You m ustn't think that all the p eople
in W ales live in villages. W e have cities too!
A.: Yes, I suppose so.

XXI. Try your hand at teaching.


1. Say what you would do in the teacher's position:
Paul, a senior in high school, m ust o u tsm art every ad u lt
with whom he com es in contact. His need to feel superior is
so strong th at he spends hours plo ttin g bow he can achieve
his goal. He goes to the library to look up definitions and in ­
fo rm atio n of irre le v a n t su b je c t m atter, an d co n fro n ts th e
teacher with questions like “W hat kind of dress did Jo sep h in e
wear w hen she m arried N apoleon?” Since the teacher cannot
answer this question, Paul proceeds with his inform ation and
proves his superiority to the whole class.

2, a) Try and act as a teacher of geography and discuss one of the


following topics. Make use of Essential Vocabulary (I). Use the map when
■peaking. (Give a three-minute talk.)

b) Comment on the students' knowledge of the topic, their skill of


feeding the map and the choice of the vocabulary:
1. T he B ritish Isles an d th e seas, straits a n d c h a n n els,
w ashing th eir coast. 2. T he relief of E ngland, its highlands,
low lands and m o u n tain s. 3. T he rivers of E ngland. 4. T he
249
Lake District. 5. Stratford-on-Avon. 6. The relief of Scotland.
7. The relief of W ales. 8. The clim ate of G reat Britain. 9. The
relief and clim ate of Ireland. (See “Classroom English’*, Sec­
tion VIII.)

LABORATORY EXERCISES (I)

1. Listen to the text “The British Isles'*, mark the stresses and tunes.
Repeat the text following the model.
2. Paraphrase the sentences, using the suggested speech patterns.
Check your sentences with the key (oral work).
3. Complete the sentences with geographical terms. Write these terms
down and check them with the key (oral and written work).
4. Write a spelling-translation test: a) translate the phrases into
English; b) check them with the key.
5. Do the suggested exercises and check them with the key (written
work).
6. Listen to the text “Soil and Vegetation”: a) write it as a dictation;
b) retell it.

II

T O P I C : GEOGRAPHY

TEXT A. INDUSTRIAL AND AGRICULTURAL DISTRICTS


IN GREAT BRITAIN

England is a highly developed industrial country. Londoi,


is the biggest city. It is im portant for products of all kinds in
eluding food, instrum ent engineering, electrical and electron
ic engineering, clothing, furniture and printing. It has s o it k

heavy engineering plants and several leading research estab ­


lishm ents. London is a great port with m any docks. It is als<
the centre of commerce.
N orth-w est of London, in the m idland counties (the Mid
lands) is a very im portant industrial district w hich is know;
as th e “ B lack country**. In B irm ingham , th e c e n tre of thi
area, and in the m anufacturing towns nearby, various good

250
are p ro d u c e d : m a ch in e tools, tu b es, d o m estic m etalw are,
rubber products, etc. The largest coal and iron fields in Brit­
ain are located in th e M idlands. F u rth er n o rth is M an ch es­
ter, one of th e m ain cen tres for electrical an d h eav y e n g i­
neering and for the p ro d u ctio n of a wide range of goods in ­
clu d in g com puters, electro n ic eq u ip m en t, p etro ch em icals,
dye-stuffs and pharm aceuticals. The M anchester Ship C anal
links M anchester with Liverpool, one of Britain's leading sea­
ports.
East of M an ch ester is th e city of Sheffield, w ell-know n
for its m anufacture of high quality steels, tools an d cutlery.
A short railw ay jo u rn ey to the north-east will tak e you from
M anchester to Bradford, th e com m ercial cen tre of th e wool
trade.
Further north is Newcastle situated on the N orth Sea coast,
a city fam ous for its shipbuilding yards and its export of coal.
In Scotland, the richest part is that of the Lowlands. H ere
th e re are coal and iron fields. G lasgow is th e la rg e st city,
seaport and tradin g cen tre of Scotland. N orth-east S cotland
is now the centre of off-shore oil and gas industries.
A lth o u g h B ritain is a d en sely p o p u la ted , in d u stria liz ed
country, agricu ltu re is still one of its m ost im portant in d u s­
tries. Dairying is most common in the west of England, w here
the wetter climate encourages the growth of good grass. Sheep
and cattle are reared in the hilly and m oorland areas of north­
ern and south-w estern England. Its best farm land lies in th e
south-eastern plains.
T he so u th of E ngland is rural, w ith m any fertile valleys
and n u m e ro u s h e d g e s 1 d iv id in g th e w ell-c u ltiv a te d field s
and pastures.
The south-eastern coast is w ell-know n for its p ictu resq u e
scenery and mild climate and a num ber of popular resorts. On
th e so u th e rn coast of E ngland th e re are m any larg e ports,
am ong them: Southam pton, Portsmouth, Plymouth,

1hedge: a row of bushes or low trees, which are forming a kind of barrier
251
TEXT В. THE ENGLISH LANDSCAPE

— I know that there are m any types of natural scenery in


E n g lan d . B ut w h at is th e re in th e E nglish la n d s c a p e th a t
strikes the eye of the stranger used to other countries?
— Its “park-lik e” appearance, I believe. England in truth
lo o k s lik e o n e g re a t w ell-o rd ered p ark w ith its old trees,
green meadows and hedges.
— But as far as I know th e h ed g e s ta k e up a c o n sid e r­
able part of soil suitable for ploughing.
— T hey do. But th e E nglishm an loves th e g reen of E n ­
gland w ith its hedges, ten d er-g reen in spring, covered with
leaf and flower in summer, a blaze of gold and red in autum n.
In w inter too they are still beautiful with a few scarlet berries
alm ost burning in the frost.
— And yet, if England swept away her hedges and p u t in
their place fences the saving of land would be enorm ous.
— But m uch of the p ark -lik e b e a u ty of the co u n try sid e
w ould be gone and w ith it the peculiar ch aracter of th e E n­
glish landscape.
— I h ear th ere are a lot of lovely g ard en s all alo n g th e
English countryside. Are English people fond of gardening?
— T hey are. A lm ost every one in E ngland tries to com e
in to u ch w ith a b it of p la n t life. In the East of L ondon you
m ay see w orkingm an's “flats” with their w indow gardens. In
th e W e st E nd, la n d w h ich is w o rth m a n y th o u s a n d s of
p ounds per acre is devoted to gard en use. In the small su b ­
urban villas a very considerable tax of m oney and labour is
paid in the effort to keep in good order a little pocket h an d ­
kerchief of lawn and a few shrubs.
— Well, I think that this proves that the Englishm an is at
h ea rt a g reat lover of nature, th o u g h he is su p p o sed to be
such a prosaic and practical person.
(After “The English Landscape and
the English Love of It” by F. Foxi

252
TEXT С. LOOKING AT THE MAP OF RUSSIA

— I'd like you to tell me som ething about your country.


— I think the best way to get a general idea of a country
is to study the map. It's lucky I’ve got one with me. H ere it is.
— P erhaps we had b etter start w ith the physical o u tlin e
of the country.
— W ell, Russia can be divided roughly into two m ain re ­
gions — the highlands in the east and the low lands covering
the g reater part of the country, w ith a long m ountain ran g e
cutting it into two unequal parts.
— You m ean the Urals. T hey form the natural border b e ­
tw een E urope and Asia. But the highest m ountain chains, as
far as I can see are situ ated in the south and the so u th -east
of the country. W hat do you call them?
— T he C au casu s, b etw e en th e C asp ian and th e B lack
Sea and the Altai in Asia.
— I'd love to go there. M y hobby is m ountaineering. But
our m ountains are not so high as yours, as far as I know.
— I believe they are not. W e have peaks four and a half
m iles high. But we also have low lands several h u n d red feet
below sea level. W e have step p es in th e south, p lain s an d
forests in the midlands, tundra and taiga in the north.
— W hat are the “steppes” ?
— They are treeless plains covered with grass. The soil is
fertile there.
— And is the tundra like our heather moors?
— N ot in the least. It's a kind of frozen desert in the A rc­
tic region.
— And what is the ‘taiga*, I w onder?
— It's a thick coniferous forest stretching to the south of
the tundra. It's rich in anim als, v alu ed for th eir fur lik e sa ­
ble, fox, squirrel.
— I'd lik e to go h u n tin g th ere, b u t I'm afraid I w o u ld
never be able to stand the cold.
— O u r c lim a te is also v a rie d . In th e s o u th -w e s t th e
w eather is usually m ild and wet; northern Asia is one of the

253
coldest places on earth, and in the south the heat is u n b ear­
able. But in the m iddle of the country the clim ate is m o d er­
ate and continental.
— W ell, it has b een very in te re stin g for m e to h ear all
those things. Thank you very m uch for your information.

M em ory W ork
England! with all thy faults, I love th ee still,
I said at Calais, and have not forgot it.
I like the taxes w hen they're not too many;
I like a sea-coal fire, w hen not too dear;
I like a beef-steak, too, as well as any;
Have no objection to a pot of beer;
I like the w eather when it is not rainy,
That is, I like two m onths of every year.
G eorge Byron

ESSENTIAL VOCABULARY (II)

Words
border n level n resort л
chem icals л m achinery n rural adj
cotton n m oderate adj steppe л
desert n pasture л stretch v, л
dock n peak n taiga л
fence n picturesque adj tool л
fertile adj range л tundra л
h edge л, v raw adj vast adj

Word Combinations
highly developed shipbuilding yards
coal (iron) fields trading centre
offshore oil industry rural district
heavy (light) engineering rich in (smth.)
densely (thinly) populated m oderate (mild) clim ate
254
P ro p er N a m e s

the Avon Dublin the N orth Sea


Belfast Eire the Pennines
Birmingham Glasgow Portsm outh
the Bristol C hannel the Grampians the Severn
the Cam brians Ireland Sheffield
the Cheviot Hills Leeds Southam pton
the Clyde M anchester the Strait of Dover
the C um brians the M ersey the Tyne
N ewcastle the Tham es

EXERCISES

I. Study Texts A and В and a) transcribe the words below:


petrochem icals, com m erce, fertile, engineering, iron, in ­
dustry, equipm ent, m oderate, resort, pharm aceuticals, dairy­
ing, rear, rural, area, picturesque, meadow, ploughing, acre.
b) Transcribe the geographical names used in Text A.

II. Pick out from Text A English equivalents of the following:


вы сокоразвитая пром ы ш ленная страна, тяж ел о е м аш и н острое­
ние, каменноугольны й бассейн, судостроительны е верф и, стран а с
вы сокой плотностью населения, земледелие, добыча н еф ти в от­
кры том море, хи м и чески е продукты из н еф тян о го сы рья, эл ек ­
тр о н н ое оборудован и е, сельск охозяй ствен н ы й район, плодород­
ны е долины , хорош о возделанны е поля, ж и вопи сны й пейзаж , м яг­
кий климат, модные курорты.

III. Wrilte questions about Text A, using the words and phrases from
Ex. II. Prepare to discuss the text. (Use he map.)

IV. Read Text С and pick-out English equivalents of the following


phrases:
получить общ ее представление о чем-л., иметь при себе что-л.,
о б р азо вы вать естествен н ую границу, насколько я понимаю , мое
лю бим ое занятие {мой конек), насколько мне известно, н и ж е у р о в ­
ня моря, ни в коей мере, непереносим ы й.

V. Retell Text С in indirect Speech. Try and give an additional piece of


information on the topic.
255
VI. Fill in the words border, boundary or frontier. Choose the correct
alternative.
N o t e : The Russian word граница has several equivalents in English:
border — пограничная зона или полоса по обе стороны демаркационной ли­
нии, е. д. The people living on the border of two adjoining countries usually
speak the languages of both.; boundary — граница как разграничительная
линия, предел, е. д. This stream forms a boundary between the two farms.;
frontier — граница как демаркационная линия, государственная граница,
е. д. to pass the frontiers, и как пограничная зона или район (в отличие от
border) только по одну сторону демаркационной линии, е. д. to guard the
frontiers, frontier station, fortress, incident, dispute.

1. W hen we w ent cam ping, we p u t up our tents on the ...


of the lake. 2. The ... incident was reported by the new spapers
in detail. 3. A ... d isp u te is a q u arrel ab o u t w h ere a ... is or
o ught to be. 4. The river formed a ... betw een these rural dis­
tricts. 5. T he half-ruined tower used to be a ... fortress. 6. The
region along the boundary betw een England and Scotland is
called the .... 7. A hedge is a fence or a row of bushes or low
trees, w hich are planted to form a ... round a garden or field.
8 . G re at B rita in 's ..., n o rth e rn , e a s te rn an d so u th e rn , are
formed by seas and oceans.

VII. Study Text С and use it as a model for a talk between an English­
man and a Russian who is on his first visit to England.

VIII. Fill in the words north, west, east, south, or their derivatives:
1. T he ... h a lf of o u r c o u n try c o n s is ts m a in ly of low
plains, w hile the g reater part of th e ... half of Russia is cov­
ered w ith m o u n tain chains. 2. In Siberia th e b ig g e st rivers
are the Ob, the Yenissei and the Lena. T hey flow ... through
a vast area parallel to one another, 3. The clim ate contrasts
are q u ite strik in g in R ussia. You ca n find th e ... b ra y in g
frosts th a t reach 70 d eg ree s below zero C e n tig rad e an d at
one and th e sam e tim e the ... bask in g in th e sun on ... se a ­
shores lined w ith green palm s. 4. The L eningrad region lies
to the ... of M oscow. 5. A ... is a person w ho lives in th e ...
and a ... is one w ho lives in th e ... . 6. D evon and Cornw all
are situated on the ... peninsula of England.
256
IX. Supply articles where necessary:
There is no other country in ... world whose nature is m ore
varied th a n th a t of ... Russia. ... w estern half of ... c o u n try
consists m ainly of ... low plains. The country is divided into
two parts by ... Ural m ountains. ... g reater p art o f ... eastern
h alf is c o v e re d w ith v ast p la te a u s an d m o u n ta in c h a in s..
Here, on ... K am chatka Peninsula ... biggest active volcanoes
of ... Old W orld are located.
In ... so u th ... p lain s of ... w estern half of ... co u n try are
b o u n d ed by ... hu g e m ountain ranges. H ere are ... co u n try 's
highest peaks.
M any o f ... rivers of ... Russia are am ong ... w orld's g re a t­
est. ... most im portant rivers of ... w estern plain are ... Volga,
... W estern Dvina, ... Don and ... N orthern Dvina.
In ... Far East ... Amur flows into ... Pacific.
In ... lak es, too, o u r c o u n try is ex tre m ely rich. A m ong
th em a re ... w o rld 's g re a te s t la k e ... C a sp ia n S ea a n d ...
deepest — ... lake Baikal.

X. Discuss the following topics (use the map):


1. English scenery and climate.
2. A gricultural districts of England.
3. The m ost im portant industrial regions in England.
4. Physical background of Russia.
5. The surface of Russia.
6. The clim ate of Russia.
N o t e : Evaluate these talks according to their inform ation content:
amount and quality of information.

XI. Supply prepositions where necessary:


O u r m o th e rla n d is im m ense. It's ... far th e la rg e st an d
richest co u n try b o th ... Asia an d Europe, Its frontier line is
the longest ... the world.
N a tu ra l c o n d itio n s ... R ussia vary g reatly . If you cross
Russia ... the extrem e N orth ... the South you will get a good
idea ... the clim ate contrasts, to say nothing ... th e difference
•*. s c e n e ry an d v e g e ta tio n , c h a ra c te ris tic ... v a rio u s g eo -
25?
graphical zones. Siberia unlike ... the Urals, th e face ... Ta-
tary differs ... that ... the Caucasus. O ne region is rich ... one
thing, another is rich ... another.
P e rh a p s no c o u n try ’s g e o g ra p h ic lo c a tio n has p la y ed
such an im portan t p art ... its history as R ussia's. Half... E u ­
ro p e an d half... Asia, its h isto ry has revolved ... th is b asic
fact.

XII. 1. Describe the scenery, climate and industries of your home town,
region or republic. 2. Choose four slides or postcards and give a commen­
tary on them. W ith the first picture, concentrate on describing what there
is in the picture. With the second one try to give the position of things
accurately. You can use the third one for talking about how and when the
picture was taken. And the last one can be the starting point for a story or
joke. (See “Classroom English** Section V.}

XIII. Finish up the sentences according to the model. (Consult a diction­


ary.):
Englishm en live in England, they speak English.
... in Scotland, ....
... in Ireland, ... .
... in Sweden, ....
... in N orway.........
... in D enm ark,... .
... in H olland........
... in Spain.............
... in the USA, ... .
... in Switzerland.......

XIV. Make up dialogues between an English and a Russian student on


the topics:
1. M oscow and London — cultural and industrial centres.
2. The m ain industrial centres (towns, ports, etc.) of Rus­
sia and England.
3. Rural areas of both countries.

XV. Translate the following, putting it into your own words:


a) express your opinion;
b) say how far factors like climate, the geography of a country, its
history, religion(s), system of government, etc. affect national character.
Give examples.

258
с) write some brief notes about your own national character as you
think foreigners see you. Then, in small groups, describe to each other this
♦•foreign" view of your nation and say why you agree or disagree with it.

Б ри тан ски й х ар ак тер


Н ациональны й х арактер повсю ду ж ивуч. Но ни к како м у н аро­
д у это не относится в больш ей степени, чем к англичанам, которы е
судя по всему, им ею т нечто вроде патента на ж и вучесть своей н а­
туры. Т акова первая и наиболее очевидная черта англичан. С та­
бильность и постоянство их характера. О ни м еньш е других под­
в ер ж ен ы веян и ям врем ени, преходящ им модам. Важ но, однако,
подчеркнуть, что при своей стабильности характер этот составлен
ИЗ весьм а противоречивы х и даж е парадоксальны х черт, одни из
которы х весьм а очевидны, другие ж е трудноуловимы; так что к а ж ­
дое обобщ ение, касаю щ ееся англичан тут ж е м ож ет быть оспорено.
М атериалистический народ — кто усомнится в этом? — англи­
чане дали м и ру щ едрую долю мистиков, поэтов, идеалистов. Н арод
колонистов, они проявляю т пылкую п риверж енн ость к со б ствен ­
ной стране, к своем у дому.
Н еутом им ы е м ореплаватели и зем лепроходцы , они о д н о в р е­
м енно страстны е садоводы.
И х лю бознательность позволила им познаком иться с лучш им
из того, чем обладаю т другие страны, и все-таки они остались в е р ­
ны своей собственной. Восхищ аясь ф ран ц узской кухней, англича­
нин не стан ет им итировать ее у себя дома. На редкость зако н о п о с­
луш ный народ, они обож аю т читать о преступлениях и насилиях.
Являя собой воплощ ение конф орм изм а, они в то ж е врем я заяд ­
лые индивидуалисты, и среди них полно эксцентриков.
Все эти парадоксы, к которым, пожалуй, следует добави ть ещ е
один: при всей своей парадоксальности английский х ар актер ред­
ко бы вает загадочным и непредсказуем ы м .
Генри Стил Комманджер (США),
Британия глазами ам ериканцев. 1974

Я не пы таю сь утверж дать, будто англичане никогда н е м ен я­


лись. П ерем ен ы происходят всегда. Но эти различия, столь зам ет­
ны е внеш не, не проникаю т вглубь, до корней. К лучш ем у или к
худшему, и сконны е черты английской натуры п о-п реж н ем у оста­
ю тся неким общ им знам енателем, оказы ваю т глубокое влияние на
национальны й характер и общ ий стиль ж изни.
Джон Б. П рист ли (Англия),
Англичане. 1973

259
XVI. Comment on the following proverbs and sayings. (Explain their
meaning, give their Russian equivalents.):
East or W est, home is best.
T here is no place like home.
So m any countries, so many customs.
W hen at Rome, do as the Romans do.
Rome was not built in a day.
To carry coals to Newcastle.

XVII. Read the following passage and a) discuss it in detail; b) give a


short summary of the passage; c) comment on the following:
the beauty of Britain as the author sees it;
the variety of geographical features;
a happy com prom ise betw een N ature and Man.
W e live in one of the most beautiful islands in the world.
This is a fact we are always forgetting. W hen beautiful islands
are m entioned we th in k of T rin id ad 1 and T ahiti.2 T hese are
fine, rom antic places, b u t th ey are not really as ex q u isitely
beautiful as our own Britain. Before the m ines and factories
came, and long before we w ent from bad to worse with our a r­
terial roads and petrol stations and horrible brick bungalows,
this country must have been an enchantm ent. Even now, after
we have been busy for so long flinging m ud at this fair pale
face, th e enchantm ent still remains. Sometimes I doubt if we
deserve to possess it. There can be few parts of the w orld in
w hich com m ercial greed and public indifference have com ­
bined to do m ore dam age th an th ey have here. The process
continues. It is still too often assum ed th at any enterprising
fellow after quick profits has a perfect right to destroy a love­
liness that is the heritage of the w hole com munity.
T he b e a u ty of our c o u n try is as h ard to d efin e as it is
easy to enjoy. R em em bering o th er an d larg er co u n trie s we
see at once that one of its charm s is that it is im m ensely var­
ied w ithin a small com pass. W e have here no vast m ountain
ranges, no illim itable plains. But we have superb variety. A
g reat deal of everything is packed into little space. I suspect

1Trinidad: an island in the Atlantic, to the north-east of South America


2 Tahiti: an island in the Pacific
260
that we are always faintly conscious of the fact th at this is a
sm allish island, w ith th e sea alw ays ro u n d th e corner. W e
know th a t everything has to b e n eatly p ack ed into a sm all
sp a ce. N a tu re , w e feel, has c a re fu lly a d ju s te d th in g s —
m ountains, plains, rivers, lakes — to the scale of th e island
itself. A m ountain 12,000 feet high would be a horrible m on­
ste r h e re , as w ro n g as a p la in 400 m iles lo n g , a riv e r as
broad as the M ississippi; T hough the g eographical features
of this island are com paratively small, and th ere is asto n ish ­
ing variety alm ost everyw here, th at does not m ean th at our
m ountains are not m ountains, our plains not plains.
O ur children an d their children after them m ust live in a
beautiful country. It m ust be a co u n try h ap p ily com prom is­
ing betw een N ature and Man, blending what was best w orth
retaining from the p ast w ith w hat best rep resen ts the spirit
of o u r ow n age, a c o u n try rich in n o b le tow ns as it is in
trees, birds, and wild flowers.
{From “The Beauty of Britain” by J. B. Priestley)

XVIII. Role-playing:
Mr. Nice, a lecturer, in his early forties. His topic:
“D on't Spoil N atu re”.
T h e a u d i e n c e : Alex, a sceptically-m inded young man
of 21, a student of Geography;
Miss Dorothy Peach, an ardent lover of
nature, age 73;
Mr. Frederick Healey, a journalist work
ing on a p o p u lar new spaper, m iddle-
aged.
R e s t o f c la s s : m ake offers and su g g e stio n s rela tin g
to the problem.

Don't Spoil Nature


Both in densely and in thinly populated countries the a u ­
thorities m ake regulations and give hints to w ould-be to u r­
ists to protect the countryside from pollution.
H ere's w hat the Tourist Office of Finland advises w ould-
be visitors: W hile you are en jo y in g th e u n iq u e n e ss of th e
Finnish landscape, the forests, the lakes, the rivers, the seas,
261
th e wild life and vegetation, you should obey th e unw ritten
laws of n ature. S heer carelessness and th o u g h tlessn ess can
cau se g reat dam age. As you travel about, p lease rem em ber
you are a guest in the Finnish countryside.
It is forbidden to break off branches of trees and bushes.
Picking flowers (except protected species) is allowed. W hen
you travel by car p lease avoid throw ing litte r an d ru b b ish
ab o u t. P u t it in p la stic b ag s an d ta k e it to th e n e x t p la ce
w here w aste is collected. In Lapland, the b eau ty of the la n d ­
scap e is ex trem ely fragile an d easily d am ag ed . R em em ber
th at it can take over 200 years for the tracks left by your car to
disappear.
A lthough it m ay be tem pting to drive over moors of Lap­
land you m ust always keep to the roads. Because the climate
in L apland is so cold, m etal glass and plastic w aste rem ain
u nchanged for centuries.
S u g g e s t e d p h r a s e s : Right, can we begin, th e n ,
do you th in k l Can you all hear m e at the b a ck? Good, that's
fine. I'm g o in g to talk about: as you know ; anyhow . — I'd
ju s t lik e to run through the m ain points... The first th in g of
course, is... A nd on top o f t h a t ... N ow has anybody got any
p o in ts h e 'd like to ra ise ? Now, that's a good question. The
thing here is — er we've thought a lot about this one. I think
that's it then. Thanks very m uch for your attention.

XIX. Film “Mr. Brown's Holiday". Film Segment 7 “How do I Get to...?”
(Salisbury), a) Watch and listen, b) Do the exercises from the film.

STUDIES OF WRITTEN ENGLISH

VII

In its broadest sense any meaningful piece of written prose


m arked for its unity, co n ten t an d m essage m ay be called a
composition, that is a unit of written com munication involving
a writer, a m essage and a reader.
Between the sen ten ce and the w hole com position stands
th e p arag rap h . It is a co m p o sitio n in m in iatu re b e c a u se it
262
m eets th e sam e req u irem en t of unity, co n ten t an d m essage
(see “Studies of W ritten English” in Units One, Two, Three).
A group of paragraphs constitutes more com plex com po­
sitions, such as essays, short stories, accounts, letters, class-
com positions as a special exercise in w ritten com m unication,
etc.
E ssay is a sh o rt p ro se co m p o sitio n (5— 20 p ages) on a
particular subject. U sually it is of explanatory and arg u m en ­
tative n a tu re (see “S tu d ies” in U nit O ne). For instance, th e
passage “T eacher T raining in G reat B ritain” (see U nit Five)
as well as “Introducing London” (see Unit Three) is close to
a form al essay. “W h a t's Your Line” (see U nit One) an d th e
first le tte r of Ju d y d escrib in g h er co lleg e e x p e rie n c e (see
Unit Five) m ay be classed with informal essays on teaching.
U nity of essays is b u ilt up aro u n d the cen tral idea. A ny
addition of u nim p o rtan t details or afterth o u g h ts d estro y the
unity.
C o h e re n c e is ach iev ed th ro u g h skilful a rra n g e m e n t of
details according to the following rules: a) present your m a­
terial from “the general to the particular” ; b) try the order of
enum eration, that is, arran g e several points of view a c c o rd ­
ing to th eir im portance, or interest, or o rd er of h ap p en in g ;
c) use key-words as connectives and transitions.

T he fo llo w in g is a b rief list of tra n s itio n a l w o rd s an d


phrases th at help to co n n ect parag rap h s of an essay: on the
one {other) hand, in the second place, on the contrary, at the
sam e tim e, in paricular, in sp ite o f this, in like m anner, in
contrast to this, in the m eantim e, o f coarse, in conclusion to
sum up, in addition, moreover, finally, after all, and truly, in
other words.

E m phasis is ach iev ed w ith th e help of co n c re te details.


Avoid generalities and abstractions.
Before writing an essay consider the following:
1. Study the m aterials about the topic.
2. T h in k of th e m ain id ea you are g o in g to d ev e lo p in
your essay.
263
3. W rite an inform al essay “ Looking at the M ap of R us­
sia.”
4. M ake a plan (topic plan, sentence plan, paragraph plan).
5. Develop the paragraph plan into an essay according to
the rules of unity, coherence and emphasis.
6. Go over th e essay for “self-editing” purpose and see if
it m eets th e m ain req u irem en t of good w riting — clarity of
com m unication.
Assignments:
1. Make an outline of the passage “The British Isles" and analyse it
from the point of view of its unity, coherence and emphasis.
2. Write a formal essay “Looking at the Map of the British Isles”
according to your own plan.

LABORATORY EXERCISES (II)

1. Listen to the texts “Industrial and Agricultural Districts in Great


Britain", “The English Landscape", “Looking at the Map of Russia". Mark
the stresses and tunes. Repeat the texts following the model.
2. W ithout looking back at the texts, decide whether the following
statements are true or false.
3. Extend the sentences according to the model.
4. Write a spelling-translation test: a) translate the phrases into English;
b) check them with the key.
5. Listen to the text “The Lake District" and write it as a dictation.
Check it with the key.
6. Listen to the poem “England" by G. G. Byron. Mark the stresses and
tunes. Learn it by heart.
7. Listen to the text “The Isle of Man”. Make a summary of the main
points of the passage.

CURIOSITY QUIZ FOR EAGERS

I. Quiz “Across the Globe".


Answer the following questions. It is accuracy and amount of informa­
tion that count when choosing the winner:
1. W hat is the longest river in the world?
2. In w hat w ay do the w estern shores of the British Isles
differ from the easten shores?
264
3. W hat are the smallest countries in the world?
4. W hat language is spoken in H olland?
5. W hat are the Seven W onders of the world?
6. W hat is the capital of Australia?
7. W hat are the Rockies and w here are they found?
8. W hat is the coldest area in Russia?
9. W hat is the national em blem of Canada?
10. W here is the city of H onolulu situated?

11. Quiz “Across the British Isles”.


Answer the following questions. In this case it is resourcefulness and
sense of humour that count when choosing the winner:
1. W h a t is th e m ain d ifferen ce b etw een th e C u m b rian s
and the Cam brians?
2. Do Englishm en bring coal to Newcastle?
3. Do Englishm en go up or down to get to Edinburgh?
4. W h a t is th e d ifferen ce b etw een Loch N ess an d Loch
Lomond?
5. W hat colour is predom inant on the m ap of the British
Isles?
(Think twice before answering. There is G reenw ich in the
South, you m ay spot G reenock in the North, search the m ap
first.)
6. W hich is closer to London, Oxford or Cam bridge?
7. W h a t is the d ifferen ce b etw een P o rtsm o u th an d P ly­
mouth?
8. W hat is Liverpool famous for?
U N IT EIG H T

SPEECH PATTERNS

I. W e m ust prevent him from leaving.

The cold w et w eather prevented the Lowood girls from go­


ing for long walks.
H is rh eu m a tism o ften p re v e n te d S alv ato re from d o in g
anything at all.
Y ou'd better keep yourself from taking extrem e m easures.
Various reasons k ep t Bill from joining the expedition.
Eliza tried to keep her little child from crying.

2. You can ’t act without feeling.

Jolyon started for the C lub w ithout having m ade up his


mind.
F rank now felt, w ithout know ing why, th at the offer was
probably good.
Rose sat there for a long tim e w ithout unfastening her coat.
You c a n 't teach one how to use sp eech p attern s w ithout
giving a good supply of various examples.
They can ’t have good crops w ithout cultivating soil.

3. His clothes m ade him hard to recognize.

Lots of m istakes m ade his speech difficult to follow.


T h e re w as so m e th in g in B o sin n e y 's a p p e a r a n c e th a t
m ade him easy to recognize.
Her shallow -m indedness m akes her dull to speak to.
They found it impossible to supply the factory with raw co t­
ton.
W e found it hard to m ake up our m inds about choosing
a place for rest.
266
4. These letters are hardly worth the paper they
are w ritten on.

T he problem is hardly w orth the trouble taken.


The picture is of little value, it is hardly w orth the m oney
paid.
T he experim ent is hardly worth the time you've spent on it.
T he incident is hardly worth all this excitem ent.
The soil was hardly worth the toil.

EXERCISES

I. Change the sentences, using the patterns:


P a t t e r n 1 :1 . T h e e x p lo re rs c o u ld n o t re a c h th e
so u th ern b oundaries of the d esert b ecau se of th e scorching
heat and lack of fresh water. 2. T he day was foggy; th e fish­
erm en could not see the coast-line. 3. It's w et outdoors. Put
on m y raincoat, it'll save you for a while. 4. H e c o u ld n 't
tak e part in the conference b ecause he was ill. 5. She could
no t m ake a good speech b ecause of her poor know ledge of
English.
P a tte rn 2 :1 . Amy d id n o t say a w ord an d left th e
room. 2. You can hardly realize w hat an ocean-going ship is
if you h aven't been inside. 3. They will not com e to see us if
they are not invited. 4. H e could listen to long verses in Lat­
in, th o u g h he did not u n derstand a word. 5. He w ould m ark
rhythm w ith his right foot, though he never realized w hat he
was doing.
P a t t e r n 3 :1 . O w ing to the sm allness of our b o a t it
was easy to navigate in such shallow waters. 2. It was im pos­
sible to move on b ecause of the rainy season in the tropics,
3. W e could hard ly recognize the place after th e hurricane.
4. It was easy to change our plans owing to his quick arrival.
5. I c o u ld n o t re c o g n iz e y o u r sis te r b e c a u s e of h e r new
hairdo.
P a t t e r n 4: 1. I d o n 't th in k you are rig h t ta k in g so
m uch trouble over the problem . 2. T hat sacrifice of his was
267
almost useless, Ju st to think of all the efforts made! 3. W hat's
the fare? I'm afraid it is m ore expensive th an your luggage.
4. She had m ade a long way to come there, but the conference
was of little value to her. 5. The m anuscript tu rn ed out to be
a variant of the original. I was sorry 1 w asted so m uch tim e
translating it.

II. Complete the following sentences, using the patterns. Make use of
the words and phrases in brackets:
P attern 1 :1 . V a rio u s re a so n s ... (to do o p tio n a l
sub jects). 2. H er illness ... (to q u alify for th is post). 3. My
n e ig h b o u r's silly rem a rk s ... (to en jo y th e p e rfo rm a n c e ).
4. His advice ... (to get into trouble). 5. The windy w eather ...
(to take us for a drive).
P a t t e r n 2 :1 . You c a n ’t leave G reat Britain ... (to see
th e Lake D istrict), 2. She will n o t ta k e an y m ed icin e ... {to
c o n s u lt a d o c to r). 3. You s h o u ld n 't le a v e ... (to h av e a
snack). 4. She can ’t speak about the news ... (to get excited).
5. You w on't be able to pass your exam ... (to work hard).
P a tte rn 3 : 1 , H er m an n ers ... (u n p lea san t to deal
with). 2. Lack of rainfalls... (difficult to plough). 3. Likeness
of their nam es ... (easy to rem em ber). 4. I d o n ’t find it ... (to
bother him). 5. W e find it ... (to m ake use of tape-recording).
P a t t e r n 4 :1 . The picture is of little value, it ... (mon­
ey). 2. The results of the expedition ... (efforts). 3. The trip is
... (trouble). 4. T he d eco ratio n s are ... (time). 5. T he victory
was ... (sacrifice). 6. The m edicine is ... (money).

III. Translate the following sentences into English. Use the patterns:
Pattern 1: 1. П ри м и те л екарство, оно п р ед о х р ан и т вас
от простуды . 2. Что-то пом еш ало Том у с к аза т ь Бекки, что там
в п е щ е р е он в и д ел и н д е й ц а Д ж о, 3. Ч то п о м еш ал о вам в о с ­
п о л ьзо в ать ся этой во зм ож н остью ? 4. О н а р а с с к а зы в а л а см еш ­
ны е истории, чтобы мальчик не плакал. 5. Ф р эн к понимал, что
только бы стры е действия спасут его от разорен и я.
P a t t e r n 2: 1. М олли уехала из города, ником у не ск азав о
сво и х п одозрен и ях. 2. Герт спросил, какое п раво и м еет Д энни

268
строи ть планы , не с о в ету ясь с ним. 3. Н е глядя на него, Герт
сказал: «М ож еш ь идти». 4. Не говоря ни слова, Л энн и выш ел.
P a t t e r n 3: t. М нож ество спец иальн ы х тер м и н о в д елаю т
его доклад трудны м для поним ания. 2. Заботы и тревоги с дела-
ди ее ли ц о тр у д н о у зн ав аем ы м . 3. Я ркие м етаф о р ы делали его
п ри м еры легким и для зап о м и н ан и я. 4. Все находят, что с ним
легко и м еть дело. 5. Я н ахож у, что с ваш и м стар ш и м б р ато м
приятно поговорить.
P a t t e r n 4: 1. Едва ли эт а м а р к а сто и т д ен ег, к о т о р ы е
вы зап лати ли за нее. 2. Дело не стои т хлопот. 3. У паковка д о ­
р о ж е , чем то в а р . 4. Едва ли эт а п о езд к а с то и т п о т р а ч е н н о г о
в р е м е н и . 5. Д ж е й м с Ф о р с а й т счи тал , что с в е ж и й в о зд у х н е
стоит тех денег, которы е платят за загородны е дома.

IV. Respond to the following statements, using the patterns. (Make use
of the conversational formulas given in the Reminder.):
A- I. A lexander Popov was unable to perfect his invention
b ec au se of th e lack of m oney. 2. Little David was afraid of
th e M urd sto n es, he co u ld n o t read his lesson w ell in th eir
presence. 3. Lanny realized that M abel m ight get into tro u ­
ble. H e w anted to save his sister. 4. You c a n 't possibly start
on a sea voyage if the w eather report is unfavourable.
B. 1. You m ust see th e Lake D istrict w ith your own eyes
to b e a b le to a p p re c ia te its b e a u ty . 2. M y u n c le d islik e s
M ary th o u g h he has never seen her. 3. P assen g ers sh o u ld
not be rem inded to p ay their fares. 4. I hope, you will tran s­
late all these sentences and never consult a dictionary.
C. 1. T h ere w as so m eth in g stra n g e a b o u t th e G ad fly 's
m anner of speaking. 2. Latin gram m ar is logical, th a t's w hy
it is easy to u nderstan d . 3. B yron's verses are w ell-rhym ed,
you ca n le a rn th em by h e a rt q u ite easily. 4. If you know
Swedish you'll find little difficulty in u n d erstan d in g N orw e­
gian because these languages are of com m on origin.
R e m i n d e r : Just so. Quite so. I quite agree here. N a tu ­
rally. Certainly. Sure. I th in k so. Looks like that. I disagree
with you. You are wrong. You are m ista ken . There's so m e ­
thing in what you sayt b u t ... . Certainly not. Impossible! It's
unfair. It’s unjust.
V. Think of short situations in which you can use these patterns.

269
TEXT. SEEING PEOPLE OFF
By Max Beerbohm1

O n a cold grey m orning of last w eek I d u ly tu rn ed up at


Euston2 to see off an old friend who was starting for America.
O vernight, we had given a farewell dinner, in w hich sa d ­
ness was well m ingled with festivity.
A nd now, h ere we w ere, stiff an d self-co n scio u s o n th e
platform ; and fram ed in the w indow of th e railw ay-carriage,
was the face of our friend; b u t it was as the face of a stran g ­
er — a stranger anxious to please, an appealing stranger, an
awkward stranger.
“H ave you go t e v e ry th in g ? ” ask ed o n e of us, b reak in g
the silence.
“Yes, everything,” said our friend, with a pleasant nod.
There was a long pause.
O ne of us, with a nod and a forced sm ile at the traveller,
said:
“W ell!”
The nod, the smile, and the unm eaning monosyllable were
returned conscientiously.
A n o th e r p a u s e w as b ro k e n b y o n e of us w ith a fit oi
coughing. It was an obviously assum ed fit, b u t it served to
pass the time. There was no sign of the train's departure.
A m id d le -a g e d m an w as ta lk in g e a rn e s tly to a y o u n g
lady at th e next window b u t one to ours. His fine profile was
vaguely familiar to me. The young lady was evidently A m er­
ican, and he was evidently English; otherw ise I should have
guessed from his impressive air that he was her father.
In a flash I rem em b ered . T he m an w as H u b e rt Le Ros.
But how he changed since last I saw him! T hat was seven or
eight years ago, in the Strand. He was th en (as usual) o u t of
engagem ent, and borrow ed half-a-crow n. It seem ed a privi­

1Max Beerbohm (1872—1956): an English essayist, critic and caricaturist


2 Euston: a railway-station in London

270
lege to lend anything to him. He was always m agnetic. And
w hy his m agnetism had never m ade him successfu l on th e
London stage was always a m ystery to me. He was an ex cel­
lent actor.
It w as stra n g e to see him, after all th e se years h ere on
the platform of Euston, looking so p ro sp ero u s and solid. It
was not only the flesh he had put on, but also the clothes, that
m ade him hard to recognize. He looked like a banker. A ny­
one would have been proud to be seen off by him.
“Stand back, please!”
T he train was ab o u t to start an d I w aved farew ell to my
friend. Le Ros did n o t stand back. He stood clasping in both
hands the hands of the young American,
“Stand back, sir. please!”
He obeyed, but quickly d arted forward again to w hisper
som e final word. I th in k th ere w ere tears in h er eyes. T here
certainly w ere tears in his w hen, at length, having w atch ed
the train out of sight, he turned round.
H e seem ed, nevertheless, d elig h ted to see me. He asked
me w h ere I h ad b ee n h id in g all th e se years: an d sim u lta ­
neously repaid me the half-crown as though it had been bor­
rowed yesterday. He linked his arm in mine, and w alked me
slowly along the platform, saying with w hat pleasure he read
my dram atic criticism every Saturday. I told him, in return, how
much he was missed on the stage.
“Ah, yes,” he said, “I never act on the stage now adays.”
H e laid som e em phasis on the w ord “stag e,” and I asked
him where, then, he did act.
“On the platform ,” he answered.
“You m ean,” said I, “that you recite at concerts?”
He smiled.
“This,” he w hispered, striking his stick on the ground, “is
the platform I m ean.”
“I su p p o se ,” he said presently, giving m e a lig h t for th e
cig ar w h ich he h ad offered me, “you h av e b e e n se e in g a
friend off?”

271
H e asked m e w hat I su p p o sed h e had b een doing. I said
that I had w atched him doing the same thing.
“ N o ,” he said grav ely . “T h a t la d y w as n o t a frie n d of
mine. I m et her for the first tim e this m orning, less than half
an h o u r ago, h e re ,” an d ag ain h e stru c k th e platform w ith
his stick.
I confessed that I was bew ildered. He smiled.
“You m ay,” he said, “have heard of the A nglo-A m erican
Social Bureau.”
I had not. He ex p lain ed to m e th at of th e th o u sa n d s of
A m ericans who pass th ro u g h E ngland th ere are m any h u n ­
d re d s w ho have no E n g lish frie n d s. In th e o ld d ay s th e y
u sed to bring letters of introduction. But th e English are so
in h o sp ita b le th a t th e se le tte rs are h a rd ly w orth th e p a p e r
they are w ritten on.
“Americans are a sociable people, and m ost of them have
p len ty of m oney to spend. T he A.A.S.B. supplies them with
English friends. Fifty p er cen t of the fees is paid over to the
friend. T he o th er fifty is retain ed b y th e A.A.S.B. I am not,
alas, a director. If I were, I should be a very rich m an indeed.
I am only an em ployee. But even so I do very well. I am one
of the seers-off.”
I asked for enlightenm ent.
“ M a n y A m e ric a n s ,” h e said , “ c a n n o t affo rd to k e e p
friends in E ngland. But th e y can all afford to be se en off.
The fee is only five pounds (twenty-five dollars) for a single
traveller; and eig h t pounds (forty dollars) for a p arty of two
or more. They send that in to the Bureau, giving the d ate of
their departure, and a description by w hich the seer-off can
identify them on the platform . A nd th en — well, th en they
are seen off.”
“But is it w orth it?” I exclaimed,
“Of course it is w orth it,” said Le Ros. “It prevents them
from feeling out of it, It earns them the respect of the guard.
It saves them from being despised by their fellow -passengers
— the people w ho are going to be on the boat. Besides, it i?
a great pleasure in itself. You saw me seeing that young lady
off. D idn't you think I did it beautifully?”
272
“Beautifully,” I adm itted. “I envied you. There was I — ”
“Yes, I can im agine. T here w ere you, shuffling from foot
to foot, starin g b lan k ly at y o u r friend, trying to m ake c o n ­
v ersation, I know. T h a t's how I u sed to be myself, b efo re I
studied, and w ent into the thing professionally. I d o n 't say I
am p erfect yet. A railw ay-station is the m ost difficult of all
places to act in, as you discovered for yourself.”
“But,” 1 said, “I w asn't trying to act. 1 really felt.”
“So did I, my b o y ,” said Le Ros. “You c a n 't act w ith o u t
feeling. D idn't you see those tears in my eyes w hen the train
started? I h ad n 't forced them. I tell you 1 was moved, So were
you, I dare say. But you c o u ld n 't have pum ped up a tear to
prove it. You ca n 't express your feeling. In other words, you
c a n 't act. At any ra te ,” he ad d e d kindly, “n o t in a railw ay-
station.”
“T each m e!” I cried.
He looked thoughtfully at me.
“W ell,” he said at length, “the seeing-off season is practi­
cally over. Yes, I'll give you a course. I have a good m any
pupils on hand already; b u t yes,” he said, consulting an o r­
nate note-book, “I could give you an hour on T uesdays and
Fridays.”
His terms, I confess, are rather high. But I do not g ru d g e
the investm ent.

VOCABULARY NOTES

1. serve v t/i. I. слухсить, e. g. No m an can serve two m as­


ters. H e serves as g a rd e n e r (no a rtic le !). H e se rv e d th re e
years in the arm y (navy). T hese shoes have served m e two
years. A w ooden box served as a table.
2. подавать на стол, e. g. T he w aiter se rv e d th e so u p .
D inner is served.
3. обслуж и вать, e. g. There was no one in the shop to serve
me.
to serve sm b. rig h t, e. g. It serves you right for having
disobeyed me.
tO В. Д. А ракин, 11 курс 273
service л 1. служба, е. д. Не was in active service duriny
th e w ar. He has b e e n in th e D ip lo m atic Service for th ree
years.
2. обслуж ивание, e. g. T he m eals at this re sta u ra n t arc
good but the service is poor. The train service is good here.
3. услуга, одолжение, e. g. She no lo n g er n eed s the se r­
vices of a doctor. M y room is at your service.
servant л слуга, прислуга
2. fa m ilia r adj 1. знакомый, привычный, as a fam iliar
voice (face, nam e, scene, handw riting, song, m elody, tunc,
scent, smell, etc.)
to be familiar to smb., to be familiar with smth., e. g. You
should be fam iliar with the facts before you start investiga
tion. He is familiar with m any languages. H er face seem s fa­
miliar to me.
2. близкий, интимный, e. g. A re you on fam iliar term :
w ith him? D on't be too fam iliar w ith him, h e's rath er a d is­
honest man.
3. фамильярный, e. g. D o n 't you think he is a bit too fa
miliar with her?
familiarity л близкое знакомство, фамильярность
3. im press v t запечатлевать в уме, производить впечат
ление; to im press smb., е. д. This book did not im press rm
at all. I was greatly (deeply) im pressed by his acting. W ha
im pressed you most in the play?
impression я впечатление; to make (produce) an impres
sio n on sm b., to leave an im pression on sm b., e. g. Hi,
sp eech m ade a strong im pression on the au d ien ce. Punish
m ent seem ed to m ake little im pression on the child. Tell u:
a b o u t your im pressions of E ngland. The g ro u p left a gooc
(poor, favourable) im pression on the examiner.
im pressive adj производящий (глубокое) впечатление'
as an im pressive cerem o n y (sight, scene, person, g estu re
etc.), e, g . The scene was quite impressive.
4. obey v t/i повиноваться, подчиняться, слушаться, e. g. So’
d ie rs m u st o b e y o rd ers. C h ild re n m u st o b ey gro w n -u p .1:
But: слушаться совета — to follow one's advice
A n t. to disobey

274
obedience л послушание, повиновение, покорность,
е д; Parents dem and obedience from their children.
Ant. disobedience
obedient adj послушный, покорный, e. g. He is an obedi­
ent boy. The children have been obedient today.
A nt. disobedient, naughty (of a child)
5. light л свет, освещение, as sunlight, daylight, m o o n ­
light, gas light, electric light, e. g. The sun gives light to the
earth. I go t up before light. T he light b e g a n to fail. Lights
w ere b u rn in g in every room. Bring a light quickly! W e saw
the lights of the city. Look at the m atter in the right light.
Ant. darkness
by the light of smth. при свете чего-л.
to stand in smb.’s light загораживать кому-л. свет; (fig)
мешать кому-л., стоять у кого-л. на дороге
to throw (shed) light on smth. проливать свет на что-л.
е. д. These facts shed (a) new light on the matter.
to put (switch, turn) on (off) the light зажигать (гасить)
свет
to give smb. a light дать прикурить, e. g. Give me a light,
please.
to come to light обнаруживаться, выявляться, e. g. N ew
evidence has recently com e to light.
Light at the end of th e tu n n el свет в конце туннеля,
е. д. As the exam s approached, she felt that at last she could
see the light at the end of the tunnel.
light adj светлый, as a light room, a light day; light hair,
a light complexion; light brown (blue, green, grey, etc.)
to get ligh t светать, e. g. It g ets lig h t v ery e a rly th e se
sum m er mornings.
ligh t (lit or ligh ted ) v t / i 1. заж игать(ся), as to lig h t a
lam p (a candle, a fire), e. g. H e lit a lam p. P lease lig h t th e
stove.
to light a cigarette закурить
A n t. turn off (the gas), blow out (a candle), put out (a fire)
2. освещ ать (up), e. g. T he stree ts w ere b rig h tly lit up.
The room was lighted by six windows. O ur houses are lig h t­
ed by electricity. The burning building lit up the w hole d is­
trict. The rising sun lit up the m ountain tops.

275
sunlit, starlit (night, sky), moonlit adj
6. prevent vt предотвращ ать, предупреж дать, мешать;
to p reven t sm b. from (d oin g) sm th ., to prevent sm th .,
e. g. Rain prevented the gam e. I'll m eet you at six if nothing
prevents. Illness p rev en ted him. from d o in g the w ork. How
can you p rev en t it from h ap p en in g ? S om ething p rev en ted
him from com ing (prevented his coming).
prevention л предотвращение; Proverb: Prevention is b e t­
ter than cure.
7. earn v t 1. зарабаты вать, e. g. H e earn s a go o d w age
b ecause he w orks for a fair em ployer.
to earn on e's liv in g зар а б ат ы в а ть себе на ж и зн ь,
е. g. She earned her living by sewing.
2. заслуживать, e. g. His first book earn ed him th e fam e
of a n o v e list. T h e te a c h e r to ld h er p u p ils th a t th e y h ad
earned a holiday. H er good w ork earn ed her th e resp ect of
her colleagues.
earnings л pi заработок, e. g. He has sp en t all his e a rn ­
ings.
8. do (did, done) v t / i 1. делать, выполнять, заниматься
чем-л., as to do o n e 's work, duty, shopping, m orning e x e r­
cises
e. g. You did well (wrong) to refuse. H aving nothing b e t­
ter to do I w ent for a walk. T here's nothing to be done now,
No sooner said than done. W ell begun is half done.
to do a sum решать арифметическую задачу
to do one's best делать все возможное, e. g. I m u st do
m y best to help him.
2. причинять; to do good, to do harm, e. g. T his m e d i­
cin e w o n ’t do yo u an y g ood. His h o lid a y h as d o n e him a
w orld (a lot, a great deal) of good. It will do you m ore harm
than good.
3. приводить в порядок, as to do o n e's hair (room, bed,
etc.), e. g. I like th e way she does her hair. W ill you do the
beds while I do the window?
4. осматривать достопримечательности, e. g. Did you do
th e B ritish M useum w hen y o u w ere in L ondon? W e often
see foreigners in M oscow doing the sights.

276
5. подходить, годиться: that will (won't) do, e. g. It w on't
do to p lay all day. T he room will do us q u ite well. It w o n 't
do to sit up so late. This sort of w ork w on't do for him. W ill
this sheet of paper do?
6. процветать, преуспевать, e. g. Le Ros did well in th e
Bureau. Everything in the garden is doing splendidly. She is
doing very well at school.
to do aw ay w ith sm th., e. g. S m oking sh o u ld b e d o n e
away with.
to have to do with smb. (smth.), e. g. He has to do w ith
all sorts of people. W e have to do with facts, not theories.
to have smth. (nothing, not much, little, etc.) to do with
smb. (sm th.), e. д. I advise you to have n o th in g to do w ith
him. W hat have I to do with it?

NOTES ON STYLE

1. There are two main characters in this story: Le Ros and


the n a r r a t o r , i. e. the person telling the story (also called
“the I of the story”). The narrator is an assum ed personality
and should by no m eans be confused with the author of the
story. It w ould be as naive to associate th e n arrato r of this
story w ith M ax Beerbohm as to associate the boy on w hose
b ehalf “ How W e K ept M o th er's D ay” is to ld w ith S tep h en
Leacock. T he c h a ra cte r of the n arrato r is fre q u en tly in tro ­
d u ce d in fiction. It is a stylistic device, esp ecially favoured
by sh o rt-sto ry au th o rs (see “A D ay's W a it” by H em ingw ay
or “A Friend in N eed ” by W. S. M augham ), w hich helps the
reader to look at the described events as if “from w ithin”.
2. I n v e r s i o n (change of th e u su al o rd er of words)
m ay be used for stylistic purp o ses eith er to focus th e re a d ­
er's attention on a certain part of the sentence or to achieve
an em otional effect, e. g. ... and fram ed in the window of the
railway-carriage, was the face of our friend...
3. R e p e t i t i о n is a n o th e r sty listic d ev ice u sed for
the p u rp o ses of em phasis. It m ay consist in re p e a tin g only
one word, so that with each repetition the em otional tension
in creases, e. g, ... b u t it was as th e face of a stra n g e r — a
277
stran g er anxious to please, an ap p ealin g stranger, an aw k­
ward stranger.
T he re p e titio n of th e sam e sy n tactical p a tte rn tw ice or
sev eral tim es is c a lle d s y n t a c t i c a l p a r a l l e l i s m ,
e. g. It prevents them from feeling out of it. It earns them the
resp ect of the guard. It saves them from b ein g d esp ised by
their fellow-passengers.

ESSENTIAL VOCABULARY (I)

W ords

banker n final adj obedience л


bureau л guess v obedient adj
departure л impress v obey v
disobedient adj impressive adj platform л
earn v light v prevent v
envy v move v serve v
familiar adj mystery л service л
fellow -passenger n sociable adj

Word Combinations
to see smb. off to wave farewell to smb.
to break the silence to shuffle from foot to foot
to pass the time to m ake (leave, produce)
to be familiar with smth. (to smb.) an im pression on smb.
in the old days (in the olden days) the to put out the light
a letter of introduction to serve smb. right for...
to earn one's living

EXERCISES

1. Read the text and explain the following points (A. Grammar,
B. Word usage, C. Style):

A. 1. Explain the use of tenses in: a) the second sentence


of the text; b) the following sentence: “A m id dle-aged m an
was talking earnestly to a young lady...” .

278
2. Point out sen ten ces in w hich ob liq u e m oods are u sed
and explain the m eaning conveyed by the form of the verb in
each case.
.3. Com m ent on the use of the auxiliary did in “he did act".
4. W hy is the indefinite article used before the w ord d i­
rector in “I am not, alas, a director” ?

B. 1. Explain the m eaning of “the next w indow b u t o n e” .


(M ake up sentences of your own with the pattern “the n e x t ...
b u t o n e” .)
2. Find a pair of antonym s in the passage b eginning with
“In a flash” and explain their m eanings. Use them in sen ten c­
es of your own.
3. W hat is the m eaning of the word platform in the follow­
in g fra g m e n t: ... “ O n th e p la tfo rm ,” h e a n sw e re d . “ You
m ean,” said I, “that you recite at concerts?”
4. C om m ent on the m eaning of keep in “M any A m ericans
... c a n n o t afford to k eep frien d s in E n g la n d ” (c/.: to k e e p
dogs, horses, to keep a cat, a canary, etc.). W hat is the effect
achieved b y the u n u su al w ord com bination to k e e p frien d s
and by the w hole sentence (“M any A m ericans cannot afford
to k eep friends in E ngland” , i. e. some of them can an d prob­
ably do)?
5. How do you understand the words feeling out o f it in “It
prevents them from feeling out of it” ?

C. 1. a) W hat is the au th o r’s purpose in using inversion in:


“fram ed in the window ... was the face of our friend” ? b) W hy
is the word stranger repeated four times in the second part of
the sam e sentence? W hat is the effect achieved by the rep eti­
tion?
2. W hat is the effect achieved by the syntactical parallel­
ism in the passage beginning with “Of course it is w orth it” ?
(“It prevents them ...”, “It earns them ...”, “It saves them ...”)
3. P oint out p assag es b earin g to u ch es of hu m o u r. D oes
th e a u th o r p resen t th e ch aracter of Le Ros serio u sly or h u ­
m orously? (iron ically ? satirically ? m o ck in g ly ?) Illu stra te
your answ er by sentences from the story.
279
II. a) Write the transcribed words in traditional spelling. Explain the
rules for reading. Think of some other words spelled in the same way:
1 . k la s p , pa:s, lcustr 2 . 'p m p a r s s , .ko n ji'en jas, 'kDnJgs, 'Dbviss,
'aegkjas; 3 . sa it, la it, d i'lait; 4. з:п , *3 :nir)z, 'з :n istli; ges, 'veigli.

b) Mark the stresses and explain the reading rules. Translate the words
into Russian:
h o sp itab le — hospitality; p ro sp ero u s — prosperity; fes­
tive — festivity; final — finality.

III. a) Write out from the story the sentences with the following words:
stiff — aw kw ard; o b v io u sly — ev id en tly ; e a rn e s tly —
gravely; to reco g n ize — to identify; p ro sp ero u s — rich; to
force — to pum p up.
b) Explain the difference between the synonyms within each pair. (See
Notes on p. 18.) When in doubt, consult dictionaries.

IV. Answer the questions. Argue your answers:


1. W h ere is th e scene laid in th e story? 2. How d id th e
seers-off feel an d w hy? W h at w ere th e y d o in g to p ass th e
tim e? 3. W hat m ade the n arrator of the story think th at th e
m an w ho w as se ein g off a y o u n g lad y was n o t h er fath er?
4. W ho w as th e m an? U n d er w hat c irc u m sta n c e s h ad th e
n a rra to r m et him b efo re? W h a t m ad e him h a rd to re c o g ­
nize? 5. W hat m ade the narrator ask Le Ros w here he acted?
6. W hy did the answ er m ake him th in k th at Le Ros recited
at concerts? 7. W hy was he bew ildered w hen Le Ros said he
h ad first m et the young lady he was seeing off less than half
an hour before? 8. W hat can you say ab o u t the activities of
the Anglo-Am erican Social Bureau? 9. How can you explain
Le R os's su ccess as an em p lo y ee of th e B ureau? 10. H ow
did, in Le Ros's opinion, the seeing-off cerem ony help A m er­
icans? Do you think it was a good idea? 11. W hat is the im ­
plication of the w ord afford ap p lied to friends? C an friends
really be afforded or not afforded? 12. Did Le Ros tak e seri­
ously his job and him self in th e role of a professional seer-
off? How does it characterize him? 13. W hat is the a u th o r's

280
(not the narrator's!) attitu d e to Le Ros? W hat is the au th o r's
irony directed against?

V. Study Vocabulary Notes, translate the illustrative examples and a)


give synonyms of:
naughty adj, good adj (about a child], p u t an end to;
b) give antonyms of:
familiar adj, obey v, departure n, light n, light v;
c) give derivatives of:
press, serve, prevent, earn, obey, familiar.

VI. Fill in appropriate words (consult Essential Vocabulary (I) list):


1. He advised Frank, “You'll do better if you stay at school
until seventeen. It ca n 't do you any 2. At the age of thir­
teen Frank Cow perw ood was able ... a little m oney now and
then. 3. The auctioneer noticed Frank and was ... by the solid­
ity of the boy's expression. 4. After his lonely dinner Soames
...h is cigar and w alked out again. 5. Jim ... the captain's order
to ride for Doctor Livesey at once. 6. No one could ... C aptain
Flint's orders. 7. They could not m arry till Salvatore had done
his m ilitary ... . 8. I knew that his h eart was ... by th e b eau ty
and th e vastness and the stillness. 9. I shall choose the job I
am most ... with. 10. The miller was counting over his m oney
by the ... of a candle. 11. “I'm at your ...” m eans “I'm ready to
... your com m ands” . 12. H e was peering into the darkness ...
by a single candle. 13. “W hy d o n 't you go into the cou n try ?”
repeated June. “It would ... you a l o t !” 14. They w ere at
th e ir little table in the room, w here C arrie occasionally ... a
meal. 15. W hen the boy was with us he was friendly and ....

VII. Express tn one word (see Text Eight and Vocabulary Notes):
a paym ent m ade in retu rn for o n e's work, com ing last at
the en d of smth., to do w hat one is told, the effect produced
on the m ind or feelings, a side view of th e hum an face, pale
in colour, to b rin g food an d p u t it on th e table, so m eth in g
strange or secret, fond of society.

281
VIII. The following statements are not true to fact. Correct them, using
the conversational formulas given !n the Reminder:
E x a m p l e : The author turned up at Euston to m eet a friend
of his.
— O h Fno, he didn't. He turned up at Euston to
see his friend off.
1. T he seers-off felt q u ite at ease on th e platform . 2. No
one tried to b reak the silence on the platform . 3. The fit of
c o u g h in g h e lp e d th e situ atio n . 4. T h ere w as every sign oi
the train 's im m ediate departure w hen they cam e to the plat
form. 5. The face of Le Ros d id n 't seem familiar to the n arra­
tor. 6. Le Ros was very sorry to see the n arrato r. 7. Le Ros
said he w orked on the stage. 8. Le Ros said he was a director
of th e A nglo-A m erican Social Bureau. 9. T he n arrato r fully
understood why Le Ros had been unsuccessful on the stage.
10. Le Ros explained th at all the fees w ere p aid over to the
em ployees. 11. Le Ros looked like a beggar w hen the n arra­
to r saw him on th e platform . 12. T he n a rra to r d id n 't envy
Le Ros. 13. Le Ros said th a t o n e can a c t w ith o u t feelin g .
14. T here were no signs of Le Ros being m oved w hen he saw
th e y o u n g A m erican off. 15. T he n a rra to r w as n o t m oved
w hen seeing his friend off. 16. T he n arrato r w anted Le Ros
to teach him to conceal his feelings.
R e m i n d e r : I'm afraid I d o n ’t agree, I think yo u ’re m is­
ta k e n [there). I d o n ’t th in k yo u are r ig h t. I se e w hat you
m ean, b u t ... . I’m not so sure. On the contrary i You ca n ’t be
serious! I d o u b t it. I disagree w ith you. I sh o u ld ’t sa y so. /
object to it. Far from it. Surely not. N othing o f the sortl Just
the other way roundl

IX. Insert prepositions where necessary:


1. I saw the m ysterious stran g er ... the m orning. 2. I met
her ... the first tim e ... a warm sunny m orning ... last spring
3. I reco g n ized her face ... the window . 4. I saw no sign ..
envy ... her eyes. 5. Did you confess ... an y th in g ... retu rn ’
6. W ait ... me ... platform No. 3 ... the St. Petersburg railway-
station ... half past ten. 7. W hat have you got ... your hand?
8. I never acted ... the stage. 9. She sm iled ... her fellow-pas-
282
se n g e rs. 10. I h e a rd him re c ite ... a c o n c e rt ... la st w eek.
11. Talk ... her ... the fee. 12. He struck the table ... his hand.
13. Did they supply you ... everything? 14. I reco g n ized her
... your description. 15. J u st a m inute. I shall consult ... th e
tim etab le. 16. W h a t p rev en ted you ... co n fessin g ... ev e ry ­
thing? 17. T he situ atio n is very awkward, b u t I th in k I can
h elp ... it. 18. ... o th er w ords you h a v e n 't o b ey ed ... m y in ­
stru ctio n s. 19. T hey ran ... carriag e ... c a rria g e ... th e p la t­
form. 20. He said it ... a fit ... anger. 21. She n o d d ed ... m e ...
a grave air. 22. It's a m ystery ... me. 23. I w asn 't satisfied ...
her vague answer. 24.1 can ’t tell you how we all miss ... you.
25. I c a n 't do ... this text-book. 26. I can hardly see anything
... this light. 27. Do you think I can do my lessons w hen you
are standing ... the light? 28. Has he m any pupils ... hand?

X. Translate these sentences into Russian:


1. Sitting at her b u reau she gazed at the fam iliar objects
aro u n d her. 2. Y ou've d o n e me a g reat service. How shall I
ever be able to repay you for your kindness? 3. It will never
do to obey your every im pulse. 4. In this tow n y o u 'll never
find a nursery-m aid for love or money. People here have lost
taste for dom estic service. 5. In his handsom eness and assu r­
a n c e C h a rles Ivory was d ram a tica lly im pressive. 6. It w as
only two w eeks later that Frank took his d ep artu re from W a­
te rm a n an d C om pany. 7. By th is tim e Silver h ad a d o p te d
quite a friendly and familiar tone. 8. That was how he always
rem em bered her afterwards: a slender girl waving farewell to
him from the sunlit porch.

XI. Try your hand at teaching.


Say what you would do in the teacher's position:
M ary w as an e x c e lle n t p u p il from th e first d ay sh e e n ­
tered school. She was know n to all the teach ers as “th e ex ­
ceptionally b rig h t girl.” She was the envy of m any ch ild ren
w ho openiy adm itted that they w ould like to be like her. At
hom e, she was p la ced on a pedestal; n o th in g was ever d e ­
nied to her. The children expected and accepted that M ary's
w ork was always perfect. O ne can im agine the shock every­
one ex p erien ced w hen one day M ary flew into a rag e w hen

283
she m issed th re e w ords in a sp e llin g test, an d h e r re su lts
w ere worse than som e others'. First M ary tore up her paper,
th e n sh e p ro c e e d e d to te a r up h e r s p e llin g b o o k . She
scream ed th a t th e others ch eated , th a t sh e was alw ays the
best and always will be.

XII. a) Retell the text: 1) in the third person; 2) as if you were the
narrator's friend who was leaving for America; 3) as if you were the young
American lady; 4) as if you were Le Ros.
b) Give a summary of the story.

XIII. Translate these sentences into English:


1. Что-то помеш ало мне пойти на прощ альны й уж ин. 2. Лицо
моего спутника показалось мне знакомым, я, долж но быть, где-то
видел его раньш е. 3. Его кри тически е статьи п риносят молодым ав ­
торам больш ую пользу. 4. Рекомендательное письмо не произвело
на д и р ектора никакого впечатления, 5. О н сам зарабаты вает себе
на ж и зн ь с 16 лет. 6. Я сделал все возм ож ное, чтобы помеш ать его
отъезду. 7. Не читай при свете свечи, это очень вредно для глаз.
8. С правочное (inform ation) бю ро находится ч ер ез два дома о тсю ­
да. 9. О н очень общ ительны й человек. 10. За то, что ты не слуш ал­
ся, ты не получиш ь сегодня м орож еного на сладкое. 11, Не заго р а­
ж и вай свет, я не могу разобрать, что здесь написано. 12. В былые
вр ем ен а м осковски е улицы освещ али сь газом. 13. Не завидуйте
его заработку: если вы будете работать столько ж е, сколько р аб о ­
та ет он, вы будете зарабаты вать не меньш е. 14. М ы все были р а с ­
троганы его прощ альной речью.

XIV. Act out the scene:


“W here are you fo r?” the train co n d u c to r ask ed an old
lady.
“Y ou're very im p ertin en t,” sn ap p ed th e old lady. “W hat
b u sin ess is it of y o u rs w here I am going? But if you m ust
know, I am bound for Boston.”
T h e c o n d u c to r o b lig in g ly p ic k e d u p h e r th re e b ag s,
found her a seat in the Boston train and p u t the bags on the
rack. As he left th e carriage, the old lady leaned o u t of the
w indow and cack led at him. “I guess I fooled you, you im ­
pertinent young man. I'm really going to Buffalo.”

284
XV. Go over the text of Unit 8 again to discuss the following in class.
Let someone agree or disagree and express their own opinion (see the
Prompts suggested):

1. W h a t kind of m an is d escrib ed in the ch a ra cte r of Le


Ros? Do you consider the character true to life or is it ex ag ­
gerated? W hich m ethod of characterization does the au th o r
use, direct or indirect? (Prove your point.) 2. Is the story just
an am u sin g an e cd o te or does it co n tain elem en ts of social
satire? (Prove your point.) 3. W hich lines and passages bear
touches of hum our? W hat type of hum our prevails in the sto­
ry? C om pare the story with “How W e K ept M o th e r's D ay .”
W hich of the two do you consider m ore am using and why?
W h ich is m ore tru e to life? W h ich raises m ore im p o rta n t
problem s? 4. W h at can you say ab o u t the la n g u ag e of th e
story? (Touch on: a) selection of words, b) syntax.)

Prompts: true enough; absolutely/exactly/quite; I couldn't


agree more; yes, but surely you d o n 't think; yes, b u t on the
other hand; as I see it; in m y view (opinion); personally I b e­
lieve (I feel); I'd ju s t like to say; the w ay I see it; if you ask
me: it's like this; oh, surely not; I'd rather n o t sa y a n yth in g
about

LABORATORY EXERCISES (I)

1. Listen to the text “Seeing People Off*, mark the stresses and tunes.
Repeat it following the model.

2. Respond to the given questions according to the model.

3. Extend the statements. Express your disbelief, surprise or doubt in


response to the given sentences. Follow the models.

4. Write a spellmg-translation test: a) translate the phrases into English;


b) check them with the key.

5. Listen to the text “Climbing" and write it as a reproduction.

6. Listen to the poem “Adieu, adieul.." by G. G. Byron. Mark the stresses


and tunes, repeat it following the model and learn it by heart.

285
II

T O P I C : TRAVELLING

TEXT A. DIFFERENT MEANS OF TRAVEL

A l e x : Personally I hate seeing people off. I prefer being


seen off myself. I'm extrem ely fond of travelling and feel terri­
bly envious of any friend who is going anywhere. I ca n 't help
feeling I should so m uch like to be in his place.
B e r t : But w hat m ethod of travelling do you prefer?
A.: For m e th e re is n o th in g like travel b y air; it is m ore
com fortable, m ore convenient and of course far quicker than
any other m ethod. There is none of the dust and dirt of a rail­
way or car journey, none of the trouble of changing from train
to steam er and then to another train. Besides, flying is a thrill­
ing thing. D on't you agree?
B.: I th in k I sh o u ld like to say a w ord or two for trains.
W ith a tra in y o u hav e sp e e d , co m fo rt an d p le a su re c o m ­
b in e d . From th e co m fo rtab le c o rn e r se at of a railw ay c a r­
riage you have a splendid view of the w hole countryside. If
you are hungry, you can have a m eal in the dining-car; and
if the journey is a long one you can have a wonderful bed in
a sleeper. Besides, do you know any place th at's more in te r­
e stin g th a n a big railw ay-station? T h ere is th e m ovem ent,
th e excitem ent, the g aiety of p eo p le going away or w aiting
to m eet friends. T here are th e shouts of th e p o rters as they
pull lu g g a g e alo n g th e platform s to th e w aiting trains, the
crow d at the booking-office g ettin g tickets, the h u n g ry and
th irsty o nes h u rry in g to the refresh m en t room s befo re th e
train starts. No, really! Do you know a m ore exciting p lace
than a big railway-station?
С e с i 1: I do.
A.: And that is?
C.: A big sea port. For me there is no travel so fine as by
boat. I love to feel the deck of the boat under my feet, to see
th e rise a n d fall of th e w aves, to feel th e fresh sea w ind
blow ing in m y face an d h ear the cry of th e sea-g u lls. And
286
287
w hat ex citem en t, too, th e re is in com in g in to th e h arb o u r
and seeing round us all the ships, steamers, cargo-ships, sail­
ing ships, rowing boats.
A.: W ell, I su p p o se th a t's all right for th o se th a t like it,
but not for me. I'm always seasick, esp ecially w hen th e sea
is a little bit rough.
B.: I've heard that a good cu re for seasickness is a sm all
piece of dry bread.
A.: M aybe; b u t I th in k a b e tte r cu re is a larg e p ie ce of
dry land.
D a v i d : W ell, y o u m ay sa y w h at y o u lik e a b o u t
aero p lan e flights, sea voyages, railw ay jo u rn ey s or tours by
car, b u t give m e a w alk in g to u r an y tim e. W h at d o es th e
m otorist see of th e country? But the w alker leaves th e dull
b ro ad highw ay an d goes alo n g little w in d in g lan es w h ere
cars c a n 't go. H e takes m ountain paths through the heather,
he w anders by the side of quiet Lakes and through the shade
of w oods. H e sees th e real co u n try , th e w ild flow ers, th e
young birds in their nests, the deer in the forest; he feels the
288
quietness and calm of nature.
A nd besides, you are saving your railw ay fare travelling
on foot. N o one can deny that w alking is the cheapest m eth ­
od of travelling.
So I say: a walking tour for me.
(From “Essential English for Foreign Students”
by С. E. Eckersley, Book 4, Lnd., 1955)

TEXT B. AT THE STATION

F.: W ell, h ere we are at last! W hen I g et into th e boat-


train,1 1 feel that holidays have already begun. Have you got
the tickets, Jan?
J.: Yes, h e re th e y are. I b o o k e d se a ts for you a n d me;
trains are usually crowded at this time. W e have num bers A 26
and A 30; two corner-seats in a non-sm oker, one seat facing
the engine, one back to the engine. Is that all right?
F.: T h at's very good, Jan. I d o n ’t like going a lo n g jo u r­
ney in a smoker. M ay I sit facing the engine?
J.: O f course! You can tak e w hichever seat you like. As a
m atter of fact, I really prefer sitting with m y back to th e e n ­
gine. H e re ’s our carriag e, A, an d h e re ’s our co m p artm en t.
You can get into the train now.
F.: Lucy, w on’t you com e into the carriage w ith me? You
will be warm er inside.
L: Thanks, I will.
J.: Г11 go and see that our luggage has b een p u t into the
g u a rd ’s van, and I'll book two seats in the restau ran t car for
lunch. I'll g e t som e new spapers at th e b o o k stall an d som e
chocholate on my way back. (He goes away.)
L.: Jan is a good fellow for getting things done, isn 't he?
F.: He is. I d o n 't know anyone better. I’m very glad he is
com ing w ith me. I know that I shall have a very com fortable
journey. Ja n will see to everything — find the seats on th e

1 boat-train: the train that takes passengers to a ship

289
train, see that my luggage is all right, and get it through the
custom s. I sh a n 't have to do anything at all ex cep t sit b ack
and enjoy the journey.
[From “Essential English for Foreign Students”
by С. E. Eckersley, Book 2. Lnd., 1977)

TEXT C. A VOYAGE ROUND EUROPE

L.: Hello, Anne. Are you back from your holidays already?
Ooo, y ou're lovely and brown! W here have you been?
A.: Oh, I've had a fantastic time! I've ju st been on a cruise
round Europe w ith my Dad.
L ; Oh, you lucky thing! You m ust have seen so m any in ­
teresting places. W here did you sail from?
A.: W ell, we left from Odessa...
L,: Did you call at any European ports?
A.: Yes. Q u ite a lot. W e w en t a sh o re at e a c h o n e an d
w ent on some really interesting trips sightseeing.
L.: Did you go by train or did you hire a car?
A.: N o, w e w e n t b y c o a c h .1 N ow I ca n say I ’v e seen
Rome, London, Paris and Athens.
L.: Ooo, I'm so envious. W ere you ever seasick?
A.: O nly a little. I was fine, until two days after Gibraltar.
The sea su d d e n ly b ecam e very rough, an d I h ad to stay in
my cabin.
L.: W hat a shame. But was your father all right?
A.: Yes, he was fine all the time. H e’s never seasick.
L.: Did you go ashore w hen you reached Spain?
A.: No, we only saw the coast-line from the deck. It d id n 't
really look very inviting, a bit bare and m onotonous, in fact.
L,: And did you go for a swim in the M editerranean?
A.: Yes, and in the A tlantic O cean too. T h ere are some-
beautiful beaches on the west coast of France. It's so nice to
have a swim there.
L.: W ell, I’m glad you've had such a lovely time!

1 coach: a long-distance bus

290
M em ory W ork
From a Railway Carriage
Faster than fairies, faster than witches,
Bridges and houses, hedges and ditches;
A nd charging along like troops in a battle,
All through the meadows, the horses and cattle;
All of the sights of the hill and the plain
Fly as thick as driving rain;
And ever again, in the wink of an eye,
Painted stations whistle by.
H ere is a child who clam bers and scrambles,
All by himself and gathering brambles;
H ere is a tram p who stands and gazes;
A nd there's the green for stringing the daisies!
H ere is a cart run away in the road,
Lumping along with m an and load;
And here is a mill and there's a river;
Each a glim pse and gone for ever!
Robert L. Stevenson

NOTES ON SYNONYMS

T he a c t of trav ellin g can b e d escrib ed by a n u m b e r of


synonyms w hich differ by various im plications (see N otes on
Synonym s, p. 18). T hey all d escrib e th e ac t of g o in g from
o ne p la ce to a n o th e r (that is w hy th ey are synonym s), b u t
differ by the length of time taken by that act, by its purpose,
destination or by the m ethod of travelling.
travel л; the act of travelling, esp. a long one in distant or
foreign places, eith er for the p u rp o se of discovering so m e­
thing new or in search of pleasure and adventure. (Freqr. in the
plural.); e. g. He is writing a book about his travels in Africa.
journey л: the act of going from one place to another, usu ­
ally taking a rather long time; e. g. It’s a th ree days’ jo u rn ey
by train. You'll have to m ake the jo u rn ey alone. G oing on a
journey is always exciting.
291
v o y a g e л: a ra th e r long jo u rn e y , esp . b y w ate r or air;
e. g. I'd love to go on a voyage, w ould you? The idea of an
A tlantic voyage terrified her: she was sure to be seasick all
the time.
trip л: a journey, an excursion, freq. a brief one, m ade by
land or water; e. g. Did you enjoy your w eek-end trip to the
seaside?
tour л: a journey in w hich a short stay is m ade at a n u m ­
b er of places (usu. with the view of sightseeing), the trav el­
ler finally returnin g to the p lace from w hich he had started;
e. g. O n our Southern-E ngland tour we visited W indsor, O x­
ford, C am bridge, Stratford-on-A von and th en cam e b ac k to
London.
cruise л [kru:z]: a sea voyage from port to port, esp. a p le a­
sure trip; e. g. T he M editerranean cruise prom ised m any in ­
teresting impressions.
hitch-hiking л: travelling by getting free rides in passing
autom obiles and w alking betw een rides; e. g. H itch-hiking is
a co m p arativ e ly new w ay of tra v e llin g w h ich gives o n e a
chance to see m uch w ithout spending anything.

ESSENTIAL VOCABULARY (II)

Words
booking-office л journey л sm oker
cabin л hitch-hiking л (smoking
cargo-ship л luggage л speed л
cruise л luggage-van л steam er л
deck л porter л tour л
dining-car л rough adj travel л
engine л sail v trip л
fare л sea-gull л voyage л
flight л seasickness л walker n
guide n sleeper (sleeping-car) л wave л

292
W o rd C o m b in a tio n s

to go on a journey, trip, to travel seco n d /stan d ard


voyage, a package tour class
to travel by air (train, to call at a port
boat, cruiser, liner, etc.) to go ashore
to change from train to boat, bad (good) sailor
(cruiser, liner) to m ake a trip, jou rn ey
(But: to change for a boat. on deck
Also: W here do I change for on shore
Paris?) to look inviting
to be seasick, to be travelsick to be due at (a place)
(in any kind of transport) d irect/th ro u g h train
single ticket you c a n ’t beat the train
return ticket (return berth) a home lover/stay-at-hom e/
to trav el/g o first class a hom e-stay type

EXERCISES

I. Answer the questions. Be careful to argue your case well:


I. W hat m eans of travel do you know? 2. W hy are m any
people fond of travelling? 3. W hy do som e people like trav­
ellin g by train ? 4. Do you like tra v e llin g by train ? W h at
m akes you lik e /d islik e it? 5. W hat are the ad v an tag es of a
sea-voyage? 6. W h at are th e ad v a n ta g e s of h itc h -h ik in g ?
7. W hat kind of p eo p le usually object to travelling by sea?
8. W hat are the advantages and disadvantages of travelling
by air? Have you ever travelled by air? How do you like it?
9. W h at do you th in k ab o u t w alking tours? 10. W h at is, in
your opinion, the m ost enjoyable m eans of travel? 11. W hat
w ay of travelling affords m ost com fort for eld erly p eo p le?
(Give your reasons.) 12. Do you think travel helps a person
to becom e wiser?

II. Fill in appropriate words (consult the list of synonyms on pp. 291—
292):.
I. I'd be delighted to go on a sea ..., but my wife has nev­
er been a good sailor, so we ca n 't join you. 2. Last w eek we
m ade a w onderful ... to the m ountains. It took us four hours
293
by coach. 3. The Italian ... was really exciting. W e visited a
num ber of w onderful towns and then retu rn ed to Rome. The
... back to M oscow by railway took us about three days. 4. It
is delightful to com e ashore after a long ... an d to feel solid
g round u n d er on e's foot. 5. M any tim es on his long ... in the
d e p th s of A frica, in th e ju n g le of th e A m azon h e face d
danger, starvation and death. 6. At the b eginning of the last
cen tu ry going from Petersburg to M oscow was described as
Now it is b u t a n ig h t’s ... by night train, a six h o u rs’ ...
b y d a y tra in or an air... of an h o u r an d a half. 7. I'm ju s t
reading a very am using book about a pleasure party m aking
a C a rib b ean ... in so m e b o d y 's y ac h t. 8. Y oung p e o p le are
n aturally fond of ... as a w ay of visiting new places and see­
in g things: it is ch e ap an d gives o n e a feelin g of freed o m
and infinite horizons. 9. Irm told y o u ’re going on a ... to the
Far East. 10. T h e y ’re p la n n in g a ... of som e Baltic reso rts.
T hey've a new car, you know. 11. Y ou're looking pale. A ...
to the seaside will do you good.

III. Learn Text В and act out the scene.

IV. Try your hand at teaching.


A. Preparation. W rite ten q u estion s b ased on T ex t С to
provoke answ ers con tain in g th e follow ing phrases: go on a
voyage (journey), sail from , call at a port (ports), go ashore,
m ake a trip (trips), by coach, it was rough, to keep to o n e’s
cabin, a good sartor, swim m ing is delightful there.
B. Work in Class. Ask your questions and let the students
answ er them . C orrect their m istakes if any. (See “Classroom
English”, Sections VIII, IX, X.)

V. Retell Text С in your own words.

VI. Fill in prepositions or adverbs where necessary:


N i n a : H ello, Alex. I rem em ber so m ebody to ld m e th at
you had gone ... an interesting trip ... Siberia.
A l e x : I re a lly m a d e a w o n d e rfu l jo u rn e y ... th e very
h eart of Siberia. W e w ent ... K rasnoyarsk ... p lane an d then
sailed ... the Yenissei ... a cargo-ship.

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N i n a : A nd w here did you go ... ashore?
A l e x : Oh, ... som e spot you are not likely to find ... any
map. Well, w hen we found ourselves ... the bank we im m edi­
ately started ... the place w here our expediton was working.
N i n a : Did you go ... car?
A l e x : Oh, no! No car could have driven ... th o se paths.
W e travelled partly ... foot, and ... some places w ent ... small
rivers and stream s ... row ing-boats. W e w ere ... spots w here
no m an's foot had stepped ... us.
N i n a : H ow ex citin g ! So you en jo y ed ... th e jo u rn e y ,
d id n 't you?
A l e x : Every m inute ... it, though it was not an easy one.
N i n a : Did you return ... air?
A l e x : No, ... train. The fact is, I had hardly enough m on­
ey ... the railway fare, not to say anything ... the plane.

VII. Role-playing.
Work in groups of four or five:
You are a family deciding on the type of holiday you will
go on n e x t sum m er. T h en re p o rt to th e o th e r fam ilies on
your final decision, exp lain in g the reasons for y o u r choice.
P oint o u t a d v a n ta g e s an d d isa d v a n ta g e s, g iv in g w a rn in g
based on personal experience.

VIII. Translate the following into English:


1. В какие порты будет заходить «Победа»? Зайдет ли она в
Дувр? 2. Я не очень люблю морские путешествия. Я плохо перено­
шу море и всегда страдаю морской болезнью. 3. Сегодня вечером
наш пароход зайдет в Неаполь. Там мы пересядем в поезд и завтра
будем в Риме. 4. Он не мог позволить себе ехать на поезде. Плата
за проезд была слишком высока. Домой он добирался пешком и на
попутных машинах. 5. В прошлом месяце группа наших студентов
совершила интересную поездку по Англии. 6. Море было бурное,
и несколько дней пассажиры не выходили из кают. Некоторые из
них накануне хвастали, что не знают, что такое морская болезнь.
Но и они не показывались на палубе. 7. Свое первое путешествие
он совершил на борту старого грузового судна, направлявшегося в
Европу. 8. В поезде был всего лишь один спальный вагон, в кото­
ром не было ни одного свободного места. Вагона-ресторана не
было совсем. Начало поездки нельзя было считать удачным. 9. У

295
вас есть билет на поезд прямого сообщения? Терпеть не могу пе­
ресадок, особенно если много багажа.

IX. Make up dialogues.


Suggested situations:
A. Two friends are discussing different w ays of sp ending
th eir holidays. T hey both w ant to travel, b u t one of them is
an enthusiast read y for anything and th e o th er is a cautious
and a sceptical person. (Use the following: there is n o th in g
lik e travel b y a ir /b y sea, etc., it is m ore co n v e n ie n t to ...;
there is n o n e o f the ...; sp eed , com fort a n d p lea su re c o m ­
b in ed ; there is no travel so fin e as by the rise and fall of
the waves; com ing in to the harbour; that's all right for those
th a t lik e it; w hen the sea is rough; h itch -h ikin g ; it's risky,
isn't itl I prefer to be on the safe side; I'd rather stay at hom e]
B. A person who has just returned from a foreign cruise is
answering the questions of an eager listener. (Use the follow­
ing: a m ost exciting experience; I really en vy you; do tell m e
all about it; where did you sail from ? what were your ports of
call? go ashore; go sightseeing; what was the place that im ­
pressed you most? I d id n 't think m uch o f t h e jo u rn ey was
tiring; but you did enjoy it, d id n 't you?)
C. An old lad y is talking to a p o rter at th e railw ay p la t­
form. She keeps forgetting the nam e of the place sh e is g o ­
ing to and does not quite know how m any pieces of luggage
sh e has. (Use th e follow ing: will yo u se e to m y lu g g a g e ?
where for, m a d a m ? it ju s t slipped m y memory; it's a sort o f
resort place; w ould you lik e m e to have these trunks p u t in
the luggage-van? where on earth is that su itca se? it will n ev­
er go on the luggage-rack; I m ust have a seat facing the e n ­
g in e; d ea r m e, I'm su re to m iss the train; is it a th ro u g h
train? I hate to change; when are we due to arrive! )

X. a) Translate the following fragment into Russian in written form:


W hen your ship leaves H onolulu th ey h an g ‘le is’ round
your neck, garlands of sw eet-sm elling flowers. T he w harf is
crow ded and th e b an d plays a m elting H aw aiian tu n e. The
people on board throw coloured stream ers to those standing
296
below, and th e side of the ship is gay w ith the thin lines of
paper, red an d g reen an d yellow an d b lu e. W h en th e ship
moves slow ly away the stream ers b reak softly, and it is like
the breaking of hum an ties. M en and w om en are jo in e d to ­
gether for a mom ent, by a gaily coloured strip of paper, red
and blue and green and yellow, and then life separates them
and the p aper is sundered, so easily, with a little sharp snap.
For an hour the fragm ents trail dow n the hull and th en they
blow away. The flowers of your garlands fade and their scent
is oppressive. You throw them overboard.
(From “T h e T rem b lin g o f a Leaf”
by W . S. M au g h am )

b) Compare the seeing-off ceremony described in the fragment with the


one you read about in the story “Seeing People Off'.
c) Comment on the second part of the fragment beginning with the
words “...it is like the breaking of human ties". W hat does the description
symbolize? Comment on the stylistic aspect of the fragment.

XI. a) Read the text below and translate it into Russian orally:
A Sea Trip
“ N o ” , said H arris, “ if you w an t re s t an d c h a n g e , y o u
can 't beat a sea trip.“
I objected to the sea trip strongly. A sea trip does you good
w hen you are g o in g to have a co u p le of m onths of it, but,
for a week, it is wicked.
You start on M onday w ith the idea that you are going to
enjoy yourself. You wave an airy adieu to the boys on shore,
light your biggest pipe and sw agger about the deck as if you
w ere C aptain Cook, Sir Francis Drake, an d C h risto p h er C o­
lum bus all rolled into one. O n T uesday you wish you h a d n 't
com e. O n W ednesday, T h u rsd ay an d Friday, you w ish you
were dead, O n Saturday you are able to swallow a little beef
tea, a n d to sit up on d eck , an d an sw er w ith a w an, sw eet
sm ile w hen kind-hearted p eo p le ask you how you feel now.
O n S unday, you b eg in to w alk ab o u t again, and ta k e solid
food. A nd on M onday m orning, as, w ith your bag an d um ­
b rella in your hand, you stan d by th e gangw ay, w aitin g to
step ashore, you begin to thoroughly like it.
297
I rem em ber m y brother-in-law going for a sh o rt sea trip
once for the benefit of his health. He took a return berth from
London to Liverpool; and w hen he got to Liverpool, the only
thing he was anxious about was to sell that return ticket.
It was offered round the town at a trem endous reduction;
so I am told; and was eventually sold for eighteen p ence to a
y o u th w ho had ju st b een advised b y his m edical m an to go
to the seaside, and take exercise.
“Seaside!” said my brother-in-law , pressing the tick et af­
fectio n ate ly into his hand; “why, y o u 'll g e t en o u g h to last
you a lifetime; and as for exercise! why, y o u 'll get m ore ex ­
ercise, sittin g dow n on th a t ship, th a n you w ould tu rn in g
somersaults on dry land ”
H e him self — my brother-in-law — cam e b ack by train.
He said the North-W estern Railway was healthy enough for him,
[From “T h re e M en in a B o at”
by Je ro m e K. Jero m e. Adapted j

b) Answer the following questions:


1. W hat m ade the narrator object to the sea trip? 2. W hy
did his brother-in-law sell his retu rn tick et? 3. How did he
describe the advantages of a sea trip to the youth who bought
his ticket?
c) Point out the lines and passages that you consider humorous. Is it
humour of situation or humour of words? (Analyse each case separately.)

XII. Speak individually or arrange a discussion on the following:


1. W hat attracts people in the idea of travelling?
2. Is the rom antic aspect of travelling still alive in our time?
3. T he celebrated travellers of the past.
4. W here and how would you like to travel?

XIII. Try your hand at teaching.


1. Arrange and run a conversation on the following text:

The Only Way to Travel Is on Foot


W hen anthrop o lo g ists tu rn their atten tio n to th e tw en ti­
eth century, they will surely choose the label “Legless M an”
H isto rie s of th e tim e w ill go so m e th in g lik e this: “ In th e
298
tw entieth ce n tu ry peo p le forgot how to use th eir legs. M en
and w om en m oved ab o u t in cars, b u ses an d train s from a
very early age. T he su rp risin g th in g is th at th ey d id n 't use
their legs even w hen they w ent on holiday. T hey built cable
railways, ski-lifts an d roads to the top of every h u g e m o u n ­
tain.”
T he fu tu re h isto ry books m ight also reco rd th a t we did
not use our eyes. In our hurry to g et from one p lace to a n ­
other, we failed to see anything on the way. Air travel gives
you a bird's-eye view of the world. C ar drivers in particular,
never w ant to stop. The typical tw entieth-century traveller is
th e m an w ho alw ays says ‘I'v e b een there* — m ean in g , “ I
drove th ro u g h it at 100 m iles an h o u r on th e way to som e­
w here else.”
W hen you travel at high speeds th e present m eans n o th ­
ing: you live m ainly in the future, b ecau se you sp e n d m ost
of your tim e looking forward to arriving at some other place.
But ac tu al arrival w hen it is achieved, is m eaningless. You
w ant to m ove on again. T he traveller on foot, on th e o th er
h an d , lives c o n s ta n tly in th e p rese n t. H e e x p e rie n c e s to
present m om ent w ith his eyes, his ears an d the w hole of his
body. At the end of his journey he feels a delicious physical
w eariness. H e know s that sound satisfying sleep will be his:
the just reward of all true travellers.
A r g u m e n t s:
For: Against:
1. Even on holiday: cable 1. F oolish to clim b a m o u n ta in
railw ays, ski-lifts, ro ad s w h en th e r e ’s a railw ay o r
to to p s of m o u n tain s. ro ad u p it.
2. W h e n tra v e llin g a t h ig h 2. T rav ellin g a t h ig h sp e e d s
s p e e d s p re s e n t m ean s is a p le a s u re in itself,
n o th in g : life in future.
3. T rav e lle r on foot: lives 3. T rav ellin g on foot: e x h au stin g :
c o n sta n tly in p re sen t. you g e t n o w h ere fast.
4. T y p ical tw e n tie th -c e n tu ry 4. It's now p o ssib le to see
trav eller: “ I've b e e n th e re .” m an y co u n tries, m e e t
Italy, D elhi, Irkutsk; th ro u g h p e o p le of all n atio n a litie s,
a t 100 m iles a n hour.

2. Think of some other arguments and counter-arguments to carry on


the discussion. (See “Classroom English’’, Section IX.)

299
XIV. A. Do you know how to act sensibly when out in the wilds? И
not, the text below might help you:
If you are settin g off on a w alking tour, take a com pass,
a m ap and first-aid eq u ip m en t w ith you. Even the m ost ex ­
perienced can lose their way in the vast uninhabited areas. If
you get lost d o n 't lose your head. Instead b e sensible, try to
give som e in d ic a tio n of w h ere you are an d k ee p yourseH
warm. A nd rem em ber: never go off alone, and inform som e­
one at your point of d ep artu re w here you intend to go, and
w hat route you intend to take.
B. Describe the pictures. Use the suggested phrases.
C. See if the travellers have acted sensibly. Support your idea.
a) give m e a walking tour every time; you can’t beat (hitch-]
hiking; need you take so m uch luggage? b) to get to wild, un­
in h a b ited p la c e s; to be h a rd ly able to go on; to be n early
drow ned in a sw am p; unim aginable h a rd sh ip s; to overcom e
the obstacles; c) there was a turn in the weather, it was pour­
ing; /fashes o f lightning, rolls o f thunder; I wish I were in о
railway carriage now!; d) to climb the steepest rocks; to face
the danger o f ...; to get to places where no m an’s foot has ever
stepped; e) to reach the top in safety; to be hardly able to be­
lieve one's eyes; you could knock me down with a feather.

300
301
302
STUDIES O F W RITTEN EN G LISH

VIII
D ifferent p attern s of w riting (see “S tudies” in U nit One)
seldom occur alone, more often they blend into one another,
especially in letter writing.
Letter is a specific kind of written com position involving a
concrete writer, m essage and a concrete reader. In m any ways
it is a free com position. A letter is in a sense, a them e, gov­
ern ed by th e sam e rules of w riting th at govern every o th e r
kind of com position. It m ust be clear, well organized, co h er­
ent. A nd it should be interesting.
But a letter is also governed by certain other laws, or con­
ventions of usage, which the letter w riter cannot ignore.
T hese are the parts of a letter: the heading, the inside a d ­
dress, the greeting, the body of the letter, the com plim entary
close, the signature.
For each of these parts usage has p rescrib ed certain set
forms dep en d in g on different types of letters — personal or
business letters, informal or formal social notes.
T he h ea d in g . T he p arts of a heading, w ritten in th e fol­
low ing order, are th e street, address, th e nam e of a city or
town (the nam e of the state in the U.S.A.), the date, e. g.
Vine C ottage
Oxford Road
A bingdon-on-Tham es
13 M ay 19...
N о t e: In Great Britain very often the house is not num bered but has a
“proper” name, like ‘‘Vine C ottage”,
T he in sid e a d d re s s . In a b u sin e ss le tte r th e in sid e a d ­
dress is th e address of the person w ritten to. In personal let­
ter the inside address is usually om itted.
In a business letter it is always correct to use a personal
title w ith the nam e of the person addressed. A business title
sh o u ld not p re c e d e th e nam e. C o rrect p erso n a l title s are:
Mr., Mrs., Miss, Dr., Professor, Messrs., e. g.
Dr. Т. C. Howard
S uperintendent of Schools
303
T he G reetin g . T he follow ing form s are co rrect for b u si­
ness and professional letters:
Gentlem en: Ladies:
Dear Sir: Dear M adam:
M y dear Sir: M y dear Madam:
Dear Mr, W arren: Dear Miss Howard:
In personal letters either a colon or a comma m ay be used
a fte r th e g re e tin g . A com m a is c o n sid e re d less form al. In
p erso n al le tte rs th e range of g reetin g s is un lim ited an d in ­
formal, like “M y own Lovey-Dovey” of J u d y 's “D ear D addy
Long-Legs” .
The Body off th e Letter. A good letter should be clear, di­
rect, coherent, dignified and courteous.
The Com plim entary Close. C orrect forms for business le t­
ters are:
Yours truly,
Yours very truly,
V ery truly yours,
Respectfully yours,
Faithfully yours.
Sincerely yours,
Yours sincerely,
C ordially yours.
T he S ig n a tu re . Som e of th e co n v en tio n s sh o u ld b e o b ­
served: a) n eith er professional titles, nor academ ic degress
sh o u ld be u se d w ith a sig n atu re; b) an u n m a rried w om an
should sign herself as M iss Laura Blank, b u t she m ay place
M iss in p a re n th e se s b efo re h er n am e if sh e feels th a t it is
necessary for p ro p er identification; c) a m arried w om an or e
w idow signs h er own nam e, not her m arried nam e. For ex
am ple, Diana H oliday Brown is her own nam e; Mrs. G eorge
Brown is her m arried name,
H ere is an exam ple of a business letter:
Dear Miss Carnaby,
Allow me to enclo se a co n trib u tio n to your very d eserv ­
ing Fund before it is finally w ound up.
Yours very truly,
H ercule Poirot.
304
^assignments:
1. Go over the letters (see Unit Five) and copy down the samples of
Die complimentary close.
2. Write a reply to Judy's letter as if you were the person she wrote
ber letter to.
3. Write a letter to a friend sharing the memories of your holiday trip
and your feelings at the station on the day of departure.
4. Write a letter to your dean in which you request permission to stay at
your parents' several days more. Give your reason clearly and convincingly.

XV. Film “Mr. Brown's Holiday". Film Segment 8 “Caught in the Rain"
(On the Way to Yeovil), a) Watch and listen, b) Do the exercises from the
guide to the film.

LABORATORY EXERCISES (II)

1. Listen to the text “Different Means of Travel", mark the stresses and
tunes. Repeat it following the model.
2. Listen to the conversation “At the Station", mark the stresses and
tunes; repeat after the tape. Learn the text by heart.
3. Listen to the dialogue “A Voyage Round Europe”, mark the stresses
and tunes. Repeat the text following the model and record your variant.
Compare your variant with the model and correct your pronunciation mis­
takes.
4. Write a spelling-translation test: a) translate the phrases into English;
b) check them with the key.
5. Listen to the text “A Tragedy in the Air”. Pick out from the text and
write down the phrases that sound unfamiliar to you. Write their Russian
translation, using a dictionary (oral and written work).
6. Listen to the anecdotes. Put down the word combinations you find
useful. Act them out in class (oral and written work).
7. Listen to the poem “From a Railway Carriage”. Mark the stresses
and tunes. Repeat after the tape. Learn it by heart.

CURIOSITY QUIZ FOR EAGERS

W hat do you know about


1. Christopher Columbus and the history of his discovery? Why wasn't
America named in his honour? After whom was it named and why?
2. Captain Cook, Sir Francis Drake, Roald Amundsen, Mickloukha-
Macklay, the Papanin expedition?
3. The Mystery of the Atlantis, the Mystery of the Bermudian Triangle,
the Mystery of the Easter Isle, the Loch Ness Monster?

ll В. Д. Аракин, II курс 305


U N IT N IN E

SPEECH PATTERNS

1. They w ere about Mrs. Burlow's age, so were


the attendants.

“I tell you I was moved. So were you, I dare say.”


“ I w asn't trying to act. I really felt.” “ So did I, m y boy,'
said Le Ros.
M y friend guessed what m ystery they w ere talking about
So did I.
She was g reatly im pressed b y L aurence O livier's acting
So w ere they.

2 * Rose thought him quite funny.

C hristine th o u g h t this ch eq u e for tw enty g u in eas rather


strange.
T hey always found Le Ros m agnetic.
The Trasker girls considered Faberm acher very rom antic
For the first time in a long while Erik thought himself won
derfully free.

3. She saw his face peering through that mask.

Lanny saw Gret Villier sitting at the table m otionless am:


im personal.
W h e n p a s sin g a co ffee stall L anny n o tic e d tw o w h it'
m en staring at him.
Jim and his m other heard the blind m an approaching th
door.
It was easy to im agine Ida perform ing as the k eep er ot
second-rate club.
Dave frowned as he saw Dan leaving.
306
4, Rose w anted him to stop clowning for them.

W h en Erik finished read in g th e letter, he c o u ld n ’t tak e


his eyes off the paper.
Presently Tom picked up a straw and began trying to b al­
ance it on his nose.
The sailor began rowing towards the harbour's m outh.
M eanw hile sh e w ent on talk in g in h er earnest, co n v in c­
ing voice.

EXERCISES

I. Change the sentences, using the patterns:


Pattern 2 : 1 . T he M u rd sto n e s th o u g h t th a t D avid
was d iso b ed ien t. 2. E verybody found th a t th e re w as so m e­
thing m ysterious ab o u t Lady Alroy. 3. W e th o u g h t th a t th e
last scene was quite impressive. 4. I found that the stran g er’s
voice was vaguely familiar to me. 5. H uck Finn co u ld n 't bear
his new life at th e w idow 's, in his opinion it was ex trem ely
dull.
P a t t e r n 3 :1 . Sabina cam e into th e hall, she saw th at
he w as s ittin g a t th e te le p h o n e . 2. W e w a tc h e d how th e
seers-off w ere shuffling from foot to foot. 3. O utside he found
that Jo e was stan d in g on the platform . 4. She w atch ed how
he was w aving farew ell to his friends. 5. I saw th a t Bob was
playing centre forward.
P a t t e r n 4: 1. Erik started to read th e le tte r again.
2. S oon th e p o rte rs b e g a n to p u ll lu g g a g e a lo n g th e p la t­
form. 3. At last Jack finished to w rite num erous letters of in ­
troduction. 4. Lev Yashin began to play football w hen he was
a teen-ager. 5. B urton's nam esake started to play p o k er and
went broke. 6. The Gadfly pulled a chrysanthem um from the
vase and began to pluck off one white petal after another.

II. Think of a situation. Suggest a beginning matching up the end. Use


the proper pattern:
P a t t e r n 1: 1. ...; so w ere all th e p assen g ers. 2. ...; so
did we. 3. ...; so am 1. 4. ...; so can we. 5. ...; so have I. 6. ...;

307
so have you. 7. so was our coach. 8. so did the g o a l
keeper. 9. so did the opponent. 10. ...;so w ere our n eig h ­
bours. 11. ...; so was our luggage. 12. ...; so is she.
P a t t e r n 2: 1. ... vaguely familiar. 2. ... q u ite sociable
3. ... rath e r im pressive. 4. ... obed ien t. 5. ... q u ite differeni
6. ... valuable.
P a t t e r n 3: 1. ... serving another meal. 2. ... m aking a
p ause in his story. 3. ... rubbing his hands with delight. 4. . ,
shrugging her shoulders. 5. ... passing the bread-plate to th^
m an next to him. 6. ...curling her lip an d show ing h er d is­
gust for the scene.
P a t t e r n 4: 1. ... stopped breathing. 2. ... started filling
in th e a p p lic a tio n form. 3. ... sto p p e d sh iv erin g w ith cold.
4. ... began trem bling w ith fear. 5. ... sto p p ed m aking note:-,
6. ... finished reading aloud.

III. Translate the following into English. Use the patterns:


P a t t e r n 1: 1. Они только что проводили своих родствен­
ников на станцию. — Мы тоже. 2. В воскресенье мы обедали в
гостях. — Мы тоже. 3. Я люблю бифштекс немного недожарен­
ным. — Мой брат тоже. 4. Им до смерти наскучил его расскй'.-.
— Нам тоже, 5. Лень непростительна и невежество тоже. 6. Ее
сын непослушный. — И мой тоже. 7. Это мое окончательное ре­
шение; надеюсь, и ваше тоже. 8. Наши попутчики оказались об­
щительными и милыми людьми. — Наши тоже.
P a t t e r n 2: 1. Рикардо встречал Овода раньше и счита\
его довольно странным (odd). 2. Джуди считала себя совершен­
но невежественной во многих вопросах. 3. Когда Джек впервые
увидел леди Гвендолен (Gwendolen), он нашел ее совершен г: j
очаровательной. 4. Герствуд (Hurstwood) не считал, что Кэрр;(
достаточно талантлива для сцены, но думал, что сама идея зар*
батывать таким образом на жизнь вполне разумна (sensible
5. Розмэри считала свой поступок благородным и довольно см<
лым (daring). 6. Росс считал, что американцы общительны, ан­
гличан он находил негостеприимными. 7. Он искренне дума',
что его работа очень полезна.
P a t t e r n 3: 1. С другого конца стола Эндрю наблюдал,
оперирует Чарльз Айвори. 2. Том и Бекки увидели, что через м-
ленькое отверстие в пещере мерцает (to glimmer) свет. 3. Вс
кто стоял на палубе, наблюдали, как садится солнце. 4. Я н

308
могу себе представить, что он занимается спортом. 5. Мы виде­
ли, как вы здоровались с ним за руку. 6. Бедняга был страшно
удивлен, когда он услышал, что Бертон предлагает ему работу.
P a t t e r n 4 : 1 . Джемма никогда не переставала думать,
что она виновата в смерти Артура. 2. Вскоре люди начали при­
ходить группами. 3. Он так и не смог бросить курить и загу­
бил свое здоровье. 4. Капитан внезапно прекратил разговор и
начал изучать карту. 5. Перестаньте обращаться с ним как с
маленьким непослушным мальчиком.

IV. Respond to the following statements and questions, using the


patterns:
P a t t e r n 1:1. Le Ros was d elig h ted to see his old ac­
quaintance. 2. Some people feel rath er stiff on the platform .
W h at abo u t you? 3. M y friends liked th e film “Q u iet Flows
th e D o n .” W h at ab o u t yours? 4. C elia loved Lanny. W h at
about Sarie? 5. Stephen Leacock is a fam ous hum orous w rit­
er. W hat about M ark Twain? 6. Some people like things m ade
to order. W hat about your friend? 7. I'd rather read som ething
b y C h ek h o v , w ould you? 8. St. P a u l's C a th e d ra l is a fine
specim en of arch itectu re. U n fo rtu n ately I d id n 't see W e st­
m inster Abbey. 9. M artin Eden lived u n d er very hard co n d i­
tions w hen he was young. W hat about Jack London himself?
10. I find this exercise extrem ely easy.
P a t t e r n 2: 1. W hat do you think about S h ak esp eare's
plays? 2. How do you find the screen version of “W ar and
P e a c e ” ? 3. In m y o p in io n C h. D ickens' la n g u a g e is ra th e r
d ifficu lt. 4. W h a t w o u ld you say to a d ay or tw o in th e
m ountains? 5. W hat is your im pression of the Tower of Lon­
don? 6. W h a t do you th in k of h itc h -h ik in g as a m ean s of
travel? 7. How did you find th e last film you saw? 8. W hat
do you th in k of Le Ros's o ccu p atio n ? 9. Some p e o p le like
travelling by air. 10. W hat is your opinion about the English
language?
P a t t e r n 3 : 1 . H ave y o u ever w a tc h e d th e su n rise?
2. Did you have a chance to hear how your friend was recit­
ing at concerts? 3. C an you im agine th at you are teaching a
class of sm all children? 4. Do you hear any noise? It’s com ­
ing from above, isn 't it? 5. W hat kind of people can you see
on the platform and what are they doing there?
309
P a t t e r n 4 : 1 . W h e n d id you sta rt to le a rn E nglish?
2. W hich of your friends have started to learn a second for­
eig n la n g u a g e ? 3. W h en do th e y fin ish to serv e m eals in
yo u r can teen ? 4. W e shall b eg in to w rite th e test w hen ev­
erybody comes.

V. Write 12 questions suggesting answers with these patterns. (The


questions in Ex. IV may serve as a model.)

T E X T . ROSE AT THE MUSIC-HALL


From “They W alk in the City” by J. B. Priestley
Priestley, John Bointon {1894—1984) is the author of numerous novels,
plays and literary essays w ell-know n all over the world. Of his pre-w ar
novels the most famous are “The Good Companions”, “Angel Pavem ent”,
“They W alk in the City”, and “W onder Hero”. His war novels “Blackout in
G reatley”, “Daylight on Saturday” and “Three M en in New Suits”, were
very popular with the readers during and after the Second World War, The
daring and unusual composition of some of his plays {such as “Dangerous
C orner”, "Time and the Conways”) is a device for revealing people's real
selves hidden under conventional masks,
Priestley loves people. His favourite character is a little man, an unim­
portant shy person, lost in the jungle of the big city, helpless in the face of
forces which he cannot combat. In the description of an elderly comic actor
in the given extract you will find something of the sad tenderness and com­
passion characteristic of Priestley's attitude towards “little men”.

W h en th ey arrived at th e m u sic-h all,1 th e d o o rs for th e


second house w ere ju st o p en in g ,2 and th ey w alked straig h t
into the stalls, w hich w ere very cheap. The audience m ade a
g re a t deal of noise, esp ecially in the balcony. M rs. Burlow
led th e w ay to the front and found two very good seats for

1 m usic-hall: a hall or theatre used for variety entertainm ent: songs,


dancing, acrobatic performances, juggling. ( N o t e : “music-hall” m ust not
be confused with “concert-hall” )
2 th e doors for the second house were just opening: the second p er­
formance was about to begin. In music-halls and in circuses two or more
performances with the same programme are given every day.
The sam e term is used with reference to cinem as: the first (second,
third) house первый (второй, третий) сеанс.

310
them . Rose b o u g h t a p ro g ram m e for tw o p en ce, gav e it to
Mrs. Burlow, then looked about her brightly.
It was a nice friendly little place, this music-hall, w arm er
and cosier and alto g eth er more hum an than the picture th e­
a tre s3 she u su a lly a tte n d e d . O ne th in g sh e n o ticed . T h ere
w ere v ery few y o u n g p e o p le th e re . T h e y w ere n e a rly all
ab o u t M rs. B urlow 's age. So w ere th e a tte n d a n ts. So w ere
the m em bers of the orchestra, who soon crep t into th eir pit,
w ip in g th e ir m ouths. V ery few of th e tu rn s 4 w ere y o u n g ;
th e y th e m selv es, th e ir c re a s e d a n d fa d in g sc e n e ry , th e ir
w orn p ro p erties, th eir jo k e s an d m any of th eir so n g s w ere
g ettin g on in years. And th e lo u d est ap p lau se always cam e
w hen a perform er said he would im itate “our dear old favou­
rite” So-and-so, an d nam ed a m usic-hall star th at Rose had
n ever h ea rd of, or w hen a sin g er w ould tell th em th a t th e
new songs w ere all very w ell in th eir w ay b u t th a t th e old
songs w ere best and he or she would “endeavour to ren d er”
one of their old favourite ditties. The resu lt of this was th at
though the w hole place was so cosy and friendly, it was also
ra th e r sad. Youth had fled from it. T here was no bloom on
a n y th in g h ere. J o in ts w ere stiff, ey es an x io u s b e h in d th e
m ask of paint.
O ne turn was an eccentric fellow with a g rotesque m ake­
up, a d eadw hite face and a very red nose, an d his co stu m e
was th a t of a rag g ed tram p. He m ade little jokes, fell over
him self, and th en clim bed on to the b ack of a chair, m ad e
m ore little jo k e s an d p lay ed th e ac co rd io n . Rose th o u g h t
him q u ite fu n n y at first, b u t very soon c h a n g e d h er m ind
about him. She was sitting near enough to see his real face,
peering anxiously through that mask. It was old, weary, d es­
olate. And from w here she sat, she could see into the wings
and standing there, never taking her eyes off the perform er,

3 picture theatre {colloq.): a cinema


4 tum s: (here) actors taking part in the programme. Turn — a short per­
formance on the stage of a music-hall or a variety theatre (номер програм­
мы). The program m e of a variety perfom ance usually consists of various
turns.

311
was an elderly woman, holding a dressing gown in one hand
a n d a sm all m e d ic in e g la ss in th e o th e r. A nd th e n Rose
w anted him to stop clowning for them, w anted the curtain to
co m e dow n, so th a t he c o u ld p u t on th a t d re ssin g gow n,
d rin k his m edicin e or w hatever it is, and go aw ay w ith the
elderly woman, and rest and not worry any more.
But she said n o th in g to Mrs. Burlow, w ho was enjoying
herself, and laughing and clapping as hard as anyone there,
p erh ap s becau se sh e too was no lo n g er y o u n g an d was b e ­
ing entertained by people of her own age.

VOCABULARY NOTES

1. w a y n 1. путь, дорога, e. g. T h e w ay w e to o k lay


through the forest. Syn. road, path, track.
2. направление, e. g. C an you show me the w ay to Trafal­
gar Square? (Как пройти...?)
N o t e ; w ay is but seldom used to denote a specially built m eans of
communication between two places, the usual word for which is road; way
is more often used to denote direction, e. д. I can show you the way to the
nearest village (i. e. I can tell you what direction you should take in order to
get to the village). But: 1 can show you a very good road to the village.; path
denotes a track made by the feet of people who pass along (тропа, тропин­
ка) as a path through the woods. Of the three synonyms abstract usages are
most typical of way, e. g. way to knowledge, way to happiness, etc., p ath
is also sometimes used in such combinations, as “The Path of T hunder”,
dangerous path, etc.
to make one's w ay идти вперед, проходить, e. g. T hey
m ad e th e ir w ay th ro u g h th e sile n t s tre e ts of th e sle e p in g
city.
to lead the w ay в е с т и з а с о б о й , и д т и во главе, е. g. The
g u id e led th e w ay th ro u g h th e forest till we reach ed a n a r­
row path, This way, please. П ож алуй ста, пройдите сюда.
on the w ay по дороге, e. g. L et’s d iscu ss it on th e way
home.
to lo se one's w ay заблудиться, e. g. T h e c h ild re n lost
their way in the forest.
by th e w ay кстати, м еж ду прочим, e. g. By th e w ay,
w hat was it she told you?
312
to be (stand) in smb.'s w ay мешать, стоять поперек до­
роги, е. g. Let me pass, d o n 't stand in my way. They co u ld n 't
even talk in private: th ere was always som eone in th e way.
W hat was it that stood in the way of her happiness?
to be (get) out of smb.'s way не мешать, не препятство­
вать, уйти с дороги, е. д. G et out of m y way! I shall g et her
out of th e w ay for te n m in u te s, so th a t y o u ca n h av e an
opportunity to settle the matter.
in one's (own) w ay в своем роде, e. g. The music was u n ­
usual but quite beautiful in its own way.
to have (get) one's own w ay настоять на своем, добиться
своего, е. д. She likes to have h er own w ay in ev ery th in g .
Have it your own way.
w ay out выход из положения, e. g. T h at seem s to m e a
very good w ay out. Proverb: W h ere th e re 's a will th e re 's a
way.
2. attend v t / i 1. посещать, присутствовать, e. g. All ch il­
dren over seven attend school in our country.
2. прислуживать, обслуживать, e. g. She was tired of a t­
te n d in g on (upon) rich old ladies w ho never knew ex actly
what they w anted.
attendant n служитель (в театре — билетер, капель­
динер), е. д. The attendant will show you to your seats.
attendance л 1. присутствие, посещаемость, e. g. A tten ­
dance at schools is com pulsory. The atten d an ce has fallen off.
Your attendance is requested.; 2. обслуживание; уход; услу­
ги, e. g. Now that the patient is out of danger the doctor is no
longer in attendance.
3. wear (wore, worn) v t / i 1. носить (одежду), быть оде­
тым во что-л., е. g. At the party she wore her w edding dress
and he said she looked like a lily-of-the-valley. You should
always wear blue: it m atches your eyes.
Syn. to have smth. on
to wear make-up (paint, rouge) употреблять косметику,
краситься
to wear scent д у ш и т ь с я
2. изнашивать, протирать, e. g. I have worn my shoes into
holes. The carpet was worn by the m any feet that had trodden
on it.

313
3. носиться (о платье, обуви и т. д.). е. д. T h is c lo th
wears well (badly).
w e a r n, e. g. T his style of d ress is in g en eral w ear now
Сейчас все носят платья этого фасона. C lothes for everyday
wear. Одежда на каждый день. Shoes for street wear. Туфли
для улицы.
footwear обувь
underwear белье
4. an xiou s adj 1. озабоченный, тревож ный, беспокой­
ный, е. д. I am anxious ab o u t his health. H er face was calm,
bu t the anxious eyes betrayed som ething of what she felt.
Syn. worried, troubled, e. g. She always gets w orried about
little things.
2. сильно желающий чего-л., e. g. He works hard because
he is anxious to succeed. The actor was anxious to please the
audience.
Syn. eager, e. g. Isn't he eager to learn?
anxiety n 1. беспокойство, тревога, опасение, забота, е. д
W e w aited with anxiety for the doctor to come. All these anxi­
eties m ade him look pale and tired.
Syn. worry
2. страстное стремление к чему-л., е. д. T hat anxiety foi
tru th m ade Philip rather unpopular with som e of his school­
mates.
anxiously adv с беспокойством, с волнением, е. д. W e апх
iously w aited for his arrival.
N o t e : Cl. the synonyms to be anxious, to worry, to trouble, to bother
The range of m eaning of worry is wide: it can denote emotional states o.!
different intensity w hereas its synonyms are narrower in m eaning. In the
sentence “His long absence worried his mother very m uch” worry express­
es a strong feeling of anxiety. It is also possible to say: “It made her very
anxious.” The intensity of feeling is slightly weaker here; trouble denotes a
still weaker emotion; bother describes rather a state of irritation and dissatis
faction than of anxiety. Som etim es either of the synonym s can be used
in one and the same sentence. The difference lies in the intensity of the
em otion expressed by each verb, e. g. Don’t let that bother you (— don !
think about it: it is unim portant). D on’t let that trouble you (nearly tht
same, but also: Don't get nervous about it). Don’t be anxious about it. (Th(
feeling of fear and anxiety is stronger here than in the previous example j
Don’t let that worry you (= don’t let that spoil your mood; don’t fear thaf
smth. bad will happen).

314
5. make (made, made) v t / i 1. делать, производить; гото­
в и т ь , e. g. W hat is the box m ade of?
2. становиться, оказываться, e. g. I'm sure she'll m ake an
excellent teacher.
3. заставлять, e. g. W e'll have to m ake him take the m ed­
icine.
N о t e: In this meaning make is followed by a complex object. {Observe
the absence of to with the infinitive!)
to make a mistake делать ошибку, ошибаться
to make a report делать доклад
to make (a) noise шуметь
to make a (the) bed стелить постель
to m ake friends w ith smb. п о др у ж и ться с кем -л.,
e. g. Soon she m ade friends w ith her fellow -passengers. She
easily m akes friends.
to m ake o n e se lf at hom e чувствовать себя как дома,
е. д. Com e in and m ake yourself at home.
to make a joke (jokes) шутить, острить, e. g. W hy do you
always m ake jokes? C an 't you be serious?
N o t e : Make is also used with num erous adjectives giving em otional
characteristics, as to make smb. happy (angry, sad, etc.).
to m ake up 1. со став л я ть {рецепт, список и т . д. ) ,
е. д. Before packing m ake up a list of things you are going to
take.; 2. выдумывать, e. g. You are a fool to listen to his story.
He has m ade it all up. M ake up your own sentences using the
new w ords.; 3. гримировать (-ся), краситься, e. g. How long
will it take the actors to m ake up? She was so m uch m ade up
that I d id n 't recognize her at first.; 4. мириться, as I am sorry
for w hat I said. Let's m ake it up. You’d b etter m ake it up with
Ann.; 5. возмещать, компенсировать, e. g. W e m ust m ake up
for lost time. W on ’t you let me try to m ake up for all I've fai­
led to do in the past?
to make up one's mind = to decide
make-up л грим, косметика, e. g. W hy sh o u ld you spoil
your p retty face w ith all this m ake-up? The wom an uses too
much m ake-up (...слишком сильно красится).
6. hold (held, held) v t/i 1. держать, e. g. She was holding
a red rose in her hand.
315
to hold on to smth. держаться за что-л., e. g. H olding on
to a branch, he clim bed a little higher. H old on to th e rail­
ing, it's slippery here.
to hold a m eeting проводить собрание, e. g. A stu d en ts'
m eeting was held in our departm ent yesterday.
2. вмещать, содерж ать в себе, е. д. How m an y p eo p h
will this lecture-hall hold?
3. держаться (о погоде), e. g. Will this w eather hold?
hold n
to catch (get) hold of sm th. ухватиться за что-л., схва
тить что-л., завладеть чем-л.( е. д. Не nearly fell down, b u ■
m an ag ed to catch hold of his co m p an io n 's arm . T he child
got hold of a bright flower.
to keep hold of sm th. уд ер ж и вать, не вы пускать,
e. g. W ith every m inute it becam e harder and harder to keep
hold of the slippery ropes.
to lose hold of smth. выпустить (из рук), e. g. It w asn't
her nature to lose hold of anything she had got hold of.
7. entertain v t / i 1. принимать гостей (rather formal),
e. g. W e are en tertain in g a lot.; 2. развлекать, занимать,
e. g. W e were all entertained by his tricks.
entertaining adj развлекательный, занимательный
e. g. The co nversatio n was far from en tertain in g . In fact, it
was horribly dull.
Syn. amusing
entertainm ent n развлечение, зрелище, представление,
e. g. There are m any places of entertainm ent in any big city.

ESSENTIAL VOCABULARY (I)

W o rd s

anxiety n atten d an t n im itate v


anxious adj audience n m ake v
anxiously adv entertain v m ake-up я
attend v entertainm ent n wear v
attendance n hold v , я wings я, pi
wipe v
316
W o r d C o m b in a tio n s

to m ake (a) noise a long way from


to lead the way (to) to lose one's (the) way
to look about oneself to be (get) out of the way
about (of) sm b.'s age to have one's (own) way
mem bers of the orchestra to catch hold of smth.
anxious (worried) about smth. to keep hold of smth.
to m ake jokes to lose hold of smth.
to m ake oneself at hom e to hold a m eeting
to m ake up smth. to hold on to smth.
to m ake one's way

EXERCISES

1. Read the text and explain the following points (A. Grammar, B.
Word usage, C. Style):
A. 1. Explain the use of tenses in: a) “ ...a perform er said
h e w o uld im ita te ‘o u r d ea r old favourite* S o-and-so, an d
n a m e d a m u sic -h a ll sta r th a t R ose h ad n ev e r h e a rd of**;
b) “Youth had fled from it”: c) “She was sitting near enough...”
2. Explain the use of all th e articles in th e fragm ent b e ­
ginning w ith “O ne turn was an eccentric fellow”, and ending
with “played the accordion."
B. 1. How do you u n derstand the w ord hum an in “ ...alto­
gether more hum an than the picture theatres..."?
2. a) E xplain th e m eaning of th e italicized w ords in th e
follow ing: “V ery few of th e tu rn s w ere young; th e y th e m ­
selves, their creased and fading scenery, their worn property
w ere g e ttin g on in y e a rs” ; b) W h at k in d of atm o sp h e re is
created by this description? W hich characteristic feature of
the place is specially em phasized?
3. W hat is the m eaning of the word bloom in “T here was
no bloom on anything h ere” ? W hat kind of im age is created
by the sentence?
4. E xp lain th e m e an in g of th e w o rd s a n xio u s in “ eyes
anxious behind the mask of pain” and anxiously in “his real
face peering anxiously through that m ask.” (Anxious implies
317
fear. W h y is th e em o tio n of fear em p h asized in th e se two
sentences?)
С. 1. Explain the effect achieved by inversion in: a) “O ne
th in g she n o tic e d ” ; b) “ ...S tanding th ere, n ev er ta k in g h er
eyes off the perform er, was an elderly w om an...” (See N otes
on Style, p. 277).
2. a) W hat is the effect achieved by the syntactical p aral­
lelism in: “...So were the attendants. So were the members of the
orchestra” ? b) Find another case of syntactical parallelism in
the last passage b u t one and com m ent on it.

II. Transcribe the following words and translate them into Russian:
a n x ie ty , a rriv a l, a tte n d a n c e , im ita te , a lto g e th e r,
tw o p en ce, p ro p e rtie s, crea sed , w earing, w eary, a u d ie n c e ,
straight, desolate, joint, anxious, grotesque, ragged, perhaps,
endeavour.

III. a) Find in the text sentences with:


a great deal of, very few, very few of, m any of
and write your own sentences with the same word-com bination s.

b) Find in the text sentences with:


altogether, nearly, usually, then, at first, soon, w hatever it
is, any more, no longer
and write your own sentences with the same words and phrases.

IV. Answer the questions:


1. W h en did Rose and Mrs. Burlow arrive at th e m usic-
hall? 2. W h e re w ere th eir seats? 3. W e re th e stalls e x p e n ­
sive? 4. In w hat w ay did the audience behave? 5. W h at kind
of p lace was the m usic-hall? W hat was its m ost ch aracteris­
tic feature? 6. W ere the atten d an ts and the m em bers of the
orchestra young or elderly people? 7. W hat did the scenery
an d th e p ro p erties look like? 8. W hen d id th e lo u d e st a p ­
p la u se com e? W hy? 9. W h y d o es th e a u th o r say th a t th e
m usic-hall was rath er sad th o u g h it was cosy an d friendly?
10. W hy w ere th e ac to r's eyes anxious b eh in d th e m ask of
paint? 11. W h at did the m an in the costum e of a tram p do

318
on the stage? 12. Did Rose like his acting? 13. W h at did she
see in th e wings? 14. W hy did she say n o th in g to Mrs. Bur-
low? 15. How does this episode characterize Rose? 16. W hat
does the author want to tell us by this episode?
V. Search the text for adjectives and classify them into two groups
according to “positive’* and “negative” qualities as suggested by the
.context (e.g. 1) great, good, nice... and 2) cheap, creased...). When the list
is ready, describe some place and its atmosphere using the adjectives of
each group.
VI. Tell the story of Rose as your own experience in the past.
VII. Study Vocabulary Notes and a) translate the examples; b) give
synonyms of;
road n, eager a, am using a, wear v\
c) give antonyms of:
to find one's way, to lose hold of;
d) give derivatives of:
attend, entertain, wear.

VIII. Fill in with;


a) be anxious, worry, trouble, bother.
1. She alw ays ... w h en she d o e s n 't g e t m y le tte rs for a
long tim e. 2. The letter th at inform ed us of her u n ex p e cte d
d e p a rtu re g reatly ... me. 3. I knew th a t he w ould w illingly
help me, b u t I d id n 't like to ... him. 4. D on't ...! D inner will
be read y on tim e. 5. The child is very weak, and I can very
well u n d erstan d that it ... you. 6. D on't ... about th e taxi. I'll
g et you hom e in m y car. 7. I felt th at he d id n 't p ay any a t­
te n tio n to w h at I w as say in g . I d e c id e d th a t h e ... a b o u t
som ething. 8. I sh o u ld n 't like to ... you with my tiresom e af­
fairs. 9. T he clim ate is v ery b ad th ere, an d I ... a b o u t h er
health. 10. I'm sorry to ... you, b u t I need his address badly.
b) anxious and its derivatives:
1. W h a t are you so ... ab o u t? 2. H er ... face w as p ale.
3. W e w ere full of ... an d worry. 4. M ichael was ... to find a
job. 5. I was ... w aiting for his answ er. 6. His ... for su ccess
m ade him m any enem ies. 7. ... m akes people older.
319
c) attend and its derivatives:
1. From the age of seven till seventeen I ... school. 2. The
... at lectures has fallen off. 3. In this hotel you will be well ...
on. 4. Your ... is requested.
d) entertain and its derivatives:
1. W ho(m ) are you ... a t d in n e r to n ig h t? 2. H is jo k e s
d id n 't ... us m uch. 3. T he p lay was n o t v ery ... 4. Do you
know any places o f ... in this town? 5. Do th ey often ...?

IX. Translate these sentences into Russian:


1. W hat m akes you think he know s th e truth? — Every­
thing. His look. The way he talked at dinner. 2, She sm iled in
th at charm ing w ay of hers. 3. He spoke on one note. It gave
K itty th e im pression th at he was sp eak in g from a long w ay
off. 4. He had p artic u larly co n g ratu late d us on th e w ay we
had done the difficult job. 5 . 1 d id n 't know w hich w ay to look,
6. I really c a n 't g e t used to the new ways. 7. Is th at the w ay
you feel tow ards us? 8. She threw my slippers into m y face.
She behaved in the most outrageous way. 9. Isabel d id n 't w ant
to stand in Larry's way. 10. Sophie p u sh ed her w ay th ro u g h
the dancers and we lost sight of her in the crowd. 11. I m ade
w ay for him to go up the stairs. 12. S uzanne's m other could
h a rd ly live on h er p en sio n w ith p rices th e w ay th e y w ere.
13. They had been to C hartres and were on their way back to
Paris. 14. I saw the w aiter threading his w ay thro u g h th e ta ­
bles. 15. The room had a narrow iron bed and by way of furni­
ture only the barest necessities.

X. Translate these sentences into English, using the word way:


1. Детям н е разреш али ходить одним на озеро. Н о они о д н аж ­
ды сделали по-своем у и все-таки пошли туда, не сказав н иком у ни
слова. По дороге домой они чуть не заблудились. К счастью , они
встретили старого лесничего (forester), которы й помог им добрать­
ся домой. 2. О на рассказала об этом весело, в своей обы чной оч а­
ровательной манере. 3. Не сказав ни слова, он направился к двери.
4. Я не знаю этих мест, не могли бы вы повести нас туда? 5. К акой
ж е вы ход из п олож ения вы предлагаете? 6. Боюсь, что стол здесь
будет вам мешать.

320
XI. Make up dialogues:
a) between Rose and Mis. Burlow (after the performance);
b) between the old clown and his wife (before he went on to the
stage);
c) between two readers (about the episode described in the passage
and the author of the story).

XII. Insert prepositions or adverbs where necessary:


1. D o n 't w orry y o u r p re tty little h ead ... th e m ysterio u s
visitor. 2. By arranging good m arriages for her daughters she
e x p e cte d to m a k e all th e d isap p o in tm en ts of h er own
career. 3. He sat quite still and stared with those w ide im m o­
bile eyes of his ... the picture. 4. He has a bath ... cold w ater
every m orning. — Oh! He is m ade ... iron, th at m an. 5. A re
we ... th e way? — No, you c o u ld n 't have com e m ore fo rtu ­
nately. 6. I suppose it was natural ... you to be anxious ... the
g ard en party. But th a t's all ... now. T h ere's n o th in g m ore to
.w orry ... . 7. H e arrived ... the Lom ond Hotel, very hot and
sw eaty and ex hau sted and h ad an obscure feeling th a t they
would take one look ... him and then ask him to go ... .

XIII. Make up a story, using the words and phrases from Essential
Vocabulary I.

XIV. Translate the following sentences into English:


1. Войдя в холл, она посм отрела вокруг и направилась к зе р к а ­
лу. 2. О н а ухватилась за мою руку, чтобы не упасть. 3. М ы спуска­
лись к реке, д ер ж ась за ветки деревьев. 4. Ц елы й вечер мальчуган
не вы пускал из рук игрушку. 5. Больной был настолько слаб, что
вы пустил из рук чашку, она упала и разби лась вдребезги. 6. Д ети в
соседней ком нате подняли страш ны й шум, и он н икак не мог со­
средоточиться н а письме. Конечно, он мог заставить и х пойти в
сед. но ем у н е хотелось показы вать ж ене, что дети м еш аю т ему.
7. С ильно взволнованны й, он искал выхода из неприятного поло­
ж ени я, но не мог прийти ни к каком у реш ению . 8. М ам а очень
беспокоится о твоем здоровье. И я тож е. 9. О на была сильно н а­
краш ена, и то, как она говорила и смеялась, п ривлекало общ ее
вним ание. 10. «Я всегда знал несколько способов разбогатеть. Но
Для меня, м еж ду прочим, всегда было проблемой удерж ать деньги
в руках». П ож илой п ассаж и р говорил ещ е много, в се в том ж е
Духе, и к удовольствию всех находивш ихся в вагоне. 11. М истер

321
Вебб носил вы сокие каблуки, чтобы ком пенсировать свой м алень­
кий рост. 12. Н ельзя, чтобы всегда все было по-твоему. Если ты
будеш ь так себя вести, ты только наж ивеш ь врагов.

XV. Test on synonymy. Consult Notes on pp. 18 and 291.


1. Prove that the following words are (or are not) synonyms:
way — road — path — track — highw ay — street;
to be anxious — to be sorry — to w orry — to tro u b le —
to bother — to be upset;
to w ant — to be eager — to be anxious.
2. Point out the synonymic dominant of each group.
3. Explain how synonyms of each group differ one from another
according to differentiations suggested in Notes on Synonyms.
4. Synonyms within the following pairs differ by style. Point out which
of them are bookish* colloquial or neutral.
(Consult the context in which they are used in the text.)
picture-house — cinem a
to get on in years — to age
to endeavour — to try
to sing (perform) — to render
desolate — sad
to clap — to applaud

XVI. Go over the text again and try to discuss the following:
1. How d oes th e au th o r d escrib e th e m usic-hall? Point
out the contrasting characteristics. W hat kind of atm osphere
is created by the author in the fragm ent? By w hat devices is
the effect achieved?
2. How does the au thor m ake the reader u n d erstan d that
Rosa is a k in d -h ea rte d girl, cap ab le of u n d e rsta n d in g and
com passion? W hich m ethod of characterization does the a u ­
thor use?
3. Com m ent on the selection of words in the fragment.
4. C om m ent on the syntax of the fragm ent and its stylistic
value.

XVII. a) Translate the text into Russian:


It was tim e to go. Francis W oburn p u t on his enorm ous
hat, sta rte d ta lk in g ab o u t him self again, an d th e y w alked
dow n to th e C oliseu m . H e was m u ch ta lle r th a n sh e had
322
su p p o se d him to b e — th o u g h p e rh a p s it was th e a b s u rd
hat — and she felt a little dum py thing, though a nice sensi­
ble little dum py thing, as she trotted along by his side, p re ­
ten d in g to listen, b u t b u sy all th e tim e tellin g h erself th at
here she was, Rose Salter, going to th e Russian Ballet at the
Coliseum, with a tall, superfine, very Londonish young m an. It
was all very strange indeed.
T hey clim bed to one of the balconies of the gigantic th e­
atre, w hich seem ed to Rose the m ost sp len d id an d exciting
place she had ever seen. Dozens of players down below were
tu n in g u p . All ro u n d them , su p e rfin e p erso n s, n o t u n lik e
Francis W oburn, w ere studying their program m es. T hen the
lights died away, e x c ep t th o se th at illu m in ated th e cu rtain
so b e a u tifu lly . T h e m u sic b e g a n , a n d F ra n c is W o b u rn
sto p p e d ta lk in g , Rose in sta n tly fo rg o t his v ery e x iste n c e .
The m usic was very strange, not like an y she had h eard b e ­
fore, and not at all com fortable and friendly and sweet. Rose
did no t know w hether she liked it or not; she could not keep
it at a d ista n c e to d ec id e ab o u t it; sh e w as sim p ly ca rrie d
away and half drow ned by th e colossal waves of sound; she
was overw helm ed by its insistent beat and clang. The curtain
was m agically sw ept away, and the stage blazed at her. She
w as starin g at a new country, a new w orld. It w as as if th e
last g re a t wave of m usic h ad tak en h er an d flung h er over
the boundaries of this world. The little p eo p le1 in these new
countries lived their lives only in m ovement. Som etim es they
were dull. Sometimes they w ere silly. But at other tim es they
were so beautiful in their energy and grace, so obviously the
creatures of another and b etter world than this, a w orld all of
m usic and colour, th at Rose choked and ached at the sight
of them.
P eople clap p ed . F rancis W oburn clap p ed . But Rose did
n o t clap. J u s t p u ttin g h e r h an d s to g e th e r, m a k in g a silly
noise, w as n o t goo d en o u g h for them . She gave th em h er
heart.
[From “They W alk in the City”
by J. B. Priestley)

1 little people: (here) fairies, elves, and gnomes of folklore

323
b) Comment on the following aspects of the fragment:
1. How d o es th e au th o r describe th e m usic? W h a t does
he m ean by saying th a t th e m usic was “n o t at all co m fo rt­
able an d friendly and sw eet” ? How do you u n d ersta n d the
w ords “She could not k eep it at a d istan ce to d ecid e aboui
it” ? Does music ever affect you in the sam e way? W hat kino
of m usic does? 2. Explain th e words: “T he stag e b lazed ar
h e r.” “T he little p e o p le in th ese new co u n trie s lived thei:
lives only in m ovem ent.” “ ...the creatures of another and bet
ter w orld than this, a world all of music and colour.”

c) Comment on the literary merit and style of the fragment. Do you


think that the author has managed to create a vivid and emotionally
charged picture of a ballet performance? (Give reasons for whatever you
say.) Which lines do you consider especially expressive? Why? W hat stylis­
tic devices can you point out in the extract?

XVIII. Write an essay describing a person's first visit to a ball?',


(opera, drama) performance or to a symphony concert. Try to imitate the
style and manner of the fragment above (you may borrow some phrase:,
from it).

LABORATORY EXERCISES (I)

1. Listen to the text "Rose at the Music-Hall”, mark the stresses and
tunes. Repeat the text following the model.

2. Re-word the given sentences, making all the necessary changes.

3. Extend the following sentences according to the model.

4. Write a spelling-translation test: a) translate the phrases into Ei


glish; b) check them with the key.

5. Listen to the text and write it down putting a preposition where yo <
hear the word dash. Check it with the key.

6. Listen to the text “Chaplin". Pick out the main points from eac:d
paragraph, write a summary of the text in not more than 10 sentence:-
Discuss the text in class (oral and written work).

324
T O P I C : THEATRE

TEXT A. DRAMA, MUSIC AND BALLET IN BRITAIN

T h e c e n tre of th e a tric a l a c tiv ity in B ritain is L ondon.


T here are about 50 principal theatres in professional u s e 1 in
or near the W est End and some 20 in the suburbs.
M ost of th e se are le t to p ro d u c in g m a n a g e m e n ts o n a
com m ercial basis2 b u t som e of them are p erm an en tly o ccu ­
pied by subsidised com panies, such as the N ational T heatre
w hich stag es classical an d m odern plays in its co m p lex of
three th e atres on the South Bank of the River T ham es. T he
form er O ld Vic Com pany, w hich was Britain's m ajor th eatri­
cal touring com pany, has now taken up residence in the N a­
tional T heatre, ch a n g in g its nam e to th e N atio n al T h eatre
Com pany. In addition the Royal S hakespeare C om pany p re­
se n ts S h a k e sp e a re a n plays at S trad fo rd -u p o n -A v o n a n d a
m ixed repertoire in London.
O u tsid e L ondon th e re are m any n o n -re p e rto ry th e a tre s
w hich p re se n t all k in d s of d ram a an d also p u t on v arie ty
shows and o th er en tertain m en ts. R ecently th ere has b een a
grow th in the activity of rep erto ry com panies w hich receive
financial support from the Arts Council and the local authori­
ties. T hese com panies em ploy lead in g producers, designers
and actors, and the standard of productions is generally high.
Som e com panies have their own theatres, w hile others ren t
from the local authorities.
M usic of all kinds — “p o p ” music, folk music, jazz, light
music and brass bands — is an im portant part of British cu l­
tural life. T he large aud ien ces at orchestral co n certs and at

1 i. e. buildings meant for the performance of plays by professional com­


panies.
2 In England (including London) only a few theatres have their own per­
manent company (they are called repertory theatres). Theatrical companies
are usually formed for a season, sometimes staging only one play for either a
long or a short run, their managements having previously rented a theatre for
them to perform in (the so-called non-repertory theatres).

325
perform ances of opera, ballet and cham ber music reflect the
w idespread interest in classical music.
T he Royal O pera House, C ovent G arden, London, w hich
rece iv es financial assista n ce from th e A rts C o u n cil, gives
reg u lar seasons of opera an d ballet. It has its own o rchestra
w hich plays for th e Royal O p era and the Royal Ballet. Both
com panies have a high international reputation. T he English
N a tio n a l O p e ra w h ich p erfo rm s in th e L ondon C o liseu m
gives seasons of o p era and o p eretta in English. It also tours
the provinces.
T here are several thousand am ateur dram atic societies in
Britain. M ost universities have thriving am ateur dram a clubs
and societies. Every year an International Festival of U niver­
sity T heatre is held.
[From Britain 1983. Lnd., 1984)

TEXT B. AT THE BOX-OFFICE

— I want four seats for Sunday, please.


— M atinee or evening perform ance?
— Evening, please.
— W ell, you can have very good seats in the stalls. Row F.
— Oh, no! It's near the orchestra-pit. M y wife c a n ’t stand
loud music.
— Then I could find you som e seats in the pit.
— I'm afraid that w on't do either. M y father-in-law is terri­
bly short-sighted. He w ouldn't see m uch from the pit, w ould
he?
— Hm... Perhaps, y o u 'd care to take a box?
— C ertainly not! It's too expensive. I ca n 't afford it.
— Dress-circle then?
— I d o n 't like to sit in the dress-circle.
— I’m afraid the only thing that rem ains is the gallery.
— How can you suggest such a thing! M y m other-in-law
is a sto u t w om an w ith a w eak heart. W e c o u ld n 't dream of
letting her walk u p four flights of stairs, could we?

326
— I find, sir, th a t th ere isn 't a sin g le seat in th e h o u s e 1
that would suit you.
— T here isn't, is th ere? W ell, I th in k w e'd m uch b e tte r
go to th e movies. As for me, I d o n 't care m uch for this th e ­
atre-going business. Good day!

TEXT C. PANTOMIMES

S a l l y : Tony, th e re ’s an advertisem ent in the local p ap er


saying that the theatre in the High Street is putting on2 “C in­
derella”. I h aven 't seen a pantom im e for years and years. Do
you fancy going?
T o n y : Yeh, that sounds good. I d o n 't think I've seen one
since I was ab o u t fo u rteen — ex cep t for one on ice w hen I
was crazy about skating, and th at's not quite the sam e thing,
is it?
S a l l y : No. Ice shows d o n 't have all the w onderful trad i­
tional scenery and that gorgeous theatre atm osphere.

1 The part of the theatre which has a stage and seats for the audience
is called auditorium or house (a/so: theatre-house).
The long rows of chairs situated on the ground floor of the auditorium
in front of th e stage are called the stalls (front rows) and the pit (back
rows).
The stalls and the pit are surrounded by boxes. There are also some
balconies encircling the auditorium on three sides. The low est of them
(coming im m ediately above the boxes) is called the dress-circle and the
highest (somewhere near the ceiling of the house) is known as the gallery.
In most theatres the seats for the audience are separated from the stage
by the orchestra-pit. In some theatres, however, there is no orchestra-pit,
and the musicians are placed behind the scenes (back-stage). The sides of
the stage and the scenery placed there are called wings.
2 It takes quite a number of people to put on a play. The treatm ent of a
play, the style of the production, the training of the performers depend on
the director (also called by some people producer in G reat Britain). The
stage-manager is the person in charge of the technical part of the production
of a play. There are also make-up artists, people who make the costumes,
those who design the props and scenery, and finally, stage hands.
The actors taking part in the play are called the cast (с/, th e Russian
^состав исполнителей»).

327
T o n y : Pantom im es are awfully old, if you think about it,
aren 't they? I m ean with a girl playing the part of the princi­
pal boy, all dressed up in tights and tunic ...
S a l l y : Mm, and the dam e parts taken by men. I've nev­
er seen “C inderella” . I suppose the stepm other and the ugly
sisters are the m en's parts in that.
T o n y : A laddin used to be m y favourite, w hen a com edi­
an p layed th e W idow Tw ankey. And w hen A laddin ru b b ed
the magic lamp an enorm ous genie appeared ...
S a l l y : A nd the au d ien ce booing th e w icked uncle, and
joining in the singing of the popular songs they always m an­
age to get into the play somehow.
T o n y : Yes! I w onder how on earth they m anage to fit to­
day's pop songs into pantom im e stories?
S a l l y : W ell, w hy d o n 't we get tickets and find out?
T o n y : Yes, OK. Com e on, then.

ESSENTIAL VOCABULARY (II)

Words
act v gallery л properties
acting n interval л (props) л
balcony n lighting л repertoire л
box л m atinee л row л
cast n orchestra-pit л stage-m anager л
com pany л pit л stalls л
costum es n produce v (theatre-) house л
director л producer л treatm ent л
dress-circle л production л

Word Combinations

professional theatre the setting of a scene


repertory com pany light and sound effects
am ateur theatre to produce a play
dram atic society

328
E X E R C IS E S

I. Answer the following questions:

A. 1. W h a t is th e c e n tre of th e a tric a l ac tiv ity in G re at


Britain? 2. W hich theatrical com panies receive financial su p ­
p o rt from A rts C o u n cil? 3. W h a t is m e an t b y a re p e rto ry
theatre? 4. W hat do you know about th e Royal S hakespeare
C om pany? 5. W h at kind of perform ances are sta g ed in th e
Royal O p era H ouse? 6. A re th e re m any th e a tre s in or n ear
th e W est (East) End of L ondon? 7. W h a t k in d of m usic is
p o p u la r in E n g lan d ? 8. A re th e re an y a m a te u r th e a tre s in
G reat Britain? 9. W hat lead in g actors of the British th e atre
do you know?
B. 1. How is the Russian theatre organized? 2. W h at Rus­
sian th eatres are best know n in Russia and abroad? 3. Is a t­
ten d an ce at our th eatres high? 4. How m any tim es a m onth
(a year) do you go to the theatre? 5. Are th ere an y am ateur
theatres in Russia?

II. Try your hand at teaching:


A. P re p a ra tio n , a) F ind p ic tu re re p re se n tin g a th e a tre -
house. b) Study the footnotes on p. 327 describing a theatre-
house an d its parts, c) W rite q u estio n s to provoke answ ers
containing all the new words.
B, W o rk in class. A sk y o u r q u estio n s, listen to th e a n ­
swers and correct the stu d en t’s mistakes.

III. Learn Text В by heart. Act out this dialogue.

IV. Retell Text С in your own words.


Speak on your favourite genre (opera, drama, ballet, comedy, musical,
etc.). W hy do you like it?

V. Translate the following into English:


Когда мы приш ли, зал был у ж е полон. Ч ерез н есколько м инут
занавес поднялся, и все взгляды устрем ились на сцену. Д екорац и и
были очень простые, вы держ ан ны е в черны х, белы х и серы х то­
нах. Н а этом ф о н е ярки е костю мы действую щ их лиц выглядели
очень эф ф ектн о.

329
С остав исполнителей был неплохой, а и гра актера, исп олн яв­
ш его главную роль, была просто великолепна. К огда он бы л на
сцене, в н и м ан и е всего зрительного зала было сосредоточен о на
нем и его игре. Во время знам енитой сцены и з третьего акта в зале
стояла м ертвая тиш ина. Зрители были потрясены . М ногие плака­
ли. К том у ж е, эта сцена была удачно освещ ена. Р еж и ссер удачно
и спользовал освещ ен и е, чтобы усилить впечатление от игры а к ­
тера.
Когда после заклю чительной сцены зан авес опустился, н асту­
пила долгая пауза, а потом поднялась н астоящ ая буря аплодисм ен­
тов.

VI. Read the following and either agree or disagree with the state­
ments. (See the Reminder.):
1. T he ho u se is th e p art of th e th e a tre w here th e m em ­
bers of the orchestra usually sit. 2. An auditorium is a b u ild ­
ing or a part of a building in w hich th e aud ien ce sit. 3. The
a u d ie n c e in c lu d e b o th sp e c ta to rs and actors. 4. W h e n the
au d ien ce is pleased it keep s silent. 5. W e say “th e house is
full” w hen no t all the seats in the aud ito riu m are occupied.
6. The pit is nearer to the stage than the stalls, 7. You prefer
seats in the gallery, d o n ’t you? 8. W ings are th e sides of a
sta g e w ith th e scenery. 9. You w o u ld n 't like to go beh in d
the stage, I believe. 10. T he cheapest seats are in the boxes.
11. T h e m o st e x p e n siv e seats are in th e o rc h e s tra stalls
12. S tudents always buy seats in the o rch estra stalls. 13. By
the cast of the play we m ean all the actors b elonging to the
theatrical com pany. 14. The role of the p ro d u cer is not very
im portant. 15. You d o n 't know w ho S tanislavsky was, I b e ­
lieve. 16. It d o e s n 't ta k e m any p e o p le to p ro d u c e a p lay
17. I believe you clap to show your ap p reciatio n of the a c t­
ing or the play as a whole.
R e m i n d e r . Beyond all doubt. I should think so. I won'i
d en y i t M ost likely. I disagree with you. On the contrary. You
are wrong. Just the other way round. N ot me! By no means.

VII. a) Describe your impressions of a play (opera, ballet) you have


seen. Follow the plan below:
1. G oing to th e th e atre. (How did you g et th e tic k e ts 1
W here were your seats? W as the house full?)
330
2. T he play. (W as it in terestin g ? W h at was in terestin g ?
W hat d id n 't you like about it?)
3. T he ac tin g . (W as th e ca st g o o d ? W h o se a c tin g im ­
pressed the audience? In w hat scenes?)
4. The production. (Did the production help the au dience
to catch the main idea of the play? In w hat points of the p ro ­
duction did you feel the work of the producer? Did the g ener­
al spirit of the production satisfy the dem and of the play?)
5. D esigning. (Did you like th e scenery? How w ere th e
light and sound effects used?)
6. T he audience. (W hat kind of p eo p le did it consist of?
How did they receive the perform ance?)
R e m i n d e r : it is surprising to m eet a play about ordi­
nary people caught up in ordinary events, the author shows a
remarkable talent for w riting dialogue which is en terta in in g
and w itty; the characters are pleasant (humorous, ordinary);
one brief scene forms the clim ax o f the play, the characters act
out a fantasy; the audience is m ade to think; until alm ost the
final curtain; splendid direction; it was one o f the fin est ren­
derings o f this part I've ever heard; I h ea r the scen ery was
planned and designed by his m usical talent is quite excep­
tional, h is playing som etim es rem inds m e of...; the highlight o f
the evening w a s ...
b) Make up dialogues discussing the points above.

VIII. a) Supply articles where necessary:


C hekhov's play "... Sea-gull” was first staged in ... Alexan-
drinsky T heatre in ... Petersburg. It was ... com plete failure. ...
play was ruined by ... dull and ... clum sy production. It was
staged in ... “good old traditions” w hereas ... C hekhov's plays
were quite unlike any other plays w ritten before an d dem an d ­
ed ... new forms and devices. ... Petersburg aud ien ce did not
understand "... Sea-gull.” There was ... laughter in most poeti­
cal scenes and m any o f ... audience left long before ... end of
play. It was ... cruel blow to Chekhov. However, in ... M os­
cow A rt T h e a tre , w h ich w as n o t ... y e a r o ld th e n
(it was in 1898), ... sam e p lay d irected by K. S. S tanislavsky
Was ... trem endous success. ... Stanislavsky's production of "...
331
Sea-gull” opened ... new epoch in ... history o f ... th eatre and
sym bolized ... trium ph o f ... new and ... progressive forms over
... old ones.
In ... m em ory of th a t event ... w hite sea-gull sp rea d s its
wings on ... curtain o f ... M oscow Art Theatre.
Ы Answer the following questions:
1. W hen and w here was C hekhov's “Sea-gull” first staged ?
2. W h y did it fail? 3. W hy was it th a t th e sam e p lay was a
trem endous success in th e Art T heatre? 4. W hy did the Art
T heatre choose the sea-gull for its emblem?

IX. a) Give a free translation of the following passage. Make use of the
English phrases given at the end:
О бстоятельства, при которы х ставилась «Чайка», были слож ны
и тяж елы . Д ело в том, что Антон П авлович Ч ехов сер ьезн о заб о ­
лел. У него произош ло ослож н ен ие туберкулезного процесса. При
этом душ евное состояние его было таково, что он не п ер ен ес бы
вторичного провала «Чайки», подобного тому, какой п роизош ел
при первой ее постановке в П етербурге. Н еуспех спектакля мо;
оказаться гибельным для самого писателя. О б этом нас п р ед у п р еж ­
дала его до слез взволнованная сестра М ария П авловна, умоляв
ш ая нас об отм ене спектакля. М еж ду тем, он бы л нам до зар ез ,
необходим , та к как м атериальны е дела театр а шли плохо и дли
поднятия сборов требовалась новая постановка. П редоставляю чи­
тателю судить о том состоянии, с которы м мы, артисты , выходили
и грать пьесу на премьере, собравш ей далеко не полны й зал. Стсы
н а сцен е, м ы п р и сл уш и вали сь к вн у тр ен н ем у голосу, которы й
ш еп тал нам: «И грайте хорош о, вели колеп н о, д о б е й те с ь успехи
триум ф а. А если вы его не добьетесь, то знайте, что по получение
телеграм м ы лю бим ы й вами писатель умрет, к азн ен н ы й ваш ими
руками. Вы станете его палачами».
К ак мы играли — не помню. П ервы й акт кончился при гробо­
вом молчании зрительного зала. О дна из артисток упала в обмо
рок, я сам едва держ ался на ногах от отчаяния. Но вдруг, поел*'
долгой паузы, в публике поднялся рёв, треск, беш ены е аплодис­
менты. Зан авес пош ел ... раздвинулся ... опять задвинулся, а м:
стояли, как обалделые. Потом снова рев ... и снова зан авес ... М :
все стояли неподвиж но, не соображ ая, что нам надо раскланивать
ся. Н аконец, мы почувствовали успех и, неим оверно взволнован
ные, стали обн им ать друг друга. М. А. Л илиной, ко то р ая играл

332
М аш у и своим и заклю чительным и словами пробила лед в сердцах
зрителей, мы устроили овацию . У спех рос с каж ды м актом и о к о н ­
чился триум ф ом . Ч ехову была послана подробная телеграмма.
(С т аниславский К. С. М оя ж и зн ь в искусстве)

Use the following:


th e circu m stan ces ... w ere co m p licated an d painful, his
d eep depression, he m ight have not survived ano th er failure,
im plored us to cancel the perform ance, we badly n eed ed it,
to raise the box office returns, the inner voice, m urd ered by
your own hands, th e first act co n clu d ed am id d eath -lik e si­
lence, to faint, I was on my last legs, th ere was an uproar, a
crash, a storm of applause, the curtain w ent up ... th en down
again, we w ere standing stunned, we w ere supposed to tak e
th e curtain-calls, m elted the ice, to cheer, each ac t h e ig h t­
ened the success.
b) W hat can you say about the significance of the event described
above for the history of Russian and world theatref

X. a) Read Sir Laurence Olivier's answers given by him in a newspaper


interview:
Q u e s t i o n : How has television affected the theatre?
A n s w e r : W ell, its p o p u la rity m ean s th a t m illio n s of
people tak e dram a for granted. W ith hours and hours every
w eek, the viewer can have a bellyful of dram a. If y o u 're g o ­
ing to attract a man and his wife aw ay from th eir TV set on
a w inter's night, and hold them to a play in a theatre, y o u ’ve
got to grip them and keep them gripped.
Now, you do have certain advantages in the theatre. The
telly is perfect for the things that have been specially built for
it. But the TV screen cannot give you the peculiar condition
of th e theatre, w here we are allow ed to g et b ack to life-size
people in relation.
Q.: Is th e re any p articu lar h o bby-horse th a t you rid e in
your work as actor and director?
A.: I rely greatly on rhythm. I think that is one thing I u n ­
d ersta n d — the ex p lo itatio n of rhythm , ch an g e of sp eed of
speech, change of time, change of expression, change of pace
in cro ssin g th e stag e. K eep th e a u d ie n c e su rp rised , sh o u t
333
w hen th e y 're no t ex p e ctin g it, k ee p th em on th e ir to es —
change from m inute to minute.
W h at is the m ain problem of the actor? It is to k eep th e
audience awake.
Q.: How true is it that an actor should identify w ith a role?
A.: I d o n ’t know. I can only speak for myself. A nd in my
case it's not ‘sh o u ld ’, it's ‘m u st’. I ju st do. I c a n 't help it. In
m y case I feel I am who I am playing. A nd I think, th o u g h I
sp e a k o n ly from m y own e x p e rie n c e , th a t th e a c to r m u st
identify to som e extent with his part.
In “ O th e llo ” th e p a ssa g e from th e h a n d k e rc h ie f sc en e
th ro u g h to flinging the m oney in Em ilia's face is, p o u n d by
p ound, th e heaviest b u rd en I know th a t has b een laid u p o n
me yet by a dramatist.
And M acbeth. Do you know what is the first thing to learn
about playing M acbeth? To get through the performance with­
out losing your voice.
[From Moscow News, 1969, No 10, Fragments)
b) Try your hand at teaching:
A. P reparation. Think of interesting questions on Sir Lau­
rence O livier’s interview.
B. W ork in class. M ake your friends answ er y o u r q u e s ­
tions.

XI. Role-playing.
At a Theatre Festival
St. A.: a fam ous producer
St. B.: a celebrated actor
St. C.: a talen ted young actress, who m ade an im m ediate
hit with her sensitive and moving perform ance
Rest of class: a journalist, a critic, a playw right and th e ­
atre-goers
All are invited to the studio.

XII. a) Translate the following fragments into Russian (in writing):


A. T here are m any people whom the th eatre fills w ith an
excitem ent w hich no familiarity can stale. It is to them a world
334
of m ystery and delight; it gives them entry into a realm of the
im agination w hich increases their joy in life, and its illusion
colours the ordinariness of their daily round w ith the golden
shim m er of rom ance.
W. S. M augham
B. In th e T h e a tre we a re p ro u d to serve, id e a s m e re ly
play like sum m er lig h tn in g over a d eep lake of feeling; th e
in tellect m ay be q u ick en ed there, b u t w hat is m ore im p o r­
ta n t is th a t th e im a g in a tio n of th e s p e c ta to r b e g in s to b e
haunted, so that long after he has left the play-house the a c ­
tors are still w ith him, still tellin g him of th eir d esp air and
their hope.
J. B. Priestley
b) Comment on the fragments above.

XIII. Speak individually or arrange a discussion on the following;


1. W hy is it that people go to th e theatre? W hat do th ey
look for there?
2. W hat is your favourite theatre and why?
3. T h e fra g m e n t a b o v e (Ex. XII B) d e s c rib e s th e ca se
w hen “the im agination of the spectator begins to be hau n ted
so th a t long after he has left th e p lay -h o u se th e acto rs are
still w ith him...** Is th e e x p e rie n c e fam iliar to y o u ? A fter
w hat play did you have it last time?
4. W hat is the rom antic side of the theatre?
5. W h a t is th e ed u c a tio n a l role of th e th e a tre ? Do you
agree w ith Priestley (see the fragm ent in Ex. XII B) th at th e
th e atrica l a rt ap p e als rath e r to th e sp e c ta to r's im ag in atio n
and feelings than to his intellect? Give your reasons.

XIV. Try your hand at teaching.


1. Say what you would do in the teachers position:
M ichael, a bright, young, so o n -to -b e fifth-form er, c o n ­
fessed to his teach er that in his view school was no fun, th e
teachers w ere no good, sum m er should last forever and dogs
w ere lu ck y b e c a u se th ey d id n 't have to go to sch o o l. T he
te a c h e r p ro te ste d th a t school was im portant. But M ichael,
who d id n 't share the teach er's opinion, answ ered with a one-
word question “W hy?”.
335
2. Respond to the following modestly. Here are a few possible ways of
beginning answers:
Oh, it was nothing. The real credit should go to .... I had
very little to do with it. It w asn't difficult at all, really. Thank
you, b u t it’s not really all that good. Oh, y o u 're e x a g g e ra t­
ing, I p la y e d o n ly a sm all p a rt in th e w hole th in g . It was
very m uch a team effort. Y ou're very kind, b u t really anyone
else could do it.
Scenario
A.: I've never seen such an attractiv e an d ta len ted class
of children. I think you, as their teacher, deserve the highest
praise.
You: ...
A.: I'm sure th ey are splendid, b u t I d o n 't agree th at you
d o n 't deserve any credit. I know you planned the lovely d e c ­
orations in their classroom, for a start.
You: ...
A.: I'm sorry, I ju s t c a n ’t b eliev e it h ad n o th in g to do
w ith you. A nd even if th e y h ad the o rig in al idea, I ’m su re
you guided them in their work.
You: ...
A,: O h, co m e on, it c a n 't hav e b e e n ea sy a n d I d o n ’t
agree that anyone could have done it,
[From Making Polite Noises by Hargreaves
and M. Fletcher. Lnd” 1979)
3. Classroom English. (Revision):
a) It’s th e last period on Saturday. T he lesson is com ing
to an end. You are pleased with the w ork you and the pupils
have done. You find th a t you ju st have ab o u t 3 —4 m inutes
to have the exercise books collected and the board cleaned.
You inform th e class th a t th ey will have to finish th e e x e r­
c ise off a t h o m e, te ll th e m y o u a re p le a s e d w ith th e ir
progress, set th e hom ew ork an d state b riefly w hat you are
plan n in g for th e next lesson. After th at you ask y o u r pupils
to tid y up th e room and to be q u iet w hen th ey go o u tsid e
You wish them a nice w eekend and say good-bye.
b) It's a routin e English lesson in th e m iddle of the term
The lesson isn 't going too well. You are trying to k eep your
336
pupils interested in the exercises you are checking. You get
them to re a d th e se n te n c e s in tu rn an d c o rre c t th e ir m is­
takes, but the pupils are tired and find it difficult to co n cen ­
trate on the work. Some of them start chatting and fidgeting.
You try no t to show your annoy an ce an d p roceed ch eck in g
the exercise.
c) Y ou've got a lot of work to get th ro u g h in this lesson.
You ask th e p u p ils to do an ex ercise from th e te x tb o o k si­
lently. You ch e ck th at th ey all have th e rig h t place. W h en
your pupils have looked th ro u g h the exercise you w ant ev­
erybody to read three sentences each. You com m ent on their
w ork. In th e rem ain in g five m inutes, you have a q u ic k vo­
cabulary test on the blackboard. You m ake sure that the board
is properly prepared, and ask 2 or 3 pupils to w rite th e test.
You keep the rest of the class involved an d com m ent on the
work.
d) It's a revision lesson. Y ou've bro u g h t to the classroom
a m ap of Britain, some slides a n d /o r pictures of London and
a slide projector. You ask one of the pu p ils to help you fix
the m ap and pictures on the board an d get the slide p ro jec­
tor ready. The pupils p oint o u t on the m ap the m ost im por­
ta n t tow ns, rivers, m o u n ta in ch a in s or a n y th in g y o u find
n e c e ssa ry to m en tio n . A fter th at th e y sp e a k b riefly a b o u t
L ondon sig h ts m ak in g use of th e p ic tu re s an d slid es. You
keep m aking notes w hile th ey speak an d com m ent on their
work at the end of the revision lesson.
e) At the end of the term you find it necessary to have a
brief revision of the book your pupils are reading. Your idea
is to ask th e pu p ils a n u m b er of q u estio n s to e n c o u ra g e a
discussion. You think the questions over very thoroughly b e ­
forehand an d ask your class to answ er them . You are in te r­
ested in everyone’s point of view and react to com m ents a p ­
propriately, trying to keep the conversation going.

XV. Describe these pictures:


Use the following:
a) to com e hom e g reatly excited, to wave som e slips of
p aper in th e air, to be d elig h ted , to have g reat fun playing
1 2 В. Д . Арикин. И курс
338
339
w ith o n e's toys; b) to d rag smb. along th e street, to howl at
th e top of o n e 's voice; c) to have ex cellen t seats, “W ilhelm
T e ll” w as on, th e m usic w as so lo u d you c o u ld n 't h e a r a
word, to be bored; d) th at was m uch better, to catch sm b .’s
in te re s t, a bow [Ьзи] a n d arro w s, to s h o o t off an a p p le
from...; e) in very high spirits, to chatter about o n e’s im pres
sions, to be pleased; f) to be shocked, the c h ild 's im a g in a ­
tion was ce rta in ly h a u n te d b y th e o p era or, rath er, by one
p articular scene, the poor teddy-bear, to look extrem ely un
com fortable.

XVI. Film “Mr. Brown's Holiday". Film segments 9 "One More Substi­
tute” (Yeovil) and 10 "Back at Home" (London), a) Watch and listen, b)
the exercises from the guide to the film.

STVDIES OF WRITTEN ENGLISH

IX

O ne of the m ost effective exercises in good w riting is


free com position.
Free com position is a piece of in d ep en d en t w riting (3 —■'<
pages in length). You are free to select the subject, to decide
on the p attern of w riting (narrative, descriptive, argum enta
tive, expository), and to choose writing technique (keywords
topic sentences, connectives and transitions).
In the process of free com position th e re are th ree main
points to consider: w hat to say — selection of a subject and
th e them e, how to a rra n g e th e m aterial in th e b est o rd er
and how to express your th o u g h ts in th e b est p ossible lan
guage.
T he th em e and su b ject should be se lec ted w ith care sc
th a t you know ex a ctly w h at you m ean to w rite a b o u t and
w hat is the p u rp o se of w riting — is it describing, entertain
ing, persuading or instructing?
“The British Isles” is, for instance, of descriptive natu re
“How W e K ept M o th er's D ay” is b o th en tertain in g an d in
structing, Ju d y 's letters are sincerely persuading.

340
C om position m ust be unified and com plete. It m ust have
a beginning, m iddle, and end. It m u st be c o h e re n t; th a t is,
system atic in its presentation, with reference to time, to point
of view, and to situation. It must reveal your attitude or ju d g e ­
m ent towards material and characters or towards your reader,
or both.
The beginning, or introduction expresses the occasion, the
problem , a n d th e p u rp o se. A go o d b e g in n in g a ttra c ts th e
re a d e r's atten tio n , his in terest an d som etim es his em otions
(see th e b eg in n in g of “ How W e K ept M o th e r's D ay” or of
“A Friend in N eed”).
The m iddle or body of the com position in its turn m akes
the problem clear through narration, description, argum ent or
exposition (com pare different passages from this textbook).
Usually the m iddle includes the details. It m ay have the tu rn ­
ing point or clim ax describing the m om ent of g reatest em o­
tions.
The end or conclusion is the result of that clarification. The
author provides an answer to the m ain question. It is usually
m arked by a sum m ary statem en t em phasizing th e m essage
(com pare th e final sen ten ces in “A D ay's W a it” , “ How W e
Kept M other's Day”, “Rose at the M usic-hall”).

Assignments:
1. Write a composition explaining the message of the passage “Rose at
the M usic-hair.

2. Write a composition following the events described in the pictures


on pp. 338-339.

3. Write a composition describing your visit to a theatre and your


impressions of the prevailing atmosphere.

4. If you have become proficient at writing compositions as an exercise


you may turn to learning how to write compositions as art. Try your hand
at writing a composition about the best way to comfort your mother
(father, child, sister от brother, friend).
Evaluate your composition according to the main principles of good
writing: unity, coherence, and emphasis.

341
LABORATORY EXERCISES (II)

1. Listen to the text “Drama, Music and Ballet in Britain", mark the
stresses and tunes. Repeat the text following the model.
2. Record the dialogue “At the Box-Office" in pairs. Listen to the
records and discuss them in class.

3. Listen to the dialogue “Pantomimes", mark the stresses and tunes.


Repeat it following the model.
4. Write a spelling-translation test:
a) translate the phrases into English;
b) check them with the key.
5. Respond to the following questions or statements and correct them if
necessary.
6. Listen to the story. Write ten questions about the text. Suggest a
title for the text and give reasons for your choice. Find evidence in the text
to support the following statements.

CURIOSITY QUIZ FOR EAGERS

1. W hat do you know about K. S. Stanislavsky, his role in the history


of the Moscow Ait Theatre and his influence on world theatre?

2. Where do the following quotations come from? Who says the lines?
Under what circumstances?
a) The time is out of joint. Oh, cursed plight.
That ever I was born to set it right.
b) Beware, my lord, of the jealousy;
It is the green-eyed monster, that doth mock
The meat it feeds on.
c) How sharper than a serpent's tooth it is
To have a thankless child.

3. W hat do you know about the problem of Shakespeare's authorship?

4. W hat do you know about the Sovremennik Theatre? about the Len-
kom Theatre? about the Tovstonogov Theatre in St. Petersburg?

5. W hat do you know about Sir Laurence Olivier? W hat other famous
English actors do you know?
SUPPLEM ENT

A. CLASSROOM ENGLISH

I. P u p il L a n g u a g e

This section contains a list of phrases that pupils m ight b e


expected to use during an English lesson.

1. F o llo w in g th e L esso n
I'm sorry, I didn 't understand.
Y ou're speaking too quickly.
I d id n 't get that down. C ould you say it again?
C ould you repeat the last bit?
I m issed the beginning of what you said.
C ould you explain again, please?
Shall we do the exercise in our w ork books?
Are we supposed to finish this off at home?
W hat do we have to do next?
Could you write it up on the board, please?
Is it my turn? (Am I next? Shall I start?)

2. C o rre c tn e s s o f A n sw e rs
W hy c a n 't you say ...? Is this a m istake?
W hat's w rong with (saying)...?
W hy did you m ark this wrong?
W hy did you put a line under this word?
Isn't there a m istake in sentence 3?
S houldn't there be an article?
I think you've m ade a mistake on the board.

3. L a n g u a g e Q u e s tio n s
How do you spell ...? Are there two T s or only one?
How do you pronounce the next word?
I'm not sure how to say the next word.

343
C ould you use the future (passive) here?
C an we leave this out (miss this out) ?
Is there a shorter (better) way of saying this?

4. P o lite n e ss

I'm sorry I'm late; I've been to ...


I'm afraid I've left my book at home.
Could I leave ten m inutes earlier (at tw enty to ...)?
Could I have another copy?
Have you got an extra sheet?
Shall I turn the lights out?

II. B e g in n in g o f L esso n

Let me introduce myself, I'll be teaching you English this


year.
It’s tim e to start now. / W e can get down to (some) work.
I’ll just m ark the register. W ho is missing (away, not here
today) ?
T ry not to be late next time.
I'm waiting to start,

III. E n d o f L esson

T here's the buzzer (bell). / W e'll have to stop here.


Right. You can put your things away and go.
How are we doing for time?
There are still three m inutes to go.
W e still have a couple of m inutes left.
Hang on a m om ent/just hold on a m inute.
O ne more thing before you go.
Revise w hat you did today and then try exercise 5.
Do the rest of the exercise as your hom ew ork for tom or­
row.
T here will be a test on this next T uesday (in th e near fu­
ture) .
344
IV. Blackboard A ctivity

Com e out to the board, please (when the teacher is at the


front of the class).
G o to th e b o a rd (w hen th e te a c h e r is s ta n d in g a t th e
back of the class).
M ove o u t of th e w ay (step aside) so th a t ev ery o n e can
see.
Is there anything to correct (that needs correcting)?
W hat letter is missing? T here's a ‘k* missing (‘k ’ is miss-
ing).
Cross the 4 ’s and dot the ‘i’s.
W rite it with a capital ‘j ’ (it begins with a ‘j ’).
W rite it as one word (two words).
These two letters are the wrong w ay round.
P ut a com m a (question mark, exclam ation m ark, colon,
semi-colon, full stop) after the word (sentence), please.
Enclose the words in quotation m arks (inverted commas),
please.
Let's all read the sentences from the board.
Use the duster (sponge).
Put (take, get, write, copy) that down in your notebooks.
M ake notes on w hat I say in your exercise books.
W rite it in block (big) letters (in block capitals).
W rite (rewrite) it neatly.
Do the exercise in writing.
W ill you, please, go to your seat. (Don't say ‘Sit dow n’ if
a pupil is not standing at his seat.)
H an d in y o u r p a p e rs as you leav e (go out) a n d m ak e
sure your nam es are on them.

V . S lides, P ic tu re s, F ilm s
I'll finish the class by showing you a film (some slides).
Put the screen up (pull down the screen).
Draw the curtains (close the blinds).
Lights out, please. Switch on the projector.
W ho w ould like to w ork (operate) the projector today?

345
Turn the lights on again (put the lights back on).
N ext picture, p lease/ch an g e the picture.
It's a bit out of focus.
I'm afraid this one is upside down.
W hat is happening in this picture?
W hat can you see in the foreground (background, centre,
right-hand corner, the top left-hand corner, at the bottom) of
the picture?
I'll let this photograph go round. Have a look and then pass
it on.
Pass this picture round.
Com e out and point to London on the map.

VI. T extbook A ctivity


C ollect in the papers (sheets, texts, w ord lists, handouts,
tests), please.
F e tc h th e d ic tio n a rie s f r om th e te a c h e r 's room (staff­
room) .
You will have to share (your book) w ith Nick.
Take out your books and open them at page 27 (Unit 2).
You’ll find the exercise on page 38.
Let's move on to the next page.
Refer back to the gram m ar notes on page 25.
All books closed, please (shut your books).
T he p ic tu re at the top (bottom) of th e p ag e (at th e very
top).
(The) tenth line from the top (bottom) = (dow n/up).
(The) last b u t one line (word) in paragraph two.
If there are any words you do n 't know, please ask.
Read one sentence each.
Ann, you read the part of Mrs. W hite this time.
Now le t’s act out this dialogue.
Try and act like a teacher (a dentist, etc.).
The rest of you are the audience.
G ive a synon y m for ‘rushed*. (W hat is a syn o n y m for
‘h u g e’?)
Try to put it in other words.

346
(That was alm ost right) — just one little slip.
T h ere w as a sm all (slight) m istak e (error) in w h at you
said.

V II. Class Control


C ould I have your attention, please?
Look this way. / Look up for a moment.
Be quiet! Everyone listen.
D on4 all shout. / D on't talk at once.
G et on with your w ork quietly.
Stop fidgeting. / D on't keep turning round.
Sit up (straight).
W ork in twos (pairs).
I w ant you to form groups. Three pupils in each group.
I w ant you to do some play reading in groups.
W ork on your own. / W ork by yourselves.
Look! I've just about had enough from you.
D on't you talk, you two girls.
D on't sit there day-dream ing, Maria.

VIIL R ig h t/W ro n g
Good. Right. Fine. Right you are. Q uite right.
T hat's the way. T hat's right. T hat's it. T hat's correct.
Yes, you've got it. You've got the idea.
W hat you said was perfectly all right.
You d id n 't m ake a single mistake.
T hat's exactly the point.
T hat's just w hat I was looking for.
No, th at's wrong. N ot really. U nfortunately not.
You ca n 't use that word here.
You m issed the verb out.
You forgot the preposition. M ind the preposition.
You used the w rong tense.
You m isunderstood the instructions.
O nce again, but rem em ber the word order.
Try not to mix these two words up.
T hey're spelt the same, b u t pronounced differently.

347
Perhaps you had b etter say ...
It w asn 't p ron o u n ced correctly. T he w ord is accen ted on
the second syllable.
Be careful with the ‘sh ’-sound.
N o tic e how m y to n g u e to u c h e s m y te e th . See how my
m outh hardly moves.
Again please, b u t w atch your pronunciation.
Listen to the way my voice goes up.
You m ust let your voice fall at the end of the sentence.
Let's see if you've spelt it right / correctly.
You need an extra letter here.
Rub out the w rong word. W ipe out / off the last letter.
Always check the punctuation.
D on't translate word for word.
Think about the m eaning of the w hole sentence.
You find it difficult to read aloud.
You'll have to spend more time practising this.
Speak m ore clearly. N ot so quickly, I ca n 't follow.
T here was a m istake in that sentence. Go back and see П
you can fin d /sp o t it.
D o n 't w hisper the answ er. D o n 't h elp him . D o n ’t k eep
prom pting.
I'm sure she can m anage on her own.

IX . A s se ssm e n t
V ery g o o d . W ell d o n e . T h a t’s n ic e. You m a d e a very
good job of that.
T hat's m uch (a lot) better. You've improved a little.
You can ’t say that, I'm afraid.
You still have som e tro u b le w ith y o u r sp ellin g (sounds,
etc.).
You need som e more practice with ...
I w asn 't very satisfied w ith that. You can do b e tte r than
that.
That was rather disappointing.
Try harder. A bit m ore effort. I h o p e you do b e tte r n e x ;
time.
348
The following com m ents are often used on written work:
Excellent work. Very well done. Good stuff. Keep it up. Ade­
quate.
M uch b etter. Shows som e im provem ent. G reat im prove­
m ent.
S atisfactory. C o u ld do b etter. Too m any ca re less slips.
Careless.
N eed s to show m ore effort. N ot up to y o u r u su al s ta n ­
dard.
D isappointing. See m e about this.

X. C onversation
These phrases help to keep the conversation m oving:
W hy? (In what way? W hy do you think so?)
D on't you think, though, that ...
I'm not sure what you mean,
Have you got anything to add (to w hat N ick said)?
Does anybody share N ick's opinion (views)?
C ould som eone sum up what has been said?
Let’s just run through the argum ents for and against.

B. C O N V ER SA TIO N A L PHRASES

1. H andling a D ialogue
I s a y ...
H onestly ...
If you ask me ...
You know what I think ...
The point is ...
D on’t you agree that ...?
Tell you what...
Have you heard about ...?
Do you happen to know that ...?
Have you got any idea ...?
Som eone has told me that ...

349
I hear that...
T hat's what I heard.
I'm afraid I d o n ’t know m uch about ...
N ot that I know of ...
I w onder if you rem em ber ...
Have I got it right?
Am I right to believe ...?
But w hy should (shouldn't) I?
W ell I d o n 't (didn't) think ...
But how could I?
If I were you ...
I wish I could bu t ...
I really co u ld n 't imagine ...
W hat a silly way to talk!
I wish you w ould ...
I'm really sorry b u t ...
I really feel bad about it.
W hat do you think I should have done?

2. R eacting to News
Oh, really!
N ever thought about it.
You don’t say so!
Ju st (only) fancy!
Indeed?
W hy! Is that so?
D ear me! W h o 'd have thought of it!
Does it strike you as unusual?
I’m surprised.
I’m shocked.
It’s amazing!
It’s incredible!
Looks like that.
I have no idea.
G oodness knows.

3. D iscussion. O pinions
I w ould like to begin the discussion on the subject by ...
From the point of view of ...

350
A dditionally ...
It has been pointed out that ...
Ifd just like to say ...
I think (suppose, guess, believe, dare say) ...
Personally I believe (I feel) ...
In my opinion (view) ...
As I see it ...
The way I see it ...
W ell, m y opinion is that ...
M y view is that ...
This is m y way of looking at it,
I d o n 't think it would ...
T here's one more thing to be noted.
M oreover ...
W h at's m ore ...
I m ight as well add that ...
In addition ...
O n top of that ...
Som ething else I'd like to say is ...
Talking of...
You m ay be right, but all the same ...
If you ask me ...
I w ouldn't say that ...
Yes, b u t on the other hand ...
T here's nothing like ...
I d o n 't quite see what people find in ...
I d o n 't know anything more exciting than ...
A bsolutely marvellous. I like it immensely.
All things considered I must say that ...
I'd rather not say anything about it.
G enerally speaking ...
It depends.

4. A greeing. D isagreeing
Ju st so.
Q uite so.
I quite agree here.
Naturally. Certainly. Sure. Exactly. Definitely. Q uite.
M ost likely, Absolutely.
T rue enough.
I co u ld n 't agree more.
I should think so.
Beyond all doubt.
I w on't deny it.
Looks like that.
H appy to hear it.
I'm not sure I quite agree.
W hy do you think that ...?
I'm afraid I d o n 't agree.
I think y o u ’re m istaken (there).
I d o n 't think you are right.
I ca n 't agree with you there.
I see w hat you mean, but ...
I'm not so sure.
I see nothing exciting in ...
I doubt it.
I (you) shouldn't say so.
T here's som ething in w hat you say, b u t ...
I disagree with you.
You’re wrong. Y ou're mistaken.
N ot me!
How can you say such a thing!
O n the contrary!
You c a n 't be serious.
I object to it.
Surely not.
N othing of the kind (sort).
Ju st the other way round.
C ertainly not.
Impossible.
It’s unfair.
It's unjust.

5. G iv in g A d v ice
M ight it be an idea to ...?
Have you ever thought of
You could always ...
If I w ere you, I'd ...
W hy d o n 't you ...?
You’d better ...
352
EXERCISES IN INTONATION

SECTION ONE

Review of Fundamental Intonation Patterns and Their Use1

PATTERN 1: (LOW PRE-HEAD + ) LOW FALL


( + TAIL)

M o d e l s : ^Yes.
I'm a ^doctor.

PATTERN II: (LOW PRE-HEAD + ) DESCENDING


HEAD + LOW FALL ( + TAIL)

M o d e l: It Visn't ‘quite ‘what I vwant.

PATTERN III: {LOW PRE-HEAD + ) LOW RISE (+ TAIL)

M o d e ls : fYes>
/ Is it?
Go fon.

PATTERN IV: (LOW PRE-HEAD + ) DESCENDING


HEAD + LOW RISE (+ TAIL)

M o d e l: VHaven't ‘we ‘met ‘somewhere ^efore?

PATTERN V: (LOW PRE-HEAD-I-) (HIGH HEAD + ) MID-LEVEL

M o d e l: VSometimes | I >hate it

1 For explanation and drills see “Practical Course of English” (First Year).
Ed. by Prof. V. D. Arakin. М., 1998.

353
PATTERN VI: (LOW PRE-HEAD +) FALL-RISE (-f TAIL)

Models: vYes.
\I /do.
vO n c e I ^ o u ld .

PATTERN VII: (LOW PRE-HEAD+ ) FALLING HEAD +


+ FALL-RISE (+ TAIL)

Model: It's Vbitterly v cold.

PATTERN VIII: (LOW PRE-HEAD-I-) LOW HEAD +


+ LOW RISE (+ TAIL)

Model: It’s „very /nice of you.

E XE RCI S E S

The exercises below are meant to revise the intonation patterns you
already know.

1. Read the following conversational situations. Define the communica­


tive type of the replies. Say what attitudes are conveyed in them. Give
your own replies to the same conversational contexts:
W hat is your favourite English.
subject?
He is at the institute. W here, do you think?
I'll do it myself. Don't.
H ere's a note for you. Thanks.
W hat do you think of the It's a true m asterpiece.
picture?
M ay I have your book? W hat do you w ant it for?
I sh an 't speak to him any D on't be silly.
more.
Com e and look out here. W hat a wonderful view!
Have you seen him? I have.
I'm twenty-two. How old are you?

354
(Teacher to class) Go on.
So you think h e's not Exactly.
coining.
I'm w aiting for Mary. W hen is she com ing?
W e are having a party D on't stay too long there.
tonight.
See you tomorrow. G ood-bye for the present.
H e's com ing on Saturday. O n M onday, I think.
M ay I leave you for a mo­ Be quick, then.
m ent?
I'll leave on Friday. No, on W ell, m ake up your mind.
Saturday.
W hat's that dress m ade of? It's pure wool.
W hich bus shall we take? W hich one do you prefer?
I can 't do it so quickly. Tell me how I can help you.
You've done a lot for him. N ot in the least.
I'm so sorry for her. She You've no reason to worry.
seems to be terribly ill. She'll be well very soon.
I d o n 't think m uch of this W hich do you prefer, then?
book. I'm not taking it.
Thanks awfully. D on't m ention it.
I'm afraid I c a n 't help you. Very well.

2. Read the following dialogues. Express the suggested attitudes:

— W hat troubles you? (sym pathetically interested)


— I'm quite unwell. I feel giddy and I can hardly stand on my
legs, (serious)
— A ny pain? (sym pathetically interested)
— Yes, I've a sore throat, (conveying personal concern)

— Shall I have to stay in bed long? (genuinely interested)


— No, not m ore than a week, I hope, (uncertain)
— And shall I take any m edicine? {genuinely interested)
— Yes, certainly. Here is a prescription for you. (weighty, cate­
goric)

355
— W hat is your tem perature? [sympathetically interested)
— It's thirty-eight point seven.
— Please strip to the waist. I shall exam ine you. How lon^
have you felt this way? (sym pathetically interested)
— Several days already. I've b ee n tak in g pills, b u t I d o n '
feel any better.

A.: Hello, Pete, w hat's happened to you? W hy is your arm in


a sling? (sym pathetically interested)
P.: I had a bad fall and broke my arm.
A.: How awful! Have you any pain now? (interested)
P.: It still hurts, b u t not so m uch as before, (reserving ju d g e
ment)

D.: W hat's troubling you? (mferesfed)


A.: O ne of my front teeth is w orking loose.
D.: You have to have this one out. It's a pity you d id n 't havn
it looked at before, (grumbling)
A.: I wish I had. (conveying personal concern)

— I have an abscess on my finger, it hurts me awfully, (sen-


ous)
— Did you run a splinter into your finger? (interested)
— No, I happened to pick it with a wire.
— W hat did you do for it? (searching)
— I did nothing, I thought it would heal by itself.
— That was not very clever of you. (reprimand)

— Your voice is hoarse and your face is flushed. You mu^


have a cold. I'm sure. W h ere did you m anage to g et it'
(sympathy)
— I d o n ’t know myself. I m ust have cau g h t cold last nigh;
when I took my coat off.
— How thoughtless of you, the evening was cold and winds
(reproachful) Now you'll have to stay in.

356
3. a) Listen to the dialogue* Mark the stresses and tunes. Find sense-
groups and sentences pronounced with intonation Patterns I, II, III, IV, V,
VI, VII, VIII. Say what kind of sentences they are used in. Define the
attitudes expressed in them:

— Let's have tea in the garden, shall we?


— T hat's a good idea. Shall I take the table out?
— Yes, please. And the chairs too.

— Right. W here shall I put them?
— Oh, anywhere. I'll bring the tea.
— Good. W e'll have the table here and the chairs here.
— W hy have you p u t the table there?
— W ell, you said anywhere.
— Yes, but you must be sensible. It’ll be too hot there.
— W here shall I put it then?
— Bring it under the tree here. T hat's better.
— Now perhaps we can have some tea.
— Oh, dear. I'm sorry I’ve fo rg o tten the sugar. W ould you
mind getting it for me?
— N ot at all.
— Now w here did I p u t the milk? Ah, here it is.
— H ere's the sugar.
— Thank you. T hat's your cup.
— Thank you. This is very pleasant.
— It is, isn't it? But I’m a bit cold here. Do you think you
could move the table again? I'm sorry to be a nuisance.
— All right. I'll p u t it back w here it was. Is that better?
— M uch. W here are you going?
— I’m going indoors. For a bit of peace and quiet.

b) Record your reading of the dialogue. Play the recording back for the
teacher and your fellow-students to detect the possible errors. Practise the
dialogue for test reading. Memorize and dramatize it.

c) Make up conversational situations, using the following phrases:

Let's ..., shall we? It'll be too ... .


T hat's a good idea, T hat's better.
Yes, please. Now, perhaps, ... .

357
Right. Oh, dear, I'm so sorry.
O h....... N ot at all.
W ell, you said ... . Do you think you could ... ?

d) Use the same phrases in a conversation.

4. This exercise is meant to develop your ability to hear and reproduce


intonation in different speech situations.

a) Listen to the story “Helen's eyes were not very good..."1 carefully,
sentence by sentence. Mark the stresses and tunes. (The teacher will help
you to correct your variant.) Practise reading your corrected variant.

b) Listen carefully to the narration of the story. Observe the peculiari­


ties in intonation-group division, pitch, stress and tempo. Note the use of
temporizers. Reproduce the model narration of the story.

5. This exercise is meant to test your ability to read and reproduce a


story with correct intonation.
Read the jokes silently to make sure you understand each sentence.
Find the sentence expressing the essence of the joke. Split up each sen­
tence into intonation-groups if necessary. Mark the stresses and tunes. Un­
derline the communicative centre and the nuclear word of each intonation-
group. It is not expected that each student will intone the text in the same
way. The teacher will help you to correct your variant.
Practise reading the joke several times.
Reproduce the model narration of the joke:

Y oung P eter cam e in o n e d ay b u rstin g w ith excitem ent.


W alking dow n th e m ain stree t he h ad su d d en ly discovered
he was side-by-side with movie actor C lark Gable.
— Did you talk to him? we asked.
— Well, it was like this, he said slowly. I knew who he was
and he knew w ho he was — and it ju st d id n 't m ake sense us
discussing it.

Some people w ere gathered on the verandah after dinner.


A young lady asked: “Can you nam e five days of the w eek
w ithout m entioning Monday, Tuesday, W ednesday, Thursday,

1 The texts of the stories and dialogues recorded on the tape see on
p. 426.

358
Friday, Saturday or Sunday?” N obody could guess. At last the
young lady said: “It is very easy. Here are the five days: today,
yesterday, the day before yesterday, tomorrow, and the day after
tom orrow ” .

SECTION TWO

Intonation Pattern IX
H igh fall
(LOW PRE-HEAD+ ) HIGH FALL (+ TAIL)

M o d e l : Why didn’t you buy the picture?


— Much too ex.pensive.
i ••_ •

Stress-and-tone marks in the text: High Fall. i ' i


The H igh Fall in the nucleus starts very high and usually
reaches the lowest pitch. The syllables of the tail are pronounced
on the low level.
The High Fall provides a greater degree of prom inence for
the word, m aking it more emphatic. The degree of prom inence
depends on the height of the fall.
This intonation pattern is used:

1. I n s t a t e m e n t s , conveying personal concern or


involvem ent, sounding lively, interested, airy; very com m on
in conversation.
e. g. Do you know the man? — xNo. (I 'd o n ’t.) V es. |
(I 'do.) W h ere’s my copy? — vPeter .took it .for you.

2. I n questions:
a) In special questions, sounding lively, interested,
e. g. I shall be late, I’m afraid. — 'H ow ,late?

359
b ) I n g e n e r a l questions, conveying m ildly surprised
acceptance of the listener's premises.
e. д. I like it here. vDo you? (I thought y o u 'd hate it.)
3. I n i m p e r a t i v e s , sounding warm.
e. g. W h at's the m atter? — vLook. (It’s raining.)

4. I n e x c l a m a t i o n s , very emotional,
e. g. It's eight o ’clock. — 'H eavens! (I’m late.)

EXERCISES

1. Listen carefully to the following conversational situations. Concen­


trate your attention on the intonation of the replies:
Verbal Context D rill
Statements
[conveying personal
concern or involvement,
sounding interested,
lively, airy)
Now what have you done N othing.
to M ary?
W ho's been eating my No one. No one has. No one's
grapes? been eating your w retched
grapes.
W hich will you take, Henry? This one. T hat one.
How m any of his books All of them . N one of them .
have you read?
W hen did you see him? On Thursday. (I thought you
knew.)
W ould you like to join us? I'd love to.
Com e on. Let's get going. W e can't. It's raining.
It was all your fault. But it w asn't. A nd I can
prove it.
Special questions
[lively, interested)
I shall have to give it to him. W hy?
I'm going to Switzerland. W hen?
360
y o u 'll never guess w ho’s W ho?
here.
You can win easily. How? How so?
H e's com ing to stay with us. W hen, m ay I ask?
I m ustn't tak e them. W h y m u s tn 't y o u ta k e
them ?
Sorry to be so late. W hat's happened?
I ought to w rite to him. W hy bother?
(Hullo, Dennis.) How are you?
I said no such thing. W hat did you say, then?
T oday's out of the question, W h e n ca n y o u com e, m ay
too. 1 ask?
General questions
{conveying m ild ly
surprised acceptance o f
the listener’s premises)
I like it here. Do you?
She is thirty-five. Is she?
They w on't help us. W o n 't they?
I ca n 't bear cats. C an 't you?
I m ust be hom e by six. M ust you?
I ought to go to the lecture. B ut w ill y o u go, d o y o u
think?
Imperatives
{expressing warmth)
Do you think this hat will Try it.
fit me?
H e'll be terribly angry. Let him.
A letter w on't reach Ann Phone her, then.
in time.
He do esn 't w ant to play. Then m ake him.
I'm awfully sorry. Forget it.
He c a n 't afford to pay. W ell, give it to him, then.
Exclamations
{very emotional)
He's over seventy. Well!
Alice is coming as well. Really! Splendid!
361
Will you have a drink? Thank you!
(That you Mr. Archar?) Good morning! G ood morninc;
to you.
I'll give it to you. How lovely!
I'm most grateful to you. D on't m ention it, m y dem
chap.
She says y ou're to blame. W hat nonsense!
Isn't it a lovely view! Enchanting!

2. Listen to the replies and repeat them in the intervals. Start the fall
high enough.
3. Listen to the Verbal Context and reply to it in the intervals.
4. In order to fix Intonation Pattern IX in your mind, ear and speech
habits, pronounce each reply several times until it sounds perfectly natural
to you.
5. Listen to a fellow-student reading the replies and point out his (her;
errors in pronunciation.
6. Listen to the Verbal Context said by a fellow-student. Make you:
replies sound lovely, warm, airy. Use the proper intonation patterns. Con
tinue the exercise until everyone has participated:

Verbal Context D rill


Isn't it too far away from Awfully far.
here?
W here is m y book? M ary took it for you.
Have you been there before? Of course, I have.
M ay I leave you for a m o­ W hy, yes.
ment?
You ought to let him know. I have.
W hat is she doing here? She's w aiting for som e­
body.
I'd love to stay up for the You can't. It's too late.
play.
She's twenty. Eighteen, I think, she said.
It'll take m uch time. How much?
Give them one of these books. W hich one, do you think?
I must go there. But when?
I'll find him. But how can you find him?
You can 't go there. But w hy not?
362
She w ouldn't listen to me. W o u ld n 't she?
Everybody agrees with you. Oh, do they?
jsjobody can do it. Can I have a try?
Lock the door, W ait a minute.
f 11 p h o n e her. D on't.
May I help you? Yes, do.
W hat has she done? Look.
Thank you very much. Thank you.
W ould you like to stay up Indeed I would.
for the television?
I've been helping Tom, T hat's a good girl.
Mummy.
How are you getting on? W onderfully.
Hello, Mary! Oh, there you are, Tom.
Do you p lay chess? Surely, I do!

7. Give your own replies to the Verbal Context above. Use Intonation
Pattern IX in them.
8. Use Intonation Pattern I in the Drills. Observe the difference in
attitudes.
9. This exercise is meant to revise the intonation patterns you already
know. Work in pairs.
The teacher or one of the students will suggest a Verbal Context. You
in turn reply to it using:
a) statements, sounding lively, interested, airy; conveying personal con­
cern or involvement;
b) special questions, sounding lively, interested;
c) general questions, conveying mildly surprised acceptance of the lis­
tener's premises;
d) imperatives, sounding warm;
e) exclamations, very emotional.

10. Practise the following dialogues. Use the High Fall in them. Ob­
serve the attitudes you convey;
— Oh, dear! Oh!
— I'm so sorry! I do hope I haven't hurt you!
— Oh, no. I was ju st a little startled, th a t's all. It's q u ite all
right.

Do you like this flat?


Oh, yes, I do, definitely.

363
— I'm afraid I co u ld n 't possibly do that.
— W hy not?

— You 11 have to clean the window.


— Not me!
— W hy not?
— I did it last time.
— W hose turn is it then?
— H elen's, I think.

11. Listen to the Verbal Context suggested by the teacher. Reply bv


using one of the drill sentences below. Pronounce it with Intonation Pat­
tern IX. Say what attitude you mean to render:

V erba/ Context Drill


I'll ring you up on Right! Good! Fine! C e rta in h !
Sunday. N aturally! Surely! Oh, no!
That w on't do!
It all depends on the R ig h t y o u are! E x a c tly so'
weather. N aturally! U n d o u b te d h 1
Sure enough! By no means'
You are wrong! Far from i\.
C ertainly not!
I shall take you to the Fine! Good! C ertainty not tho
O pera House. week! Agreed! Settled! Oh.
no!
W ill you be ready by C ertainly! D ecidedly! I think
six? s o ! U ndoubtedly! Sure! v
not!
I believe h e's finished H ardly ever! I think so! S u o 1
his job. enough!

12. Make up a dialogue of your


own, using some of the phrases froin
Ex. 10.

13. This exercise is meant to develop your ability to hear and repp'
duce intonation in conversation.
a) Listen to the dialogue “A Visit to the Doctor” carefully, sentence Ь
sentence. Write it down. Mark the stresses and tunes. Your teacher whi
help you to correct your variant. Practise reading each sentence of уем >
corrected variant after the cassette-recorder.

364
b) Record your reading of the dialogue. Play the recording back im­
mediately for the teacher and your fellow-students to detect your errors.
Practise the dialogue for test reading.
c) Make up conversational situations with the following phrases:
W ell, w hat's the m atter with ...?
Y ou'd better ask me what is not the m atter with me, ...
To m ake things still worse ...
In fact ...
d) Make up a talk about illnesses and their treatment, using phrases
from the dialogue above. Work in pairs.

e) Imagine you are consulting a doctor — tell him what troubles you.
Imagine you are a doctor. You diagnose the case as quinsy. Tell your
patient what he should do to get well.

14. This exercise is meant to develop your ability to hear and reproduce
intonation In reading.
a) Listen to the text carefully, sentence by sentence. Write down the
text. Mark the stresses and tunes. The teacher will help you to correct your
variant. Practise reading each sentence of your corrected variant after the
cassette-recorder.
b) Record your reading. Play the recording back immediately for the
teacher and your fellow-students to detect your errors.
Practise the text for test reading.

15. Mark stresses and tunes in the following text. Listen to the model.
Mark the stresses and tunes. Compare your intonation with that of the
model. Practise the text according to the model:

Doctor, Dentist and Chemist

If you have toothache, you should go to your dentist. H e'll


examine your teeth, and if the aching tooth is not too far gone,
h e'll stop it. If it is too bad, he'll take it out.
If you d o n 't feel well, you should consult a doctor. If you
feel too ill to go to th e doctor's, you'll have to send for him.
H e'll ask you to describe to him the symptoms of your illness.
Then he'll feel your pulse, look at your tongue and exam ine
you thoroughly. Finally h e ’ll prescribe the treatm ent and write
out a prescription.
365
D octors' prescrip tio n s are m ade up b y a chem ist. At
chem ists' shops in the USA you can also get paten t m edicines
of all kinds, lotions, tonics, cough-m ixtures, baby-foods, as­
pirin, pills, ointm ent, bandages, adhesive p laster and so on.
You can buy razors and razor-blades, vacuum-flasks, hot w ater
b o ttles, sponges, to o th -b ru sh es an d to o th -p astes, pow der-
puffs, lipsticks, shaving-soap and shaving-brushes and a h u n ­
dred and one other things.
If you are in terested in photography, you can also get
cam eras and films at most chem ists'. They'll develop and print
your films for you, too. Some chem ists are also qualified o p ­
ticians, and if your eyesight's faulty they'll test your eyes and
prescribe glasses for you.

16. This exercise is meant to develop your ability to hear intonation


and reproduce it in different speech situations.

a) Listen to the joke “One day Mrs. Jones went shopping...", sentence
by sentence. Write it down. Mark the stresses and tunes. Practise the joke
for test reading.

b) Listen to the narration of the joke. Observe the peculiarities in


intonation-group division, pitch, stress and tempo. Note the use of tempo­
rizers. Reproduce the model narration you have listened to.

17. This exercise is meant to test your ability to analyze and reproduce
material for reading and retelling.

a) Read the jokes silently to make sure you understand each sentence.
Find the sentence expressing the essence of the joke. Split up each phrase
into intonation-groups if necessary. Locate the communicative centre of
each sentence. Mark the stresses and tunes. Practise reading the jokes.

b) Tell the jokes in your own words:

The Doctor's Advice


O nce an old gentlem an w ent to see a doctor. The doctor
exam ined him and said: “M edicine w on't help you. You m ust
have a com plete rest. Go to a quiet country place for a month,
go to bed early, drink milk, w alk a lot, and sm oke ju st one
cigar a day.’*
“T hank you very m uch,” said th e gentlem an, “I shall do
everything you say.”

366
“ Oh, d o c to r,” said th e g en tlem an a m onth later, “I feel
quite well now. I had a good rest. I w ent to bed early, I drank a
lot of milk, I w alked a lot. Your advice certainly helped me.
But you told me to sm oke one cigar a day, and th at one cigar
a day alm ost killed me at first. It's no joke to start sm oking at
my age.”

Doctor's Orders

S e r v a n t : Sir, w ake up, wake up!


M a s t e r : W hat is the m atter?
S e r v a n t : It’s time to take your sleeping tablets.

M r s . B r o w n : D o n 't you think, doctor, y o u 'v e rath e r


overcharged for attending Jim m y w hen he had the measles?
D o c t o r : You m ust rem em ber, Mrs. Brown, th at includes
twenty-two visits.
Mr s . B r o w n : Yes, b u t you forget he infected the w hole
school!

SECTION THREE

Intonation Pattern X

(LOW PRE-HEAD + ) RISING HEAD + HIGH FALL (+ TAIL)

Model: I wonder when Alice’s train is due.


— /L ook it ‘up in the time-,table.

The syllables of the Rising H ead preceding the H igh Fall


gradually carry the pitch up.
Stress-and-tone m ark in the text:
The first stressed syllable: | T \

367
This intonation pattern is used:
1. I n s t a t e m e n t s , conveying personal concern,
involvement, disgruntled protest.
e. g. H aven’t you brought the carp? — You / d id n ’t
ask me ,to.

2. I n q u e s t i o n s :
a) I n s p e c i a l q u estio n s sou n d in g u n p leasan tly
surprised or displeased, protesting.
e. g. Send them at once. — /W h e re to?
b) I n g e n e r a l questions, protesting, som etim es
im patient.
e. g. T hursday’s a hopeless day for me. — / C a n ’t
we 'm ake it a Friday, .then?

3. I n i m p e r a t i v e s , lively, with a note of critical


surprise.
e. g. W hat shall I do? — /T ry it a'gain.

4. I n e x c l a m a t i o n s , conveying affronted surprise


protesting.
e. g. Jo h n ’s coming. — W hat an ex /trao rd in ary
thing.

EXERCISES

1. Listen carefully to the following conversational situations. Con­


centrate your attention on the intonation of the replies:

Verbal Context D rill


Statements
(conveying personal concern
or involvement, disgruntled
protest)
I m ust see Mr. Roberts. I'm afraid you ca n 't. H e's jus;
gone out.

368
W hat did you think of the I w as ra th e r ta k e n w ith it.
house? It seem s quite nice.
He says he knows nothing I ju st can ’t understand it.
about it. I d is tin c tly re m e m b e r
telling him.
H a v e n 't y o u fin ish ed th a t I've only just b egun it.
b o o k y e t?
Tin afraid I failed my I'm not at all surprised. You
exam. m u st try w o rk in g a b it
harder.
You o u g h t to h a v e in fo rm ­ I didn 't realize, it was so im­
e d m e a t o n c e. portant.

Special questions
(sounding displeased,
unpleasantly surprised,
protesting)

W hat's that you say? W hy d o n 't you listen?


I ca n 't find the file W h a t hav e you d o n e w ith
anywhere. it?
You ca n 't easily m end it. W hat do you mean, easily?
I gave it to her personally. But w hen did you see her?
W hich one shall I have? W hich would you prefer?
I shall write to him again. W hatever do you hope to
gain by that?
I was too late. They'd sold W hyever d id n 't you b u y it
out. when you had the chance?

General quest i ons


{protesting, im patient)

I’m terribly hard up! A ren't we all?


It's always possible. But do you think it's likely?
I’m quite booked up next W ill the w eek after suit you
week. better?

1 3 В. Д. А ракин, II курс 369


In m y view h e's a culprit. C ould you be m istaken?
I ca n 't m eet you this T ues­ Shall we leave it till next
day. week?
I can ’t say I do like this W o u ld you have p referred
coat. the plum coloured one?
Imperatives
{lively, with a note
o f critical surprise)
W hat on earth shall I do? Try it again. You've no alter­
native.
W hat should I tell him? Tell him ex a c tly w h at you
think.
How m any sandwiches M ake as m any as you think
shall I make? w e'll eat.
I d o n 't w ant to go alone. Com e along with us, then.
I've lost my invitation. W ell w rite and ask them to
send you another one.
Exclamat ions
(conveying affronted
surprise, protesting)
I told him w hat I thought Good for you!
of him.
She says she's twenty-nine. A bsolute nonsense!
But I can’t take you out W h at a p ity you d id n 't say
tonight. I’m w orking so sooner.
late.
Look. It works. So it does. How very odd!
Y ou're a bit grum py today. N ot in the least!

2. Listen to the replies and repeat them in the intervals. Pronounce th<
first stressed syllable as low as possible; the following stressed syllables o:
the head gradually rise to the high level. Start the fall on the nucleus high
enough.

3. Listen to the Verbal Context and reply in the intervals.

370
4. In order to fix Intonation Pattern X in your mind, ear and speech
habits, pronounce each reply several times until it sounds perfectly natural
to you.

5. Listen to your fellow-student reading the replies, tell him (her) what
his (her) errors in intonation are.

6. Listen to the Verbal Context suggested by the teacher. Reply by


using one of the sentences below. Pronounce It with Intonation Pattern X.
Say what attitude you mean to render

Verbal Context Drill

W hy d o n 't you stay longer? I've no tim e. I'm so b u sy


now.
W hen do we go there? I've just told you. At seven.
Do you really w ant to see I h av en 't seen h er for ages.
her?
W hat m ade you go there? I w en t th e re b e c a u s e I
wanted to.
W hy d id n 't you com e there You know how far it is.
in time?
W hat do you think of this It's n o th in g le ss th a n a
picture? masterpiece.
I've no tim e now. I'm leaving. W here to?
You must look through it W h at's w rong about it?
again.
H e'll be here by six.* W hat m akes you so sure?
You m ust phone her at W hy not you?
once.
I m issed som e words. W hy d o n 't you listen?
You'd better take a taxi. W hat for?
Monday is a very busy day C an 't we m eet on Friday
for me. then?
You are not a good Have I ever p rete n d ed to
swimmer, are you? be?
Mary's not here yet. Go alone, then,
It's too late to walk. Take a bus, then.

371
I doubt if I can do it better. Try again.
H e's given up this idea. Sensible chap!
H e's won. W ould you believe it!

7. Give your own replies to the Verbal Context of Ex. 1 and G. Use
Intonation Pattern X.

8. The teacher or one of the students suggests a Verbal Context. The


students reply to it in turn using:
a) statements conveying personal concern, involvement or protest;
b) special questions sounding unpleasantly surprised, displeased or
protesting;
c) general questions sounding impatient, protesting;
d) imperatives sounding lively, with a note of critical surprise;
e) exclamations conveying affronted surprise, protesting.
Continue the exercise until everyone has participated. Work in pairs.

9. Read the following extracts. Observe the position of the logical


stress:

“Tell her that you intend to marry her, but after you return
from this outing, not before.” (77i. Dreiser. “An American Trage-
dy”)
“You d o n 't live here?” — “No,” I said, “I don't. You wouldn't
if I did.” (J. К. Jerome. “Three M en in a Boat”)
“She was so pretty and cute. Yet she was a w orking girl, as
he rem em bered now, too — a factory girl, as G ilbert w ould
say, and he was her superior. But she was so pretty and cu te.”
(Th. Dreiser. “An American T ragedy”)
“ In the taxi, returning at last to C hesborough T errace he
proclaim ed happily: “First rate chaps these, Chris! Has been a
w onderful evening, h asn 't it? ” She answ ered in a thin steady
voice: “It's been a hateful evening!” (Cronin. “The C itadel”)

10. Look for similar situations in the books you are reading at the
moment.

11. This exercise is meant to practise the intonation patterns you al-
ready know.
a) Listen to the dialogue “Guessing Game”, sentence by sentence.
Write it down. Define the intonation pattern of each sentence and the
attitude expressed by it.

372
b) Record your reading. Play the recording back for your teacher and
fellow-students to detect the possible errors:

A.: And the next object is vegetable.


B.: Does one eat it?
A.: Yes.
B.: Do you eat it?
A.: Yes.
B.: Do you eat it at breakfast?
A.: No.
B.: Do you eat it at dinner time?
A.: No.
B.: W ell then at tea time.
A.: Yes.
B.: Is it a raw vegetable?
A.: Yes.
B.: Is it nice?
A.: V ery nice.
B.: Did we have som e for tea today?
A.: Yes.
Practise the dialogue for test reading. Memorize and dramatize it.

12. This exercise is meant to develop your ability to hear and repro­
duce intonation in different speech situations.
a) Listen to the dialogue “Sightseeing” carefully, sentence by sentence.
Write it down. Mark the stresses and tunes. The teacher will help you to
correct your variant. Practise reading each sentence of your corrected vari­
ant after the cassette-recorder.
b) Record your reading of the text. Play the recording back immediate­
ly for the teacher and your fellow-students to detect your errors. Practise
the dialogue for test reading. Memorize and play it.
c) Make up conversational situations with the following phrases:
Is it possible ...? T hat's not a bad idea.
W hat do you think ...? I suppose it is.
Rather. W hat about...?
Well, you m ight .... Let me see ....
Is it m uch of a walk? Do you think I shall have
tim e for ...?
d) Make up a talk about your recent trip. Use the phrases from the
dialogue above. Work in pairs.
e) Imagine you are telling the class about your recent trip to London.

373
13. This exercise is meant to revise Intonation Pattern IX. Read the
following dialogue. Use the High Fall to express personal concern, involve­
ment:
— W hat are you going to do this week?
— Well, we d o n 't really know.
— W hy not visit Kew Gardens?
— Well, w e've been there.
— You've seen much, haven't you?
— Yes, w e've seen all the usual things. The Tower of Lon­
don, and the Zoo, and the H ouses of Parliam ent.
— Have you visited W estm inster Abbey?
— Yes, we w ent th ere a fortnight ago. But I h av en 't seen
St. Paul's C athedral since I was here in 1991.
— I have! I've been there two or three times.
— But I really o u g h t to th in k about th e business side of
m y visit.
— Yes. You m ust visit a motor-car factory. After all, that is
your main interest.
— T h at's true. I h av en 't b een to one yet. I ex p ect things
have changed since 1991.
— I'm sure they have. Yes, there have been some very big
developm ents since you w ere here last.

14. This exercise is meant to develop your ability to hear intonation


and reproduce it in different speech situations.

a) Listen to the joke UA pretty well-dressed young lady...” sentence by


sentence. Write it down. Mark the stresses and tunes. Practise the joke for
test reading.

b) Listen to the narration of the joke. Observe the peculiarities in into­


nation-group division, pitch, stress and tempo. Note the use of temporizers.
Reproduce the model narration you have listened to. Tell the joke in your
own words.

15. This exercise is meant to test your ability to analyze material for
reading.

a) Read the joke silently to make sure you understand each sentence
Find the sentence expressing the essence of the joke. Split up each phrase
into intonation-groups if necessary. Locate the communicative centre ol
each sentence. Mark the stresses and tunes, concentrating your attention

374
on the attitude expressed. It is not expected that each student will mark
the story in exactly the same way. Discuss your variants in class. Your
teacher will help you to choose the best variant. Practise your corrected
variant for test reading.

b) Tell the joke in your own words.


Wrong Pronunciation
A Frenchm an who had learned English at school, b u t had
half forg o tten it, was staying in London on business. It was
in th e m o n th of N ovem ber, an d th e w eath er was m ost u n ­
pleasant, disagreeable, dam p and foggy.
The Parisian, not being accustom ed to the English climate,
had caught a severe cold, and was coughing day and night. At
last he decid ed on g ettin g a rem edy for his cough b u t as he
did not rem em ber this E nglish word, he looked it up in his
French-E nglish dictionary. T here he found th at the English
for it was cough. U nfortunately his dictionary did not tell him
how to pronounce it. Remembering, however, the pronuncia­
tion of the w ord plo u g h , he n atu rally co n clu d ed th at cough
m ust be pronounced [kau].
So he entered a chem ist's shop and said: “Will you, please,
give me som ething for m y cow !1* T he chem ist, th in k in g h e
h ad m isunderstood him asked politely: “I b eg your pardon,
sir?”
The Frenchm an repeated his request for some rem edy for
his cow.
“For your cow, sir?” replied the chemist. “Are you a farmer
th en ?”
“A farm er?” answ ered the Frenchm an rather indignantly.
“W hat in the world m akes you think so? Oh, no, I cam e from
Paris, from beautiful Paris,” he added proudly.
The chemist now almost began to think that he was dealing
with a m adm an. In great bew ilderm ent he asked again: “But
your cow, sir? W here is your cow ?”
“Here!” cried the Frenchman, coughing very loud and point­
ing to his chest. “Here it is! Ih a v e a v e ry b ig cow in my chest!”
Luckily, th e ch em ist u n d ersto o d him an d gave him th e
rem edy he wanted.

375
SECTION FOUR

Intonation Pattern XI

(LOW PRE-HEAD+ ) FALLING HEAD + HIGH FALL {+ TAIL)

M o d e l : How are you finding your new job?


— VLiking the 'work im'mensely.

" • - Л . Г

The High Fall starts from a higher pitch than the preceding
syllable of the Falling Head.
If the head contains only one stressed w ord the H igh Fall
starts from the level of the stressed syllable.

e. g. How nice!

This intonation pattern is used:

1. I n s t a t e m e n t s , conveying perso n al concern,


sounding light, airy, warm b u t w ithout the disgruntled effect
of Pattern X.
e. g. W hy d o n ’t they work in the evenings? — 'Some
of them 'do, I believe.

2. I n q u e s t i o n s :
a) I n s p e c i a l questions, so u n d in g interested, brisk,
business-like.
e. g. I’ve just seen that new musical. — ’W hat is it
'called?
b) I n g e n e r a l questions, conveying m ildly surprised
ac ce p tan c e of th e liste n e r's prem ises; som etim es sounding
sceptical, but w ithout the im patience of Pattern X. (The q ues­
tion is pu t forward as a subject for discussion.)
e. g. Shall we try again? — W ell 'w ould it be any 'use?

376
3. I n i m p e r a t i v e s , so u n d in g lively; su g g e stin g a
course of action to the listener.
e, g. The te a 's too hot. — ‘Put som e m ore 'm ilk in it.

4. I n e x c l a m a t i o n s , conveying m ild surprise but


w ithout the affront of Pattern X.
e. g- Look, it's snowing. —■'O h , 'yes!

EXERCISES

1. Listen carefully to the following conversational situations. Concen­


trate your attention on the Intonation of the replies:

Verbal Context Drill


Statements
{conveying personal
concern; sounding light,
airy, warm)

W hen's the concert? Next Sunday. Next W ednes­


day.
It's going to be a fine place. So it seems. So I've heard.
W hat was the show like? First rate. Simply splendid.
It's not very valuable, is it? It cost over th ree h u n d red
pounds.
W e'll never get there. It's not as far as you im ag ­
ine.
W hich w ould you like, tea I'd prefer tea.
or coffee?
I m ay be a bit late. T hat w ouldn't m atter in th e
least.

Special questions
(soundmgr interested,
brisk, business-like)

I've just seen that new W hat's it called?


musical.

377
“U nderneath the A rches.” W hat did you think of it?
Q uite good, really. W h o c o m p o se d th e m u ­
sic?
John Adams, I think his W hich th eatre is it playing
nam e is. at?
“The Prince of W ales,” W h ich ex a c tly is “ The
Prince of W ales” ?
The one near Piccadilly How did you get there?
Circus.
By a fourteen bus. W hy didn't you go by tube?
I ca n 't bear the U nder­
ground.
General questions
{conveying mildly
surprised acceptance of
the listener’s premises;
sometimes sceptical)
D 'you think I should ring M ig h tn 't it be b e tte r to
him? wait?
I hate the thought of spring O u g h t we to d e la y it any
cleaning, longer, though?
I d o n 't really w ant to m eet W ill you be able to get out
them. of it?
I'm sorry, but I hate cocoa. W ould you like a cup of tea,
then?
Thank you for all you've Is there anything else I can
done. do to help?
H e's prom ised to stop D oes he re a lly m ean w hat
smoking. he says?
Imperatives
{sounding lively;
suggesting a course of
action to the listener)
I hate quarrelling with T hen m ake it u p w ith her.
Clara.
I sh an 't be able to phone Drop me a line, then.
you.
378
Sorry I forgot to change my Ju st look at the m ud you've
shoes. brought in here.
I c a n 't th in k w h a t to say. D o n 't say an y th in g at all.
Leave it entirely to me.
W h a t sh all I d o w ith this? P ut it in th e w aste p ap er
basket.
Exclamations
(iconveying mild surprise)
He w on't give us permission. So th at's that.
I g av e h im a p ie c e of m y W ell done! G ood for you!
m in d .
T om h a s p a s s e d his exam . W ell fancy that!
I'v e ju s t b e c o m e a father. C ongratulations, m y d ear
chap!
I,fo rg o t ev ery w o rd a b o u t W h a t a fin e m ess y o u 'v e
it. m ade of things!
W e'll go there on Friday. The sooner the better!
I'm sorry to have to vote A fine friend you turned out
against you. to be!

2. listen to the replies and repeat them in the intervals. Make your
voice follow the intonation line exactly.
3. Listen to the Verbal Context above and reply in the intervals con­
centrating your attention on the intonation line.
4. In order to fix Intonation Pattern XI in your mind, ear and speech
habits pronounce each reply several times until it sounds perfectly natural
to you.
5. Listen to your fellow-student reading the replies. Tell him (her) what
his (her) errors in pronunciation and intonation are.

6. a) Listen to a fellow-student reading the Verbal Context below. Pro­


nounce each of the following replies in two ways: first with Intonation
Pattern X, then with Intonation Pattern XI. Observe the intonation line.
State the difference in attitude. Ask a fellow-student to comment on the
attitudes you are trying to render:

Verbal Context Drill


Has she caught up with B etter th an that. She is th e
the group? best in the group now.

379
I'm glad you've m ade some So is my teacher.
progress.
W hy doesn't she join our Sometimes she does.
trips?
W hat's his m ark in physics? I d o n 't rem em ber.
I'm an am ateur. I s h o u ld n e v e r b e lie v e it.
Y ou're good a t ten n is in ­
deed.
W here is m y pen? It's gone You never rem em ber w here
again. you p u t your things.
T hank you very m uch for N ot at all. Just happy to help
your help. you any time.
Let’s go to the pictures in I really ca n 't. I've got a lot
the evening. of work to do,
W e're leaving tonight. It’s a pity. You prom ised to
stay with us a bit longer.
I’m going to consult a It's h ig h tim e you th o u g h t
doctor. about your health.
It's not m y size. Well, what size do you take,
then?
I saw M ike the day before How is he getting on?
yesterday.
She w ent to the circus on W h y d id n 't s h e ta k e th e
Sunday. children with her?
M ary is waiting for you. W hy has she come?
I got back yesterday. A nd w h e re d id y o u go, I
wonder?
I d o n 't know P eter's ad d ­ W h y d id n 't y o u ask him
ress. about it before?
She prom ised to bring the D oes sh e alw ay s k e e p
book. her promises?
They say they'll help us. Do they really m ean that?
Shall we ask her to speak to W ill it be of any use?
him?
Shall we go for a walk to Isn't it still pouring?
the forest?
I d id n 't understand the W ouldn't it be better for you
rule. to ask th e te a c h e r to e x ­
plain it again?

380
They w on't com e to the Do they still feel offended?
party.
I c a n 't w ait for him a n y Couldn't we ring him up, then?
lo n g er.
I’m very m uch obliged to Tell him about it, then.
him.
He asked her about her age. How silly of him!
She m ade me com e for the W hat a shame!
second time.
She's laid up with quinsy Poor thing!
again.
Thank you for your very D on’t m ention it.
good news.
He prom ised to speak to her. The sooner the better.

b) Listen to a fellow-student reading the first sentence of the Verbal


Context above. Reply in your own way, using Intonation Pattern XI. The
drill will continue until every student has participated. Keep the exercise
moving rapidly. Be careful about the intonation line and try to convey the
proper attitude.

7. Read the following dialogue with a fellow-student, using Intonation


Pattern XI. Special questions should sound interested, lively, brisk. The
replies sound lively, friendly and warm:
A: W hat was that you said?
B: W here did you go for your sum m er holiday?
A: First to London and then to Cornwall.
B: How long did you live in London?
A: Just a week.
B: W hich part of your holiday did you prefer?
A: Oh, our fortnight in Cornwall.
B: W here did you stay while you were down there?
A: In a little village near Penzance.
B: W hat sort of w eather did you have in London?
A: The best we could possibly have hoped for.
B: W hat did you do there?
A: Sightseeing mostly.

381
8. A student will read the Verbal Context below. Other students will
read the replies in turn, using the High Fall and the logical stress on the
same word to make the utterance emphatic. Define the attitude you are
trying to express:

Verbal Context Drill


H e's ruined m y shoes. M ak e him b u y y o u a new
pair.
N one of us w ants to go. S o m eo n e w ill h av e to go,
w on't they?
A ren't you lucky? That's what everybody says.
How does your wife find it? She likes it as much as I do.
W hat's V ernon's opinion? He ca n 't m ake up his m ind
which he prefers.
W hat an am azing trick! C an't imagine how it's done.
I ca n 't m ake head or tail of Let Jo h n so n have a look at
it. it.
D on’t bother to fetch me. It's not in the least trouble.
I do th e sam e for all my
guests.

9. Listen to your teacher read the context sentences below. Pronounce


each of the following replies in two ways: first with Intonation Pattern II,
then with Intonation Pattern XI. Observe the intonation line. Convey the
suggested attitudes:

Verbal Context Drill


W hen 's the concert? N ext Sunday.
a) categoric, dispassionate
b) warm, airy, lively
I feel so sleepy. So do I.
a) categoric, dispassionate
b) lively
W hat was it like in Oh, the heat was terrible.
Nigeria?
a) categoric, dispassionate
b) lively
I shan't be seeing you, W hyever not?
I'm afraid. a) serious
b) interested, brisk
382
1 can 't undo the door. Try the other key.
a) pressing, weighty
b) suggesting a course
o f action
I hope I'm not disturbing Com e in. Sit down.
you. a) pressing, w eighty
b) suggesting a course
o f action
Hullo, Fred! W ell if it isn ’t my old friend
Tom!
a) weighty
b) m ildly surprised
H e's sending you a copy. How very nice of him!
a) weighty
b) m ildly surprised

10. Listen to a fellow-student say the context sentences below. Pro­


nounce each of the following replies, trying to convey the suggested atti­
tudes. Be careful with the intonation line. Define the Intonation Pattern of
your reply:

Verbal Context Drill

Can you com e tomorrow? Yes.


a) phlegmatic, reserved
b) lively, interested
W ho on earth would take I would.
such a risk? a) calm, reserved
b) lively, concerned
You m u stn 't speak to him. W hy not?
a) phlegmatic, reserved
b) unpleasantly surpised
W hat's that you say? W hy d o n ’t you listen?
a) unsym pathetic
b) unpleasantly surprised
I’m afraid I’ve lost your W h a t are you g o in g to do
pen. about it?
a) hostile
b) interested

383
I ca n 't m eet you this Shall we leave it till next
Tuesday. week?
a) phlegm atic, reserved
b) willing to discuss the
guesfz'on, im patient
T hursday's a hopeless day C a n 't we m ake it a Friday,
for me. then?
a) phlegmatic, reserved
b) willing to discuss the
question
Bill's refused my request. W ell, ask som eone else.
a) calm, cold
b) warm, with a note o f cri­
tical surprise
I haven't got a spoon. Go and get one, then.
a) calm, unemotional
b) suggesting a course o f
action
H e's actually engaged. W ould you believe it!
a) calm, unsurprised,
reserved
b) m ildly surprised
Tom 's com ing on M onday. Now fancy that.
a) calm, reserved
b) affronted surprise

II. Listen to the Verbal Context and reply expressing critical surprise
or suggesting a course of action to the listener. Use the proper intonation
pattern:

Verbal Context Drill

I’ll show you how to do it. Don't! Do! D on't you worry!
Try!
W e 're moving on Tuesday. D on't be silly! It's up to you!
D o n 't m ake so m uch fuss
about it.
I ca n 't undo the door! Tell m e w hat 1 can do, then!
D on't you worry!

384
It's m y turn to pay! Do! Have a go! Don't be
ridiculous! D o n 't be silly!
D o n 't you worry! It's up
to to you!
I ca n 't find m y purse any- D on't you worry! D on't m ake
where. so m uch fuss about it.

12. This exercise is meant to develop your ability to hear and re­
produce intonation in conversation.
a) Listen to the dialogue “Dinner-table Talk" carefully, sentence by
sentence. Write it down. Mark the stresses and tunes. The teacher will help
you to correct your variant. Practise reading each sentence of your corrected
variant.
b) Record your reading. Play the recording back immediately for your
teacher and fellow-students to detect your errors. Practise the dialogue for
test reading. Memorize and play it with a fellow-student.
c) Pick out of the dialogue sentences pronounced with Intonation
Patterns IX, X, XI. Define the attitudes conveyed in them. Make up conver­
sational situations with these phrases.
d) Make up conversational situations, using the following phrases:
Good evening, ... . I was asking ... .
I'm so glad ... . Oh, I think it's a ... .
Oh, only .... And how do you like ... ?
..., to be exact. Is this your first ... ?
Let's go into .... I feel quite at hom e ....
W ill you sit ... ? Well, it's rather ....
How long ... ? O n the w hole........
W hat do you think of ... ? It's not so bad, once ... .
I beg your pardon, Id id n 't W ill you have some
quite catch w hat you said. m ore ... ?
W hat about... ?

13. Translate into English. Use the corresponding phrases from item(d)
above. Do not let your Russian pronunciation habits interfere:
1. Я так рада, что вы смогли м не позвонить. 2. О н так рад, что я
смогла его пригласить. 3. Я так рада, что вы смогли сделать это во­
время. 4. Ч ай готов. У жин готов. Статья готова. 5. С колько в р ем е­
ни вы находитесь в М оскве? 6. Вы давно ж и вете здесь? 7. Это твое
первое представление? 8. Это ваш а первая картина? 9. Это ее п ер ­
вое сочинение? 10. Я чувствую себя на юге как дома. 11. Я чувст­

385
вую себя у П етровы х как дома. 12. Я чувствую себя в П етербурге
как дома. 13. П ростите, пожалуйста, сколько вам лет? 14. Я не рас­
слыш ала, что вы сказали. 15. Я вас спраш ивала, где вы родились.
16. Я вас спраш ивала, как пройти к гостинице «М инск». 17. О, К ав­
каз — превосходное место. 18. О, я думаю, П етербург — п ревос­
ходный, город. 19. О, я думаю, это превосходны й рассказ. 20. К ак
вам нравится н аш а еда? 21. К ак вам нравится наш а кухня? 22. К ак
вам н рави тся это утро? 23. О, это довольно скучно, н е так ли?
24. О, она довольно капризна, не так ли? 25. Вообще-то она н е та ­
к ая у ж плохая, если к ней п ривы кн уть. 26. Н е хоти те ли ещ е
ры бы ? 27. Н е хотите ли ещ е овощ ей? 28. Суп превосходен. О бед
был так вкусен. Торт великолепен. 29. Я так рада, что вам н р ав и т­
ся. 30. Я так рада, что у тебя это есть. 31. А что ты будеш ь есть на
сладкое?

14. Read the following dialogue:

Ordering a Meal
— Is this table free, waiter?
— I'm sorry, sir, those two tables have ju st been reserved
by telephone, but that one over there's free.
— W h at a pity! W e w anted to be n ear th e d an ce floor.
Still, it doesn't m atter, w e'll take it... The menu, please.
— Here you are, sir. Will you dine a la carte or take the table
d'hote?
— Well, let's see. W hat do you think, darling?
— O h, I d o n 't w ant m uch to eat. I'm n o t very hungry. I
think I'll have — er — some oxtail soup and fried plaice with
chips.
— Hm. I'm rather hungry. I'll start with some hors d'ceuvre.
— And to follow?
— A grilled steak with baked potatoes and peas.
— W ill you have anything to drink, sir?
— W ell, I'm rather thirsty. Bring me half a pint of bitter.
W hat about you, darling?
— Well, I d o n 't care for beer, b u t I will have a glass of
cherry.
— V ery good... W hat sweet would you like?
386
— I'll have fruit salad.
— So will I. And w e'll have two coffees, please.
— Black or white?
— W hite, please. Oh, and two liqueur brandies.
— W hat a lovely waltz they are playing. Shall we dance?
— Yes, I’d love to...
— W aiter! The bill, please.
— V ery good, sir.
— H ere you are.
— Thank you very much, sir.

15. Make up a dialogue of your own, using some of the phrases of the
dialogue above.

16. This exercise is meant to develop your ability to read and retell a
story with correct intonation.
a) Listen to the story “Insufficient Local Knowledge” carefully, sen­
tence by sentence. Mark the stresses and tunes. The teacher will help you
to correct your variant. Practise reading your corrected variant.
b) Listen carefully to the narration of the story. Observe the peculiari­
ties in intonation-group division, pitch, stress and tempo. Note the use of
temporizers. Reproduce the model narration you have listened to.

17. This exercise is meant to test your ability to analyze and reproduce
material for reading and retelling.
a) Read the joke silently to make sure you understand each sentence.
Underline the sentence expressing the essence of the joke. Split up each
phrase into intonation groups if necessary. Locate the communicative centre
of each sentence. Mark the stresses ana tunes, concentrate your attention on
the attitude expressed. It is not expected that each student will mark the
story in exactly the same way. Discuss your variants in class. The teacher
will help you to choose the best variant. Practise your corrected variant for
test reading.
b) Retell the joke in your own words:

The fath er of a family, who was an g ry w ith his ch ild ren


because th ey were displeased with their food, exclaim ed an ­
grily one day at dinner: “You children are intolerable; you turn
up your noses of everything. W hen I was a boy, I was often
glad to get dry bread enough to eat.” “Poor papa,” said Rose,
‘T m so glad you are having such a nice time now living w ith
mama and us.”
387
SECTION FIVE

C om pound Tunes

FALL + RISE

Models:

But why d id n ’t you tell me?


— So ^orry. -----------П—
i — i __
T hat’s Ben.
— I thought his „face was fam iliar.
1 . __. . _ •

W here shall we go this year?


— VSomewhere in Devon would
„make a „nice ^ h an g e. 1 •• _ 8 >

C an I borrow your ruler?


._ /Л ,
I „seem to have mis laid ;mine.

All the tunes containing m ore than one n u clear tone are
called com pound.
The Fall + Rise is a com bination of the H igh Fall and the
Low Rise.
The fall and the rise always occur on sep arate syllables.
The fall starts from a very high level and ends very low. Any
syllables occurring between the High Fall and the Low Rise are
said on a very low pitch. Notional words are stressed. The fall­
ing part m arks the idea w hich th e sp eak er w ants to e m p h a ­
size and the rising part marks an addition to this main idea.
The combination of the High Fall with the Low Rise is used
in sentences expressing highly em otional reactio n to the
situation. It is often heard:

388
1. I n s t a t e m e n t s , sounding apologetic, appreciative,
grateful, regretful, sym pathetic, persuasively reassuring,
pleading, plaintive.
e. g. W hose turn is it then? — It’s 'm in e actually.
*\
How did this get broken? — I’m most terribly
,sorry.

2. I n q u e s t i o n s :
a) I n s p e c i a l questions, so u n d in g plaintive,
pleading, weary, despairing; sometim es warm, sym pathetic.
e. g. Sorry I’m late. — O h 'w hy „can’t you „come on
Rime for once?
b) I n g e n e r a l questions, conveying a plaintive,
pleading, som etim es im patient tone.
e. g. He played very badly today. — Will he 'ever
be any ;better d ’you think?

3. I n i m p e r a t i v e s , sounding plaintive, pleading,


reproachful.
e. g. It’s all so depressing. — 'C h e er ;up. (It 'c a n ’t
„last for ^ver.)
I’ve nothing to do with it. — Now 'd o be Reason­
able, Charles.

4. I n e x c l a m a t i o n s , warm, sym pathetic, en co u rag ­


ing, som etim es plaintive, puzzled, surprised.
G reetings and leave-takings sound pleasant and friendly
being pronounced this way.
e. g. Good night, Peggy, — Good 'n ig h t, Mrs. Smith.
\ *
See you on Friday. — Right you ;are!

389
E X E R C IS E S

1. Listen carefully to the following conversational situations. Concen­


trate your attention on the intonation of the replies:

Verbal Context Drill


Statements
(sounding apologetic,
appreciative, grateful,
regretful, sympathetic,
persuasively reassuring,
pleading, plaintive)
D on't you like it? I don't, frankly.
Any news of Tim? H e’s com ing hom e soon.
H aven’t you finished it yet? I ’ve o n ly ju s t b e g u n it, as
a m atter of fact.
It looks like rain, I'm P erh ap s it w ould be b e tte r
afraid. to stay at hom e in th at
case.
I’ve had it six years now. You'll be buying a new one
soon, I imagine.
W hyever bring a mac ? It was raining w hen I left
this morning.
I thought of going for a I'll come too, if I may.
stroll.
It was quite an accident. But I told you not to touch
it.
So it was you who borrow ed I do ho p e you d id n 't mind.
my spade.
H e's accepted your offer. I d idn't dream h e'd take me
seriously.
It's a w onderful photo. I knew y o u ’d like it.
H elp? Certainly. I was sure I could co u n t on
you.
But w hy d id n 't you tell me? So sorry.
I thought you ought to T hank you for tellin g me.
know. I do appreciate it.
I really m ust go now. I do hope you have a com ­
fortable journey.

390
It's ail so discouraging. I know exactly how you
feel.
Sorry I haven't returned it T hat's quite all right. I'm in
yet. no particular hurry for it.
I've already been waiting a Then surely a few m ore
year. days w o n 't m ake m uch
difference.
It’s an absolute scandal. T h ere's no n eed to g et so
w orked up about it.
I do wish h e'd mind his But he was only trying to be
own business. helpful.
W hat's happened to Jack? It's alw ays th e sam e. H e ’s
hardly ever on time.
I'm afraid he failed his I'm not at all surprised. H e
exam. did absolutely no w ork for
it.

Special questions
(sounding plaintive,
pleading, weary,
despairing, warm,
sympathetic)

It was my treat. How m uch was it?


How big did you say it was? Oh, why d o n ’t you listen,
Charley?
Three thousand he paid for W h en will the p o o r fool
it. learn wit?
Did you call, Frank? Yes, w h a t's th e tim e
please?
I have to go out now. W h e n w ill y o u b e b a c k ,
d'you think?

General questions
(sounding plaintive,
pleading,
sometimes impatient)

Perhaps I could help. Do you think you could?


Com e and have a game, Will you stop bothering me?
Phil. Can't you see I’m busy?
M ay I have another bun? D 'you really th in k you can
eat it?

Im peratives
[sounding plaintive,
pleading, reproachful)

I'm afraid I’ve lost it. Never mind.


Quickly. W ait a minute.
W hat's all the knocking Oh, d o n 't ju st sit there,
about? O pen the door.
W h at’s upsetting you? Do sh u t th e door. T h ere's
such a draught.
I really m ust go. Please stay a little longer.
I'd willingly fetch some P lease d o n 't b o th e r o n my
more. account.
W hatever shall I do? C arry on as usual, if you
can.
W hen shall I start? S tart rig h t aw ay, if th a t's
convenient for you.

Exclamations
[warm, sympathetic,
encouraging, plaintive,
puzzled, surprised)

I've invited him for tea. Jolly good! G ood show!


T hat's the second time he's Poor old Peter!
failed.
I thought I asked you to All right!
m ake up the fire.
And we'll have a new car­ J u s t a seco n d ! (W h e re 's th e
pet. m oney com ing from?)
H ere I am at last. Hullo, Stephen! (It is good to
see you.)

392
2. Listen to the replies and repeat them in the intervals. Start the fall
bigh enough.
3. Listen to the Verbal Context and reply to it in the intervals.
4. In order to fix the intonation pattern in your mind, ear and speech
habits, pronounce each reply several times until it sounds perfectly natural
to you.
5. Listen to a fellow-student reading the replies, point out his errors in
pronunciation.
6. Use the Fall + Rise in the replies. Say what attitude you mean to
render:

Verbal Context Drill


H ow's your m other getting S h e 's off to th e C rim ea in
on? a week.
And w hen do we start? At nine in th e m orning,
imagine.
W hose plan is it then? It's Fred's, I suppose.
But you said he lived in So he did, the last tim e I
St. Petersburg. heard from him.
O u g h tn 't she to tell father? She did. apparently.
Y ou're going out in the Yes. I like w alking in su ch
rain? w eather.
W hat's the film like? It's not bad, actually.
I w onder w here the children Oh, there they are.
are.
I thought you finished your So I do, usually.
work at five.
I’m a student of the Univer­ I'd love to study at the Uni­
sity now. versity.
Oh, w hy are you late? I'm awfully sorry. It was not
my fault.
(Can I borrow your um ­ I seem to have lost mine.
brella?)
She got th e leading part in I d id n 't know she was such
the new play. a good actress.
It's a w onderful picture! I knew y o u ’d like it.
I m issed you so much. You can 't im agine how glad
I'm to see you.

393
M y m other is dangerously You have all my sym pathy.
ill, Jane. Sorry, I c a n 't com e and
help you, dear.
I feel so miserable, m other. W hat's the m atter, dearest?
No, you m ustn't go to the But I've only been there once
cinem a today. this week.
I think, I'll never be happy Oh, you'll soon get over it.
again.
I tell you, I w on't do it. W hy are you always so o b ­
stinate?
You m ust follow her advice. M ust I always do as she
says?
I'm going to g et up. Now, d o n 't be so silly.
(You'll catch another
cold.)
Mummy, I'm bored, com e W hen are you going to stop
and play with me. bothering me?
You m ust bring the book at W o u ld y o u m ind w aitin g
once. until evening?
I m ust go now. Good night, Jane!
O h dear, oh dear! W hat Do stop crying! W h a t's the
shall I do? matter?
M ay I com e and see you on Do you really think you can
M onday? come?
(Come, M argaret. It is too I insist on go in g hom e im ­
late.) mediately.
(Here you are at last.) I am happy to see you.
I think I’ll never do it. Oh, d o n 't say that!
M other, I've lost your I told you not to take them.
gloves.
But I can't speak English. Yes, you can.
Do you really w ant him to I wish he would.
come?
Are you ready, Bill? No, I c a n 't w ork it o u t for
myself.
No, no, I shall never do it. Now, do be reasonable.
Do you write poetry? I do, occasionally.

394
W ould you like to hear one (Oh, I'd love to.) I a d o re
of my records? music.
How are you, Mrs. N elson? V ery well indeed, thank
you.
Do you have milk in your Yes, please.
tea, Tony?
How is your daughter, Mrs. She is staying w ith m y
Smith? m other for a few days.
W hat's her name? T hat's the third tim e you've
asked m e that.
She's failed the second time W hat a d isap p o in tm en t for
today. her!

7. Say the following sentences with a) the High Fall + the Low Rise;
b) the Descending Head + the Low Rise. Observe the difference in attitudes:

Verbal Context Drill


I love marmalade! D on't eat it all at once.
I m ust be off now. Let m e se e y o u a g a in to ­
Good-bye! morrow.
W ould you like a cup of Yes, please.
tea?
H ere I am, M other. W h e re h av e y o u b e e n all
this time?
W hy d o n 't you join our I th in k I shall o n e of th e se
golf club? days.
He has been away for two D o n ’t w orry. It's n o t too
hours. late.
(Look! Everything is white!) I th o u g h t it w as g o in g to
snow.
(Cheer up!) I do h o p e y o u 'll pass y o u r
exam.
He said he forgot to ring W as that the real reason?
you up.
Your son was late for the I w as afraid h e m ig h t b e
first lesson today. late.
(Oh, stop bothering me, C an 't you see I'm tired?
child.)

395
W ill you post this letter for All right,
me?
Good m orning, David. Hullo there.
I thought I asked you to go All right. Ju st a m inute,
to the dean's office.

8. Give your own replies to the Verbal Context of Ex. 1 and 6.

9. Read the following situations. Convey the attitudes suggested in


brackets:
D on't cry. I wish I h ad n 't been so rude. You have all me sym ­
pathy. (regret, sympathy)
Oh, tell me it is not true! Lie to me! Lie to me! Tell me it is not
true! (pleading)
Oh, w hat a dear little puppy! (sincere appreciation)
Thank you so much, (sincere gratitude)
I d o n 't think it will last long, (reassuring)
I think I'll go to bed. I'm so tired, (plaintive)

10. Listen to the dialogue on the tape (“Dinner-table Talk1'). Pick out
sentences containing the High Fall + the Low Rise. Say what attitude is
conveyed in them. Use these sentences in conversational situations of your
own.

11. Listen to the Verbal Context and express sympathy in the replies.
Use the proper intonation pattern:

Verbal Context Drill

O h I'm cold. Poor thing! I do think, it's a pity.


I'm so sorry! N ever mind.
He says h e's ill. W hat a disappointm ent! Can you
im agine it! Too bad! Bad luck!
Ju st fancy! Things do happen!
I can 't com e this evening. O u g h tn 't you to be ash am ed ol
it! W hat a disappointm ent! How
extraordinary!
I haven't seen Jenny for Terrible, isn't it! Too bad for
ages! w o rd s! G ood H eav en s! How
very peculiar! W hat a pity!

396
Jan et seem s to be avoiding Isn't she a fool! W hat a tragedy!
me. I simply can 't think! I do think
it’s a pity!
You've m ade the same A ren 't 1 a fool! G ood H eavens!
m istake again. Fancy that! I simply can’t think!
W hat a shame!
The jack et's worn out W hat a disappointment! Poor me!
already. W hat a pity!
M ichael has just died. P e rfe c tly horrid! Too b a d for
words! W hat a tragedy! W asn't
it absolutely tragic!
They w on't help us. W ouldn't it be sim ply appalling.
O u g h tn 't th e y to be ash am ed
of it! Beastly, isn't it!

12. This ex