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Е.Ю.

Першина

АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК
ДЛЯ КОРАБЛЕСТРОИТЕЛЕЙ

Учебное пособие

2-е издание, стереотипное

Москва
Издательство «Флинта»
2012
УДК 802.0(07)
ББК 81.2Англ-9
П279

Першина Е.Ю.
П279 Английский язык для кораблестроителей [Электронный ресурс]
: учеб. пособие / Е.Ю. Першина. – 2-е изд., стер. – М. : Флинта,
2012. – 242 с.

ISBN 978-5-9765-1385-3

Пособие направлено на развитие общекультурной билингвальной


коммуникативной компетенции в устном и письменном общении и на ана-
литическую работу с профессионально-ориентированной литературой.
Основная цель пособия – обучение чтению и пониманию профессиональ-
но ориентированных текстов, а также развитие умений и навыков разго-
ворной речи.
Предназначено для бакалавров высших учебных заведений, обучаю-
щихся по направлению подготовки 180100 «Кораблестроение, океанотех-
ника и системотехника объектов морской инфраструктуры» по профилю
«»Кораблестроение».

УДК 802.0(07)
ББК 81.2Англ-9

ISBN 978-5-9765-1385-3 © Издательство «Флинта», 2012


CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION………………………………………………………….. 4
PART I …………………………………………………………………….. 6
UNIT 1. DEFINITION OF A SHIP ……………………………………… 7
UNIT 2. THE HISTORY OF SHIPBUILDING …………………………. 13
UNIT 3. ARCHITECTURE OF SHIPS ………………………………….. 17
UNIT 4. HOLDS AND HATCHES ……………………………………… 26
UNIT 5. SHIPBOARD EQUIPMENT .................................................... 32
UNIT 6. MEASURING SHIPS ................................................................ 37
UNIT 7. TYPES OF SHIP ……………………………………………….. 42
UNIT 8. COMMERCIAL VESSELS ……………………………………. 50
UNIT 9. MILITARY AND AUXILIARY VESSELS .............................. 59
UNIT 10. FISHING, INLAND AND COASTAL VESSELS …………….. 67
UNIT 11. ENGINE ROOM ........................................................................ 73
UNIT 12. PROPULSION SYSTEMS ........................................................ 79
UNIT 13. LIFECYCLE OF A SHIP ………………………………………. 86
UNIT 14. SHIP POLLUTION …………………………………………….. 92
UNIT 15. SEAFARER RANKS AND PROFESSIONS ………………….. 101
PART II ……………………………………………………………………. 112
UNIT 16. ANALYTICAL READING ……………………………………. 112
UNIT 17. SCANNING ……………………………………………………. 119
UNIT 18. ABSTRACT ……………………………………………………. 124
UNIT 19. SUMMARY ……………………………………………………. 130
UNIT 20. ANNOTATION ………………………………………………… 137
THESAURUS .............................................................................................. 146
CONCLUSION ……………………………………………………………. 155
LITERATURE …………………………………………………………….. 155
APPENDIX 1. REFERENCES TO STATE EDUCATIONAL STAN-
DARDS ………………………………………………….. 156
APPENDIX 2. FOREIGN LANGUAGE THRESHOLDS ……………….. 158
APPENDIX 3. LANGUAGE PORTFOLIO ………………………………. 161
APPENDIX 4. CURRICULUM VITAE ………………………………….. 166
APPENDIX 5. GRAMMAR REFERENCE ………………………………. 195
APPENDIX 6. SCIENTIFIC SPEECH CLICHÉS ………………………... 210
APPENDIX 7. TEXTS FOR ANALYTICAL READING ………………... 211
APPENDIX 8. LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS …………………………….. 237
ABOUT AUTHOR ………………………………………………………... 241
INTRODUCTION

Учебное пособие предназначено для бакалавров высших учебных за-


ведений, обучающихся по направлению подготовки 180100 «Корабле-
строение, океанотехника и системотехника объектов морской инфраструк-
туры» по профилю «»Кораблестроение». Основной целью пособия являет-
ся обучение чтению и пониманию профессионально ориентированных тек-
стов, а также развитие умений и навыков разговорной речи.
Структура учебного пособия состоит из двух частей (Parts), каждая
из которых включает 15 и 5 уроков (Units) соответственно, освещающих
различные аспекты кораблестроения. Первая часть пособия направлена на
развитие общекультурной компетенции, а именно совершенствование би-
лингвальной коммуникативной компетенции в устном и письменном об-
щении. Вторая часть пособия направлена на аналитическую работу с про-
фессионально-ориентированной литературой. Лексический материал (осо-
бенно профессиональная тематика), представленный в данном пособии,
является аутентичным. Учебное пособие сопровождается большим коли-
чеством иллюстрированного материала и фотографий взятых их всемир-
ной электронной энциклопедии Wikipedia. Учебное пособие снабжено те-
заурусом (Thesaurus) и приложениями (Appendices).
Уроки первой части построены по общему принципу, что способст-
вует развитию и совершенствованию умений и навыков коммуникативной
профессиональной направленности, выраженных в изучении профессио-
нального лексического материала. Каждый урок второй части нацелен на
развитие навыков работы с научной литературой, ее анализ и переработку.
Тезаурус представляет собой тематический словарь терминов, встре-
чающихся в текстах и упражнениях пособия.
В приложениях («Appendices») приводятся пояснения к ФГОС ВПО
по дисциплине «Иностранный (английский) язык», дополнительный мате-
риал о пороговых уровнях владения иностранным языком, портфолио и
перечень знаний, умений и навыков владения иностранным языком в соот-
ветствии с требованиями ФГОС ВПО (см. приложения 1−3). Рекомендации
и образцы написания резюме и сопроводительных писем при трудоустрой-
стве представлены в приложении 4. В приложения также включены сжа-
тый грамматический материал, тексты для аналитического чтения и со-
кращения, встречающиеся в текстовом материале учебного пособия.
Несмотря на то что основной акцент в пособии сделан на направле-
ние подготовки «Кораблестроение, океанотехника и системотехника объ-
ектов морской инфраструктуры» по профилю «Кораблестроение», данное
пособие представляет интерес и для студентов профиля «Судовые энерге-
тические установки», «Эксплуатация водного транспорта и транспортного
оборудования» и ряд родственных специальностей, т.к. лексическая тема-

4
тика уроков сориентирована на область кораблестроения и судоходства.
Кроме того, лексическая наполняемость текстов и заданий, представлен-
ных во второй части пособия (уроки 16-20) и в приложении 7, может пред-
ставлять интерес и для магистров и аспирантов, обучающихся по програм-
ме подготовки «Кораблестроение, океанотехника и системотехника объек-
тов морской инфраструктуры».
Учебное пособие рассчитано на 162 часа аудиторной работы.
Данное учебное пособие может быть использовано широким кругом
лиц с различной степенью языковой подготовки.

Большую и неоценимую помощь в подготовке данного пособия ока-


зали мои коллеги:
Куделько Анатолий Романович – первый проректор ФГБОУ ВПО
«Комсомольский-на-Амуре государственный технический университет»,
д.т.н., профессор;
Конырева Ирина Вадимовна – декан гуманитарного факультета
ФГБОУ ВПО «Комсомольский-на-Амуре государственный технический
университет», к. культурологии, доцент;
Бакина Юлия Александровна – переводчик отраслевой компании,
г. Хабаровск;
Косицына Ирина Борисовна – заведующая кафедрой «Иностранные
языки» ФГОУ ВПО «Амурский гуманитарно-педагогический государст-
венный университет», к.ф.н., доцент;
Боровикова Карина Владимировна – заведующая кафедрой «Первый
иностранный язык и переводоведение» ФГОУ ВПО «Амурский гумани-
тарно-педагогический государственный университет», к.ф.н., доцент.

Автор

5
PART I

Уважаемые студенты!
Проблема уровня владения иностранным языком приобрела особую
актуальность во второй половине XX столетия в связи с расширением ме-
ждународного сотрудничества и формированием концепции «Европа без
границ», в которой большое внимание уделялось распространению и изу-
чению иностранных языков в мире. Начиная с 1970-х гг. в рамках Совета
по культурному сотрудничеству при Совете Европы велась интенсивная
работа по обоснованию модели иноязычной коммуникативной компетен-
ции и разработке на ее основе пороговых уровней (threshold levels) владе-
ния иностранным языком. Эта работа завершилась принятием документа
под названием «Современные языки: изучение, преподавание, оценка. Об-
щеевропейская компетенция владения иностранным языком» (Страсбург,
1996). В этом документе рассмотрены параметры и критерии оценки уров-
ней владения языком и коммуникативной компетенции как цели обучения,
а также способы ее оценки с использованием тестовых технологий. В со-
ставе коммуникативной компетенции в качестве ее составляющих выделе-
ны следующие виды компетенций: лингвистическая, социолингвисти-
ческая, дискурсивная, социокультурная, социальная, стратегическая.
Занятия по иностранному языку в техническом вузе направлены на
формирование всех составляющих коммуникативной компетенции и ори-
ентируют бакалавра на овладение языком как средством общения в рамках
выбранной им специальности.
Прежде чем вы приступите к изучению материала этого пособия, об-
ратитесь к Приложениям 2 и 3. Определите свой уровень знания англий-
ского языка, поставьте перед собой новые цели и задачи по совершенство-
ванию знаний, умений и навыков, а, следовательно, дальнейшего развития
коммуникативной компетенции.
Учитесь, творите, дерзайте и совершенствуйте себя как личность!
Успехов вам во всех ваших начинаниях!

Автор

6
Unit 1. DEFINITION OF A SHIP

Ex. 1. Active Vocabulary. Read and learn the words:

vessel – корабль, судно slave trade – работорговля


to float – плавать, ходить (о корабле) tiny – крошечный
to distinguish – различать log – бревно
size – размер raft – плот
capacity – тоннаж судна, вмести- nuclear-powered – атомный
мость, емкость aircraft carrier – авианосец
goods – товар(ы) term – термин; срок
safety – безопасность concept – понятие, идея, общее
warfare – боевые действия представление
sophisticated – сложный rowboat – гребная шлюпка
to support – поддерживать sailing – парусный
ashore – на грунте (на берегу) desert – пустыня
cargo – груз camel – верблюд
exploration – исследование to update – модернизировать, об-
invention – изобретение новлять
gunpowder – порох Lloyd’s register – регистр Ллойда

Ex. 2. Form nouns from the following words with the help of suffixes
given in the box:
-tion, -ity, -er, -or, -ment, -kind

ship − ______________ transport − ___________ man − ______________


to entertain − _________ human − ____________ to carry − ___________
to develop − _________ similar − ____________ to equip − ___________
registry − ____________ to invent − ___________ to navigate − _________

Ex. 3. Find synonyms:

1) ship a) to apply 8) to ship h) vessel


2) transportation b) to demonstrate 9) to call i) investigation
3) activity c) to navigate 10) to develop j) to name
4) to use d) term 11) mankind k) shipment
5) exploration e) little 12) concept l) operation
6) to show f) up-to-date 13) modern m) needs
7) tiny g) humankind 14) wants n) to design

7
Ex. 4. Give Russian equivalents to the English ones:

a large vessel − ___________________ to float on water − _______________


to distinguish from boats − _________ based on size − __________________
based on passenger capacity − _______ ships may be found on − __________
a variety of activities − _____________ transportation of goods − __________
transportation of people − __________ entertainment − _________________
alongside mankind − ______________ day to day life − _________________
modern commercial system − _______ throughout the world − ____________
to be key in history − _____________ to serve scientific needs − _________
upon a raft − _____________________ to tell the history − _______________
to be close to − ___________________ to be equivalent to − ______________
to name − _______________________ military-oriented vessel − _________
a similarity of desert to the sea − _____ a certain kind of equipment − ______
unique own name − _______________ port of registry − ________________

Ex. 5. Read the text “A SHIP”.

A SHIP

A ship is a large vessel that floats on water. Ships are generally


distinguished from boats based on size and passenger capacity. Ships may be
found on lakes, seas, and rivers and they perform for a variety of activities, such
as the transport of people or goods, fishing, entertainment, public safety, and
warfare.
Ships and boats have developed
alongside mankind. In major wars,
and in day to day life, they have
become an integral part of modern
commercial and military systems.
Fishing boats are used by millions of
fishermen throughout the world.
Military forces operate highly
sophisticated vessels to transport and
support forces ashore. Commercial
Italian full rigged ship Amerigo Vespucci vessels carry billion tons of cargo.
in New York Harbor, 1976 These vessels were also key in
history’s great explorations and
scientific and technological developments. Navigators such as Zheng He spread
such inventions as the compass and gunpowder. Ships have been used for such
purposes as colonization and the slave trade, and have served scientific, cultural,
and humanitarian needs.
8
As Thor Heyerdahl demonstrated with his tiny boat Kon-Tiki, it is
possible to navigate long distances upon a simple log raft. From Mesolithic
canoes to today’s powerful nuclear-powered aircraft carriers, ships tell the
history of humankind.
The term ‘ship’ is close to concept of a vessel, but is not equivalent to it.
A vessel is a wider concept. So, it is impossible to name a rowboat or a water
bicycle the ship, however they are vessels. Usually only big military-oriented
vessels or sailing vessels with a certain kind of equipment are called the ships.
Because of a certain similarity of desert to the sea a camel metaphorically
is named ‘the desert ship’.
A vessel has its unique own name, as a rule, have the state flag and a port
of registry. Also, registers of the transport ships are regularly made and updated.
The most known is the Lloyd’s register.

Ex. 6. Find in the text the following words and word-combinations:

которые ходят (плавают) − ______ обычно − _______________________


основанный на… − ____________ признавать (допускать, разрешать) −
рыболовство − ________________ _______________________________
развлечение − _________________ разрабатывать − _________________
неотъемлемая часть − __________ в большинстве войн − ____________
рыбацкие лодки − _____________ военные силы − _________________
управлять − ___________________ перевозить тонны грузов − ________
исследования и технологические мореплаватель − ________________
разработки − __________________ изобретение пороха − ____________
работорговля − ________________ цель − _________________________
колонизация − ________________ управлять судном − ______________
длинные расстояния − __________ эпоха мезолита − ________________
авианосец − ___________________ история человечества − __________
парусное судно − ______________ верблюд − ______________________
государственный флаг − ________ составлять и обновлять − _________

Ex. 7. Correlate words and word-combinations in two columns:

1) to float a) activities
2) size and passenger b) explorations and scientific and technological
3) a variety of developments
4) to become c) forces ashore
5) to transport and support d) colonization and slave trade
6) to carry e) capacity
7) to be key in f) upon a log raft
8) to be used for g) an integral part
9
9) to serve h) billions tons of cargo
10) to navigate i) on water
11) to be close to j) scientific, cultural and humanitarian needs
12) to make and update k) concept to a vessel
l) register of ships

Ex. 8. Make up your own sentences with the obtained word-combi-


nations.

Ex. 9. Fill in the gaps with the prepositions given in the box (see Appen-
dix 5, Table 2):

from, by, upon, on, to, for, of, with, because of

1. A ship floats _____ water.


2. Ships are usually distinguished _____ boats.
3. Ships may be found _____ lakes, rivers, and seas.
4. Ships are used as the transport _____ people and cargo.
5. Fishing boats are used _____ million _____ fishermen.
6. Ships were used _____ colonization and the slave trade.
7. Thor Heyerdahl demonstrated _____ tiny boat that it is possible to
navigate long distances _____ a log raft.
8. Ships tell the history of mankind _____ Mesolithic canoes _____
nowadays aircraft carriers.
9. A vessel has its own name, state flag and a port _____ register.
10. _____ a certain similarity _____ desert _____ the sea a camel
metaphorically named ‘the desert ship’.

Ex. 10. Make up a list of vessels enumerated in the text.

Ex. 11. What navigators do you learn from the text? What can you say
about them?

Ex. 12. Translate the sentences into English:

1. Корабль это судно, которое ходит по воде.


2. Корабли выполняют такие виды деятельности, как перевозка лю-
дей и грузов, рыбный промысел и развлекательные круизы, спасение лю-
дей на воде и военные действия.
3. В наши дни суда стали неотъемлемой частью современных ком-
мерческих и военных систем.
10
4. Суда являются ключевой составляющей в научных и технологиче-
ских разработках и исследованиях.
5. Ранее корабли использовались для работорговли и колонизации
стран, сейчас корабли служат научным, культурным и гуманитарным нуж-
дам человечества.
6. Корабли рассказывают историю человечества, начиная от каноэ
эпохи мезолита и заканчивая современными атомными авианосцами.
7. Понятия «корабль» и «судно» близки по значению, однако поня-
тие «судно» имеет более широкое трактование.
8. Как правило, каждое судно имеет свое собственное название, го-
сударственный флаг и порт приписки.

Ex. 13. Answer the questions to the text:

1. What is ‘a ship’?
2. How are ships distinguished?
3. What activities do ships perform?
4. What is the role of ships in day to day life?
5. Were ships key in history’s explorations and scientific and technologi-
cal developments?
6. What purpose have ships served?
7. What is the difference between ‘a ship’ and ‘a vessel’?
8. What does each ship have?
9. Where does this information contain?

Ex. 14. Comment on the statement “The term ‘ship’ is close to concept
of a vessel, but it is not equivalent to it”.

Ex. 15. Read the text “Explorer Heyerdahl Hunts for Lost Civilization
in Peru” and give short summary of the text in Russian.

EXPLORER HEYERDAHL HUNTS FOR LOST CIVILIZATION IN PERU

Oslo Norwegian explorer Thor Heyerdahl, famous for his daring Kon-Tiki
expedition, said he had faced the most exciting project of his life in a hunt for
clues1 to a lost civilization which lied buried in a Peruvian city of pyramids.
Archaeologists working in North-Western Peru found that 26 mounds2,
previously thought to be natural features of the landscape, were pyramids hidden
by the ravages of time. The ancient city is called Tucume.
“This is the most exciting project I have ever been involved in”, Heyer-
dahl, 73, told The Aftenposten Daily in an interview.
Heyerdahl has devoted much of his life to rewriting the history books on

11
the peoples of the southern hemisphere, claiming that they were much more civi-
lized than previously thought and that their culture was spread through sea travel.
In 1947, he crossed the Pacific on the balsa wood raft Kon-Tiki to prove
that ancient South American peoples could have travelled to the Pacific islands
and populated them.
His book on Kon-Tiki has sold more than 20 million copies.
In 1970, he succeeded in sailing a replica3 of an Egyptian vessel, called
Ra Two, from Morocco to Barbados in an attempt to prove that the ancient
Egyptians could have reached the western hemisphere centuries before Christo-
pher Columbus in 1492.

Notes to the text:


1) clue – ключ;
2) mound – насыпь, курган;
3) replica – модель.

Ex. 16. Answer the questions to the text:

1. What was Thor Heyerdahl?


2. What was he interested in?
3. Where did he hunt the lost civilization?
4. What kind of ship did he use while crossing the Pacific?
5. What did the expedition find out?
6. Did the expedition open a new epoch in archaeology?
7. Where did Heyerdahl repeat his expedition in 1970?
8. Do you believe in existence of Ancient lost civilization? Give your ar-
guments.

Ex. 17. Imagine you are a member of this expedition. Tell your group-
mates you had to overcome while preparing to the trip.

Ex. 18. Speak on the following:

1. What ‘a ship’ is.


2. A camel is metaphorically compared with ‘the desert ship’.
3. Thor Heyerdahl’s raft Kon-Tiki.

Ex. 19. Read the text “A SHIP” once more and make up a plan to the
text. Compare it with your group-mates.

Ex. 20. Make up a report according to your plan to the text.

Ex. 21. Do task 1 in Appendix 7.

12
Unit 2. THE HISTORY OF SHIPBUILDING

Ex. 1. Active Vocabulary. Read new words and learn them:

shipbuilding – кораблестроение barge – баржа


facility – оборудование, средство, rampart – (крепостной) вал, защита
приспособление, сооружение stern – корма
shipyard – судостроительная верфь rudder – руль
to refer to as – относиться, ссылаться thong – ремень
dismantling – демонтаж sternpost – ахтерштевень
planks of wood – деревянные доски to steer – управлять (кораблем)
to sew (sewed, sewn) – шить, сшивать beam – бимс, ширина (корабля)
mast – мачта cannon – пушка
pole – рейка tumblehome – завал борта
to lash – крепить, найтовить slant – уклон
sail – парус frame – шпангоут, каркас
to mount – устанавливать, монтиро- iron – железо
вать wrought iron – катанное железо
spar – балка, перекладина deck covering – палубное покрытие
oar – весло labour cost – стоимость труда
to propel – приводить в движение productivity – производительность
rectangular – прямоугольный

Ex. 2. Work in chain using the words and word-combinations from the
Active Vocabulary:

student 1 – a word in Russian,


student 2 – the translation of the word,
student 3 – the word-combination with the word,
student 4 – the sentence with the word-combination,
student 5 – the translation of the sentence.

Ex. 3. Find pairs of synonyms:

1) shipbuilding a) body 11) ancient k) old


2) ship b) century 12) to mount l) contemporary
3) commercial c) to install 13) shipwright m) rudder
4) ship breaking d) vessel 14) to steer n) to finish
5) to develop e) to fasten 15) to end o) shipyard
6) millennium f) merchant 16) side p) board
7) wooden plank g) timber board 17) helm q) to move
8) to drift h) ship construction 18) to propel r) to introduce

13
9) hull i) dismantling 19) modern s) to float
10) to lash j) to navigate 20) wharf t) shipbuilder

Ex. 4. Read the text “SHIPBUILDING”.

SHIPBUILDING

Shipbuilding is the construction of ships. It normally takes place in a


specialized facility known as a shipyard. Shipbuilders, also called shipwrights,
follow a specialized occupation that traces its roots to before recorded history.
Shipbuilding and ship repairs, both commercial and military, are referred
to as the ‘naval sector’. The construction of boats is a similar activity called boat
building. The dismantling of ships is called ship breaking.
Evidence from ancient Egypt shows that the early Egyptians already knew
how to assemble planks of wood into a ship hull as early as 3000 BC1. The
oldest ships were constructed of wooden planks which were ‘sewn’ together.
In the 2nd millennium BC the ships of Ancient Egypt’s Eighteenth
Dynasty were typically about 25 meters (80 ft) in length, and had a single mast,
sometimes consisting of two poles lashed together at the top making an A shape.
They mounted a single square sail on a yard, with an additional spar along the
bottom of the sail. These ships could also be oar propelled.
In the 1st millennium BC the Chinese built large rectangular barges known
as ‘castle ships’, essentially floating fortresses complete with multiple decks
with guarded ramparts. It was in 1st century China that the stern-mounted rudder
was first developed.
Viking long ships developed from an alternate tradition of clinker-built
hulls fastened with leather thongs.
Sometime around the 12th century,
northern European ships began to be built
with a straight sternpost, enabling the
mounting of a rudder, which was much
more durable than a steering oar, held over
the side. Development in the Middle Ages
favored ‘round ships’, with a broad beam
and heavily curved at both ends.
Samos Agios Isidoro The introduction of cannons onto
ships in the 18th century encouraged the
development of tumblehome, the inward slant of the above water hull, for
additional stability, as well as techniques for strengthening the internal frame.
Iron was gradually adopted in ship construction, initially in small areas
needing greater strength, then throughout, although initially copying wooden
construction. Steel supplanted wrought iron when it became readily available in

14
the latter half of the 19th century. Wood continued to be favored for the decks,
and is still the rule as deck covering for modern cruise ships.
The modern global shipbuilding industry is currently dominated by South
Korea, which is by far the world’s largest shipbuilding nation in terms of
tonnage and number of vessels built, in spite of high labour cost, producing
more ships than the entire world output combined in 2008. This is largely due to
its highly advanced shipbuilding technology and high productivity and
efficiency of its shipyards.

Note to the text:


1) BC – before Christmas – до нашей эры.

Ex. 5. Find in the text sentences with the verb ‘to be’. Read them and
state the function of the verb and its tense forms (see Appendix 5, Глагол ‘to
be’, Table 11).

Ex. 6. Match the words and word-combinations in two columns:

1) dismantling a) руль, установленный на корме


2) additional stability b) единственный квадратный парус
3) wooden planks c) прямоугольная баржа
4) to lash poles together d) плавучая крепость
5) floating fortress e) кожаный ремень
6) multiple decks f) деревянные доски
7) rectangular barge g) высокая стоимость труда
8) clinker-built hull h) демонтаж судна
9) leather thong i) многочисленные палубы
10) high labour cost j) усилить внутреннюю часть шпан-
11) advanced shipbuilding technol- гоута
ogy k) передовая технология кораблестро-
12) to strengthen the internal frame ения
13) stern-mounted rudder l) дополнительная устойчивость
14) single square sail m) обшитый внакрой корпус
n) найтовить (связывать) шесты вместе

Ex. 7. Enumerate the construction materials applied in the naval sector.


Write down them in your notebooks.

Ex. 8. Fill in the gaps using the words and word-combinations suitable
for characterizing earlier ships. The words and word-combinations are given
in the box:

15
military, mast, oar, leather, beam, lashed, rectangular barges,
rudder, sail, iron, sternpost, commercial, planks of wood,
decks, hulls, cannons, tumblehome

1. Both __________ and _________ are referred to as the ‘naval sector’.


2. The early Egyptians had already assembled ___________ into a ship.
3. These ships had a single _____ consisting of two poles ____ together.
4. They had a single square ______, and could also be ______ propelled.
5. In the 1st century BC the Chinese built large _________ with multiple
_________ and stern-mounted __________.
6. Vikings fastened their clinker-built ________ with _________ thongs.
7. Northern European ships were built with a straight ______________.
8. The Middle Ages ‘round ships’ were developed with a broad
__________ and heavily curved at both ends.
9. In the 18th century ___________ was developed because of the intro-
duction of ___________.
10. ________ became widely used in ship construction in the 19th century.

Ex. 9. Answer the questions to the text:

1. What is shipbuilding?
2. Where does it take place generally?
3. What is dismantling?
4. What were the first Egyptian ships similar?
5. When and where was the first rudder developed?
6. What facts do you consider to be interesting in Vikings ships?
7. What caused the development of tumblehome?
8. What construction material was adopted in the 19th century?
9. Wood didn’t continue to be used in shipbuilding later, did it?
10. The global dominating shipbuilding industry is considered to be in
South America, isn’t it?

Ex. 10. Speak on the following:

 shipbuilding, its major meaning;


 shipbuilding in the ancient world;
 shipbuilding in the Middle Ages;
 shipbuilding in the 18th-19th centuries;
 modern shipbuilding.

16
Ex. 11. Imagine you are a shipbuilder. Design your variant of the ship.
Give her* a name, choose the port of register. (*her (she) – говоря о морских
судах, употребляют местоимение ‘she’ и его производные.)

Ex. 12. Do task 2 in Appendix 7.

Unit 3. ARCHITECTURE OF SHIPS

Ex. 1. Active Vocabulary. Read and learn new words and word-combi-
nations:

general – общий afterpeak – ахтпик


hull – корпус wing tank – бортовая цистерна
superstructure – надстройка double bottom tank – междудонная
foremost – передний, носовой цистерна
rearmost – кормовой, самый задний tanktop – второе дно, палубное пе-
midships – середина судна рекрытие над цистернами двойного
bridge – мостик, средняя надстройка дна
poop – ют winch – лебедка
framing – набор корпуса судна derrick – грузовая стрела
plating – обшивка, настил post – стойка, мачта
port – порт; левый борт to incline – наклонять; зд. иметь
starboard – правый борт тенденцию
bottom – днище, дно watch – вахта, наблюдение; следить,
side – борт, сторона наблюдать
deck – палуба trim – дифферент
upper deck – верхняя палуба stem – форштевень
middle deck – средняя палуба heel – крен; наклонять(ся)
lower deck – нижняя палуба grid – решетка, гребень
bridge deck – палуба мостика fluid pressure – давление текучей
boat deck – шлюпочная палуба среды
promenade deck – прогулочная па- list – крен
луба across the ship and along – вдоль и
fore – перед, передний, впереди поперек
forward – в носовой части permanent housing – постоянные
aft = after = abaft – задний, сзади, в постройки
кормовой части to gain more space for cargo – что-
fore and aft – продольной, с носа до бы выиграть больше места для груза
кормы draught marks – марки углубления
amidships – посредине судна faulty loading – неправильная на-
main – главный, основной грузка

17
waterline – ватерлиния forepeak – форпик
watertight – водонепроницаемый hatch – люк
engine room – моторное отделение hold – трюм
tank – танк, резервуар, цистерна liquid cargo ship – танкер
dry cargo ship – сухогруз access – доступ
ship’s underwater body – подводная space – пространство, отсек, поме-
часть корпуса щение
compartment – отсек opening – отверстие, крышка
bulkhead – переборка

Ex. 2. State the parts of the speech of the following groups of word.
Translate all of them.

Open – to open – openly – opening – opened – openness;


to space – space – spaceless – spaceman;
to end – end – endless – ending – ended;
include – inclusion – including – included.

Ex. 3. Form nouns from the following verbs:

to open − _______________________ to space − ______________________


to end − ________________________ to include − _____________________
to incline − _____________________ to call − ________________________
to divide − ______________________ to contain − _____________________
to know − ______________________ to support − _____________________
to watch − ______________________ to make − ______________________
to direct − ______________________ to indicate − ____________________
to paint − _______________________ to load − _______________________
to mark − _______________________ to show − _______________________

Ex. 4. Find the words with the same meaning:

1) general a) fore and aft 5) aft e) universal


2) watertight b) in the middle of the ship 6) fore f) list
3) amidships c) abaft 7) plating g) waterproof
4) inclination d) forward 8) trim h) shell

Ex. 5. Find the words with the opposite meaning:

1) general a) whole 5) forepeak e) afterpeak


2) upper b) beginning 6) part f) lower
3) fore c) to close 7) to open g) partial

18
4) end d) aft

Ex. 6. State the part of speech of the words in italic and translate the
sentences:

1. This window is open. Open that one, please.


2. The story has no end. End it in the most interesting way you can.
3. We usually space armchairs in rows. The space between the rows is
called a gangway.

Ex. 7. Translate the following sentences paying attention to the preposi-


tions ‘in’ and ‘of’ (see Appendix 5, Имя существительное, Table 2):

1. Our tankers sail in many seas.


2. Komsomolsk-na-Amure is in the East of our country.
3. My friend is in the shipbuilding faculty.
4. We will have our sailing practice in summer.
5. I am in the first year.
6. Our ship cannot enter in port in time.
7. We will enter it in two days.
8. The engine room is located aft of the superstructure.
9. Two of three ships of this type were built at the shipyard of Amur
Shipbuilding Plant.
10. The hull plating is made of steel plates.
11. Most of our ships are built at the shipyards of our country.
12. We have our first examination period in winter, at the beginning of
January.
13. The first of two vessels was ordered in Germany.
14. Of all the towns and cities in the Far East of Russia Khabarovsk is the
most important.
15. In 2008 V.V. Putin became a president of the Russian Geographical
Society.

Ex. 8. Read the international words and give their Russian meaning:

port − ______________ structure − ___________ vertical − ___________


penalty − ___________ distance − ___________ liquid − _____________
cover − _____________ tank − ______________ double − ____________
marine − ____________ steel − ______________ extreme − ___________
permanent − _________ contain − ____________ indicate − ___________
pressure − ___________ location − ___________ circle − ______________
cross − _____________ waterline − __________

19
Ex. 9. Read and translate the text “GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF A
SHIP” using the Vocabulary.

GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF A SHIP

1. The main body of a ship


The main body of a ship is called a hull. The hull is divided into three
main parts: the foremost part is called the bow; the rearmost part is called the
stern; the part in between is called midships. The hull is the main part of the
ship. This is the area between the main deck, the sides (port and starboard) and
the bottom. It is made up
of frames covered with
plating. The part of the
hull below water is the
ship’s underwater body.
The distance between the
waterline and the main
deck is the vessel’s free-
board. The hull is divided
up into a number of wa-
tertight compartments by
decks and bulkheads.
Bulkheads are vertical
Main parts of ship: 1.smokestack or funnel; 2.stern; steel walls going across
3.propeller and rudder; 4.portside (the right side is known the ship and along.
as starboard); 5.anchor; 6.bulbous bow; 7.bow; 8.deck; The hull contains
9.superstructure the engine room, cargo
spaces and a number of
tanks. In dry cargo ships the cargo space is divided into holds. Openings giving
access to holds are called hatches. In liquid cargo vessels the cargo space is di-
vided into tanks.

2. On deck facilities
At the fore end of the hull are the forepeak tanks, and at the after end are
afterpeak tanks. They are used for fresh water and fuel. If a ship has double
sides, the space between the sides contains wing tanks. The space between the
tank top and the space contains double bottom tanks.
All permanent housing above the main deck is known as superstructure.
Nowadays, cargo vessels are normally built with the after location of the engine
room and bridge superstructure to gain more space for cargo. The forward raised
part of the deck is called the forecastle and its after raised part is the poop. On
deck there are cargo handling facilities, such as cranes, winches, derricks, etc.

20
Ships having derricks also have cargo masts and cargo posts (or Samson posts)
on deck.

3. Ship location when loading


Since a ship is supported by fluid pressure, she will incline in any direc-
tion in the process of loading according to the position of the weights placed on
her. Therefore the ship’s position below water must be closely watched. The an-
gle that a ship is making fore and aft with the water is known as trim. An ex-
treme difference between the water levels at each end of the ship indicates bad
loading. The levels are read by numbers painted on the ship’s stern and called
draught marks. A list or inclination from one side to another, caused by faulty
loading, is known as heel.

Ex. 10. Translate and remember the meaning of the following words:

кормовая часть − _______________ носовая часть − _________________


основная палуба − _____________ левый борт − ____________________
правый борт − _________________ ряд водонепроницаемых отсеков −
водонепроницаемые переборки − ________________________________
______________________________ вертикальные стальные стенки −
вдоль и поперек судна − ________ ________________________________
отверстия для доступа − ________ люки и трюмы сухогруза − ________
люки и трюмы танкера − ________ грузовое помещение для оборудова-
чистое моторное отделение − ния − ___________________________
______________________________ марки углубления на ватерлинии −
решетка на палубе − ____________ _________________________________
дифферент судна − _____________ сильное давление текучей среды −
крен судна − __________________ ________________________________

Ex. 11. Find in the text and read out:

– the sentences (6 sentences) in the Present Indefinite Active from the


passage 1 “The main body of a ship” (see Appendix 5, Table 8).
– the words with the ending -s from the passage 3 “Ship location when
loading” and state whether they are: a) nouns in the plural, b) verbs in the 3d per-
son singular in the Present Indefinite Active, c) nouns in the possessive case (see
Appendix 5, Tables 1 and 8).

Ex. 12. Find in the text the main part of the ship and translate them into
Russian.

21
Ex. 13. Read the sentences translating the words in brackets into Eng-
lish:

1. The main parts of a ship are the hull (надстройки) __________ and
subdivision members.
2. The forward end of the hull is called (нос) _____________.
3. The after end of the hull is called (корма) _____________.
4. The framing (включает) __________ bottom, side and deck framing.
5. (Бак) __________ is a superstructure in the forward end of a ship.
6. (Ют) __________ is a superstructure aft.
7. Across (переборки) __________ are arranged from side to side.
8. Decks of a (корпуса) _________ are: upper deck, middle deck and
lower deck.
9. (Палубы) __________ of the superstructure are: bridge deck, (прогу-
лочная) _________ deck and boat deck.

Ex. 14. Match the words in the two columns:

1) hull a) vertical steel walls across and along the ship


2) bow b) foremost part
3) stern c) tanks at the after end
4) midships d) openings of holds
5) underwater body e) main body
6) freeboard f) distance between waterline and the main
7) bulkheads deck
8) hatches g) cargo handling facilities
9) tanks h) rearmost part
10) forepeak tanks i) tanks at the fore end
11) afterpeak tanks j) part between the bow and the stern
12) heel k) cargo space for fluid
13) superstructure l) all permanent housing above the deck
14) cranes, winches, derricks m) part below water
n) list, inclination

Ex. 15. Fill in the sentences using words and word-combinations from
the text:

freeboard, midships, tanks, forepeak, compartments, superstructure,


holds, hull, engine, frame, deck, underwater, bow, sides,
fuel, poop, wing, bottom, stern, hatches, bulkheads, cargo, plating,
decks, afterpeak, fresh, forecastle

22
1. The main body of a ship is called ___________.
2. The foremost part of the hill is called ___________; its rearmost part
is called __________; the part in between is called ___________.
3. The hull is the area between __________.
4. The hull is made up of __________ covered with ___________.
5. The part of the below water is the ship’s ___________.
6. The distance between the waterline and the main deck in the vessel’s
___________________.
7. The hull is divided up into a number of __________ by ___________.
8. ___________ are vertical steel walls going across the ship and along.
9. The hull contains ___________.
10. In dry cargo ships the cargo space is divided into _____________.
11. Openings giving across to holds are called _____________.
12. At the fore end of the hull are ____________, and at the after end are
_________. They are used for _____________.
13. The space between the holds and the bottom of the hull contains
___________. They are used for _____________.
14. If a ship has double sides, the space in between contains __________.
15. All permanent housing above the main deck is known as __________.
16. The forward raised port of the deck is called _______________ and
its after raised part is _____________.

Ex. 16. Fill in the prepositions ‘in’ and ‘of’ (see Appendix 5, Table 2):

1. The main parts _____ the hull are: the framing and shell.
2. A poop is a superstructure _____ the after end of a ship.
3. The engine room is often arranged _____ the stern.
4. The hull is divided up into a number _____ watertight compartments.
5. _____ liquid cargo vessels the cargo space is divided into tanks.
6. The part ______ the hull below water is the ship’s underwater body.
7. A ship will incline _____ any direction _____ the process _____ load-
ing according to the position _____ the weights placed on her.

Ex. 17. Agree or disagree with the statements according to the informa-
tion from the text, using the clichés:

That’s wrong. – Это неверно.


That’s (quite) right. – (Совершенно) верно.
That’s not quite true to the fact. – Это не совсем соответствует факту.
According to the text … – Согласно тексту …

1. The main body of a ship is called a trim.

23
2. The hull is divided into five main parts.
3. The part of the hull below water is the ship’s upwater body.
4. The distance between the waterline and the main deck in the vessel’s
freeboard.
5. The hull is divided up into one watertight compartment.
6. Bulkheads are horizontal steel walls going across the ship and along.

Ex. 18. Ask your group-mates:

1) how the main body of a ship is called;


2) how many parts the hull is divided into;
3) how the main parts of the hull are called;
4) what the hull of a ship is made up of;
5) what spaces the hull contains;
6) what tanks the hull contains.

Ex. 19. Make up as many questions as possible to the following sen-


tences (see Appendix 5, Table 10):

1. The space between the tank top and the space contains double bottom
tanks.
2. The ship will incline in any direction in the process of loading.
3. Last century all vessels had fore location of superstructures.

Ex. 20. Answer the questions:

1. How is the main body of a ship called?


2. What parts is the hull divided into?
3. What is the hull made up of?
4. What cargo spaces are there in dry cargo ships?
5. What tanks are there in dry cargo ships?
6. What are these tanks be used for?
7. Can these tanks be used carriage of the cargo?
8. What is superstructure?
9. Where is superstructure located on modern ships?
10. What cargo handling facilities are there on deck?
11. What do we call the forecastle / the poop?
12. What is trim/heel?

Ex. 21. Render in Russian.

Основные части судна – корпус и надстройки. Передняя часть кор-

24
пуса называется носом. Задняя часть корпуса называется кормой. Корпус
состоит из набора и оболочек. Зона между главной палубой, бортами и
днищем называется корпусом. Часть корпуса под водой это подводная
часть корпуса. Корпус делиться на ряд водонепроницаемых отсеков палу-
бами и переборками. Переборки это вертикальные стальные стенки, иду-
щие вдоль и поперек судна. В корпусе располагаются моторное отделение,
грузовые отсеки и ряд резервуаров. Цистерны используются для пресной
воды или топлива. Надстройки в современных кораблях находятся в кор-
мовой части судна. На палубе размещаются краны, грузовые стрелы и ле-
бедки для обработки груза.

Ex. 22. The crossword.

1 2
3
4 5 6

7
8
9 10
11
12
13
14 15
16
17 18
19

20 21

Across: Down:
1. Ахтерштевень (9). 2. Твиндек (9).
4. Борт (4). 3. Палуба (4).
5. Ахтерпик (9). 4. Корма (5).
7. Форпик (7). 6. Бак (10).
8. Руль (6). 7. Шпангоут, корпус (5).
9. Море (3). 9. Форштевень (4).
11. Отсек (11). 10. Якорь (6).
12. Танк, резервуар (4). 12. Дифферент (4).
14. Лед (3). 13. Отметка, марка (4).
15. Переборка (8). 15. Бимс, ширина (4).

25
17. Киль (4). 16. Люк (5).
19. Днище (6). 18. Найтовый (4).
20. Трюм (4). 19. Нос (3).
21. Причал (5).

Ex. 23. Make up dialogues about parts of a ship.

Ex. 24. Summarize all the information from texts about ship’s architec-
ture and give the general description of a ship.

Ex. 25. Do task 3 in Appendix 7.

Unit 4. HOLDS AND HATCHES

Ex. 1. Асtive Vocabulary. Read and learn new words and word-combi-
nations:

limber boards – льяльные крышки portable – портативный


double bottom – двойное дно batten – балка, брусок; задраивать
flooring – настил to fit – соответствовать, оснащать
cargo batten = spar ceiling – рыбинс to fit into – плотно входить во ч.-л.
inner edge – внутренний край sheathing – обшивка
a hatch covering system – система hatchway – отверстие люка
закрытия грузовых люков hatch cover – крышка люка
a side rolling system – система hinge – шарнир
скольжения лючин на роликах по to restrict – ограничивать
боковым направлениям compulsory – обязательный
athwartships – поперек судна bilge – льяло

Ex. 2. State the parts of speech of the words formed from one root.
Translate all of them. Use the dictionary if necessary.

To hold – hold – holdall – holdback – holder – holdfast – holding – hol-


dover – holdup;
to hatch – hatch – hatcher – hatchet – hatchment – hatchway;
plate – to plate – plateau – plateful – platelayer – plate-mark – platen –
plater – plate-rack – platform – plating – platinize – platinoid – platinum – plati-
tude – platitudinous – platter – platypus;
sheath – to sheathe – sheathing;
angle – to angle – angler – angleworm – angular – angularity – triangle –
triangular – quadrangle – quadrangular – rectangle – rectangular.

26
Ex. 3. Make up as many words as possible combining two of them.
Translate them.

port star amid post bone breaking


ship after smoke ships wright home
water row back yard most line
super tank war tight structure building
bulk fore tumble top board repair
gun free stack boat powder man
watch stern head castle beam sea
athwart rear peak way side fare

Ex. 4. Match the definition to the words given in box:

afterpeak, hold, beam, hatch cover, bottom, hatch coaming, bow, hatch,
bridge, framing, bulkhead, frame, compartment, forepeak, deck, stern,
forecastle, double bottom, plating, tweendeck, poop, sternpost, side, stem

1. The forward end of the hull is called __________.


2. The after end of the hull is called ____________.
3. The lowermost part of the hull is called __________.
4. The topping part of the hull is called ___________.
5. The wall of the hull is called ___________.
6. The hull’s shell is called ___________.
7. The system of beams, girders and frame is called ___________.
8. The vertical watertight wall is called ___________.
9. The superstructure erected at the forward end of the ship is called ___.
10. The superstructure erected at the after end of the ship is called _____.
11. The superstructure erected about amidships is called __________.
12. The space in the hull restricted by bulkheads is called __________.
13. Openings in the deck passage of cargo are called __________.
14. The iron rim around a hatch is called __________.
15. The plate which covers a hatch is called __________.
16. Cargo storage areas are called __________.
17. Decks fitted in the cargo holds are called __________. The space be-
tween two decks is also called __________.
18. The foremost compartment is called __________.
19. The transverse girders stiffening the deck plating are called deck
_________________________.
20. The transverse girders stiffening the side plating are called side
______________________.

27
Ex. 5. Read the text “HOLDS AND HATCHES”.

HOLDS AND HATCHES

1. Holds
The inner space of a ship between the limber boards of a double bottom
and the decks is designed for carrying cargoes. This space is called a hold.
Holds have different capacity. Big vessels have cargo holds divided into
several separate compartments by watertight bulkheads. Each dry cargo vessel
has four or five holds. The holds have bilges which serve to give way for drai-
nage the water1 which may condensate on metal bulkheads or collect on wooden
floorings. The water collected in the bilges is pumped out by a hold pump. To
protect the bilges from corrosion they are covered with cement or special anti-
corrosion substance, besides they are protected by
limber boards. The double bottom is covered with
removable wooden flooring. Cargo battens or
‘spar ceiling’ as they are often called, comprises
portable wooden battens fitted to the inner edges
of the frames and so from sheathing to the ship’s
side.
Spar ceiling is made up of boards and ar-
ranged either horizontally or vertically between
frames. The purpose of this wooden sheathing is
to prevent packages of cargo from damage by
moisture which may collect on the side of the ship.
The space so formed between the spar ceiling and
the ship’s side helps to provide a complete air
space around the cargo and thereby improves ven-
tilation. The spar ceiling should always be kept in
a good state.

2. Hatches
Each hold has a hatchway. The hatchway is a rectangular opening in the
ship’s deck. The vertical plating around the hatchway is called hatchway coam-
ing. When the cargo work is over, it is necessary to cover the ship’s hatches.
Hatches should be covered with special covering systems. Despite the covering
system used2 the hatch beams should be fitted into sockets riveted to the inner
side of coamings3.
The hatch beams serve to support the hatch covers. Quick operating hatch
covers permit the opening or closing of covers in as little time as two minutes
per hatch4. Some types of hatch covers are formed of hinged sections in one or
several pairs and are especially suitable to big hatchways. The hinged sections

28
are stowed at the ends of the hatchway. Where space is restricted at the hatch
ends a side rolling system is used athwartships from the holds.

A hatch or hatchway is the opening at the top of a. cargo hold.

The use of the modern form of hatch coverings has the following advan-
tages: quick working reduced cargo handling time better use of the space elimi-
nation of damage due to the presence of coamings. After finishing loading and
before leaving the port it is compulsory to cover the hatches with tarpaulins to
ensure water tightness.

Notes to the text:


1) to give way for drainage the water – зд. обеспечивать сток;
2) despite the covering system used – независимо от применяющихся систем за-
крытия;
3) the hatch beams should be fitted into sockets riveted to the inner side of coamings –
зд. бимсы должны вставляться в пазы, прикрепленные к внутренней части комингсов;
4) as little time as two minutes per hatch – только две минуты на люк.

Ex. 6. Give the translation of the following words and word-combi-


nations. Make up sentences with them.

hold − _________________________ hatch − ________________________


space − ________________________ limber board − __________________
bilge − ________________________ compartment − __________________
bulkhead − _____________________ to condensate − __________________
to collect − _____________________ to pump out − ___________________

29
wooden flooring − _______________ battens − _______________________
spar ceiling − ___________________ hatchway − _____________________
coaming − ______________________ to cover − ______________________
to support − ____________________ to permit − _____________________
damage − ______________________ per − __________________________
the inner space − ________________ to be designed for collecting water −
quick operating system − __________ _______________________________
to ensure water tightness − _________ a separate compartment − __________
to be divided by watertight bulkheads to pump out water − ______________
− _____________________________ to protect by limber boards − _______
to prevent damage − ______________ a removable wooden battens − ______
to support the hatch covers − _______ hatchway coamings − ____________

Ex. 7. Match words and word-combinations from columns:

1) the inner space of a ship used for stowage cargoes a) bilge


2) a kind of a wall that separates the holds from each b) limber boards
other c) spar ceiling
3) a place in the double bottom which gives way for d) watertight bulkhead
drainage the water collected on wooden flooring e) hold
4) wooden battens which prevent packages of cargo
from damage by moisture, collected on the side of
the ship
5) wooden parts which protect the bilges from damage

Ex. 8. Translate sentences into Russian:

1. Holds are designed for carrying cargoes.


2. Holds are divided into several compartments.
3. This is made for drainage the water.
4. Sometimes water condensates on metal bulkheads.
5. You must pump out all the water.
6. Metal should be protected from corrosion.
7. Metals should be covered with anticorrosion substance.
8. This wooden flooring will not fit to this small compartment.
9. Cargo battens are made up of wooden boards.
10. Prevent this cotton bales from damage.
11. Sometimes moisture collects on the sides of the ship.
12. The passenger train travels 100 km per hour.
13. It takes two minutes per hatch to open or close the covers.
14. Light travels 300.000 kilometers per second.
15. The rate of loading is 1200 tons per weather working day.

30
Ex. 9. Make up questions to the words in italic (see Appendix 5, Table
10):

1. We pump out the water from the bilges once a week (what).
2. They carry ore each voyage (how often).
3. The workers cover the bilges with special anticorrosion substance
(what … with).
4. The dockers use spar ceiling for protecting the package of cargo from
damage (what … for).
5. The lines on a hull show the draught of a ship (what).
6. The stevedores usually control the draught of the vessels to avoid
overloading (why).
7. The dockers loaded general cargo on board ship (who).
8. The seamen pumped out the water collected in the bilges (who).
9. The dockers broke three angle brackets some days ago (who).
10. They carried petroleum in the tanks (who).
11. He cleaned the wooden flooring in hold № 2 (who).
12. The carpenter repaired the spar ceiling (who).

Ex. 10. Add sentences using words in box:

portable wooden battens, boards, the frame by angle brackets,


to prevent packages of cargo from damage, moisture

1. Spar ceiling comprises ______________________________________.


2. Spar ceiling is made up of ___________________________________.
3. Spar ceiling is attached to ____________________________________.
4. The purpose of a wooden sheathing is __________________________.
5. Bale cargoes may be damaged by ____________________________.

Ex. 11. Answer the questions to the text:

1. What do you call a hold?


2. Are all the ships holds of the same capacity?
3. How are the holds separated from each other?
4. How many holds has a typical dry-cargo vessel?
5. What do the bilges serve for?
6. How much water collected in the bilges can be removed?
7. What are the bilges covered with to protect them from corrosion?
8. What are limber boards used for?
9. What is spar ceiling used for?

31
10. What’s the shape of a hatch coaming?

Ex. 12. Speak about hatches and holds, work in pairs.

Ex. 13. Make up a report (7-8 sentences) about hatches and holds.

Ex. 14. Do task 4 in Appendix 7.

Unit 5. SHIPBOARD EQUIPMENT

Ex. 1. Active Vocabulary. Read and learn new words and word-combi-
nations:

to arrange – располагать reinforced concrete – армированный


arrangement – расположение, уст- бетон
ройство durable – прочный
shell – оболочка, обшивка pleasure craft – прогулочное судно
to protect – защищать equipment – судовое устройство
protection – защита transponder – приемоответчик
bulwark – фальшборт tackle – такелаж, талы
to serve – служить mooring winch – швартовая лебедка
to provide = to make provision – windlass – брашпиль
обеспечивать, предусматривать shallow – мель; мелкий
safe – безопасный, надежный hawsepipe – клюзопровод
safety – безопасность boom – бон, боновое заграждение
strong – сильный, прочный, крепкий to load – загружать
strength – сила, прочность to unload – разгружать
strengthen – усиливать, укреплять extinguisher – огнетушитель
transverse – поперечный to survive – выживать
longitudinal – продольный life buoy – спасательный буй
steam engine – паровой двигатель life belt – спасательный пояс
to appear – появляться life jacket – спасательный жилет
to cover – покрывать, охватывать to inflate – надувать
ferro-concrete – железобетон to lower – спускать на воду

Ex. 2. Translate from English the following words and word-combi-


nations:

to arrange cargo − ________________ to arrange (superstructure, forecastle,


(bottom, side) shell − _____________ bridge, poop) − __________________
the shell of the hull − _____________ general arrangement of the hull − ___

32
(bottom, side, deck) plating − _______ ship framing − __________________
(bottom, side, deck) framing − ______ after end (part) of a ship − _________
forward end (part) of a ship − _______ aft of the superstructure − _________
fore of the superstructure − _________ the main parts (characteristics, build-
fore and aft − ____________________ ing, machine) − __________________
to protect the ship (the rudder ar- to be protected by bulwark − _______
rangement) − ____________________ to include the following members (life
means of protection − _____________ boats, bottom, side and deck framing,
outer space − ____________________ clean and dirty tankers) − __________
the space between superstructures (the _______________________________
bridge and poop, the bridge and fore- to serve in the Army − ____________
castle) − ________________________ to serve as an officer − ____________
to serve as an explanation − ________ to serve the cause of peace − _______
diplomatic service − ______________ communication service − __________
to provide the strength of a ship − ____ to provide openings − _____________
_______________________________ to provide the ship with automatic in-
the bridge provided amidships − _____ struments − _____________________
to save a passenger (a ship) − _______ strong plating (bulwark) − _________
a saving bank − __________________ the strength of the shell − __________
fire-proof safety − ________________ strength of materials − ____________
transverse bulkheads (compartments, strength requirements − ___________
framing) − ______________________ to strengthen the bow − ___________
longitudinal bulkheads (compartments, to strengthen peace and friendship − _
framing) − ______________________ _____________________________

Ex. 3. State parts of speech of the following groups of words and trans-
late them into Russian. Use dictionary if necessary.

To arrange – arrangement – arranging – arranged – arranger;


to protect – protection – protectionism – protectionist – protective – pro-
tector − protectorate – protectorship – protector – protectress – protecting – pro-
tected;
to serve – service – serviceable – serving – served – servant – servant-
maid − serviceman – servile – servility – servitude;
to provide – provision – provider – providing – provided – providence –
provident – providently;
strong – strongly – strong-arm – strongarm – strongbox – stronghold –
strongpoint – strength – to strengthen – strengthening – strengthened – stre-
nuous.

33
Ex. 4. Form nouns from the following verbs:

to arrange − _____________________ to protect − _____________________


to open − _______________________ to space − ______________________
to end − ________________________ to include − _____________________
to serve − _______________________ to provide − ____________________
to strength − _____________________ to survive − _____________________
to appear − ______________________ to cover − ______________________
to tackle − ______________________ to load − _______________________
to unload − ______________________ to ship − _______________________

Ex. 5. Find pairs with the same meaning:

1) strong a) jacket 6) beam f) for


2) sprinkler system b) life belt 7) life preserver g) to make provision
3) to arrange c) to rescue 8) to save h) firm
4) waistcoat d) girder 9) to provide i) to space
5) during e) extinguisher

Ex. 6. Find pairs with the opposite meaning:

1) to unload a) longitudinal 5) to open e) to lower


2) strong b) to close 6) transverse f) to appear
3) to include c) weak 7) to blow away g) to load
4) to disappear d) to inflame 8) to land h) to exclude

Ex. 7. Guess the meaning of the international words:

structural type container discussion steel


promenade typical modern material submarine
interesting machine instrument design titan
vice-president platform continent start aluminium
construction general photograph antenna cover
commercial professor initiative radar plastic

Ex. 8. Read the text.

The tree was the first and most widespread material for a design of ves-
sels. During several thousand years the ships did only of a tree but when there
appeared a steam engine, the fighting ships have started to cover with metal –
iron, but more often, steel. In the 20th century all vessels were under construction
of steel. Submarines also were under construction of steel, and in rare cases –

34
from the titan.
Further also vessels were
created from ferro-concrete,
aluminium and reinforced con-
crete. At the end of the century
there was a new material – plas-
tic. The hull from aluminium is
very easy and durable. Older
ships and pleasure craft often
have or had wooden hulls. Steel
is used for most commercial vessels. Aluminium is frequently used for fast
vessels, and composite materials are often found in sailboats and pleasure craft.
Some ships have been made with concrete hulls.
Shipboard equipment varies from ship to ship depending on such factors
as the ship’s era, design, area of operation, and purpose. Some types of
equipment that are widely found include:
• masts can be the home of antennas, navigation lights, radar transponders,
fog signals, and similar devices often required by law;
• ground tackle includes equipment such as mooring winches, windlasses,
and anchors. Anchors are used to moor ships in shallow water. They are
connected to the ship by a rope or chain. On larger vessels, the chain runs
through a hawsepipe;
• cargo equipment such as cranes and cargo booms are used to load and
unload cargo and ship’s stores;
• safety equipment such as lifeboats, life rafts, fire extinguishers, and
survival suits are carried aboard many vessels for emergency use.
Other safety means include the following:
• the life buoy is the belt from a floating material, for example from rub-
ber, inflated with air;
• the life jacket is the floating waistcoat, which is put on to remain on a
water surface;
• the saving raft is the rescue raft both inflatable and constructed. Some-
times it is built of a tree or other material wrecked;
• saving boats are also inflatable. In case of accident the boat lowers on
water on cables.

Ex. 9. Choose the right form of the verbs. Revise tenses of the Active
Voice (see Appendix 5, Table 8):

1. The tree (is/was) the first material for a ship design.


2. When a steam engine (appeared/have appeared) the ships (started/have
started) to cover with metal.

35
3. At the end of the 20th century plastic (is appeared/appeared).
4. Shipboard equipment (vary/varies) from ship to ship.
5. Ground tackle (includes/include) such equipment as mooring winches,
windlasses and etc.
6. There (are/were) different kinds of saving means carried aboard.

Ex. 10. Give the title to the text. Compare it with your group-mates.
Choose the best.

Ex. 11. Say in 3 sentences the main idea of the text.

Ex. 12. Make up a plan to the text. Compare it with your group-mates.

Ex. 13. Match two columns. Use the information from the part of the
text describing shipbuilding materials.

1. The first material for designing the ship was ____ a) concrete
_______________________________________. b) steel
2. The early fighting ships were covered with _____ c) composite material
_______________________________________. d) tree
3. Submarines are usually constructed of ______, but e) aluminium
in rare cases they are made with ______________. f) the titan
4. A new material – ________ – appeared at the end g) plastic
of the 20th century.
5. In the 20th century the vessels began to be designed
of ________________________________.
6. Older ships and pleasure crafts often had _______
hulls.
7. The most usable material for commercial vessels is
_____________________________________.
8. _______________ is often used for fast vessels.
9. Sailboats are designed of ___________________.
10. Some modern ships are made with _______ hulls.

Ex. 14. Make up a 3 minutes report about safety equipment and what
they are used for.

Ex. 15. Arrange groups of 2-3 students and discuss the following ship-
board equipment:

 masts;  cargo equipment;


 ground tackle;  safety equipment.

36
Ex. 16. Do task 5 in Appendix 7.

Unit 6. MEASURING SHIPS

Ex. 1. Active Vocabulary. Read and learn new words and word-combi-
nations:

to measure – мерить, размерять to reach – достигать


length – длина surface – поверхность
breadth – ширина loading – загрузка
depth – глубина density – плотность
keelson – кильсон subsequent – последующий
draft (AE) = draught (BE) – осадка regulation – предписание, правило
tonnage – тоннаж ladder – лестница, трап
definition – определение marine – морской
to exist – существовать to engrave – (вы)гравировать
merchant – торговый Load Line Certificate – свидетельст-
toll – пошлина, сбор во о грузовой марке
tax – налог severe penalty – серьезное наказа-
to derive – выводить (формулу) ние, большой штраф
to determine – определять

Ex. 2. Give the plural form of the nouns (see Appendix 5, Table 1):

ship − _________ length − _______ waterline − _____ breadth − ______


depth − ________ distance − ______ deck − ________ weather − ______
keelson − ______ bottom − _______ tonnage − ______ purpose − ______
toll − __________ engineer − _____ formula − ______ position − ______
side − _________ hull − _________ surface − ______ water − ________
cargo − ________ level − ________ day − _________ mark − ________
circle − ________ line − _________ centre − _______ type − _________
density − _______ regulation − ____ group − ________ act − __________
freeboard − _____ ladder − _______ industry − ______ vessel − ________

Ex. 3. Form the Comparative and Superlative degrees of the adjectives


(see Appendix 5, Имя прилагательное, Table 3):

high − __________________________ different − ______________________


fair − __________________________ good − _________________________
simple − ________________________ specific − ______________________
fresh − _________________________ little − _________________________
37
subsequent − ____________________ safe − _________________________
important − _____________________ difficult − ______________________
bad − __________________________ deep − _________________________
wide − _________________________ long − _________________________
broad − _________________________ definite − ______________________

Ex. 4. Study groups of words of one root. State their parts of speech.
Translate them.

Long – to prolong – length – lengthy – to lengthen – lengthways;


broad – to broaden – breadth;
deep – to deepen – deeply – deep-sea – depth;
to define – definite – indefinite – definition;
merchant – merchandise – merchandiser;
ship – shipbuilder – shipment – shipowner – shipper – shipping – ship-
wreck – shipyard;
marine – mariner – marina – maritime.

Ex. 5. Read the text “MEASURING SHIPS”.

MEASURING SHIPS

One can measure ships in terms of overall length, length of the ship at the
waterline, beam (breadth), depth (distance between the crown of the weather
deck and the top of the keelson), draft (distance between the highest waterline
and the bottom of the ship) and tonnage. A number of different tonnage
definitions exist and are used when describing merchant ships for the purpose of
tolls, taxation, etc.
In Britain until Samuel Plimsoll, a Member of Parliament, engaged some
engineers to derive a fairly simple formula to determine the position of a line on
the side of any specific ship’s hull which, when it reached the surface of the
water during loading of cargo, meant the ship had reached its maximum safe
loading level. To this day, that mark, called the ‘Plimsoll Line’, exists on ships’
sides, and consists of a circle with a horizontal line through the centre.
Because different types of water (summer, fresh, tropical fresh, winter
north Atlantic) have different densities, subsequent regulations required painting
a group of lines according to Samuel Plimsoll’s Merchant Shipping Act of 1876
to indicate the safe depth (or freeboard above the surface) to which a specific
ship could load in water of various densities. Hence, the ‘ladder’ of lines has
been seen alongside to this day. The Plimsoll mark is called the ‘freeboard
mark’ or ‘load line mark’ in the marine industry.
In the course of loading load lines must be watched above all. The load
38
lines are engraved and then painted on the both sides of ships. The divided circle
on the left shows the depth to which the ship may be loaded in summer time.
Below this line are, on the grid to the right, two lines. The one marked W means
winter loading, the lower one marked WNA means the maximum depth to which
the ship may be loaded if she is going across the North Atlantic in winter. The
other marks above these are: Т for tropical, F for fresh water. These lines are
shown on the ship’s Load Line Certificate. In case of overloading a ship, so that
these lines are under water, the penalties are severe.

Ex. 6. Find in the text English equivalents to Russian ones:

вся длина − ____________________ размерение судов − _____________


длина по ватерлинии − ___________ ширина − ______________________
глубина − ______________________ прогулочная палуба − ___________
осадка − _______________________ днище корабля − ________________
тоннаж − ______________________ определение тоннажа − __________
ряд − _________________________ при описании − _________________
торговое судно − ________________ взимание платы − _______________
налогообложение − ______________ получить формулу − _____________
расположение линий на борту − ___ поверхность воды − _____________
круг с горизонтальной линией − ___ во время загрузки − _____________
_____________________________ максимально безопасный уровень
по центру − ____________________ загрузки − _____________________
различные плотности − __________ пресная вода − _________________
изображение набора линий − _____ соответствующие предписания − __
Акт о Торговом Судоходстве − ____ отражать безопасную глубину − __
______________________________ отметка на подводной части борта −
‘лестница’ линий − ______________ _______________________________
морская отрасль промышленности − серьезное наказание за неправиль-
______________________________ ную нагрузку − ________________

Ex. 7. Fill in the gap with the words from the box:

depth, determine, indicate, load, measure, tonnage, safe, centre,


draft, line, mark, water, freeboard, marine

1. One can __________ ships in terms of length, depth, draft and tonnage.
2. __________ is the distance between the crown of the weather deck and
the top of the keelson.
3. The distance between the highest waterline and the bottom of the ship
is ________.
39
4. When describing merchant ships ______ is used for purpose of tolls
and taxations.
5. S. Plimsoll and a group of engineers derived a formula to __________
the position of a line on the side of a hull.
6. The _________ means the ship has reached the maximum ________
loading level.
7. The ______ consists of a circle with a horizontal line through the
_______.
8. Because of different types of __________ a group of lines is painted to
_________ the safe depth.
9. The ‘ladder’ is called ‘__________ mark’ or ‘__________ line mark’ in
________ industry.

Ex. 8. Match the words and word-combinations in the left and right col-
umns:

1) when describing merchant ships a) безопасная глубина


2) Plimsoll Line b) расстояние между
3) safe depth c) корпус судна
4) weather deck d) прогулочная палуба
5) distance between e) отметка на подводной части борта
6) to reach the surface of water f) достигать поверхности воды
7) ship’s hull g) описывая торговые суда
8) freeboard mark h) различные воды
9) ship’s sides i) борта судна
10) different types of water j) линия Плимсолла
11) various water densities k) различные плотности воды

Ex. 9. Match the definition of marks in two columns:

1) T mark a) winter loading


2) WNA mark b) fresh water
3) W mark c) tropical water
4) F mark d) the maximum depth to be loaded going across the North At-
lantic in winter

Ex. 10. Answer the questions to the text:

1. What terms can one measure ships of?


2. What does the depth of ships mean?
3. What is draft?
4. What was Samuel Plimsoll?
40
5. What is he famous for in marine industry?
6. What do these lines determine?
7. Where are they painted?
8. Do lines differ according to types of water densities?
9. Are there any official documents regulating lines to be painted?
10. What other words can be used to describe the ‘ladder’ of lines?

Ex. 11. Group 2-3 students and discuss the following items:

 measurement of ships;
 S. Plimsoll and engineers, and their innovation;
 freeboard marks or load line marks;
 other marks painted on ship’s sides.

Ex. 12. Render the content of the text in English.

Ex. 13. Find the words from the Active Vocabulary in the table. The
words are located either across or down.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13
A Q W E M E A S U R E R T Y
B U L I O F R E E B O A R D
C D E P T H P A S D F G H J
D W N K B L Z X B O T T O M
E A G C R V B R E A D T H B
F T T N O M D R A F T Q D W
G E H E A R E T M Y U I E O
H R P A D S E H D F T G E H
I L O N G J P U K L O Z P X
J I C V B N M L Q W N E E R
K N T Y K E E L S O N U N I
L E O P A S S H I P A D F G
M S U R F A C E D H G J K L
N V E S S E L Z E X E C V B

1) измерять 8) тоннаж 14) глубокий


2) длина 9) борт 15) углублять
3) ширина судна, бимс 10) корпус 16) ширина
4) кильсон 11) глубина 17) широкий
5) осадка судна 12) надводный борт 18) ватерлиния
6) днище, грунт 13) длинный 19) корабль, судно (2)
41
7) поверхность (воды)

Ex. 14. Do task 6 in Appendix 7.

Unit 7. TYPES OF SHIPS

Ex. 1. Active Vocabulary. Read and learn new words and word-combi-
nations:

monohull – однокорпусное судно drive – привод


catamaran – катамаран flat-bottomed boat – плоскодонка
trimaran – тримаран self-propelled – самоходный
shape – форма rubbish – мусор
size – размер to row – грести
dinghy – ялик, прогулочная лодка direction – направление
keelboat – килевая шлюпка galley – галера; камбуз
icebreaker – ледокол kayak – каяк
fiberglass – стекловолокно canoe – каноэ, байдарка
trireme – трирема to dive – нырять
man-o’-wars = man-of-wars – воен- half-plunging – полупогружной
ный корабль drilling floating platform – буровая
origin – происхождение плавучая платформа
pinnace – пинас displacement-type – водоизмещаю-
gondola – гондола щий
junk – джонка to glide – глиссировать
competitive – конкурентный, зд. powerboat – моторный катер
спортивный air-cushion vessel = hovercraft –
to perceive – воспринимать, ощу- судно на воздушной подушке
щать, чувствовать ferry – паром
destination – назначение hydrofoil vessel – судно на подвод-
ground-effect machine – экрано- ных крыльях
план

Ex. 2. Translate groups of words and state their parts of speech:

To place – place – placing – placement – displacement – placed;


to propel – propulsion – propeller – propelling – propelled – self-
propelled – non- self-propelled;
to divide – division – divisor – divisible – indivisible – divisibility – di-
viding – divided – subdivision – subdivided;
to sail – sail – sailor – sailer – sailing;
42
to load – load – loader – loading – unload – unloading.

Ex. 3. Form nouns from the following verbs:

to place − _______________________ to propel − ______________________


to divide − ______________________ to sail − ________________________
to load − _______________________ to carry − _______________________
to classify − _____________________ to use − ________________________
to compete − ____________________ to fish − ________________________
to direct − ______________________ to build − _______________________

Ex. 4. Find pairs of words with the same meaning:

1) vessel a) to divide 5) place e) to launch


2) according to b) to drive 6) to lower f) seat
3) principle c) referring to 7) to propel g) main
4) to classify d) to float 8) to sail h) ship

Ex. 5. State the part of speech of the words in italic and translate the
sentences:

1. This yard launches ice-breakers. This yard launches are fast and beauti-
ful.
2. They wanted to place the order as quickly as possible. Two places were
left on board the ship.
3. This ship sails from Vladivostok to Japan. The ship’s sails were made
of scarlet canvas.
4. Transport ships transport passengers and cargo.
5. Vehicle ferries are used for transporting cars. Ferries transporting cars
are called vehicle ferries.

Ex. 6. Guess the meaning of the international words:

classify classification trireme canoe


criteria mechanical gondola diesel
base class junk base
submarine galley geographic submarine
keel bathyscaphe associate port
system platform manufacture military
fiber type commercial material
aluminum catamaran motor commerce
steel kayak classification categorize
43
epoch propeller region region

Ex. 7. Read the text “TYPES OF SHIPS”.

TYPES OF SHIPS

1. Different classifications
Ships are difficult to classify, mainly because there are so many criteria to
base classification on. One classification is based on propulsion, i.e. either a sail-
ing ship or a motorship. Sailing ships are ships which are propelled solely by
means of sails. Motorships are ships which are propelled by mechanical means
to propel it. Motorships include ships that propel itself through the use of both
sail and mechanical means.
Other classification systems exist that use criteria such as:
• the number of hulls, e.g., monohull, catamaran, trimaran;
• the shape and size, e.g., dinghy, keelboat, and icebreaker;
• the building materials used, e.g., steel, aluminum, wood, fiberglass, and
plastic;
• the type of propulsion system used, e.g., human-propelled, mechanical,
and sails;
• the epoch in which the vessel was used, e.g., triremes of Ancient Greece,
man-o’- wars of the 18th century;
• the geographic origin of the vessel – many vessels are associated with a
particular region, such as the pinnace of Northern Europe, the gondolas of Ve-
nice, and the junks of China;
• the manufacturer, series, or class;
• the port of destination, etc.

Another way to categorize ships and boats is based on their use. This sys-
tem includes military ships, commercial vessels, fishing boats, pleasure craft and
competitive boats, lake and river boats, etc.

2. Classification by drive
There exists another classification – classification by drive. A vessel is
classified by a drive on three groups:
• non-self-propelled (for example, barges, flat-bottomed boats). Vessels
which have no engine, hence, can move only by means of other vessels. Non-
self-propelled vessels basically transport cargoes, rubbish, building materials.
• self-propelled: rowing, sailing and motor vessels. They are put in motion
by means of the engine. Self-propelled vessels define the direction and speed.
They are considered to be the most widespread kind of vessels; almost all ves-
sels are self-propelled.
44
• rowing vessels: galleys, kayaks, canoes, life boats, walking boats, walk-
ing bicycles. Rowing vessels are set in motion by oars. They are non-self-
propelled, as they are set in motion by rowing, and not self-propelled, as they
are operated.

3. Classification by placing of the hull


Classification by placing of the hull concerning water is worth mention-
ing. According to this classification there exist various types of ships, such as:
• underwater – vessels move under water surface the basic part of time,
e.g., nuclear submarines;
• diving – vessels plunge for some limited time under water, e.g., scientif-
ic bathyscaphes, diesel submarines;
• half-plunging – vessels is basically under water, e.g., drilling floating
platforms;
• displacement type – the usual vessels that plunge on some depth under
water, e.g., Titanic;
• gliding – the vessels which weight is perceived by dynamic pressure of
water at vessel movement, e.g., high-speed powerboats;
• hydrofoil vessels – the vessels which weight is perceived by elevating
force of underwater wings, e.g., Rocket, Meteor;
• air-cushion vessels – the vessels which weight is perceived by pressure
of air, pumping under the vessel’s bottom, e.g., the ferry going through the Eng-
lish Channel Hovercraft;
• dynamic hovercrafts – the vessels which weight is perceived by pressure
of air owing to movement of air, e.g., ground-effect machine Ship Model (The
Caspian Monster).

Ex. 8. Find in the text English equivalents to Russian ones:

парусное судно − ________________ трудно классифицировать − ______


приводить в движение − __________ с помощью − ___________________
механические средства − __________ существовать − _________________
форма − ________________________ размер − _______________________
строительный материал − _________ происхождение − _______________
связывать (ассоциировать) − _______ включать − ____________________
основывать(ся) − ________________ военное судно − ________________
спортивный катер − ______________ привод − ______________________
гребное судно − _________________ несамоходное судно − ___________
подводное судно − _______________ ныряющее судно − ______________
полупогружное судно − ___________ водоизмещающее судно − ________
глиссирующее судно − ___________ судно на подводных крыльях − ___
судно на воздушной подушке − ____ поверхность воды − _____________
45
двигаться − _____________________ погружаться − __________________
вес − ___________________________ воспринимать(ся) − _____________
качать − ________________________

Ex. 9. Listen and repeat:

a) after the lecturer


1. Ships may be classified according to the place of navigation.
2. According to the hull material ships may be wooden, steel, and plastic,
from aluminium alloys and so on.
3. Non-self-propelled ships are barges and sailers.
4. Self-propelled ships are steamships, motorships, electric-propulsion
ships, nuclear-propulsion ships.
5. According to place of the hull ships are divided into floating, gliding,
hydrofoil craft and hovercraft.
6. Motorships are propelled by a motor.
7. Steamships are propelled by a steam engine.

b) in chain
1. According to the destination ships are classified into transport ships,
fishing ships, technical ships, research ships, training ships, competitive ships
etc.
2. Transport ships are divided into passenger ships, cargo ships, passen-
ger-cargo ships and ferries.
3. Passenger ships carry passenger.
4. Bulk carriers carry bulk cargo.
5. Vehicle ferries carry cars.

Ex. 10. Fill in the prepositions given in the box (see Appendix 5, Table 2):

by, in, under, for, on, with, owing to, of, to, from

1. I usually go _____ the University ______ foot.


2. The students listened _____ the lecture _____ shipbuilding with great
interest.
3. This vessel sails _____ Vladivostok _____ Nakhodka.
4. The dockers will unload the ship _____ 5 o’clock.
5. _____ our way _____ port we met the steamship Sedov.
6. The shipbuilders will launch a new tug _____ September.
7. Sailors sail _____ port _____ port.
8. Our last visit _____ submarine Kursk was _____1998.
46
9. Shokalski graduated _____ the naval school _____ honors.
10. _____ 1849 Nevelskoi sailed _____ the Far East _____ board the
transport ship Baikal.
11. Classification _____ ships is based _____ many criteria.
12. Sailing ships are propelled _____ means _____ sails.
13. Self-propelled ships are put _____ motion ______ the help ______
engine.
14. Underwater vessels move _____ water the basic part _____ time.
15. Diving vessels plunge _____ some limited time _____ water.
16. Dynamic hovercrafts are the vessels which weight is perceived _____
pressure _____ air _____ movement _____ air.

Ex. 11. Read the sentences translating the words in brackets into Eng-
lish:

1. Ships may be classified (согласно) __________ the place of naviga-


tion, hull material, placing of the hull and drive.
2. According to (месту) ___________ of navigation ships may be di-
vided into ocean and seagoing ships, river and lake ships coasters.
3. According to the hull material ships may be wooden, steel, (пласти-
ковые) __________, aluminium and so on.
4. Non-propelled ships are barges and (парусники) __________.
5. Self-propelled ships are (пароходы, теплоходы) ________________,
electric propulsion ships, nuclear-propulsion ships.
6. According to place of the hull ships are divided into floating, gliding,
(суда на подводных крыльях, суда на воздушной подушке) ____________.
7. According to (назначению) __________ ships are classified into
transport ships, fishing ships, research ships, training, ships, competitive boats,
etc.
8. Transport ships are divided into passenger ships, cargo ships, passen-
ger-cargo ships and (паромы) ___________.
9. (Навалочники) __________ carry bulk cargo.
10. (Транспортные) ___________ ferries carry cars.

Ex. 12. Complete the sentences:

1. Ships are classified according to _____________________________.


2. According to the place of navigation ships may be divided into _____.
3. According to the hull material ships may be ____________________.
4. According to drive ships are divided into ______________________.
5. Non-self-propelled ships are ________________________________.
6. Rowing ships are _________________________________________.
47
7. Self-propelled ships are ____________________________________.
8. A motor ship is propelled ___________________________________.
9. A steamer is propelled _____________________________________.
10. According to their destination ships are divided into ______________.
11. Transport ships are divided into ______________________________.
12. There are many types of cargo ships, such as ___________________.
13. Fishing ships are __________________________________________.

Ex. 13. Match the definition of the words in the box:

ice-breaker, pinnace, trireme, gondola, man-of-war, junk,


trimaran, catamaran, keelboat, dinghy

1. This ship is one of two marine craft, the first a small vessel used as a
tender to larger vessels amongst other things, and the second a ship rigged vessel
popular in northern waters through the 17th-19th centuries.
2. The ship is a traditional, flat-bottomed Venetian rowing boat, well
suited to the conditions of the Venetian Lagoon.
3. The ship is a Chinese sailboat design dating from ancient times and
still in use today. They were developed during the Han Dynasty (206 BC-220
AD) and were used as ocean-going vessels as early as the 2nd century AD.
4. The ship (from Tamil ‘kattumaram’) is a type of multihulled boat or
ship consisting of two hulls, or ‘vakas’, joined by some structure, the most basic
being a frame, formed of ‘akas’. They can be sail- or engine-powered.
5. The ship is a type of small boat, often carried or towed by a larger
vessel.
6. The ship is a type of usually long narrow cigar-shaped riverboat, or
unsheltered water barge which is sometimes also called a poleboat.
7. The ship is a special-purpose ship or boat designed to move and navi-
gate through ice-covered waters.
8. The ship (Greek or Latin origin) is a class of warship used by the an-
cient civilizations of the Mediterranean, especially the Phoenicians, ancient
Greeks and Romans.
9. The ship was the most powerful type of armed ship from the 16th to
the 19th centuries.
10. The ship is a multihulled boat consisting of a main hull (vaka) and two
smaller outrigger hulls (amas), attached to the main hull with lateral struts
(akas).

48
Ex. 14. Fill in the box listing the ships according to different classifica-
tions:

Types of classification Ships, boats, vessels, materials, etc.


the number of hulls
the shape and size
the building material used plastic
the epoch in which the vessel was used
the geographic origin of the vessel
the destination of the ships
non-self-propelled vessels
self-propelled vessels
rowing vessels
underwater vessels submarine
diving vessels
half-plunged vessels
displacement type vessels
gliding vessels
hydrofoil vessels
air-cushion vessels
dynamic air-cushion vessels

Ex. 15. Answer the questions to the text:

1. Are there any classifications of ships?


2. What are the classifications?
3. What do they differ?
4. What criteria are used in the classifications?
5. What is the different between the classification based on propulsion
and the classification by drive?
6. What types of ships can you enumerate taking into account the classi-
fication based on the usage of the ships?
7. What are non-self-propelled ships?
8. What kind of ship can be self-propelled?
9. Are rowing vessels concern with non-self-propelled type of vessels?
10. What ships are classified by placing of the hull?
11. How do diving ships and underwater vessels differ?
12. What other types of ships of latter classification do you know?
13. What is the more often used type of vessels in your region? Why?

49
Ex. 16. Speak on the following items:

 different types of ships’ classifica-  classification by placing of the hull;


tions;  classification based on propulsion.
 classification by drive;

Ex. 17. Summarize the information from the Unit and make a report on
any type of classification you’ve chosen.

Ex. 18. Do task 7 in Appendix 7.

Unit 8. COMMERCIAL VESSELS

Ex. 1. Active Vocabulary. Read and learn new words and word-combi-
nations:

dry cargo – сухой груз perishable cargo – скоропортящийся


liquid – жидкий груз
in bulk – навалом to demand – требовать
general cargo – генеральный груз multi-purpose vessel – универсаль-
break-bulk ship – судно для пере- ное, многоцелевое судно
возки генерального груза luggage = baggage – багаж
intermodal – интермодальный (под- maintenance – уход, эксплуатация
ходящий для перевозки любым ви- to store – складировать, хранить
дом транспорта) fast = high-speed vessel – быстро-
to roll – катать ходное судно
to roll on – вкатывать flight – рейс
to roll off – выкатывать cruise – круиз
oil – нефть, масло to move – двигать(ся)
LNG (Liquid Natural Gas) tanker – to move through – перебросить
судно для перевозки сжиженных clean tanker – танкер для перевозки
природных газов очищенной нефти
to range – ранжировать, классифи- dirty tanker – танкер для перевозки
цировать темных нефтепродуктов
vehicle – транспортное средство fuel – топливо
leisure – досуг lubricating oil – смазочное масло
tugboat – буксирный катер petrol – бензин
pilot boat – лоцманский катер petroleum – нефть
cable ship – кабельное судно paraffin – керосин
survey craft – гидрографическое pump – насос; качать
судно cruising speed – крейсерская ско-
50
crew – экипаж, команда рость
pump-jet engine – водометный дви- trial speed – скорость на испытани-
житель ях
foodstuffs – продовольствие loaded speed – скорость в грузу
to intend (for) – предназначать(ся) service speed – эксплуатационная
refrigerator ship – рефрижераторное скорость
судно ship-handling – управление кораб-
лем

Ex. 2. Give Russian equivalents to the English ones:

atomic (heavy, liquid, solid, uranium) oil − __________________________


fuel − _________________________ fuel oil − _______________________
service (cruising, trial, engine, free oil engine − _____________________
running, full, high) speed − _______ engine oil − _____________________
at full speed − __________________ diesel oil − _____________________
a speedy boat − _________________ lubricating oil − _________________
at a speed of 30 knots − __________ tank − _________________________
air (cargo, cargo-oil, clean ballast, ballast (cargo, fuel, cargo-fuel, clean
deck, fresh water, salt water, oil, petro- fuel oil, deep, diesel fuel) tank − ___
leum) pump − __________________ to keep air clean (a port open during
pumproom − ____________________ the winter) − ____________________
is known as a speedy ship − _______ to know the speed (the distance) − ___

Ex. 3. Listen and repeat after the lecturer:

1. A clean tanker carries petrol and paraffin.


2. A dirty tanker carries heavy fuel, oil and lubricating oil.
3. Longitudinal bulkheads run fore and aft and divide the hull into long
spaces.
4. Transverse bulkheads run from side to side and form tanks.
5. Oil is moved into tanks and out of them by pumps.
6. Pumps also keep air clean.

Ex. 4. Guess the meaning of the international words:

machinery maximum decade reverse


forward designer instruction engineer
steel generator model spectrum
parallel combine regularly passenger
centre boiler product filler
tank radiator capital ton
51
individual tonnage ventilation tanker

Ex. 5. State the parts of speech of the following groups of words and
translate them. Use dictionary if necessary.

Oil – to oil – oil-bearing – oilcake – oilcan – oilcar – oilcloth – oilcoat –


oilcolour – oil-derrick – oiled – oiler – oilfield – oil-filler – oilfuel – oilhole –
oilman – oil-paper – oilplant – oil-producing – oilskin – oily;
fuel – fuelling – to fuel – fueled;
speed – to speed – speedball – speedboat – speeder – speedily – speeding
− speedometer – speedster – speedway – speedy;
pump – to pump – pump-handle – pumpkin – pumproom – pumping;
move – to move – movable – moveless – movement – mover – movie –
moviegoer – moviehouse.

Ex. 6. Find pairs of words with the same meaning:

1) commercial a) operation 1) to carry a) to set (put) in motion


2) ship b) marine 2) to have b) task
3) activity c) baggage 3) to perform c) to specialize
4) foodstuffs d) vessel 4) to drive d) to fulfill
5) luggage e) automobile 5) to power e) in great quantity
6) vehicle f) machine 6) to specify f) to differ
7) technics g) voyage 7) to range g) individual
8) sea (adj.) h) merchant 8) in bulk h) to posses
9) flight i) cruise 9) purpose i) to transport
10) trip j) kind 10) person j) to propel
11) type k) provision

Ex. 7. Translate the word-combinations from English into Russian:

as – в качестве, как
to be designed as a passenger ship − __ to work as a captain − ___________
to be known as a good pilot − _______ to sail as passengers − ___________
as already pointed out − ___________ as shown in Fig. 24 − ____________
as it was provided earlier − ________ as it will be said below − _________

as well as – так же, как (и)


derricks as well as cranes − _______ cargo pump as well as ballast pump−
transverse as well as longitudinal _____________________________
bulkheads − ___________________ pump as well as generating sets − ____
length as well as breadth and depth− paraffin as well as petrol − _________
52
____________________________

as many as – целых
as many as three years − ___________ as many as 10 bulkheads − _________
as many as 5 days − ______________ as many as 100 − _________________
as many as 3 pumps − _____________ as many as 40 knots − _____________

some – несколько, некоторый


for some time − __________________ some oil − ______________________
sometimes − ____________________ some passengers − ________________
some bulkheads − ________________ some cargo − ____________________
some owners − __________________ some derricks − __________________
some tugs − _____________________ some ferries − ___________________
some hovercrafts − _______________ some hydrofoils − ________________
some crafts − ____________________

Ex. 8. Find pairs of words with the opposite meaning:

1) military a) small 1) to roll on a) to unpack


2) liquid b) work 2) to maximize b) to disappear
3) large c) multi-purpose 3) to include c) to stop
4) special-purpose d) dry 4) to appear d) unimportant
5) necessary e) unnecessary 5) to pack e) to minimize
6) long f) short 6) to move f) to exclude
7) leisure g) civil 7) important g) to roll off

Ex. 9. a) learn the meaning of the verb ‘to carry’ with different preposi-
tions:

to carry – носить, возить (о транспорте), содержать;


to carry on – продолжить;
to carry out – проводить, выполнять;

b) fill in the blanks with prepositions if necessary.

1. Cargo vessels carry _____ different commodity: products, technics,


building materials, timber, etc.
2. Commercial vessels carry _____ very significant role for global com-
merce.
3. Different investigations are carried _____ in the field of shipbuilding.
4. Violent storm carried _____ the whole night.
5. His scientific adviser carries _____ to investigate phenomenon of
53
buoyancy in the testing pool.
6. The student carried _____ a serious disease so he had to take exams in
autumn.
7. The slogan carries _____ the following: ‘Youth is our future’.
8. A young girl carrying ____ heavy cases, the driver suggested to carry
____ them.
9. Ferries are vessels which carry _____ both passengers and vehicles
between two coasts of the river or strait.
10. Liquid cargo is carried _____ in bulk aboard tankers.

Ex. 10. Read the text “Танкер”.

ТАНКЕР

Танкер представляет собой однопалубное судно с кормовым распо-


ложением машинного отделения и надстройки. Грузовое пространство
танкера делится поперечными и одной, двумя или тремя продольными пе-
реборками на грузовые отсеки, называемыми грузовыми танками. Часть
танков предназначается для водяного балласта. К носу от машинного от-
деления располагается насосное отделение с грузовыми насосами для раз-
грузки судна от нефти. Их мощность может достигать 3 000 галлонов неф-
ти в минуту. Танкеры должны быть оборудованы противопожарными сис-
темами. Существует два класса танкеров: для перевозки темных нефтепро-
дуктов и для перевозки очищенных нефтепродуктов. Танкер для перевозки
темных нефтепродуктов перевозит тяжелое топливо, смазочное масло и
т.д. Танкер для перевозки очищенных нефтепродуктов перевозит бензин,
керосин и т.п.

Ex. 11. Read the sentences translating the words in brackets:

1. The ship (движется) _________ at a high speed.


2. The (насосное отделение) ________ is located aft of the engine room.
3. Longitudinal bulkheads (тянутся) __________ fore and aft.
4. Oil (перекачивается) ___________ with great speed.
5. Some (насосы) ___________ must keep the air clean.
6. (Смазочное масло) ___________ can be carried in the double bottom.

Ex. 12. Complete the sentences:

1. Tankers carry _____________________________________________.


2. A clean tanker carries _______________________________________.
3. A dirty tanker carries _______________________________________.
54
4. A tanker has her machinery and funnel _________________________.
5. The cargo space of a tanker is divided by bulkheads into ___________.
6. There are two types of bulkheads, such as _______________________.
7. Transverse bulkheads run ____________________________________.
8. Longitudinal bulkheads run __________________________________.
9. Oil is moved into and out of tanks by means of ___________________.

Ex. 13. Answer the questions ‘What do we call …’:

1) … the ship that carries petroleum?


2) … the tanker that carries petrol and paraffin?
3) … the tanker that carries heavy fuel oil and lubricating oil?
4) … the machine that moves oil into or out of tanks?
5) … the compartment for carrying oil?

Ex. 14. Agree or disagree using clichés:

That’s wrong. – Это неверно.


That’s (quite) right. – (Совершенно) верно.
That’s not quite true to the fact. – Это не совсем соответствует
факту.
According to the text… – Согласно тексту…

1. There are two classes of tankers.


2. A clean tanker carries lubricating oil.
3. A dirty tanker carries petrol and paraffin.
4. A tanker has her machinery as well as funnel amidships.
5. The cargo space is divided into tanks by bulkheads.
6. There are two types of bulkheads – transverse and longitudinal.
7. Longitudinal bulkheads run from side to side.
8. Transverse bulkheads run fore and aft.
9. Oil is moved into tanks and out of them by pumps.

Ex. 15. Read the text “COMMERCIAL SHIPS”.

COMMERCIAL VESSELS

Commercial vessels or merchant ships can be divided into three broad


categories: cargo ships, passenger ships, and special-purpose ships. Cargo ships
transport dry and liquid cargo. Dry cargo can be transported in bulk by bulk car-
riers, packed directly onto a general cargo ship in break-bulk, packed in inter-
modal containers as aboard a container ship, or driven aboard as in roll-on roll-
55
off ships. Liquid cargo is generally carried in bulk aboard tankers, such as oil
tankers, chemical tankers and LNG tankers (carriers).
Passenger ships range in size from
small river ferries to giant cruise ships. This
type of vessel includes ferries, which move
passengers and vehicles on short trips;
ocean liners, which carry passengers on
one-way trips; and cruise ships, which typi-
cally transport passengers on round-trip
The liner Queen Mary 2 voyages promoting leisure activities on-
board and in the ports they visit.
Special-purpose vessels are not used for transport but are designed to per-
form other specific tasks. Examples include tugboats, pilot boats, rescue boats,
cable ships, research vessels, survey crafts, and ice breakers.
Most commercial vessels have full hull-forms to maximize cargo capaci-
ty. Hulls are usually made of steel, although aluminium can be used on faster
craft, and fiberglass on the smallest service vessels. Commercial vessels general-
ly have a crew headed by a captain, with deck officers and marine engineers on
larger vessels. Special-purpose vessels often have specialized crew if necessary,
for example scientists aboard research vessels. Commercial vessels are typically
powered by a single propeller driven by a diesel engine. Vessels which operate
at the higher end of the speed spectrum may use pump-jet engines or sometimes
gas turbine engines.
Cargo vessels have appeared a little thousand years ago and since then
have not spent the popularity as carry out very important role for the world
economy. They transport products, the foodstuffs, technics, building materials.
There are many types of cargo vessels. They are:
• container ship intended for container transportation on the deck. The
vessel has only 10-26 persons of crew as the ship-handling is automated;
• refrigerator ships are refrigerators with strong ventilation keeping cold
temperature in cargo compartments. They are intended for transportation perish-
able products and products demanding low temperature;
• ‘roll-on’ ships are ships transporting containers, cars, timber which are
driven (or roll on) into a ship by lorries or trucks;
• bulk ships are cargo ships transporting bulk cargoes. The bulk ship can
transport more than 150 thousand tons;
• tankers are vessels transporting liquid and bulk cargoes, such as oil, nat-
ural gases, and liquid products. The most tankers move oil directly in holds;
• multi-purpose vessels are cargo vessels transporting at once some kinds
of cargoes, both liquid, and products, and technics, in different compartments.
Passenger ships are vessels intended for transportation of passengers and
their luggage and for maintenance of their safety. The passenger ship has cabins
56
for passengers, a cargo compartment where their luggage is stored, a dining
room and other entertaining rooms. They are:
• the liner is a large fast passenger vessel making regular flights. The
greatest sea liner is Queen Mary 2;
• the cruise vessel is the vessel making international flight;
• the ferry is the vessel transporting passengers and vehicle between two
coasts of the river or strait. The ferry is used also in the military purpose. It
moves through a water barrier transport, soldiers and provisions.

Ex. 16. Match the definition to the types of vessel given in the box:

commercial vessels, special-purpose vessels, multi-purpose vessels,


passenger ships, cargo ships, bulk ships, refrigerator vessels,
ferries, container ships, Roll-on ships, Roll-off ships,
tankers, cruise ships, liners

1. Vessels transporting both passengers and vehicles between two coasts


of the river or strait.
2. Vessels transporting containers on the deck.
3. Vessels including different categories of ships, such as cargo and pas-
senger ships, and special-purpose ships.
4. Vessels making international flights.
5. Vessels transporting perishable products.
6. Vessels performing specific tasks, e.g. rescue, survey, research, pilot
and some other functions.
7. Vessels making regular flights.
8. Vessels transporting liquid and bulk cargoes.
9. Vessels transporting cargoes which are driven into the ships by lorries.
10. Cargoes are driven off this type of ships.
11. Vessels transporting different cargoes at once.
12. Vessels transporting cargoes in large quantity.
13. Vessels carrying people and their luggage only.
14. Vessels transporting products, technics, building materials, etc.

Ex. 17. Answer the questions to the text:

1. What types of commercial vessels do you know?


2. What purposes are they intended for?
3. What is the main task of cargo vessels?
4. Passenger ships carry only people, don’t they?
5. There are two classes of tankers, aren’t there?
6. How are tankers classified?
57
7. What does a clean tanker carry?
8. What does a dirty tanker transport?
9. Where is the machinery of a tanker located?
10. By means of what is the cargo space of a tanker divided into tanks?
11. What kinds of bulkheads do you know?
12. How do transverse bulkheads run?
13. How do longitudinal bulkheads run?
14. How is oil moved into and out of tanks?
15. Are pump designed for pumping only oil?

Ex. 18. Say in English:

перекачивать топливо (нефть, бен- скорость эксплуатационная (на ис-


зин, керосин, воду, жидкость) − пытаниях, в грузу, максимальная,
______________________________ полная, высока) − _______________
топливо атомное (жидкое, урановое, танк балластный (грузовой, топлив-
тяжелое) − ____________________ ный, для очищенных нефтепродук-
проходить от носа до кормы (от тов, для дизельного топлива) − ____
борта до борта, вдоль, поперек) − __ _____________________________
_____________________________ сохранять порт открытым для нави-
сохранять воздух чистым − _______ гации − ___________________

Ex. 19. Render the text “Танкер” in Ex. 10 in English.

Ex. 20. Look through the text “COMMERCIAL SHIPS” in Ex. 15 once
more and divide it into several logical parts. Entitle each of them.

Ex. 21. Make up a plan to the text. Compare it with your group-mates.

Ex. 22. Make up dialogues on the following items:

 types of commercial ships;  cargo vessels;


 technical characteristics of commercial ships;  passenger ships.

Ex. 23. Summarize the information from the Unit and be ready with the
report on commercial vessels.

Ex. 24. The crossword.

Across: Down:
1. Подводная лодка (9). 1. Гидрографическое судно (6).
5. Плот (4). 2. Лодка, катер (4).
58
7. Баржа (5). 3. Авианосец (8).
9. Танкер (6). 4. Ледокол (10).
10. Яхта (5). 6. Буксирный катер (3).
11. Судно, катер, плавучее средство 7. Батискаф (10).
(5). 8. Галера (6).
12. Катамаран (9). 13. Буксир (3).
14. Паром (5). 14. Фрегат, сторожевой корабль (7).
15. Моторный катер (9). 16. Навалочное судно (4).
17. Водолазное судно (6).
18. Каноэ (5).
19. Джонка (4).
20. Линкор (10).

1 2 3 4
5 6

7
8
9

10 11

12 13 14

15 16 17

18
19
20

Ex. 25. Do task 8 in Appendix 7.

Unit 9. MILITARY AND AUXILIARY VESSELS

Ex. 1 Active Vocabulary. Read and learn new words:

support vessel – судно поддержки combat – боевой


auxiliary vessel – вспомогательное maneuverability – маневренность
судно suppression – подавление (огня)
59
aircraft carrier – авианосец weapons system – система вооруже-
cruiser – крейсер ния
destroyer – эскадренный миноносец to suffer – страдать
frigate – фрегат, сторожевой ко- disaster – бедствие
рабль race – гонки
corvette – корвет, сторожевой ко- conquest – покорение
рабль tow – буксировка; буксировать
submarine – подводная лодка towboat – буксир
amphibious assault ship – десантный rope – веревка
штурмовой корабль to deliver – доставлять
battleship – линейный корабль (лин- to push – толкать
кор) to extinguish – гасить, тушить
navy – военно-морской флот to inflame – воспламенять
ballistic missile – баллистическая rescue ship – спасательное судно
ракета dredging pump – землесос
missile submarine – ракетная под- soil – грунт, почва
водная лодка bathyscaphe – батискаф
minesweeper – тральщик manned device – управляемый чело-
offshore – прибрежный веком прибор
replenishment ship – транспорт- regatta – парусные или гребные
заправщик гонки, регата
facilities – средства, возможности diving boat – водолазное судно

Ex. 2. Combine in one word:

war craft
sub breaker
air marine
battle sweeper
ice ship
tow shore
mine propelled
off boat
self vessel
fire
rescue
steam

Ex. 3. Form words with the help of suffixes. Translate them.

-ly: general, usual, near, high, late, real, ready, wide;


-ment: replenish, treat, develop, equip, improve, achieve, agree, pay,
60
move, entertain;
-ion (-ation, -sion): suppress, operate, participate, transport, maximize,
communicate, examine.

Ex. 4. Translate the sentences paying attention to the verb ‘to be’ (see
Appendix 5, Глагол ‘to be’):

1. The new ship is to be propelled with diesel engine.


2. Oil is fuel.
3. Meteor is made of aluminium.
4. The shipyard is to launch one more ice-breaker.
5. This passenger liner is to operate as a cruise ship.
6. These cargo ships are to be strengthened for navigation in ice.
7. The ferry is arranged to carry passenger trains.
8. The vessels are to begin service next year.
9. Watertight bulkheads are to run from the bottom to the main deck.
10. Bulkheads are subdivision units dividing a ship into compartments.

Ex. 5. Translate the sentences paying attention to the verb ‘to have’:

1. Students have to work hard to pass their exams.


2. He studies at the full-time department and has to attend all lectures
and tutorials.
3. The ship has some centerline bulkheads and some transverse bulk-
heads.
4. They had to agree to this plan.
5. A passenger ship has some decks.
6. I have never visited the Naval Library.
7. We had left the port before the sun raised.
8. I had no book on navigation last year.
9. We had to slow down the ship’s speed because of the violent storm.
10. We shall have to take a pilot on board in the strait.
11. He has many interesting books on shipbuilding at home.

Ex. 6. Say in the Past Simple and Future Simple (see Appendix 5, Мо-
дальные глаголы, Table 12):

1. The tanker may leave the port.


2. The shipbuilders must build some ships.
3. The steamer must be unloaded at once.
4. This passenger ship can sail at a speed of 17 knots.
5. The ship mustn’t take more cargo than it may.
61
6. This lifeboat cannot take more than 16 passengers.
7. Some pumps can pump 3 000 gallons of oil a minute.
8. The cadets must have their sailing practice.
9. You may not smoke in this room.
10. They must launch the second ship of this type.

Ex. 7. Fill in with the modal verbs or their equivalents (see Appendix 5,
Модальные глаголы, Table 12):

1. All tankers _________ be classified into two groups: clean tankers


and dirty ones.
2. Petrol, paraffin __________ be carried by clean tankers.
3. An oil tanker __________ be easily recognized because her machi-
nery as well as her funnel is aft.
4. Passengers __________ not be carried under the waterline.
5. Bulkheads in a tank __________ be oiltight.
6. You __________ unload the ship as soon as possible.
7. Tools __________ always be kept clean.
8. We __________ launch the ship in time.
9. Machine room __________ be provided with ventilation.
10. Tankers __________ not take passengers on board.
11. The steamer _______ stay in the port because the weather was stormy.
12. Compartments __________ provide safety of the ship.
13. The space between superstructures _______ be protected by bulwark.
14. The ship __________ carry cargo on deck.
15. Air pump __________ pump oil.

Ex. 8. State the part of speech of the words in italic and translate the
sentences:

1. We must fuel the ship. This engine works on liquid fuel.


2. Oil the engine regularly. Fuel oil is carried in tanks.
3. The ship sails at a speed of 30 knots. Hydrofoil ships speed along the
river all day long.
4. Transverse bulkheads run from side to side. The run of this ship is from
Khabarovsk to Nikolaevsk-na-Amure.
5. The ship has two pumps. Each pumps 3 000 gallons of fuel a minute.

Ex. 9. Read the text “MILITARY AND AUXILIARY VESSELS”.

62
MILITARY AND AUXILIARY VESSELS

1. Military Vessels
Modern naval vessels can be broken down into three categories: warships,
submarines, and support and auxiliary vessels.

American aircraft carrier Harry S. Truman


and a replenishment ship

Modern warships are generally divided into seven main categories, which
are: aircraft carriers, cruisers, destroyers, frigates, corvettes, submarines and
amphibious assault ships. Battleships cover an eighth category, but are not in
current service with any navy in the world.
Most military submarines are either attack submarines or ballistic missile
submarines. Most navies also include many types of support and auxiliary ves-
sels, such as minesweepers, patrol boats, offshore patrol vessels, replenishment
ships, and hospital ships which are designated with medical treatment facilities.
Combat vessels like cruisers and destroyers usually have fine hulls to
maximize speed and maneuverability. They also usually have advanced elec-
tronics and communication systems, as well as weapons.

2. Auxiliary Vessels
Auxiliary vessels perform tasks of second importance. Auxiliary vessels
do not transport passengers and cargoes, do not participate in flights, but carry
out some important problems: suppression of fires, rescue of suffered in disaster.
Others are intended for entertainment, for example, for races. There are also
vessels which perform scientific research job.
The following auxiliary vessels exist:

63
• the ice-breaker is the vessel performing icebreaking operations: escort of
vessels through ices, rescue operations and , at last, conquest of the Arctic and
Antarctic ices. The ice-breaker breaks ice by its weight. The first ice-breaker
was Russian Pilot. In 1959 there
appeared the atomic ice-breaker Lenin,
then Arctic regions, Siberia and Russia;
• the tow boat is the vessel
intended for movement of non-self-
propelled vessels. The towing vessel
takes the barge or broken vessel on a
towing rope and delivers it in port.
Sometimes tows simply push a vessel
forward;
A bathyscaphe at the oceanographic
• the fire vessel is the vessel
museum in Monaco
intended for suppression of fires on the
big vessels, for example, tankers, or ashore. Fire vessels can extinguish also
inflamed oil on a surface of water;
• the rescue ship is intended for rescue operations in the sea;
• the dredging pump is the underwater and surface vessel intended for
deeping of underwater soil in some places and also for an earth capture for
examination;
• the bathyscaphe is the underwater manned device intended for
oceanographic and other underwater researches on the big depth. The first
bathyscaphe appeared in 1948 was constructed by scientist Ogjustom Pikarom;
• sports vessels are vessels participating in races. Such vessels more often
are the small boats developing the big speed. There is such concept as a regatta
in which sailing vessels participate;
• the diving boat is a vessel equipped with a diving complex and intended
for underwater works.

Ex. 10. Find in the text English equivalents to the Russian ones:

военно-морское судно − _________ современный военный корабль − ___


авианосец − ___________________ эскадренный миноносец − _________
крейсер − ______________________ корвет − ________________________
сторожевой корабль − ___________ подводная лодка − _______________
десантный штурмовой корабль − линкор − _______________________
_______________________________ находиться на службе − ___________
баллистическая ракета − _________ вспомогательное судно − _________
судно поддержки − ______________ сторожевой корабль − ____________
тральщик − ____________________ гладкий корпус − ________________
транспортный заправщик − _______ увеличивать скорость и маневрен-
64
оборудованный медицинским ос- ность − ________________
нащением − __________________ выполнять второстепенные задачи −
передовая электроника и система ________________________________
связи − _______________________ спасение пострадавших в беде − ___
принимать участие в рейсах − ____ выполнять научно-исследователь-
проводить суда через льды − _____ скую работу − _________________
завоевание льдов − _____________ своим весом − __________________
атомный ледокол − _____________ доставлять в порт − ______________
на берегу − ____________________ на поверхности воды − ___________
спасательные операции − ________ углубление подводного грунта − ___
взятие земли на пробу − _________ на большой глубине − ___________
океанографические исследования − участвовать в гонках − ___________
_____________________________ оборудованный водолазным ком-
развивать большую скорость − ____ плексом − __________________

Ex. 11. Render in Russian:

can be broken down into − _________ to be generally divided into − _______


to cover an eighth category − _______ to be not in current service with any
either… or… − __________________ navy in the world − ______________
to include many types − ___________ to be designated with medical treat-
to maximize speed and maneuverabili- ment facilities − _________________
ty − __________________________ as well as weapons − _____________
to carry out some important problems to be intended for entertainment − ___
− ____________________________ icebreaking operations − __________
movement of non-self-propelled ves- to take on a towing rope − _________
sels − _______________________ to push a vessel forward − _________
to extinguish inflamed oil − ________ the underwater and surface vessel −
the underwater manned device − _____ ______________________________
to be constructed by scientist − ______ the concept as a regatta − __________
vessels participating in races − ______ a vessel equipped with a diving comp-
a vessel intended for deeping of lex − _________________________
underwater soil − ________________ a vessel performing icebreaking opera-
a vessel intended for suppression of tions − _________________________
fires on the big vessels − ___________

Ex. 12. Fill in the gap with suitable verbs given in the box:

include, maximize, divided, transport, develop, broken, deeps, have,


perform, appeared, carry out, intended, suppress, makes

65
1. Modern military ships can be __________ into 3 categories.
2. Contemporary warships are usually __________ into 7 types.
3. Most navies ________ different types of support and auxiliary vessels.
4. Combat vessels generally _________ fine hulls to __________ speed.
5. Auxiliary vessels __________ tasks of second importance.
6. They don’t __________ passengers and cargoes, but __________
some important problems.
7. The first atomic ice-breaker __________ in 1959.
8. The tow boat is __________ to move non-self-propelled vessels.
9. The fire vessel is intended to __________ fires on the big vessels.
10. The dredging pump __________ underwater soil.
11. The bathyscaphe __________ researches on the big depth.
12. Sports vessels participate in races and can __________ big speed.

Ex. 13. Answer the questions to the text:

1. How many categories of naval ships do you know? What are they?
2. Are there 7 or 8 types of warships in current service with a navy?
3. What types of submarines are most military ones?
4. What classes of support and auxiliary vessels can you enumerate?
5. Which main characteristics of combat vessels do you find preferable?
6. Auxiliary vessels perform tasks of main importance, don’t they?
7. What operations do ice-breakers perform?
8. What is the main function of the tow boats?
9. The fire vessel is intended to suppress fires only on tankers, isn’t it?
10. What is the rescue ship?
11. The dredging pump isn’t considered the auxiliary vessel, is it?
12. What are the main features of the bathyscaph?
13. Are sports and diving vessels intended for entertainment? Why?

Ex. 14. Group 2-3 students and make up dialogues about:

 categories of navies;  auxiliary vessels

Ex. 15. Summarize the information from the Unit and make up a report
on military and auxiliary vessels.

Ex. 16. Do task 9 in Appendix 7.

66
Unit 10. FISHING, INLAND AND COASTAL VESSELS AND OTHERS

Ex. 1. Active Vocabulary. Read and learn new words:

fishing vessel – рыболовное (про- coastal – прибрежный


мысловое) судно coastal boat – каботажное судно
to subject (to) – подчинять waterway – водный путь
rigging – вооружение (парусное) river boat – речное судно
enclosed deck – закрытая палуба environment – окружающая среда
handling facilities – оборудование shallow draft – малая осадка
для обработки грузов topside – надводный борт
trawler – траулер freighter – фрейтер (трамповое судно)
ramp – аппарель freshwater – пресная вода
tuna – тунец variety – разнообразие
seiner – сейнер to defy – игнорировать, не поддаваться
skiff – ялик good-will ambassador – посол доброй
to capture – ловить воли
species – вид, разновидность abroad – заграница
pollack – сайда houseboat – плавучий дом
whiting – хек dwelling – жилище
skipjack tuna – тунец-попрыгун- wind farm – ветряная ферма
чик survey ship –гидрографическое судно
herring – сельдь cryogenic – охлаждающий
mackerel – макрель ‘boil off’ gas – выпаренный газ
anchovy – анчоус operating limit – режим работы
salmon – лосось boiler – паровой котел
shrimp – креветка to deal (with) – иметь дело (с)
lobster – краб, омар internal combustion engine – двига-
clam – моллюск тель внутреннего сгорания
squid – кальмар two-stroke diesel engine – двухтактный
crab – краб дизель
autonomous – автономный to improve – улучшать, совершенство-
whale – кит вать
drifter – дрифтер thermal efficiency – теплоэффектив-
inland – внутренний ность
inland boat – озерно-речное судно

Ex. 2. Translate from English into Russian:

to subject to laws − _____________ to subject to regulations and classifica-


fishing vessels − _________________ tion − _______________________
trade vessels − ___________________ to catch fish − __________________
67
to trade fish and sea animals − ______ to be intended for catching various
modern rigging − ________________ fishes − _______________________
technical features such as rigging − minority of decked vessels − ________
______________________________ enclosed and open deck vessels − ____
large autonomous − _____________ whaling vessels − ________________
special handling facilities − ________ winches and arms − ______________
a rear ramp − ___________________ tuna seiners have skiffs − _________
commercially captured species − ____ Alaska pollack − ________________
blue whiting − __________________ skipjack tuna − _________________
Atlantic herring − ________________ Chilean mackerel − ______________
Japanese anchovy − ______________ inland and coastal waterways − _____
to float upon the lakes − ___________ rivers and canals − _______________
river environment − ______________ shallow draft − __________________
broad of beam − ________________ a low freeboard and high topsides −
less corrosive − _________________ ______________________________
the salt water of the oceans − _______ to last much longer − _____________
a high growth area of shipping − ____ to be built with steam turbines − _____
in liquid state − _________________ to maintain the pressure and
to provide steam for the turbines − ___ temperature − __________________
internal combustion engines − ______ two-stroke diesel engines − ________
with greater thermal efficiency − ____ the wide variety of vessels − ________
a simple classification scheme − _____

Ex. 3. Render in English:

подкласс коммерческих судов − ___ несколько критериев − ___________


применяемые рыболовные способы парусное вооружение (оснащение) −
− ____________________________ _____________________________
мировой промысловый флот − _____ суда с открытыми палубами − _____
лебедки и рычаги − ______________ кормовые траулеры − ___________
расположенные в носовой части ап- ялики на сейнерах − ____________
парели − _____________________ сайда с Аляски − _______________
голубой хек − _________________ атлантическая сельдь − ___________
японский анчоус − ______________ чилийская макрель − _____________
коммерческая ловля рыбы и мор- большая автономность − _________
ских животных − _____________ китобойное судно − _____________
прибрежные и внутренние водные ходить по рекам, озерам и каналам −
пути − _______________________ _____________________________
речное окружение − _____________ широкий бимс − _________________
низкий надводный борт − _________ высокий надводный борт − _______
пресная вода озер − _____________ менее коррозийный для речных су-
иметь более долгий срок службы − дов − ________________________
68
_______________________________ широкое разнообразие судов − ____
не поддаваться простой схеме − ___ вышеупомянутые категории вклю-
исторические суда − ____________ чают − ______________________
часто используемый − ___________ корабль-музей − _________________
тренировочные суда − ___________ плавучий дом − ________________
плавучие конструкции − _________

Ex. 4. State the part of speech of the groups of words. Translate all the
words.

Fish – to fish – fishing – fishman;


commerce – commercial – to commercialize;
to differ – difference – different – differentiation;
to classify – classification;
mechanic – mechanical – mechanics – mechanism – mechanization – to
mechanize;
to exist – existence – existing – existential – existensianalism – existen-
cianalist.

Ex. 5. Form the words with the opposite meaning with the help of pre-
fixes (see Appendix 5, Table 13):

un-, in-, dis-, il-, im-, ir-

ability − ____________ legal − _____________ capable − ___________


advantage − _________ literal − _____________ comparable − ________
agree − ______________ migrate − ___________ considerable − _______
appear − _____________ mobile − ___________ different − ___________
approval − __________ personal − __________ direct − _____________
believe − ___________ polite − _____________ efficient − ___________
charge − ____________ possible − ___________ cover − ____________
practical − __________ human − ___________ order − _____________
accurate − ___________ separable − __________ placement − __________
adequate − __________ significant − _________ tolerant − ___________
responsible − ________ able − ______________ visible − ____________
armed − ____________ comfortable − ________ regular − ____________
attractive − _________ clouded − ___________ damaged − __________
load − ______________ lock − ______________ navigable − __________
qualified − __________ safe − ______________

69
Ex. 6. Read the text about fishing vessels, inland and coastal boats,
LNG carrier and some other types of vessels.

TEXT

1. Fishing vessels
Fishing vessels are a subclass of commercial vessels, but generally small
in size and often subject to different regulations and classification. They can be
categorized by several criteria: architecture, the type of fish they catch, the fish-
ing method used, geographical origin, and technical features such as rigging.
The world’s fishing fleet consists of some 6 million vessels. There is minority of
decked vessels with enclosed areas and the rest are open vessels. Most decked
vessels are mechanized, but two-thirds of the open vessels are traditional craft
propelled by sails and oars. More than 60% of all existing large fishing vessels
are built in Japan, Peru, the Russian Federation, Spain or the United States of
America.

Fishing boat in Cap-Haitian, Haiti

Trade (fishing) vessels are intended for catching various fishes, whales,
and sea animals and non-fish objects. Such vessels have large autonomous.
Among them: seiners, trawlers, whaling vessels and drifters.
Special purpose fishing vessels have special handling facilities. For
example, trawlers have winches and arms, stern-trawlers have a rear ramp, and
tuna seiners have skiffs. The top ten marine commercially captured species
include Alaska pollack, blue whiting, skipjack tuna, Atlantic herring, Chilean
mackerel, Japanese anchovy, salmon, shrimp, lobster, clams, squid and crab.

2. Inland and coastal boats


Many types of boats and ships are designed for inland and coastal water-
ways. These are the vessels that float upon the lakes, rivers and canals.
70
Barges are a prime example of inland vessels. Riverboats and inland fer-
ries are specially designed to carry passengers, cargo,
or both in the challenging river environment. River-
boats are generally of shallow draft, being broad of
beam, with a low freeboard or high topsides.
Lake freighters, also called lakers, are cargo ves-
sels. These vessels are traditionally called boats, not
ships. Since the freshwater lakes are less corrosive to
ships than the salt water of the oceans, lakers tend to The lake freighter
SS Edmund Fitzgerald
serve much longer than ocean freighters.

3. LNG carriers
New LNG carriers (a high growth area of shipping) continue to be built
with steam turbines. The natural gas is stored in
cryogenic vessels in liquid state aboard these ships,
and a small amount of ‘boil off’ gas is needed to
maintain the pressure and temperature inside the
vessels within operating limits. The ‘boil off’ gas
Supertanker AbQaiq provides the fuel for the ship’s boilers, which
provide steam for the turbines, the simplest way to
deal with the gas. Technology to operate internal combustion engines (modified
marine two-stroke diesel engines) on this gas has improved, however, so such
engines are starting to appear in LNG carriers; with their greater thermal
efficiency, less gas is burnt.

4. Others
The wide variety of vessels defies a simple
classification scheme. The above categories include:
• historical boats frequently used as museum ships,
training ships, or as good-will ambassadors of a country
abroad;
• houseboats, floating structures used as dwellings;
• scientific, technical, and industrial vessels, such A houseboat near
as mobile offshore drilling units, offshore wind farms, Kerala
survey ships, and research vessels;
• submarines used for underwater navigation and exploration.

Ex. 7. Fill in the blanks with the words given in the box:

vessels, fishes, criteria, subclass, inland, fleet, sails, intended, wind,


waterways, corrosive, boats, drilling, LNG, cryogenic

71
1. Fishing vessels are a __________ of commercial ones.
2. The world’s fishing __________ consists mostly of decked ________.
3. Most of the vessels are propelled by __________ or oars.
4. Fishing vessels are __________ for catching various __________.
5. Many types of boats are designed for inland and coastal __________.
6. Barges, riverboats, ferries and other boats are typical __________
vessels.
7. Inland and coastal vessels are traditionally called ________, not ships.
8. Fresh water of lakes is less __________ to ships than the salt water of
the oceans.
9. The plenty of ships can be categorized by several __________.
10. Industrial vessels include offshore __________ units, __________
farms and others.
11. __________ means liquid natural gas.
12. The natural gas is stored in __________ vessels.

Ex. 8. Fill in the chart. Enumerate technical handling facilities, fishes


and types of fishing boats described in the text:

Types of fishing boats Fishes captured Technical features and


handling facilities
seiner whale winch

Ex. 9. Give the title to the text. Compare it with your group-mates.
Choose the best one.

Ex. 10. Tell about inland and coastal boats, their advantages and pur-
pose of usage.

Ex. 11. Read the 1st passage “Fishing Vessel” once more. Fill in the
crossword:

Across: Down:
2. Креветка (6). 1. Тунец (4).
3. Лосось (6). 2. Кальмар (5).
7. Дрифтер (7). 4. Анчоус (7).
10. Китобойное судно (6). 5. Макрель (8).
12. Омар (7). 6. Сейнер (6).
13. Моллюск (4). 8. Траулер (7).
15. Сельдь (7). 9. Краб (4).
16. Сайда (7). 10. Хек (7).
14. Кит (5).
72
1 2

3 4 5 6
7

8
9 10

11
12 13
14
15

16

Ex. 12. Prepare a short conversation about historical boats. Give exam-
ples.

Ex. 13. Ask your group-mates about houseboats. Prepare some ques-
tions and act as a teacher.

Ex. 14. Discuss disadvantages of industrial vessels.

Ex. 15. Describe technical features of LNG carriers.

Ex. 16. Summarize the information given in the Unit. Make up a report
on one of the following items:

 LNG carriers;  inland and coastal boats;  fishing boats.

Ex. 17. Do task 10 in Appendix 7.

Unit 11. ENGINE ROOM

Ex. 1. Active Vocabulary. Read and learn new words:

generator – генератор loss – потеря, убыток


compressor – компрессор to spin – вращать
fuel-lubrication oil purifier – топ- feed pump – питательный насос
73
ливно-смазочный фильтр to cool – охлаждать
to locate – размещать exchanger – обменник
machinery space – машинное отде- heat exchanger – теплообменник
ление to connect – соединять
accommodation – помещение to divert – отклонять, отводить
sound-proofed – звуконепроницае- to recirculate – циркулировать в
мый замкнутом пространстве
engine control room – диспетчерская to draw – втягивать
машинного отделения coolant – смазочно-охлаждающая
machinery – машины, машинное эмульсия, хладагент
оборудование oil line – маслопровод
machinery control system – система thruster – толкатель
управления оборудованием to suck – всасывать
propulsion engine – тяговый двига- to blow – дуть
тель docking operation – доковые работы
to turn – поворачивать, вращать to ban – запрещать
heavy fuel oil – судовое топливо tight confines – плотные границы
to switch – включать dry dock – сухой док
gearbox – коробка передач precaution – предосторожность
synchronized – синхронный voltage – напряжение
to ensure – обеспечивать hazard – опасность
smooth – спокойный, гладкий engineering staff – технический пер-
operation – работа, действие сонал
combined output – общая мощность individuals = personnel – персонал
requirement – требование acceptable limit – допустимый пре-
to accommodate – снабжать, обеспе- дел
чивать sufficient – достаточный
intake – впуск, доступ

Ex. 2. Form as many new words as possible from the following words.
Use any possible suffixes or prefixes. State the parts of the speech of each
word (see Appendix 5, Table 13):

accommodate, propel, machine, engine, circle, generate, boil, lubricate,


electric, change, divert, equip, operate, arrange, system, connect, take, cool, ha-
zard, purify.

Ex. 3. Make up word-combinations using the following words. Translate


them:

fuel, oil, lubricant, liquid, water, engine, dock, sea, space, propulsion,
fresh, room, system, control, gear, air, electrical, auxiliary, box, pump, thruster,
74
line, box, feed, accommodation, multiple, conditioned, living, machinery,
proofed, generator, ship, synchronized, operation, hydraulic, sound.

Ex. 4. Find pairs of words with the same meaning:

1) hazardous a) voltage 8) cryogenic h) to drive


2) craft b) boat 9) ship i) accommodation
3) type c) technician 10) to operate j) to run
4) personnel d) machinery space 11) to draw k) to suck
5) engineer e) kind 12) to propel l) vessel
6) engine room f) staff 13) confine m) cool
7) pressure g) dangerous 14) cabin n) limit

Ex. 5. Read the text “ENGINE ROOM”.

ENGINE ROOM

In a ship, an engine room is where the main engine(s), generators,


compressors, pumps, fuel-lubrication oil purifiers and other major machinery are
located. It is sometimes referred to as the ‘machinery space’. Engine rooms are
typically towards the stern, or rear, of the boat from the crew’s living
accommodations. On modern ships, a sound-proofed, air-conditioned engine
control room is situated next to the engine room, for − the ship’s machinery
control systems.

A bird’s eye view of a ship’s engine room

75
The engine room of a motor vessel typically contains several engines for
different purposes. Main or propulsion engines are used to turn the ship’s
propeller and move the ship through the water. They typically burn diesel oil or
heavy fuel oil, and may be able to switch between the two. There are many
propulsion arrangements for motor vessels, some including multiple engines,
propellers, and gearboxes.
There are also large engines driving electrical generators which provide
power for the ship’s electrical systems. Large ships typically have three or more
synchronized generators to ensure smooth operation. The combined output of a
ship’s generators is well above the actual power requirement in order to
accommodate frequent planned maintenance or the loss of one generator.
On a steamship, power for both electricity and propulsion is provided by a
large boiler. Superheated steam from the boiler is used to spin powerful turbines
for propulsion and turbo generators for electricity. Besides propulsion and
auxiliary engines, a typical engine room contains many smaller engines,
including generators, air compressors, feed pumps, and fuel pumps. Today,
these machines are usually powered by small diesel engines or electric motors,
but may also use low-pressure steam.
The engines get their required cooling by means of heat exchangers
connected to fresh seawater or divertible to recirculate to tanks in the engine
room which are also full of sea water. Both devices are used to draw heat from
the engines via the coolant and oil lines.
In addition to this array of equipment is the ships thruster system,
typically operated by electric motors controlled from the bridge. These thrusters
are laterally mounted propellers that can suck or blow water from port to
starboard (i.e. left to right) or vice versa. They are normally used only in
maneuvering, e.g. docking operations, and are often banned in tight confines,
e.g. dry docks. Thrusters, like main propellers, are reversible by hydraulic
operation.
Engine rooms are hot, noisy, sometimes dirty, and potentially dangerous.
The presence of flammable fuel, high voltage electrical equipment and internal
combustion engines means that a serious fire hazard exists in the engine room,
which is monitored continuously by the ship’s engineering staff and various
monitoring systems. That is why fire precautions are to be kept thoroughly.
If equipped with internal combustion or turbine engines, engine rooms
employ some means of providing air for the operation of the engines and
associated ventilation. If individuals are normally present in these rooms,
additional ventilation should be available to keep engine room temperatures to
acceptable limits. If personnel are not normally in the engine space, as in many
pleasure boats, the ventilation need only be sufficient to supply the engines with
intake air.

76
Ex. 6. Translate from English into Russian:

major machinery − ______________ crew’s living accommodation − _____


air-conditioned engine control room − next to the engine room − _________
_____________________________ for different purpose − ___________
to move through the water − _______ propulsion arrangements for motor
to provide power − ______________ vessels − ______________________
to ensure smooth operation − _______ frequent planned maintenance − _____
both electricity and propulsion − ____ low-pressure steam − _____________
required cooling − ______________ full of sea water − _______________
in addition to − _________________ to be used in maneuvering − ________
flammable fuel − ________________ electrical equipment − _____________
to keep room temperature − ________ intake air − ____________________

Ex. 7. Find in the text equivalents to the following Russian:

топливно-смазочный фильтр − ____ основное оборудование − ________


называется − __________________ жилые помещения команды − _____
звуконепроницаемый и проветри- рядом с машинным отделением − __
ваемый − _______________ несколько двигателей для различ-
вращать движитель − ____________ ных целей − __________________
двигать судно по воде − _________ сжигать судовое топливо − _______
переключаться с одного на другое − тяговые размещения − ___________
______________________________ многочисленные двигатели − _____
приводить в движение электричес- обеспечивать энергией электро-
кий генератор − ________________ систему судна − _______________
синхронные генераторы − ________ обеспечивать плавную работу − ___
общая мощность судовых генерато- запланированное обслуживание − __
ров − ______________________ обеспечивать мощностью малыми
использовать пар низкого давления дизельными двигателями − _______
− ____________________________ требуемое охлаждение − _________
отводной для рециркуляции − _____ кроме этого комплекта оборудова-
управляемый с мостика − ________ ния − _______________________
установленные по бокам гребные использовать при маневрировании
винты − ______________________ − ___________________________
сжатые плотными границами − ____ реверсивная гидравлическая работа
грязное и шумное машинное отде- − ____________________________
ление − ___________________ электрическое оборудование высо-
серьезная пожароопасность − _____ кого напряжения − ____________
обеспечивать доступ воздуха для проверяться техническим персона-
работы двигателей − _____________ лом − ________________________
присутствие персонала − _________ дополнительная вентиляция − _____
77
впуск воздуха − ________________

Ex. 8. Translate the sentences paying attention to the Gerundial Con-


structions (see Appendix 5, Герундий):

1. Air compressors are used to supply compressed air for starting engines.
2. Coolers are used for cooling either oil or water.
3. Besides running and maintaining the main propulsion machinery of the
ship, the ship officer has a great deal with auxiliary machinery to look after.
4. Water for the boilers is also heated before being admitted into the boiler
by feed water pump.
5. A lot of equipment is duplicated, so that one generator can be over-
hauled without cutting off the supply of electricity to the ship.
6. Engineer officers on tankers are also busy with operating the cargo
pumping machinery.

Ex. 9. Render in English:

1. В машинном отделении размещаются генераторы, компрессоры,


насосы, топливно-смазочные фильтры и другое технологическое оборудо-
вание.
2. Само машинное отделение находится в кормовой части судна,
отдельно от жилых отсеков команды.
3. В машинном отделении, как правило, располагаются двигатели,
предназначенные для различных целей.
4. Для работы всей электросистемы судна используется большой
двигатель, запускающий электрогенератор.
5. Чтобы обеспечить бесперебойную работу на больших судах име-
ется по три и более синхронных генератора.
6. На пароходах тяга и электроснабжение обеспечиваются большим
котлом.
7. Система охлаждения двигателей осуществляется с помощью теп-
лообменников.
8. Через хладагент и маслопровод втягивается тепло из двигателя.
9. Электромоторы приводят в действие стартовые ускорители. По-
следние используются при маневрировании в доках.
10. Наличие воспламеняющих веществ, высокого напряжения в элек-
трооборудовании и в двигателях внутреннего сгорания обязывает приме-
нять меры предосторожности.
11. Система вентиляции обеспечивает впуск воздуха в жилые поме-
щения, а в машинном отделении поддерживает соответствующий темпера-
турный режим.
78
Ex. 10. Answer the questions to the text:

1. What is the engine room?


2. Where is it typically located?
3. What engines does the engine room include?
4. What is the purpose of propulsion engines?
5. Are there any propulsion arrangements for motor ships?
6. What is the ship’s electrical system provided by?
7. What is the main peculiarity of a steamship’s propulsion and electrical
power?
8. What is the main work principle of the engine cooling system?
9. What is the thruster system?
10. What is its main objective?
11. Why is the engine room considered to be potentially dangerous?
12. What safety means of precautions are used abroad?
13. Why is ventilation necessary for the operation of the engine room?

Ex. 11. Make up a plan to the text. Compare it with your group-mates.

Ex. 12. Discuss the following items:

 location of the engine room;  safety means;  engine cooling process;


 engines and equipment;  thrusters;  ventilation.

Ex. 13. Prepare a speech on engine room and its equipment.

Ex. 14. Do task 11 in Appendix 7.

Unit 12. PROPULSION SYSTEMS

Ex. 1. Active Vocabulary. Read and learn new words:

propulsion system – движущая сис- reciprocating engine – поршневой


тема двигатель
paddle – весло, лопасть; шлепать по waste – отходы, мусор
воде disposal – устранение, удаление, вы-
pole − шест воз
marshy – болотистый to submerge – погружаться
to hoist – поднимать submerged – подводный
erect mast – вертикальная мачта nuclear-powered – атомный
stay(s) – стойка, ванты nuclear ship – атомный корабль
79
kite – бумажный змей crankshaft – коленчатый вал
turbo sail – турбопарус alternator – генератор переменного
rotor sail – роторный парус тока
saving – экономия, сбережение inferior – низший, худший
outboard – забортный power-to-space ratio – соотношение
twin-propeller – двойной винт мощности и пространства
contra-rotating – противоположное crosshead – крейцкопф, ползун
вращение trunk – желоб, труба, магистраль
controllable pitch – управляемый opposed piston – противоположный
уклон поршень
nozzle – сопло jetfoil – судно на подводных крыль-
nozzle-style propeller – реактивное ях с реактивным двигателем
сопло, гребной винт в направляю- to reserve – сохранять, запасать
щей насадке emission – выделение, распростране-
shaft – вал ние

Ex. 2. State the parts of speech of the words and translate them. Use dic-
tionary if necessary.

Reciprocate – reciprocating – reciprocation – reciprocator;


propel – propellent – propellant – propeller;
motor – motored – motoring – motorist – motorization – motorize – motory;
power – powerful – powering.

Ex. 3. Give the Russian equivalents to the English ones:

propulsion system for ships and boats twin-propeller − ________________


− ____________________________ power-to-space ratio − ____________
contra-rotating − _______________ controllable pitch − ______________
nuclear ship − _________________ turbo sail − ____________________
rotor sail − ____________________ poles and human propulsion used in
sails are hoisted on the erect masts − marshy areas − __________________
______________________________ for recreation and racing − _________
for fuel savings − _______________ outboard motors − ______________
propeller shaft − ________________ nuclear reactor − _________________
waste disposal − _________________ to run submerged at a high speed − ___
commercial nuclear ship − _________ rotating crankshaft − _____________
via an alternator − _______________ to have an inferior power-to-space ra-
crosshead construction of engine − ___ tio − _________________________
opposed piston construction − ______ two-stroke engine − ______________
four-stroke medium speed diesel en- a jetfoil passenger ship − __________
gine − ________________________ low power cruising output − _______
80
emissions in river environment − ____ a reduction of emission − _________

Ex. 4. Render in English:

движущая система − ____________ парусная движущая система − _____


болотистая местность − __________ поднимать паруса − _____________
поднимать паруса на вертикальную прогулочные лодки − ___________
мачту − ______________________ управляемый уклон − ___________
гоночные лодки − ______________ бумажный змей − ______________
противоположный поршень − _____ роторный парус − ______________
экономия топлива − ____________ забортный мотор − _____________
двойной винт − _______________ винт с противоположным вращени-
гребной винт в направляющей на- ем − _________________________
садке − _____________________ атомный корабль − ______________
атомный реактор − _____________ ядерные отходы − ______________
вывоз отходов − _______________ погружаться на глубину − _______
генератор переменного тока − ____ реактивное сопло − _____________
выхлопы в окружающую среду − __ худшее соотношение мощности и
соотношение мощности и простран- пространства − _________________
ства − __________________ двигатель с противоположным
крейцкопф − __________________ поршнем − ____________________
двухтактный двигатель − ________ двухтактный дизельный двигатель
четырехтактный дизельный двига- на малой скорости − _____________
тель − ____________________ сохранять теплоэффективность − __
судно на подводных крыльях с реак- снижать эмиссию − _____________
тивным двигателем − _________ распространение атомных отходов −
сохранять эмиссию − ____________ ______________________________

Ex. 5. Read the text “PROPULSION SYSTEMS”.

PROPULSION SYSTEMS

1. Types of propulsion systems


Propulsion systems for ships and boats vary from the simple paddle to the
largest diesel engines in the world. These systems fall into three categories:
human propulsion, sailing, and mechanical propulsion. Human propulsion
includes the pole, still widely used in marshy areas, rowing which was used
even on large galleys, and the pedals. In modern times, human propulsion is
found mainly on small boats or as auxiliary propulsion on sailboats.
Propulsion by sail generally consists of a sail hoisted on an erect mast,
supported by stays and spars and controlled by ropes. Sail systems were the
dominant form of propulsion until the 19th century. They are now generally used
81
for recreation and racing, although
experimental sail systems, such as the kites,
turbo sails, rotor sails, and other systems have
been used on larger modern vessels for fuel
savings.
Mechanical propulsion systems
generally consist of a motor or engine turning
a propeller. Steam engines were first used for
this purpose, but have mostly been replaced by The turbosail, a hybrid
propulsion system invented by
two-stroke or four-stroke diesel engines,
Jacques-Yves Cousteau
outboard motors, and gas turbine engines on
faster ships. Electric motors have sometimes been used, such as on submarines.
Nuclear reactors are sometimes employed to propel warships and icebreakers.
There are many variations of propeller systems, including twin, contra-
rotating, controllable-pitch, and nozzle-style propellers. Smaller vessels tend to
have a single propeller. Aircraft carriers uses up to four propellers,
supplemented with bow- and stern-thrusters. Power is transmitted from the
engine to the propeller by way of a propeller shaft, which may or may not be
connected to a gearbox.

2. Types of engines and turbines


Nuclear-powered steam turbines. In these vessels, the reactor heats steam
to drive the turbines. Partly due to concerns about safety and waste disposal,
nuclear propulsion is rare except in some navy and specialist vessels such as
icebreakers. In large aircraft carriers, the space formerly used for ship’s
bunkerage could be used instead to bunker aviation fuel. In submarines, the
ability to run submerged at a high speed and in relative quiet for long periods
holds obvious advantages. A few cruisers have
also employed nuclear power. An example of a
non-military ship with nuclear marine
propulsion is the Arktika class icebreaker with
75,000 shaft hp. Commercial experiments such
as the nuclear ship Savannah proved
uneconomical compared with conventional
propulsion.
Reciprocating diesel engines. About
A modern diesel engine
99% of modern ships use diesel reciprocating
aboard a cargo ship
engines. The rotating crankshaft can power the
propeller directly for slow speed engines, via a gearbox for medium and high
speed engines, or via an alternator and electric motor in diesel-electric vessels.
The reciprocating marine diesel engine first came into use in 1903. Diesel
engines soon offered greater efficiency than the steam turbine, but for many
82
years had an inferior power-to-space ratio.
Diesel engines today are broadly classified according to their operating
cycle (two-stroke or four-stroke), their construction (crosshead, trunk, or
opposed piston) and their speed (slow speed up to 300 revs/minute, medium
speed in the range 300-900 revs/minute and high speed above 900 revs/minute).
Most modern larger merchant ships use either slow speed, two stroke,
crosshead engines, or medium speed, four stroke, trunk engines.
The size of the different types of engines is an important factor in
selecting what will be installed in a new ship. Slow speed two-stroke engines are
much taller, but the area needed, length and width, is smaller than that needed
for four-stroke medium speed diesel engines. As space higher up in passenger
ships and ferries is at a premium, these ships tend to use multiple medium speed
engines resulting in a longer, lower engine room than that needed for two-stroke
diesel engines.
Gas turbines. Many warships built since the 1960s have used gas turbines
for propulsion, as have a few passenger ships, like the jetfoil. Gas turbines are
commonly used in combination with other types of engine, as Queen Mary 2
has. Due to their poor thermal efficiency at low power cruising output, it is
common for ships using them to have diesel engines for cruising, with gas
turbines reserved for when higher speeds are needed however, in the case of
passenger ships the main reason for installing gas turbines has been to allow a
reduction of emissions in sensitive environmental areas or while in port.

Ex. 6. Define the difference between the words ‘engine’ and ‘motor’.

Ex. 7. Fill in the blanks with either ‘motor’ or ‘engine’. Translate the
word-combinations:

Diesel _____, steam _____, two-stroke _____, four-stroke _____,


outboard _____, gas turbine _____, electric _____, reciprocating _____, slow
speed _____, medium speed _____, high speed _____, crosshead _____, trunk
_____, piston _____, _____ room, _____ installations, hydraulic _____,
propulsion _____, starting _____, universal _____, water _____, _____ ship,
_____ boat, _____ car, _____ generator.

Ex. 8. Make up as many word-combinations as possible with the words


‘sail’, ‘motor’ and ‘engine’.

Ex. 9. Make up sentences with these word-combinations.

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Ex. 10. Fill in the chart:

Categories of propulsion systems Means of propulsion


1. Human propulsion
2. Sailing propulsion
3. Mechanical propulsion

Ex. 11. Agree or disagree with the statements according to the informa-
tion from the text, using the clichés:

That’s wrong. – Это неверно.


That’s (quite) right. – (Совершенно) верно.
That’s not quite true to the fact. – Это не совсем соответствует
факту.
According to the text … – Согласно тексту …

1. Propulsion systems are common in all types of vessels.


2. Different classifications of propulsion systems exist, such as human
propulsion, sailing propulsion and nuclear propulsion.
3. Human propulsion includes sails, pedals and ropes.
4. Sailing propulsion consists of motors and engines.
5. Mechanical propulsion deals with gas and nuclear-powered turbines.
6. There exists only one propeller system, i.e. with a single propeller.
7. All ships are designed only with diesel reciprocating engines nowa-
days.
8. Diesel engines are classified according to their speed. No other classi-
fications exist.
9. Different types of engines are applied in one vessel.
10. The size of engines isn’t important for ship’s technical facilities.
11. Atomic reactors are installed in navies, ice-breakers and aircraft carri-
ers.
12. Gas turbines are suitable for the racing and pleasure ships.

Ex. 12. Render in English:

1. Паровые двигатели были заменены двух- и четырехтактными ди-


зельными двигателями.
2. Парусная движущая система доминировала до 19 столетия.
3. Вращающийся коленчатый вал приводит винт в движение.
4. Двухтактные двигатели на медленной скорости значительно выше
по размеру и необходимые для их размещения площадь, длина и высота
меньше, чем нужно для четырехтактных дизельных двигателей на средней
84
скорости.
5. Частично из-за проблем безопасности и выброса отходов, ядерная
силовая установка встречается редко, за исключением военных судов или
специальных судов, таких как ледоколы.
6. На авианосцах отсек, используемый для корабельного бункерова-
ния, может подойти и для хранения авиационного топлива.
7. Основной причиной установки газовых турбин на пассажирских
судах является снижение эмиссии в санитарных зонах или при стоянке в
порту.

Ex. 13. Answer the questions to the text:

1. What is a propulsion system?


2. What is it subdivided into?
3. What are the main means of human propulsion?
4. Propulsion by sail generally consists of a motor or engine, doesn’t it?
5. What is the main purpose of using motors and engines on ships?
6. What types of propulsion are employed on submarines and warships?
7. What types of engines are applied on modern ships?
8. When did they come into operation?
9. What classes of diesel engines d’you know?
10. What mechanical items are used for propulsion except motors and en-
gines?
11. What types of turbines do you learn from the text?
12. Where is a nuclear-powered steam turbine applied?
13. What types of turbines do warships and some passenger ships have?

Ex. 14. Group 2-3 students and speak on the following:

 propulsion systems (human, sailing, mechanical);


 reciprocating diesel engines;
 nuclear-powered steam turbines;
 gas turbines.

Ex. 15. Summarize the information from the Unit and be ready with the
report on propulsion systems.

Ex. 16. Fill in the crossword according to switch direction:

1↓ − желоб 5↙ − котел 11→ − двигатель


1↘ − ускоритель 6→ − мотор 12↓ − насос
2← − вал 7→ − конденсатор 13↗ − движитель
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3↓ − фильтр 8↓ − хладагент 14↑ − генератор
3 → − давление 9↓ − коробка передач 15↑ − напряжение
4↓ − поршень 10↓ − предел 16↖ − обменник

1 2 3

4 5
6

7 R 8

9
10 11

12

13 14 15 16

Ex. 17. Do task 12 in Appendix 7.

Unit 13. LIFECYCLE OF A SHIP

Ex. 1. Active Vocabulary. Read and learn new words:

lifecycle – жизненный цикл conversion – изменение, реконст-


stage – стадия, этап, период рукция
relationship – отношения underway – на ходу, в пути
shipowner – судовладелец pierside – на пирсе
operator – механик, оператор, ма- charter – фрахтование
шинист biological growth – биологический
designer – дизайнер, проектировщик нарост
shipwreck – кораблекрушение sandblasting – пескоструйная очист-
scrapyard – скрапный двор ка
outline – контур, очертание to sustain – выдерживать, испыты-
to assess – оценивать вать, поддерживать
dimension – измерение life expectancy – предполагаемая

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layout = schematics – план, схема средняя продолжительность жизни
расположения plywood – фанера
overview – беглый обзор yacht – яхта
peculiarity – особенность lifespan – продолжительность жизни
blueprint – светокопия, синька osmosis – осмос
plumbing – водопроводная система rotting – гниль, гниение
mold – шаблон to scuttle – затоплять (корабль)
to weld – сваривать breakwater – волнолом, волнорез,
afloat – на плаву мол
customer – клиент reef – риф
significance – значение, значимость to compromise – подвергать риску
to repair – ремонтировать; ремонт

Ex. 2. Find in the right column words formed of the words in the left
one:

launch a) lunch b) lucky c) launching


relationship a) correlate b) ship c) relate
accommodation a) date b) accommodate c) common
reconstruction a) reconsider b) reckon c) construct
maintenance a) main b) ten c) maintain
charter a) chart b) character c) charisma
facilities a) face b) facile c) facility
remove a) move b) remote c) mow
sustainable a) stain b) sustain c) suss out
significance a) sign b) sing c) resin
compromise a) prompt b) promise c) comprise

Ex. 3. Learn the verbs with prepositions:

to launch – спускать на воду, запускать to switch – переключать


to launch into – пускаться в (речь, дея- to switch on – включать
тельность) to switch off – выключать
to launch out into – браться за что-либо
to look – смотреть
to go – ходить, идти to look after – ухаживать (за
to go about – заниматься чем-либо больным)
to go away – уезжать to look back – оглядываться
to go down – спускаться, тонуть to look forward to – ждать с не-
to go in for – принимать участие в чем- терпением
либо to look on – наблюдать
to go on with – продолжать to look round – осматриваться
87
Ex. 4. Make up your own sentences with the above verbs.

Ex. 5. Find pairs of the words with the same meaning:

1) stage a) event 1) to build a) period


2) ship b) vessel 2) thoroughly b) to happen
3) significance c) to go down 3) main c) ventilation
4) to go away d) to include 4) air condition d) usually
5) feature e) to end 5) generally e) carefully
6) plan f) permanent 6) to charge f) to load
7) to finish g) peculiarity 7) to take place g) to operate
8) designer h) architect 8) complex h) to transfer
9) constant i) to manufacture 9) season i) difficult
10) case j) phase 10) overall j) basic
11) to produce k) to minimize 11) to run k) to depart
12) to comprise l) scheme 12) to convert l) general
13) to reduce m) importance 13) to sink m) to construct

Ex. 6. Read the text “LIFECYCLE OF A SHIP”.

LIFECYCLE OF A SHIP

1. A ship will pass through several stages during its career. The first is
usually an initial contract to build the ship, the details of which can vary widely
based on relationships between the shipowners, operators, designers and the
shipyard. Then, the design phase carried out by a naval architect. Then the ship
is constructed in a shipyard. After construction, the vessel is launched and goes
into service. Ships end their careers in a number of ways, ranging from
shipwrecks to service as a museum ship to the scrapyard.
2. A vessel’s design starts with a specification, which a naval architect
uses to create a project outline, assess required dimensions, and create a basic
layout of spaces and a rough displacement. After this initial rough draft, the
architect can create an initial hull design, a general profile and an initial
overview of the ship’s propulsion. At this stage, the designer can repeat the
ship’s design, adding detail and improving the design at each stage.
The designer will typically produce an overall plan, a general
specification describing the peculiarities of the vessel, and construction
blueprints to be used at the building site. Designs for larger or more complex
vessels may also include sail plans, electrical schematics, and plumbing and
ventilation plans.

88
3. Ship construction takes place in a
shipyard, and can last from a few months
for a unit produced in series, to several
years to reconstruct a wooden boat like the
frigate Hermione, to more than 10 years for
an aircraft carrier. Hull materials and vessel
size play a large part in determining the
A ship launching at the Northern method of construction. The hull of a mass-
Shipyard in Gdansk, Poland
produced fiberglass sailboat is constructed
from a mold, while the steel hull of a cargo ship is made from large sections
welded together as they are built.
Generally, construction starts with the hull and on vessels over about 30
meters, by the laying of the keel. This is done in a drydock or on land. Once the
hull is assembled and painted, it is launched. The last stages, such as raising the
superstructure and adding equipment and accommodation, can be done after the
vessel is afloat.
Once completed, the vessel is delivered to the customer. Ship launching is
often a ceremony of some significance, and is usually when the vessel is
formally named.
4. Ships undergo nearly constant maintenance during their career, whether
they be underway, pierside, or in some cases, in periods of reduced operating
status between charters or shipping seasons.
Most ships, however, require flights to special facilities such as a drydock
at regular intervals. Tasks often done at drydock include removing biological
growths on the hull, sandblasting and repainting the hull. Major repairs to the
propulsion and steering systems as well as major electrical systems are also
often performed at dry dock.
Vessels that sustain major damage at sea may be repaired at a facility
equipped for major repairs, such as a shipyard. Ships may also be converted for
a new purpose: oil tankers are often converted into floating production storage
and offloading units.
5. Most ocean-going cargo ships have a life expectancy of between 20 and
30 years. A sailboat made of plywood or fiberglass
can last between 30 and 40 years. Solid wooden
ships can last much longer but require regular
maintenance. Carefully maintained steel-hulled
yachts can have a lifespan of over 100 years.
As ships age, forces such as corrosion,
osmosis, and rotting compromise hull strength, and
a vessel becomes too dangerous to sail. At this Shipbreaking near
point, it can be scuttled at sea or scrapped by Chittagong, Bangladesh
shipbreakers. Ships can also be used as museum
89
ships, or expended to construct breakwaters or artificial reefs.
Many ships do not make it to the scrapyard, and are lost in fires,
collisions, grounding, or sinking at sea.

Ex. 7. Entitle the passages of the text.

Ex. 8. Translate from English into Russian:

several stages during the ship’s career an initial contract to build the ship −
− ___________________________ ______________________________
after construction − ______________ to go into service − ______________
to create a project outline − ________ to assess required dimensions − _____
to create a basic layout of spaces and a to iterate on the ship’s design − ____
rough displacement − ____________ a general specification describing the
construction blueprints to be used at peculiarities of the vessel − ________
the building site − ______________ electrical schematics − ____________
plumbing and ventilation plans − ____ a unit produced in series − ________
in determining the method of a mass-produced fiberglass sailboat −
construction − __________________ _____________________________
large sections welded together − _____ by the laying of the keel − _________
once the hull is assembled and painted the vessel is afloat − _____________
− ___________________________ to deliver to the customer − _______
a ceremony of some significance − ___ to undergo nearly constant mainten-
to be underway − _______________ ance − _____________________
to remove biological growths − _____ between charters or shipping seasons −
to sandblast and repaint the hull − ___ _____________________________
the propulsion and steering systems − to sustain major damage at sea − ____
_______________________________ to be converted into floating produc-
a life expectancy − ______________ tion storage and offloading units −
a lifespan − ___________________ _____________________________
as ships age − __________________ too dangerous to sail − ____________
to be scuttled at sea or scrapped by to be lost in fires and collisions − ____
shipbreakers − _________________

Ex. 9. Find in the text English equivalents:

проходить несколько стадий − _____ отношения между судовладельцами


военно-морской архитектор − _____ и проектировщиками − ___________
судно строится на судоверфи − ____ судно спускается на воду − _______
суда заканчивают свой срок службы спецификация − ________________
многими способами − ____________ создать проектную схему − _______
после начального чернового набро- улучшать проект на каждой стадии
90
ска − _____________________ − ____________________________
проект более сложных судов − ___ включать планировку парусов − __
длиться от нескольких месяцев − корпусной материал и размеры суд-
_____________________________ на − ________________________
иметь большое значение − _______ строить по шаблону − ___________
строительство начинается с корпуса водружение надстройки − ________
− ___________________________ судно на плаву − _______________
когда судно получает формальное периоды снижения рабочего состоя-
название − ____________________ ния − ____________________
основной ремонт выполняется в су- требовать постоянного обслужива-
хом доке − ___________________ ния − ______________________
по мере старения судна − ________ осмос и гниль − ________________
прочность корпуса подвержена сесть на мель или затонуть в море −
гниению − ____________________ _______________________________
искусственный риф − ___________

Ex. 10. Fill in the blanks with the words in the box:

shipyard, plan, lasts, mold, maintenance, biological growths,


relationships, construction, layout, specification, welded, painted,
launched, blueprints, ceremony, repair, sustained, peculiarities, stages,
dimensions, sandblasting, expectancy

1. A ship passes through several _______________ during its career.


2. The details of contract to build the ship are widely based on
__________ between the shipowners, operators, designers and the __________.
3. After the vessel is _____________ it goes into service.
4. A naval architect creates a project outline according to required
__________ and basic ___________ of spaces and displacement.
5. The designer produces an overall __________ and general _________
describing the __________ of the vessel.
6. The construction __________ are used at the building site.
7. The period of ship construction __________ to several years and the
__________ takes place in a shipyard.
8. The hull of fiberglass sailboat is constructed from a __________ while
the steel hull of a cargo ship is made of a large units _________ together.
9. The hull assembled and __________, it is launched.
10. Ship launching is often a __________ of great significance.
11. Constant __________ is needed during the whole ship career.
12. Performed operations in drydocks and pierside are suitable for
__________ and conversion.
91
13. Repair and maintenance include removing __________ on the hull,
___________ and repainting the hull.
14. Ships __________ major damage can be repaired or converted.
15. A life __________ of a ship can last between 20 and 100 years.

Ex. 11. Answer the questions to the text:

1. How many stages does a ship pass through its life?


2. What are these phases?
3. Where does a ship begin its life?
4. What moments does ship’s design include?
5. How long does ship’s construction last?
6. Need a ship be repaired during its life?
7. What is the average period of a ship’s life?

Ex. 12. Read the first passage of the text once more and tell your group-
mates about the functions of a naval designer.

Ex. 13. Enumerate the stages of a ship’s construction. Use the informa-
tion of the 3d passage if necessary.

Ex. 14. Constant maintenance during a ship’s career is a rather impor-


tant stage, isn’t it? Demonstrate it.

Ex. 15. Read the passage 5 and say what the basic forces influence a
ship’s age.

Ex. 16. Group 2-3 students and discuss stages of a ship’s life.

Ex. 17. Make up a report on a ship’s lifecycle.

Ex. 18. Do task 13 in Appendix 7.

Unit 14. SHIP POLLUTION

Ex. 1. Active Vocabulary. Read and learn new words:

pollution – загрязнение pathogen – болезнетворный орга-


to accelerate – ускорять низм
to pose – предлагать, излагать, при- toxin – токсин
нимать вид alteration – изменение
92
threat – угроза disruption – разрушение
diversity – разнообразие hormone – гормон
spill – пятно disorder – расстройство, беспорядок
devastating – разрушительный cancer – рак
crude – сырой tumor – опухоль
to contain – содержать exhaust emission – выхлопная эмис-
polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon – сия
полицикличный ароматический уг- nitrogen – азот
лерод fossil fuel – ископаемое (окамене-
to expose – подвергать лое) топливо
to exhibit – выставлять sulphur – сера
susceptibility – восприимчивость approach – подход
disease – болезнь to report – представлять отчет, со-
reproductive cycle – цикл воспроиз- ставлять отчет
ведения goal – цель
sheer – явный, абсолютный oversight – надзор
stipulation – условие to impact – воздействовать
stringent – строгий to track – прослеживать
harmful – вредный, губительный consumption – потребление

Ex. 2. Work with international words. Guess the meaning:

problem immune normal nitrogen


globalization atmosphere operation pollution
traffic accelerate organism affect
aromatic ocean genetic climate
routine port ballast tanker
transfer toxin percent fleet

Ex. 3. State the part of speech of the words. Translate them. Use the dic-
tionary if necessary.

Pollute – pollutant – pollution – antipollution;


glob – global – globalization – globalize – globosity – globular – globule;
manage – manageable – management – manager – manageress – mana-
gerial;
produce – producer – producible – product – production – productivity –
productive – reproductive;
environ – environment – environmental – environmentalist;
devastate – devastated – devastating – devastation;
emit – emission – emissive;
consume – consumer – consumables – consumption.
93
Ex. 4. Find pairs of words with the same meaning:

1) to accelerate a) collapse 1) navigation a) world


2) disease b) to contain 2) diversity b) strict
3) sheer c) change 3) to expose c) variety
4) to include d) illness 4) spill d) crude
5) to destroy e) to wreck 5) harmful e) to subject
6) destruction f) pollution 6) raw f) threat
7) stipulation g) evident 7) global g) spot
8) contamination h) condition 8) stringent h) shipping
9) alteration i) to speed up 9) menace i) destructive

Ex. 5 Form words with the opposite meaning from the given words with
the help of prefixes (see Appendix 5, Table 13):

ab-, dis-, mis-, in-, im-, il-, non-, un

civil − ________ health − _______ to load − _______ order − _______


animate − ______ mobile − ______ to allow − ______ to understand − __
tolerant − ______ legal − ________ conductor − ____ connected − ____
measured − _____ ability − _______ literacy − ______ possible − _____
natural − ______ balance − ______ toxic − ________ dimensional − __
freezing − ______ perfect − ______ date − ________ controllable − ___
to infect − _____ to charge − _____ valid − ________ pollution − _____
moral − _______ interested − _____ to claim − ______ smoker − ______
doubted − _____ qualified − _____ location − _____ to connect − ____
sense − ________ eatable − _______ to mantle − _____ employment − __
harmony − _____ stop − ________ normal − _______ limited − _______
known − _______

Ex. 6. Read the text “SHIP POLLUTION”.

SHIP POLLUTION

Ship pollution is the pollution of air and water by shipping. It is a problem


that has been accelerating as trade has become increasingly globalized, posing
an increasing threat to the world’s oceans and waterways as globalization con-
tinues. Because of increased traffic in ocean ports, pollution from ships also di-
rectly affects coastal areas. The pollution produced affects biodiversity, climate,
food, and human health.

94
1. Oil spills
Oil spills have devastating effects on the environment. Crude oil contains
polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) which are very difficult to clean up,
and last for years in the sediment and marine environment. Marine species con-
stantly exposed to PAHs can exhibit developmental problems, susceptibility to
disease, and abnormal reproductive cycles.
By the sheer amount of oil carried, modern oil tank-
ers must be considered something of a threat to the envi-
ronment. The International Tanker Owners Pollution Fed-
eration has researched 9,351 accidental spills since 1974.
According to this study, most spills result from routine op-
erations such as loading cargo, discharging cargo, and tak-
ing on fuel oil. Spills resulting from accidents like colli-
sions, groundings, hull failures, and explosions are much
larger.
The United States passed the Oil Pollution Act of
1990 (OPA-90), which included a stipulation that all tank- A cargo ship
pumps ballast
ers entering its waters be double-hulled by 2015. The Eu- water over the
ropean Union passed its own stringent anti-pollution pack- side
ages, which require all tankers entering its waters to be
double-hulled by 2010.

2. Ballast water
When a large vessel such as a container ship or an oil tanker unloads car-
go, seawater is pumped into compartments in the hull to help stabilize and bal-
ance the ship. During loading, this ballast water is pumped out from these com-
partments. One of the problems with ballast water transfer is the transport of
harmful organisms.
Ballast and bilge discharge from ships can also spread human pathogens
and other harmful diseases and toxins potentially causing health issues for hu-
mans and marine life alike. Discharges into coastal waters, along with other
sources of marine pollution, have the potential to be toxic to marine plants, ani-
mals, and microorganisms, causing alterations such as changes in growth, dis-
ruption of hormone cycles, birth defects, suppression
of the immune system, and disorders resulting in can-
cer, tumors, and genetic abnormalities or even death.

3. Exhaust emissions
Exhaust emissions from ships are considered to
The Exxon Valdez be a significant source of air pollution. Seagoing ves-
spilled 10.8 million
gallons of oil
sels are responsible for an estimated 14 percent of
emissions of nitrogen from fossil fuels and 16 percent
95
of the emissions of sulphur from petroleum uses into the atmosphere. In Europe
ships make up a large percentage of the sulphur introduced to the air, as much
sulfur as all the cars, lorries and factories in Europe put together. By 2010, up to
40% of air pollution over land could come from ships.

4. Marine fuel management


Marine fuel management (MFM) is a multi-level approach to measuring,
monitoring, and reporting fuel usage on a boat or ship, with the goals of reduc-
ing fuel usage, increasing operational efficiency, and improving fleet manage-
ment oversight. MFM has grown in importance due to the rising costs of marine
fuel and increased governmental pressures to reduce the pollution generated by
the world’s fleet.
Effective MFM requires that you know: how much fuel is used? how the
fuel was used? what things impact fuel usage? and by how much?
MFM allows a fleet owner to track actual fuel consumption and relate fuel
consumption to the work performed by the vessel. It supports the analysis of the
effectiveness of operating strategies and helps develop a clearer understanding
of how well a vessel uses its fuel.

Ex. 7. Translate from English into Russian:

ship pollution − ________________ as trade has become globalized − ____


the world’s oceans and waterways − pollution affects coastal areas − _____
_____________________________ human health − ________________
oil spills − ____________________ polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon − ___
to clean up − ____________________ the sediment and marine environment
marine species − ________________ − ___________________________
to exhibit developmental problems − susceptibility to disease − _________
______________________________ abnormal reproductive cycle − _____
accidental spills − ______________ loading cargo − __________________
discharging cargo − _____________ taking on fuel oil − ______________
double-hulled tankers − ___________ ballast water − ___________________
to help stabilize and balance the ship − the transport of harmful organisms −
_____________________________ _____________________________
human pathogens − ______________ harmful diseases and toxins − ______
to cause alteration − _____________ changes in growth − ______________
disruption of hormone cycles − _____ birth defects − __________________
suppression of the immune system − exhaust emissions − _____________
____________________________ a significant source of air pollution −
emissions of nitrogen from fossil fuels _____________________________
− ____________________________ emissions of sulphur from petroleum −
marine fuel management − ________ ____________________________
96
multi-level approach − __________ improving fleet management oversight
increasing operational efficiency − ___ − __________________________
the rising costs − ________________ to track and relate fuel consumption to
governmental pressure − __________ the work of the vessel − ___________
reducing fuel usage − ____________

Ex. 8. Render in English:

загрязнение от судоходства − _____ загрязнение воздуха и воды − _____


рост проблемы − _______________ представлять растущую угрозу ми-
увеличение движения в портах − ___ ровому океану − ______________
влиять на биологическое разно- нефтяные пятна − ______________
образие − _____________________ разрушительный эффект на окру-
оставаться на многие годы − ____ жающую среду − ____________
восприимчивость к болезням − ____ проблемы развития − ___________
неправильный репродуктивный по явному количеству − _________
цикл − _______________________ перевозимая нефть − _____________
владелец танкера − ______________ международная федерация владель-
исследовать случаи разлива нефти − цев танкеров по вопросам загрязне-
_____________________________ ния − ___________________
столкновение − ________________ посадка на мель − _____________
взрыв − ______________________ повреждение корпуса судна − _____
соглашение − _________________ танкер с двойным корпусом − _____
балластные воды − ____________ пакеты документов по вопросам
откачивать морскую воду − _______ строжайшей защиты окружающей
способствовать равновесию и ба- среды − ______________________
лансировке корабля − __________ перевозка вредных организмов −
балластная и льяльная разгрузка − _____________________________
_____________________________ распространение человеческих бо-
вызывать проблемы со здоровьем − лезнетворных организмов − _____
____________________________ сброс в прибрежные воды − ______
приводить к заболеваниям рака и источники загрязнения − ________
различных опухолей − __________ выхлопная эмиссия − ___________
управление морским топливом − выброс серы в воздух − __________
____________________________ многоуровневый подход − _______
цель снижения потребления топлива использование топлива − ________
− ___________________________ улучшать надзор за потреблением
повышать затраты − ____________ топлива − ____________________
отслеживать потребление топлива − увеличить правительственное дав-
_____________________________ ление − _____________________

97
Ex. 9. Express the meaning of the following words and word-combi-
nations:

biodiversity, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, pollution, susceptibility to


disease, double-hulled, harmful organism, disruption of hormone cycle, marine
fuel management.

Ex. 10. Fill in the prepositions where necessary (see Appendix 5, Table 2):

because of, into, with, of, on, by, to, in, from

1. Ship pollution is the pollution ___ air and water ___ shipping.
2. Pollution … ships directly affects ___ coastal areas ___ increased traf-
fic ___ ports.
3. Oil spills effect ___ the environment.
4. Marine species exposed ___ PAHs can exhibit developmental prob-
lems.
5. Modern oil tankers must be considered something ___ a threat ___ the
environment ___ the sheer amount ___ oil carried.
6. ___ 2015 all tankers must be double-hulled.
7. ___ stabilize and balance the ship seawater is to be pumped ___ com-
partments ___ the hull.
8. The transport ___ harmful organisms is one ___ the problems ___ bal-
last water transfer.
9. Ballast and bilge waters ___ ships can spread human pathogens and
other harmful diseases.
10. Exhaust emissions ___ ships is a significant source ___ air pollution.

Ex. 11. Make up a plan to the text.

Ex. 12. Answer the questions to the text:

1. What is ship pollution?


2. What does pollution affect?
3. What effects on the environment do oil spills have? Give examples.
4. What stipulations are necessary for oil tankers?
5. Ballast and bilge waters are potentially causing human health and sea
animals, aren’t they?
6. What do exhaust emissions result?
7. What is the average percent of air pollution come from ships?
8. What is the major goal of MFM?
98
9. What does effective MFM require?
10. What does MFM allow a fleet owner?
11. What analysis does MFM support?

Ex. 13. According to the plan write down key words and word-combi-
nations from the text.

Ex. 14. Using the key words and word-combinations write summary to
the text.

Ex. 15. Read the dialogue.

Inspector: Good afternoon. I am an inspector of Marine Pollution Con-


trol Department1. The point is that we have found a big oil
spill on the water surface not far from your ship.
Chief Engineer: I’m afraid, you’re mistaken, Inspector. Out ship has got all the
necessary facilities to prevent any pollution.
Inspector: It’s all very good. Perhaps I’m wrong, but I’m on duty to
check all the possible sources of pollution. D’you keep an Oil
Record Book2?
Chief Engineer: Yes, certainly. Here you are.
Inspector: Oh, yes, according to your entries3 you have had no spillage
for a long time.
Chief Engineer: By the way, I can show you our International Oil Pollution
Prevention Certificate. And you can make a tour of the ship to
make sure that there are no traces of oil spill or oil leakage.
Have you taken oil samples from that area?
Inspector: Yes, we have.
Chief Engineer: Then I’ll ask you to take samples of oil from our tanks and the
analysis will show you if those samples are identical or not.
Inspector: Thank you for your assistance, Sir.

Notes to the dialogue:


1) Marine Pollution Control Department – отдел по защите морской среды;
2) to keep an Oil Record Book – вести журнал нефтяных операций;
3) entry – запись.

Ex. 16. Answer the questions to the dialogue:

1. Why has the Inspector come on board the ship?


2. How can the ship prove that she is not to blame for the oil spill?

99
Ex. 17. Find the sentences in the dialogue:

1. Вы не правы.
2. У нас есть все необходимое оборудование для предотвращения
любых загрязнений.
3. Посмотрите наш журнал нефтяных операций.
4. Пройдите по нашему судну.
5. Убедитесь, что нет никаких следов разлива и утечки топлива.
6. Возьмите образцы топлива из наших танков.
7. Сравните образцы топлива из наших танков с образцами топлива с
места разлива.

Ex. 18. Read the dialogue.

Ship Suspected1 of Oil Pollution

Chief Engineer: Good morning, will you take a seat, please.


Inspector: Good morning. It’s the second time that I have the pleasure of
seeing you.
Chief Engineer: I have invited you to inspect our vessel as they may lay
charges2 to our ship for our having allegedly3 spilled fuel oil.
Yesterday the cast inspector came on board our ship and car-
ried out investigation4.
Inspector: How did they explain the purpose of their investigation?
Chief Engineer: They suspected that our ship had poured out oil into the water.
The spill was noticed from the coast guard helicopter.
Inspector: Did they take samples of oil from the ship’s tank?
Chief Engineer: Yes, they did. They hinted5 that the coast guards were check-
ing 5 or 6 ships in this very area.
Inspector: What do the pilots report?
Chief Engineer: They report that they have seen traces of oil on the ladder.
Inspector: Is it really oil?
Chief Engineer: No, it isn’t oil. There are remains6 of an old cargo of sugar left
from the last voyage. When they are raw they remind of mo-
lasses7.
Inspector: I must have scrapings of this substance. They will be analyzed
in my office. Well, may I see the vessel’s Oil and Ballast
Pumping Record Book?
Chief Engineer: Here you are. As you can see 6 days before the incident 2 ves-
sel’s sump8 tanks were washed and filled with sea water. Then
the water contaminated with heavy oil fuel was passed
through the separator in the engine room.
100
Inspector: It seems to me the analysis made by the Port Authorities has
not proved your fault9.
Chief Engineer: So far they abstain from arresting our vessel.
Inspector: That’s a good sign. I think the Authorities are awaiting the re-
sults of the laboratory tests before deciding whether to lay
charges. So, let’s hope for the best.

Notes to the dialogue:


1) to suspect – подозревать; 5) to hint – намекать;
2) to lay charge – предъявлять обвинение; 6) remains – остатки;
3) allegedly – якобы; 7) molasses – черная патока;
4) to carry out investigation – проводить 8) sump – маслосборник;
расследование; 9) to prove the fault – доказать вину.

Ex. 19. Answer the questions to the dialogue:

1. Who noticed some oil spillage not far from the vessel?
2. What do the pilots from the coast guard helicopter report?
3. Were the coast guard inspectors checking only this vessel?
4. What do they suspect?
5. Is it really oil on the vessel’s ladder? What is it in fact?
6. What can the Inspector read the vessel’s Oil and Ballast Pumping
Record Book?
7. Has the analysis made by the Port Authorities proved the fault of the
vessel?
8. What other tests must be made before taking the final decision?

Ex. 20. Describe the situation occurred on the vessel using the questions
in the Ex. 19 as a plan.

Ex. 21. Answer the question using the information of the Unit:

What measures must be taken on board a ship to avoid pollution of marine


environment?

Ex. 22. Do task 14 in Appendix 7.

Unit 15. SEAFARER RANKS AND PROFESSIONS

Ex. 1. Active Vocabulary. Read and learn new words:

seafarer – моряк, мореплаватель able seaman – матрос 1-го класса


101
ranks – рядовой состав to possess – обладать, иметь
responsibility – ответственность helmsman – рулевой
sophisticated – сложный lookout – пост наблюдения
skill – мастерство, умение gangway – сходня, проход
to employ – нанимать, использовать ordinary seaman – матрос 2-го клас-
circumstance – обстоятельство са
steward – стюард to keep up – содержать (в исправно-
on behalf of – от имени сти), ремонтировать
controversy – противоречие to scale – масштабировать
mate = assistant – помощник to buff – полировать
second-in-command – заместитель, to sweep – подметать
помощник, заместитель командира to splice – сплеснивать, сращивать
to supervise – наблюдать, надзирать, (концы тросов)
заведовать to break out – разбирать
security – надежность, охрана to recover – возвращать
welfare – благосостояние beach support equipment – берего-
cadet – курсант вое оборудование
to search – производить досмотр sewage – сточные воды, нечистоты
(судна) wiper – дворник
contingencies – непредвиденные об- to direct – направлять
стоятельства to assign – назначать
chart – карта to purchase – приобретать, покупать
cleaning – очистка chief cook – шеф-повар
apprentice – практикант to participate – участвовать
nautical – мореходный timing – согласованное действие,
boatswain = bosun – боцман расчет времени
carpenter – плотник sequence – последовательность

Ex. 2. Read and translate the words formed of one root. State their parts
of speech.

Respond – respondent – response – responsible – responsibility – respons-


ibly – responsive – unresponsive;
skill – skilful – skilled – unskillful – unskilled;
employ– employee – employer – employment – unemployment – employ-
able –unemployed;
supervise – supervising – supervision – supervisor – supervisory;
licence – license – licensed – licensee – licenser – licentiate – unlicensed;
qualify – qualifying – qualification – qualificatory – qualified – qualifier –
unqualified.

Ex. 3. Read the text “SEAFARER’S PROFESSIONS AND RANKS”.


102
SEAFARER’S PROFESSIONS AND RANKS

1. Introduction
Seafarers hold a variety of professions and ranks, and each of these roles
carries unique responsibilities which are integral to the successful operation of a
seafaring vessel. A ship’s bridge, filled with sophisticated equipment, requires
skills differing from those used on the deck, which houses berthing and cargo
gear, which requires skills different from those used in a ship’s engine room,
and so on.
The following is only a partial listing of professions and ranks. Ship
operators have understandably employed a wide variety of positions, given the
vast variety of technologies, missions, and circumstances that ships have been
subjected to over the years. A ship’s crew can generally be divided into four
main categories: the deck department, the engineering department, the steward’s
department, and other.

2. Captain / Master
The Captain or Master is the ship’s highest responsible officer, acting on
behalf of the ship’s owner. Whether the captain is a member of the deck depart-
ment or not is a matter of some controversy, and generally depends on the opi-
nion of an individual captain. The captain has no watch in addition to officers.

3. Deck department
Chief Officer / Chief Mate. The Chief Officer (often called the Chief Mate
in the United States) is the head of the deck department on a merchant vessel,
second-in-command after the ship’s Master. The Chief Mate’s primary respon-
sibilities are the vessel’s cargo operations, its stability, and supervising the deck
crew. The Mate is responsible for the safety and security of the ship, as well as
the welfare of the crew on board. Additional duties include maintenance of the
ship’s hull, cargo gears, accommodations, the life saving devices and the fire-
fighting appliances. The Chief Mate also trains the crew and cadets on various
aspects like safety, firefighting, search and rescue, and various other contingen-
cies. On most vessels, the Chief Officer and First Officer (or First Mate) are
synonymous, but passenger vessels often carry a separate First Officer who is
junior to the Chief Officer.
Second Officer / Second Mate. The Second Officer (or Second Mate) of a
merchant vessel is usually in charge of navigation and is the next licensed posi-
tion above Third Officer and below Chief Officer. The Second Mate typically
stands the 12-4 navigation watch periods. That is, the Second Mate will stand
watch from 12.00 to 16.00 at noon and again from 00.00 to 04.00 in the nights.
The Second Mate is typically the navigation officer aboard a ship. The naviga-
tion officer is responsible for maintaining the charts and navigational equipment
103
on the bridge. The duties also usually consist of developing the voyage plans
under the direction of the ship’s Master. The other duties of this position often
depend upon the type of ship worked aboard. On oil tankers, the Second Officer
usually provides the Chief Mate with assistance in tank cleaning.
Third Officer / Third Mate. The Third Officer or Third Mate is the third
officer of a merchant vessel. The most junior officer of the ship, the Third Mate
is usually the safety officer responsible for firefighting equipment, lifeboats, and
emergency systems and is in charge of a bridge or cargo watch.
Deck Cadet. A Deck Cadet (or Apprentice) is a nautical school graduate.
The Cadet must first carry out a one-year training on board ships, executing
tasks of an officer-of-the-watch under the supervision of senior officers.
Boatswain. A Boatswain, often phonetically spelled and pronounced ‘bo-
sun’, is in charge of the unlicensed deck crew and is sometimes also third or
fourth mate.
Carpenter. Ship’s carpenters are now rare. They are, however, frequently
found aboard passenger liners. Ship’s carpenters are sometimes referred to by
the nickname ‘Chips’.
Able Seaman. In the modern merchant marine, an able seaman (AB) is a
member of the deck department and must possess a merchant mariner’s docu-
ment. An AB will work in a ship’s deck department as either a watchstander, a
day worker, or a combination of these roles. At sea an AB watchstander’s duties
include standing watch as helmsman and lookout. While the ship is in port, a
watchstander may stand security-related watches, such as a gangway watch or
anchor watch.
Ordinary Seaman. An Ordinary Seaman or OS is a first-level position in a
ship’s deck department. An OS performs a variety of duties concerned with the
operation and upkeep of deck department areas and equipment. Upkeep duties
include scaling, buffing, and painting decks and superstructure; as well as
sweeping and washing the deck. An OS may splice wire and rope; break out, rig,
overhaul, and load cargo-handling gear, stationary rigging, and running gear.
Additionally, the OS secures cargo, as well as launches and recovers boats. The
OS may rig and operate hydrographic and other specialty winches, handle and
load oceanographic explosives, and arrange and load beach support equipment.

4. Engineering department
Chief Engineer. The Chief Engineer on a merchant vessel is the official
title of someone qualified to supervise the engine department. The qualification
for this position is colloquially called a ‘Chief’s Ticket’. The Chief Engineer
commonly referred to as ‘Chief’ is responsible for all operations and mainten-
ance that have to do with all engineering equipment aboard the ship.
Second Engineer / First Assistant Engineer. The Second Engineer or First
Assistant Engineer is the officer responsible for supervising the daily mainten-
104
ance and operation of the engine department. He or she reports directly to the
Chief Engineer. The person holding this position is typically the busiest engineer
aboard the ship, due to the supervisory role this engineer plays and the opera-
tions duties performed. Operational duties include responsibility for the refrige-
ration systems, main engines (steam / gas turbine, diesel), and any other equip-
ment. If the engine room requires round the clock presence and other junior en-
gineers can cover the three watch rotations, this officer is usually a ‘day worker’
from 06.30-18.30.
Third Engineer / Second Assistant Engineer. The Third Engineer or
Second Assistant Engineer is junior to the Second Engineer / First Assistant
Engineer in the engine department and is usually in charge of boilers, fuel,
auxiliary engines, condensate, and feed systems. This engineer is the third
highest marine engineer in rank. Не is also typically in charge of fueling or
bunkering.
Fourth Engineer / Third Assistant Engineer. The Fourth Engineer or Third
Assistant Engineer is junior to the Second Assistant Engineer / Third Engineer
in the engine department. The most junior marine engineer of the ship, he or she
is usually responsible for electrical, sewage treatment, lubricating oil, bilge, and
oily water separation systems and usually stands a watch.
Engineering Cadet. An Engineering Cadet (or Apprentice) is a nautical
school graduate. The cadet must first carry out a one-year training on board
ships, executing tasks of an officer-of-the-watch under the supervision of senior
officers.
Qualified Member of the Engine Department. A Qualified Member of the
Engineering Department is a senior unlicensed crew member in the engine room
of a ship.
Pumpman. A position frequently found aboard fuel tankers.
Oiler. An Oiler is one of the most junior crew members in the engine
room of a ship. An Oiler’s role consists mainly of keeping machinery lubricated.
Wiper. A Wiper is the most junior crew member in the engine room of a
ship. His role consists of wiping down machinery and generally keeping it clean.

5. Steward’s department
Chief Steward. The Chief Steward is the senior unlicensed crew member
working in the steward’s department of a ship. The Chief Steward directs,
instructs, and assigns personnel performing such functions as preparing and
serving meals, cleaning and maintaining officers’ accommodations and steward
department areas, and receiving, issuing, and inventorying stores. The Chief
Steward also plans menus, arranges supply, overtime, and cost control records.
The Steward may inspect or purchase stores and equipment. Additional duties
may include baking bread, rolls, cakes, pies, and pastries.
Chief Cook. The Chief Cook is a senior unlicensed crew member working
105
in the Steward’s department of a ship. The Chief Cook directs and participates in
the preparation and serving of meals, determines timing and sequence of
operations required to meet serving times, inspects galley and equipment for
cleanliness and proper storage and preparation of food. The Cook may plan or
assist in planning meals and taking inventory of stores and equipment. Chief
Cooks are sometimes referred to by the nickname ‘Cookie’.
Steward’s Assistant. A Steward’s Assistant or SA is a first-level crew
member in the Steward’s department of a ship. The role of the SA consists
mainly of cleaning and assisting with the preparation and serving of meals.

Ex. 4. Translate from English into Russian:

to be responsible for − ___________ to be in charge of − ______________


to carry responsibilities − ________ to be held under the direction − _____
to supervise − _________________ under the supervision − __________
seafarer − ____________________ seaman − _____________________
sailor − _____________________ rank − _______________________
profession − __________________ occupation − ___________________
licensed position − ______________ personnel − ___________________
staff − ________________________ crew − _______________________
sophisticated equipment − _________ beach support equipment − ________
different devices and equipment − ___ navigational equipment on the bridge −
firefighting devices − ____________ ____________________________
professional skills − _____________ assistant − _____________________
mate − ______________________ second-in-command − ___________
able seaman − _________________ ordinary seaman − _______________
master − _____________________ safety and security of a ship − _____
captain − _____________________ duties and responsibilities − ________
voyage charts and plans − _________ to provide assistance − ____________
watch − _______________________ cargo watch − __________________
bridge watch − ________________ officer-of-the-watch − ____________
navigation watch − _____________ anchor watch − _________________
gangway watch − _______________ security-related watch − __________
watch rotation − ________________ to stand a watch − _______________
nickname − ___________________ helmsman − ___________________
lookout − ____________________ to splice wire and rope − __________
a one-year training − ______________ to sweep and wash the deck − ______
cookie − _____________________ to keep machinery lubricated − _____

Ex. 5. Find in the text the English equivalents:

быть ответственным − ___________ отвечать − __________________


106
наблюдать − __________________ надзирать − __________________
проходить под руководством − ____ мореходные профессии − ________
капитан − ____________________ помощник капитана − ___________
курсант − _____________________ матрос − _____________________
матрос 1-го класса − _____________ матрос 2-го класса − __________
боцман − ____________________ плотник − ____________________
дворник − ____________________ смазчик − ______________________
насосчик − _____________________ имеющий лицензию экипаж − ____
главный инженер − _____________ нелицензированный член экипажа −
стюард − _____________________ ______________________________
повар − _____________________ шеф-повар − __________________
помощник стюарда − ___________ вахта − ______________________
стоять на вахте − _______________ вахтенное время − ______________
якорная стоянка − _____________ проходить практику − __________
смена вахты − _________________ исполнять обязанности вахтенного
сохранность навигационных карт − офицера − ____________________
____________________________ разрабатывать маршрут − ________
широкое разнообразие мореходных безопасность и сохранность судна −
профессий − _________________ _____________________________
благосостояние экипажа − ________ прозвище − ___________________
иметь документ торгового моряка − обязанности вахтенного − ________
____________________________ профессия первого уровня − ______
круглосуточное присутствие − ____ под наблюдением старших офице-
направлять − __________________ ров − _____________________
инструктировать − ______________ инспектировать − ______________
нанимать − __________________ готовить пищу − _______________
обслуживать оборудование − _____ назначать персонал − __________
подчиняться − ________________ выполнять обязанности − ________

Ex. 6. State the department of the following positions. Fill in the chart.

Department: Professions:
1) the deck de- − captain − able seaman
partment − deck cadet − second mate
2) the engineering − chief officer − chief engineer
department − third assistant engineer − third engineer
3) the steward’s − second officer − chief steward
department − forth engineer − oiler
− third officer − chief mate
− boatswain − chief cook
− pumpman − apprentice
− master − steward’s assistant
107
− qualified member − first assistant engineer
− carpenter − wiper
− engineering cadet − ordinary seaman
− third mate − second assistant engineer
− second engineer

Ex. 7. Match professions and their duties and responsibilities:

Professions: Duties and responsibilities:


1) captain a) the ship’s highest responsible officer;
2) deck cadet b) the safety and security of the ship and the welfare of
3) chief officer the crew on board;
4) third assistant c) maintaining the charts and navigational equipment on
engineer the bridge, developing the voyage plans and standing
5) second officer watch;
6) forth engineer d) is responsible for firefighting equipment, lifeboats, and
7) third officer emergency systems and is in charge of a bridge or car-
8) boatswain go watch;
9) pumpman e) a nautical school graduate, executing tasks of an offic-
10) master er-of-the-watch;
11) qualified f) is in charge of the unlicensed deck crew;
member g) is frequently found aboard passenger liners nowadays;
12) carpenter h) his duties include standing watch as helmsman and
13) engineering lookout;
cadet i) his duties concerned with the operation and upkeep of
14) able seaman deck department areas and equipment;
15) second mate j) is responsible for all operations and maintenance all
16) chief engineer engineering equipment aboard the ship;
17) third engineer k) his operational duties include responsibility for the re-
18) chief steward frigeration systems, main engines, and any other
19) oiler equipment;
20) chief mate l) is in charge of fueling or bunkering;
21) chief cook m) is responsible for electrical, sewage treatment,
22) apprentice lubricating oil, bilge, and oily water separation
23) steward’s as- systems;
sistant n) a senior unlicensed crew member in the engine room;
24) first assistant o) his position is found aboard fuel tankers;
engineer p) his role consists of keeping machinery lubricated;
25) wiper q) his role consists of wiping down machinery;
26) ordinary sea- r) he directs, instructs, and assigns personnel performing
man such functions as preparing and serving meals and etc.;
27) second assis- s) he directs and participates in the preparation and
108
tant engineer serving of meals and etc.;
28) third mate t) his role consists of cleaning and assisting with the
29) second engi- preparation and serving of meals.
neer

Ex. 8. Read the dialogue.

Chief Engineer: We need 300 kg of lubricating oil.


Bunker Supplier: What kind of oil do you want?
Chief Engineer: We want to supply Shell Meline 30 lubricating oil. We have
once purchased it and I don’t want to mix it with oil of
another grade.
Bunker Supplier: I see. We can supply you with the oil you ask for.
Chief Engineer: All right. Let’s arrange for the delivery then.
Bunker Supplier: Well. We can bunker you just at this berth. When d’you want
us to start?
Chief Engineer: We are ready to start bunkering right away. We are pressed
for time.
Bunker Supplier: As you like. See you soon. Good-bye.

Ex. 9. Answer the questions to the dialogue:

1. Why does the Chief Engineer want to get only Shell Meline 30 grade of
oil?
2. Where will the ship be bunkered from?
3. Why do they want to start bunkering right away?

Ex. 10. Dramatize the dialogue.

Ex. 11. Read the dialogue.

Bunker Supplier: Good morning, Chief. The bunkering boat will be brought
alongside your ship by 8 a.m. Are you ready to bunker?
Chief Engineer: Yes, we’ve got everything ready.
Bunker Supplier: Into what tanks are you going to take the diesel oil?
Chief Engineer: Into the aft tanks. One of them is empty and the other is filled
partially. We’ll start pumping into the port tank.
Bunker Supplier: Well, what’s its capacity?
Chief Engineer: Its capacity is 100 tons. Let’s check both tanks right away.
Bunker Supplier: O.K. Please, send a competent person to do this.
Chief Engineer: Certainly. I’ll send my third engineer. He is skilful. And he’ll
do all necessary preparations according to the international
109
regulations.
Bunker Supplier: O.K. Thank you. Good-bye.

Ex. 12. Describe the situation of the above dialogue.

Ex. 13. Give full answers to the question:

What are your responsibilities on board the ship? (Mention certain profes-
sions you are responsible for and say how you look after them to keep them in
efficient working conditions.)

Ex. 14. Get acquainted with the information given in Appendix 4.

Ex. 15. According to the examples in Appendix 4 make up your own


CV, resume, covering letter, etc. as if you are:
− a captain;
− a boatswain;
− a master;
− a deck cadet;
− a chief steward;
− a chief engineer.

Ex. 16. The crossword.

Across:
3. He keeps machinery lubricated (5).
4. The upper part of the hull (4).
7. The period of time from midnight till morning (5).
9. The officer in the Engine Department (9).
10. It is often phonetically confused with the word ‘ship’ (5).
11. A position aboard fuel tankers (7).
12. Just the same as profession or occupation (4).
14. The head of the Deck Department (7).
15. A member of the Steward’s Department assisting with servicing of meals
(7).
18. Navigation … – the period of a caretaking time (5).
19. The highest responsible officer on the ship (7).
20. The same as ‘officer’ (4).
21. A staff of a vessel (4).

Down:
1. The same as ‘apprentice’ (5).
110
2. Phonetically pronounced ‘bosun’ (9).
5. Carpenter’s nickname (5).
6. The ship’s highest responsible rank (6).
8. A member of the Steward’s Department directing the preparation of meals
(4).
9. Deck Cadet (10).
10. The same as ‘sailor’ or ‘seaman’ (8).
13. … school – school where further seafarers are trained (8).
16. A junior member of the Engine Department (5).
17. A reservoir aboard the ship (4).

1 2
3
4 5
6
7
8
9
10
11 12 13

14

15 16 17
18
19
20
21

Ex. 17. Do task 15 in Appendix 7.

111
P A R T II

Unit 16. ANALYTICAL READING

Задание 1. Прочитайте заголовок и подзаголовок к тексту. Счи-


таете ли Вы, что заголовок несет более конкретную информацию, чем
подзаголовок:

а) да (см. задание 8 к тексту);


б) нет (см. задание 6 к тексту).

Задание 2. Прочитайте текст, обращая внимание на сноски к


тексту.

IMPROVING OPERATIONS WITH CERAMICS,


PROPELLERS AND ENGINE MONITORING

The final sessions of The Motor Ship’s Tenth Propulsion Conference,


considered techniques, some already in use, for ships of the future

1. Thrusters developed for the offshore industry but used on ships have a
slightly lower efficiency than a single traditional screw plus rudder. However,
according to Mr. O. Bjorheden, of KaMeWa, whose paper dealt with thrusters
and propellers, a thruster with a ‘pulling’ propeller combined with a streamlined
gear housing, and a stay shaped like a conventional rudder gave comparable ef-
ficiency. There were a number of advantages of rotatable thrusters compared
with conventional propulsion systems, he continued. For instance, steering gear
was not need nor was room to house it necessary, and the engine room length
could be reduced.
2. At low speeds the effectiveness of a rudder was at its poorest, a prob-
lem which naturally did not occur with a thruster; maneuvering therefore was
improved at the lower and of speed range. Rudders also reduced the efficiency
of the propellers.
3. He described a system, which was a development of the counter rotat-
ing propeller concept, in which two equally loaded counter-rotating propellers,
coaxially mounted could give a 12 to 15 per cent improvement in efficiency
over a propeller. In practice, the mechanical problems in installing such a system
inhabited its widespread application1.
4. But the concept could be realized, Mr. Bjorheden said, using a main
propeller, conventionally driven, and a thruster, mounted further aft and in line
but facing forward and rotating in the opposite direction, driven through a bevel
gear2 by, for instance, an electric motor. This arrangement exploits the rotational
112
losses in the propeller’s slipstreams3, and can improve hydrodynamic efficiency
by 8 to 12 per cent. The thruster can also replace the rudder and steering gear,
giving improved maneuverability.
5. This arrangement had been model tested on a number of ships, he con-
tinued. Details of one of the tests, and principal particulars of the vessel on
which it was carried out are shown below. The improvement in fuel consump-
tion was calculated at just over 2300 tons a years.
6. A similar test was carried out for a double-ended car and passenger fer-
ry belonging to the Stena Line. Anticipated power gains4 for this ship were cal-
culated to be between 5 to 8 per cent. The capital costs for installing these sys-
tems were approximately equal to the capital costs saved in steering gear, etc.
7. Another way of improving propulsion efficiency through the propeller
was discussed by Mr. Kazauyuki Oychi of Mitsui OSK Lines. He pointed out
that of the two main energy losses of the propeller, that is those associated with
the tip vortex5 and those with the hub vortex6, only the former had been studied
extensively. But significant gains in efficiency could be made, he said, by wea-
kening the hub vortex, which would also reduce noise, vibration and cavitation7.
8. The way which had been investigated by the speaker’s company was to
modify the propeller characteristics through the addition of propeller boss cap
fins8 (PBCFs); the concept is shown in the diagram below. The angle and shape
of the boss fines were varied throughout a series of model tests and an im-
provement in propeller efficiency of about 2 to 3 per cent was anticipated. This
arrangement was used with a car carrier, Mercury Ace, the principle particulars
of which are shown below, giving an efficiency improvement of about 4 per
cent. The difference between the anticipated and actual figure was attributed to
scale effect. No change in maneuvering capability was observed.
9. In the last presentation at The Motor Ship’s Propulsion Conference on
the prospect for ceramics in diesel engine (March 2000), Dr. Buckley-Golder of
Harwell Laboratory noted that ceramics were about three times harder than met-
als, had melting temperature9 about twice that of metals, and had about a third of
the expansion coefficient of most metals.
10. These characteristics could be exploited in the manufacture of diesel
engines, he continued, although because ceramics were very weak in tension,
applications were limited. Their properties would be most useful in the liner, re-
placing it completely or in part, the piston, either replacing the crown or the
complete piston, exhaust valve facings, the exhaust port, and possibly the inlet
port. It might be possible to get rid of the water jacket10, he continued, which
could give a much smaller engine and perhaps an increase in hydrodynamic effi-
ciency.
11. He went on to discuss the predictions made by industrial and research
workers on the likely use of ceramics by the year 2005.
By that time there was a 50/50 probability that ceramics would be suc-
113
cessfully used in adiabatic components such as turbochargers and wear parts. In
general, although the proportion by weight of the material in engines would be
small, “the technical and economic consequences could be dramatic”, he con-
cluded.
12. The use of ceramics in diesel engines was felt to be unlikely in the
near future, according to Mr. Katayama of Mitsubishi, who touched on the re-
search his company, in conjunction with other major shipbuilders in Japan, was
undertaking in this field. “I don’t see a bright future for ceramics in … this ap-
plication”, he said. But he felt more optimistic about their use in turbochargers
and, “in the very near future we will produce a ceramic turbine”.
13. USE ORIENTED EXPERT SYSTEMS. A performance evaluation
system for two-stroke diesel engines known as CAPA (computer aided perfor-
mance analysis) was described by Mr. Joannes Kjolbro of MAN B&W. The sys-
tem was based on a set of engine measurements taken under steady load. The
data were entered by keyboard on to a conventional pc11. Mr. Kjolbro noted that
there were possibilities of inputting directly from suitable interfaces with the en-
gine sensors.
14. The stored information, he explained, was used for developing main-
tenance procedures and fault diagnosis. The program would generate a set of
performance curves12 which were corrected for ambient13 conditions. The com-
puter would then indicate those parameters which had exceeded the limits as de-
fined by the curves. A typical printout is shown below showing the indicated
pressure deviation for each cylinder of an eight cylinder engine.

Notes to the text:


1) to inhabit application – вызывать необходимость использования;
2) bevel gear – ремённая передача;
3) slipstream – струя за гребным винтом;
4) anticipated gains – ожидаемая, предполагаемая экономия;
5) tip vortex – концевой вихрь;
6) hub vortex – вихрь у ступицы;
7) cavitation – кавитация, образование пустот;
8) propeller boss cap fins – лопасти-обтекатели на ступице винта;
9) melting temperature – температура плавления;
10) water jacket – водяной кожух;
11) pc – propulsive coefficient ;
12) curve – кривая;
13) ambient – окружающий.

Задание 3. Переведите фразы ‘techniques’, ‘some already in use’,


‘for ships of the future’ в подзаголовке и ‘propellers’ and ‘engine
monitoring’ – в заголовке (см. задание 35).

114
Задание 4. Можете ли Вы сказать, что является источником
информации данной статьи? (см. задание 9).

Задание 5. Просмотрите текст по абзацам и определите, сколь-


ко докладов с 10-й конференции освещается в статье:

а) 5; б) 3; в) 4 (см. задание 11).

Задание 6. Если Вы считаете, что в подзаголовке содержится


более конкретная информация, то, вероятно, Вас ввела в заблуждение
фраза ‘techniques’, ‘some already in use’, ‘for ships of the future’ (верни-
тесь к заданию 3).

Задание 7. Определите, в каких абзацах текста говориться о:

а) 2-х диаграммах; б) рисунке; в) диаграмме; г) 2-х фото винтов; д)


фото клапана; е) распечатке (см. задание 12).

Задание 8. Вы правы, в заголовке дана более конкретная инфор-


мация. Переходите к заданию 4.

Задание 9. Материалы заключительного заседания 10-й конфе-


ренции The Motor Ship по энергетическим установкам послужили ос-
новным источником информации. Переходите к заданию 5.

Задание 10. Просмотрите абзацы с 1 по 6 включительно и ука-


жите, о чем идет речь в первом докладе:

а) общие проблемы фирмы; б) проблемы ускорителей и винтов; в)


трудности испытания установок; г) испытания установки: основной винт и
ускоритель, вращающийся в противоположном направлении движению
винта; д) система винтов противоположного вращения; е) испытания на
ряде судов и на пассажирском пароме (см. задание 14).

Задание 11.

Ответ: а) 5.

Переходите к заданию 7.

Задание 12.

115
Ответ: а) 5; б) 8; в) 10; г) 14.

Переходите к заданию 10.

Задание 13. Прочитайте абзацы 7-й и 8-й и скажите, как пыта-


ется решить проблему эффективности хода компания Mitsui OSK
Lines:

а) модификацией характеристик винта путем установки дополни-


тельных лопастей-обтекателей на его ступице (PBCFs) – (см. задание 17);
б) путем регулировки угла и формы лопастей-обтекателей на ступи-
це вала (см. задание 19).

Задание 14.

Ответ: б), г), д), е).

Переходите к заданию 13.

Задание 15. Просмотрите абзац 7-й и скажите, какая из 2-х ос-


новных причин энергетических потерь винта изучена всесторонне:

а) концевой вихрь (см. задание 18);


б) вихрь у ступицы (см. задание 20).

Задание 16. Прочитайте абзац 9-й и скажите, о чем в нем под-


робно идет речь:

а) о перспективе использования керамики в дизельных двигателях


(см. задание 21);
б) о преимуществах керамики перед металлами (см. задание 23).

Задание 17.

Ответ: а).

Переходите к заданию 15.

Задание 18.

Ответ: а).

116
Переходите к заданию 16.

Задание 19. Регулировка угла и формы лопастей-обтекателей на


ступице вала – это детали общего пути решения проблемы, не так ли?
Переведите начало абзаца 8-го. Вернитесь к заданию 13.

Задание 20. Уточните значение слова the former. Переведите 2-е


предложение абзаца 7-го. Вернитесь к заданию 15.

Задание 21. Переведите 9-й абзац, обратив внимание на то, что


подчеркнул доктор Бакли-Гольдер. Вернитесь к заданию 16.

Задание 22. Прочитайте абзац 10-й и скажите, при каких частей


двигателей особенно перспективна керамика:

а) втулки, поршня и его короны, облицовки выхлопного клапана, вы-


хлопного окна, водяного кожуха (см. задание 24);
б) втулки, поршня и его короны, облицовки выхлопного клапана,
выхлопного окна (см. задание 29).

Задание 23. Вы правы. Переходите к следующему заданию.

Задание 24. Уточните значение фразы to get rid of и переведите


последнее предложение абзаца10-го. Вернитесь к заданию 22.

Задание 25. Прочитайте абзац 11-й и скажите, о какой перспек-


тиве применения керамики говорится в нем конкретно (см. задание
28).

Задание 26. Согласны ли Вы с тем, что в абзаце 12-м речь идет о


мнении представителя фирмы Mitsubishi о перспективности керамики
в изготовлении дизельных двигателей:

а) да (см. задание 30);


б) нет (см. задание 32.

Задание 27. Прочитайте два последних абзаца и скажите, что


САРА значит:

а) постоянная нагрузка (см. задание 31);


б) диагностика неисправностей (см. задание 33);
в) компьютерный анализ характеристик (см. задание 34).
117
Задание 28. Речь идет о перспективе успешного применения ке-
рамики в изготовлении адиабатических компонентов, например, тур-
бонагнетателей. Переходите к заданию 26.

Задание 29. Вы правы. Переходите к заданию 25.

Задание 30. Вы правы. Переходите к заданию 27.

Задание 31. Вы ошиблись. Переведите первые два предложения


абзаца 13-го. Вернитесь к заданию 27.

Задание 32. Подготовьте одно из сообщений:

а) аннотация статьи;
б) сообщение о проблемах, рассмотренных на конференции (приве-
дите ряд примеров);
в) расскажите о PBCFS (название дайте на английском и русском
языках);
г) сделайте сообщение от лица доктора Бакли-Гольдера;
д) сделайте сообщение от лица господина Катайямы;
е) сделайте сообщение от лица господина Казийюки Оучи;
ж) сделайте сообщение от лица господина Бйоргедена;
з) сделайте отчет о Вашей работе на конференции на заседании
правления Вашей фирмы (по выбору, их 4);
и) сделайте сообщение о Вашей работе на конференции для своих
коллег в Гаруэльской лаборатории.

Задание 33. Вы ошиблись. Переведите первое предложение абзаца


14-го. Вернитесь к заданию 27.

Задание 34. Вы правы. Поздравляем с окончанием работы над


текстом. Переходите к заданию 32.

Задание 35. Методы, ряд из которых уже используется для судов


будущего; улучшение; керамика, винты и управление двигателями.
Вернитесь к заданию 3.

Задание 36. Выполните задание 16 в Приложении 7.

118
Unit 17. SCANNING

Задание 1. Определите тему каждого абзаца.

1. Archaeological evidence indicates that humans arrived on New Guinea


at least 60,000 years ago, probably by sea from Southeast Asia during an ice age
period when the sea was lower and distances between islands shorter (See Histo-
ry of Papua New Guinea). The ancestors of Australian Aborigines and New
Guineans went across the Lombok Strait to Sahul by boat over 50,000 years ago.

2. Design work, also called naval architecture, may be conducted using a


ship model basin. Modern ships, since roughly 1940, have been produced almost
exclusively of welded steel. Early welded steel ships used steels with inadequate
fracture toughness, which resulted in some ships suffering catastrophic brittle
fracture structural cracks (see problems of the Liberty ship). Since roughly 1950,
specialized steels such as ABS Steels with good properties for ship construction
have been used. Although it is commonly accepted that modern steel has elimi-
nated brittle fracture in ships, some controversy still exists. Brittle fracture of
modern vessels continues to occur from time to time as the use of grade A and
grade B steel of unknown toughness or fracture appearance transition tempera-
ture (FATT) in way of ships' side shells can be less than adequate for all ambient
conditions.

3. Marine Engineering involves the design, construction, installation, op-


eration and support of the systems and equipment which propel and control ma-
rine vehicles, and of the systems which make a vehicle or structure habitable for
crew, passengers and cargo.
Marine Engineering is allied to mechanical engineering, although the
modern marine engineer requires knowledge (and hands on experience) with
electrical, electronic, pneumatic, hydraulic, chemistry, control engineering, na-
val architecture or ship design, process engineering, steam generations gas tur-
bines and even nuclear technology on certain military vessels.

4. An autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) is a robot which travels un-


derwater. In military applications, AUVs are also known as unmanned undersea
vehicles (UUVs). AUVs constitute part of a larger group of undersea systems
known as unmanned underwater vehicles, a classification that includes non-
autonomous remotely operated underwater vehicles (ROVs) − controlled and
powered from the surface by an operator / pilot via an umbilical.

5. Many marine vessels do not provide a way for captain and crew to
measure and monitor fuel usage while underway. An optimum system onboard
119
would include the ability to instantaneously monitor fuel burn rates from the
wheelhouse. Individual engine and generator burn rates would be included, as
well as fuel tank levels. This proactive monitoring would allow the crew to
make decisions that positively impact fuel burn rates and efficiency.

Задание 2. Определите тему всего текста, тему каждого абзаца,


ключевые слова, ключевые предложения каждого абзаца и основную
мысль текста.

In some parts of the world, fuel theft is an ongoing concern.


Consequently, the accurate measurement of fuel taken on board coupled with the
fuel actually consumed by engines and generators, is an important part of MFM.
Meters should be installed in all fuel transfer lines so accurate fueling data can
be captured. This data can then be compared with burn rates to determine
whether fuel is being transferred off the vessel secretively.
Beyond fuel theft, many governmental jurisdictions require that all fuel
spill incidents be recorded and reported to the local authorities. For example, the
Marine Department of the Government of Hong Kong has specific guidelines
for responding to accidental marine fuel spills which reflect international
requirements as promulgated by MARPOL, the International Convention for the
Prevention of Pollution from Ships.
Additionally, accounting for fuel usage at various points along a voyage
provides the ability to tie fuel burn and its associated costs to shipping or
container rates. For example, understanding how a vessel burns fuel on certain
parts of a voyage, allows the more accurate bidding of container rates so profit
margins stay healthy. Consequently, varying shipping rates based on
documented fuel usage rates can allow a shipper to bid more aggressively.
A modern marine fuel management system would help in monitoring fuel
usage, fuel transfers, and could be configured to sound an audible alarm when
refilling fuel tanks might lead to a spill.

Задание 3. Прочитайте следующий абзац. Из предложенных ни-


же предложений выберите к нему наиболее подходящее ключевое пред-
ложение и объясните свой выбор.

Discovered by Egyptologist David O’Connor of New York University,


woven straps were found to have been used to lash the planks together, and
reeds or grass stuffed between the planks helped to seal the seams. Because the
ships are all buried together and near a mortuary belonging to Pharaoh Khasek-
hemwy, originally they were all thought to have belonged to him, but one of the
14 ships dates to 3000 BC, and the associated pottery jars buried with the ves-
sels also suggest earlier dating. The ship dating to 3000 BC was 75 feet long and
120
is now thought to perhaps have belonged to an earlier pharaoh. According to
Professor O’Connor, the 5,000-year-old ship may have even belonged to Pha-
raoh Aha.

Choices:
1. Woven straps were used to lash the planks together as early as 3000
BC.
2. Egyptologist David O’Connor discovered the ships were all buried to-
gether.
3. Pottery jars buried with the vessels.
4. The 5,000-year-old ship belonged to Pharaoh Aha.

Задание 4. Напишите ключевое предложение к каждому из при-


веденных абзацев.

1. Early Egyptians also knew how to assemble planks of wood with tree-
nails to fasten them together, using pitch for caulking the seams. The Khufu
ship, a 43.6-meter vessel sealed into a pit in the Giza pyramid complex at the
foot of the Great Pyramid of Giza in the 4th Dynasty around 2500 BC, is a full-
size surviving example which may have fulfilled the symbolic function of a so-
lar barque. Early Egyptians also knew how to fasten the planks of this ship to-
gether with mortise and tenon joints.

2. The world’s first tidal dock was built around 2500 BC during the Ha-
rappan civilization at Lothal near the present day Mangrol harbour on the Guja-
rat coast in India. Other ports were probably at Balakot and Dwarka. However, it
is probable that many small-scale ports, and not massive ports, were used for the
Harappan maritime trade. Ships from the harbour at these ancient port cities es-
tablished trade with Mesopotamia. Shipbuilding and boatmaking may have been
prosperous industries in ancient India. Native labourers may have manufactured
the flotilla of boats used by Alexander the Great to navigate across the Hydaspes
and even the Indus, under Nearchos. The Indians also exported teak for ship-
building to ancient Persia. Other references to Indian timber used for shipbuild-
ing is noted in the works of Ibn Jubayr.

Задание 5. Замените некоторые выражения в предложениях так,


чтобы смысл не менялся, используя слова-коннекты.

Useful expressions and linking words:


some / many claim / suggest / argue / feel that …
most people / experts / maintain / believe / point out / agree / hold that …
scientists / skeptics / crit- advocate / support the view that …
121
ics oppose the view that …
are in favor of / against …
are of the opinion that / convinced that …
are opposed to …

1. The naval history of China stems back to the Spring and Autumn Pe-
riod (722 BC–481 BC) of the ancient Chinese Zhou Dynasty.
Most experts point out ….
2. The ancient Chinese also built ramming vessels as in the Greco-Roman
tradition of the trireme, although oar-steered ships in China lost their favor very
early on.
Skeptics are opposed to ….
3. Isambard Brunel’s Great Britain of 1843 was the first radical new de-
sign, built entirely of iron, using stringers for strength, inner and outer hulls, and
bulkheads to form multiple watertight compartments.
Most people are in favor of ….
4. The world’s largest shipyard in Ulsan operated by Hyundai Heavy In-
dustries is so efficient that a new $80 million vessel slips into the water every
four working days.
Most people oppose the view that ….
5. In 2007, STX Shipbuilding acquired Aker Yards, the largest shipbuild-
ing group in Europe, renaming the company to STX Europe in 2008, further
strengthening South Korea’s dominant position in the industry.
Some critics argue that ….

Задание 6. Прочитайте следующие предложения и скажите, чем


является информация из второго предложения по отношению к ин-
формации из первого – дополнением или противопоставлением. Соеди-
ните предложения, используя слова-коннекты (фразы, выражающие
противопоставления приведены ниже).

Linking words expressing contrasting points:


on the other hand / however / still / yet it may be said / argued / claimed that
/ but / nonetheless / nevertheless / even …
so / although / though / even though / others / many people oppose this
while / whilst / whereas / despite / in viewpoint / (strongly) disagree / claim
spite of / regardless of the fact that / feel / believe this argument is mis-
guided / incorrect
opponents of … argue / believe / claim while it is true to say that …, in fact …
that … while / although …, it cannot be de-
the fact that … contradicts the belief / nied that …
idea that …
122
1. Design work is also called naval architecture. Design work may be
conducted using a ship model basin.
2. Modern ships, since roughly 1940, have been produced almost exclu-
sively of welded steel. Early welded steel ships used steels with inadequate frac-
ture toughness.
3. Early welded steel ships used steels with inadequate fracture toughness.
Some ships suffered catastrophic brittle fracture structural cracks.
4. Modern steel has eliminated brittle fracture in ships. Brittle fracture of
modern vessels continues to occur from time to time.
5. Modern shipbuilding makes considerable use of prefabricated sections;
entire multi-deck segments of the hull or superstructure will be built elsewhere
in the yard, transported to the building dock or slipway, and then lifted into
place. This is known as ‘block construction’.

Задание 7. Прочитайте приведенные ниже заключения и скажи-


те, являются ли они обдуманным предположением, или выражают
косвенное или непосредственное мнение автора.

Conclusions expressing balanced considerations / opinions indirectly:


In conclusion it can / must be said / claimed that …
On balance it seems / appears …
All things considered it would seem that …
Taking everything into it is (un)likely / possible / foreseeable that …
account / consideration it is clear / obvious that …
To conclude there is no / little doubt that …
To sum up the best course of action would be to …
All in all achieving a balance between would be …
Finally / Lastly it is true to say that …
Although it must be said All things considered, the obvious conclusion to be drawn
that … is that …
It may be concluded / There is not absolute answer to the question of …
said that … In light of this evidence, it is clear / obvious that …

Conclusion expressing opinion directly:


In conclusion it is my belief / opinion that …
On balance I (firmly) believe / feel / think that …
All things considered I am convinced that …
Taking everything into I am inclined to believe that …
account / consideration I (do not) agree that / with …
To conclude Taking everything into account , I therefore conclude /
To sum up feel / believe that …
All in all For the above-mentioned reasons, therefore, I (firmly)
123
believe that …

1. To conclude, although it must be said that shipbuilding (which encom-


passes the shipyards, the marine equipment manufacturers and a large number of
service and knowledge providers) is an important and strategic industry in a
number of countries around the world.
2. For the above-mentioned reasons, therefore, I firmly believe that ship-
building encompasses the shipyards, the marine equipment manufacturers and a
large number of service and knowledge providers.
3. To sum up, it would seem that historically, the industry has suffered
from the absence of global rules and a tendency of (state-supported) over-
investment due to the fact that shipyards offer a wide range of technologies, em-
ploy a significant number of workers and generate foreign currency income (as
the shipbuilding market is dollar-based and a global one). Shipbuilding is there-
fore an attractive industry for developing nations.
4. On the balance, it seems that, as a result, the world shipbuilding market
suffers from over-capacities, depressed prices, low profit margins, trade distor-
tions and widespread subsidization.

Задание 8. Используя различные слова-коннекты, напишите абза-


цы со следующими ключевыми предложениями.

1. I believe that Marine Engineering on board a ship refers to the opera-


tion and maintenance of the propulsion and other systems.
2. As far as I concerned, shipbuilding is the construction of ships.
3. In my opinion, shipbuilding and ship repairs, both commercial and
military, are referred to as the ‘naval sector’.

Задание 9. Выполните задание 17 в Приложении 7.

Unit 18. ABSTRACT

Задание 1. Прочтите внимательно текст. Составьте на англий-


ском языке план текста, выделив его основные темы. План можно со-
ставить в вопросной, назывной или тезисной форме.

MARITIME HISTORY

The ancient Egyptians were perfectly at ease building sailboats. A re-


markable example of their shipbuilding skills was The Khufu ship, a vessel 143
feet (44 m) in length entombed at the foot of the Great Pyramid of Giza around
124
2,500 BC and found intact in 1954. According to Herodotus, the Egyptians
made the first circumnavigation of Africa around 600 BC.
The Phoenicians and Greeks gradually mastered navigation at sea aboard
triremes, exploring and colonizing the Mediterranean via ship. Around 340 BC,
the Greek navigator Pytheas of Massalia ventured from Greece to Western Eu-
rope and Great Britain.
Before the introduction of the compass, celestial navigation was the main
method for navigation at sea. In China, early versions of the magnetic compass
were being developed and used in navigation between 1040 and 1117. The true
mariner’s compass, using a pivoting needle in a dry box, was invented in Europe
no later than 1300.

Задание 2. Ознакомьтесь с образцами планов к вышеупомянутому


тексту. Сравните со своим планом.

План в вопросной форме:


1. What is The Khufu ship?
2. When was the first Africa-round voyage made?
3. What were the first navigation ships and ventured lands?
4. Did celestial navigation occur before Chinese invention of the com-
pass?

План в назывной форме:


1. The Khufu ship.
2. The first Africa-round voyage.
3. The first navigation ships and ventured lands.
4. Celestial navigation and the invention of the compass.

План в тезисной форме:


1. A remarkable example of their shipbuilding skills was The Khufu ship.
2. The Egyptians made the first circumnavigation of Africa around 600 BC.
3. Greeks ventured from Greece to Western Europe and Great Britain on
triremes.
4. Before the introduction of the compass, celestial navigation was the
main method.

Задание 3. Прочитайте текст.

MARINE ENGINEERING

Marine Engineering involves the design, construction, installation,


operation and support of the systems and equipment which propel and control
125
marine vehicles, and of the systems which make a vehicle or structure habitable
for crew, passengers and cargo.
Marine Engineering is allied to mechanical engineering, although the
modern marine engineer requires knowledge (and hands on experience) with
electrical, electronic, pneumatic, hydraulic, chemistry, control engineering,
naval architecture or ship design, process engineering, steam generations gas
turbines and even nuclear technology on certain military vessels.
Marine Engineering on board a ship refers to the operation and
maintenance of the propulsion and other systems, such as: electrical power
generation plant, lighting, air conditioning, refrigeration, and water systems on
board the vessel. This work is carried out by Marine Engineering Officers, who
usually train via cadetships sponsored by a variety of Maritime organizations.
Marine engineering also embraces other areas, such as Autonomous
Underwater Vehicle research, Marine renewable energy research, and careers
related to the offshore extractive and infrastructure (Cable Laying) industries.

Задание 4. Выполните следующие задания по тексту и составьте


его краткий план.

1. According to the text, Marine Engineering


a) propel and control marine vehicles;
b) means the design, construction, installation, operation and support of the
systems and equipment aboard a ship;
c) make a vehicle or structure habitable for crew, passengers and cargo.

2. What is implied in the final paragraph?


a) Training of sea engineers is held by a variety of Maritime organizations.
b) Marine Engineering on board a ship refers to the operation and maintenance
of the propulsion and other systems.
c) Marine engineering deals with such areas as underwater research, energy
research, and infrastructure industries.

Задание 5. Прочитайте следующую статью.

An autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) is a robot which travels


underwater. In military applications, AUVs are also known as unmanned
undersea vehicles (UUVs). AUVs constitute part of a larger group of undersea
systems known as unmanned underwater vehicles, a classification that includes
non-autonomous remotely operated underwater vehicles (ROVs) − controlled
and powered from the surface by an operator / pilot via an umbilical.
Some of the first AUVs were developed by the Applied Physics
Laboratory at the University of Washington as early as 1957. The ‘Special
126
Purpose Underwater Research Vehicle’, or SPURV, was used to study diffusion,
acoustic transmission, and submarine wakes.
Other early AUVs were developed at the Massachusetts Institute of
Technology in the 1970s. One of these is on display in the Hart Nautical Gallery
in MIT. At the same time, AUVs were also developed in the former Soviet
Union (although this was not commonly known until much later).
The oil and gas industry uses AUVs to make detailed maps of the seafloor
before they start building subsea infrastructure; pipelines and subsea
completions can be installed in the most cost effective manner with minimum
disruption to the environment.
A typical military mission for an AUV is to map an area to determine if
there are any mines, or to monitor a protected area (such as a harbor) for new
unidentified objects. AUVs are also employed in anti-submarine warfare, to aid
in the detection of manned submarines.
Scientists use AUVs to study lakes, the ocean, and the ocean floor. A
variety of sensors can be affixed to AUVs to measure the concentration of
various elements or compounds, the absorption or reflection of light, and the
presence of microscopic life.
Most AUVs in use today are powered by rechargeable batteries (lithium
ion, lithium polymer, nickel metal hydride etc). Some vehicles use primary
batteries which provide perhaps twice the endurance − at a substantial extra cost
per mission. A few of the larger vehicles are powered by aluminum based semi-
fuel cells.

Задание 6. Просмотрите текст еще раз и выберите для него под-


ходящий заголовок.

1. Underwater devices.
2. Autonomous underwater vehicle.
3. Unmanned undersea vehicles.
4. Underwater investigations.

Задание 7. Поменяйте порядок следующих пунктов плана так,


чтобы он соответствовал содержанию статьи.

1. Commercial applications of an AUV.


2. The history of an AUV development.
3. Power of an AUV.
4. Military applications of an AUV.
5. Definition of an autonomous underwater vehicle.
6. Scientific research use of an AUV.

127
Задание 8. Пользуясь планом, составьте конспект этой статьи.

Задание 9. Прочитайте текст. Составьте развернутый план, а


затем конспект, охарактеризовав основные принципы гидродинамики.
Озаглавьте текст.

The advance of a vessel through water is resisted by the water. This


resistance can be broken down into several components, the main ones being the
friction of the water on the hull and wave making resistance. To reduce
resistance and therefore increase the speed for a given power, it is necessary to
reduce the wetted surface and use submerged hull shapes that produce low
amplitude waves. To do so, high-speed vessels are often more slender, with
fewer or smaller appendages. The friction of the water is also reduced by regular
maintenance of the hull to remove the sea creatures and algae that accumulate
there. Antifouling paint is commonly used to assist in this. Advanced designs
such as the bulbous bow assist in decreasing wave resistance.
A simple way of considering wave-making resistance is to look at the hull
in relation to its wake. At speeds lower than the wave propagation speed, the
wave rapidly dissipates to the sides. As the hull approaches the wave
propagation speed, however, the wake at the bow begins to build up faster than
it can dissipate, and so it grows in amplitude. Since the water is not able to ‘get
out of the way of the hull fast enough’, the hull, in essence, has to climb over or
push through the bow wave. This results in an exponential increase in resistance
with increasing speed.
This hull speed is found by the formula:

or, in metric units:

where L is the length of the waterline in feet or meters.


When the vessel exceeds a speed / length ratio of 0.94, it starts to outrun
most of its bow wave, and the hull actually settles slightly in the water as it is
now only supported by two wave peaks. As the vessel exceeds a speed / length
ratio of 1.34, the hull speed, the wavelength is now longer than the hull, and the
stern is no longer supported by the wake, causing the stern to squat, and the bow
rise. The hull is now starting to climb its own bow wave, and resistance begins
to increase at a very high rate. While it is possible to drive a displacement hull
faster than a speed / length ratio of 1.34, it is prohibitively expensive to do so.
Most large vessels operate at speed / length ratios well below that level, at speed
128
/ length ratios of under 1.0.

Vessels move along the three axes:


1) heave, 2) sway, 3) surge, 4) yaw, 5) pitching, 6) roll.
For large projects with adequate funding, hydrodynamic resistance can be
tested experimentally in a hull testing pool or using tools of computational fluid
dynamics.
Vessels are also subject to ocean surface waves and sea swell as well as
effects of wind and weather. These movements can be stressful for passengers
and equipment, and must be controlled if possible. The rolling movement can be
controlled, to an extent, by ballasting or by devices such as fin stabilizers.
Pitching movement is more difficult to limit and can be dangerous if the bow
submerges in the waves, a phenomenon called pounding. Sometimes, ships must
change course or speed to stop violent rolling or pitching.

Задание 10. Составьте конспект следующей статьи.

HYDROSTATICS

Boats and ships are kept on (or slightly above) the water in three ways:
• for most vessels, known as displacement vessels, the vessel’s weight is
offset by that of the water displaced by the hull;
• for planing ships and boats, such as the hydrofoil, the lift developed by
the movement of the foil through the water increases with the vessel’s speed,
until the vessel is foilborne;
• for non-displacement craft such as hovercraft and air-cushion vehicles,
the vessel is suspended over the water by a cushion of high-pressure air it
projects downwards against the surface of the water.
A vessel is in equilibrium when the upwards and downwards forces are of
equal magnitude. As a vessel is lowered into the water its weight remains
constant but the corresponding weight of water displaced by its hull increases.
When the two forces are equal, the boat floats. If weight is evenly distributed
throughout the vessel, it floats without trim or heel.
A vessel’s stability is considered in both this hydrostatic sense as well as a
hydrodynamic sense, when subjected to movement, rolling and pitching, and the
129
action of waves and wind. Stability problems can lead to excessive pitching and
rolling, and eventually capsizing and sinking.

Задание 11. Выполните задание 18 в Приложении 7.

Unit 19. SUMMARY

Задание 1. Прочитайте текст. Напишите его краткое содержа-


ние, используя следующие выражения:

1. The paper attempts to provide ….


2. … are discussed briefly.
3. They include ….
4. The conclusion is as follows ….

TUMBLEHOME

In ship design the tumblehome is the narrowing of a ship’s hull with


greater distance above the water-line. Expressed more technically, it is present
when the beam at the uppermost deck is less than the maximum beam of the
vessel.
A small amount of tumblehome is normal in many designs in order to
allow any small projections at deck level to clear wharves.
Tumblehome was common on wooden warships for centuries. In the era
of oared combat ships it was quite common, placing the oar ports as far abeam
as possible. This also made it more difficult to board by force, as the ships
would come to contact at their widest points, with the decks some distance apart.
The narrowing of the deck above this point made the boat more stable by
lowering the weight above the waterline, which is one of the reasons it remained
common during the age of cannon-armed ships. In addition, the sloping sides of
a tumblehome ship increased the effective thickness of the hull versus flat
horizontal trajectory gunfire (a straight line through faced more material to
penetrate) and also increased the likelihood of a shell striking the hull being
deflected – much the same reasons that later tank armor was sloped.
It can be seen well in steel constructed warships of the early 1880s when
the United States and most European navies began building steel warships.
France was predominately strong in promoting the tumblehome design in their
warships, advocating tumblehome reduced the weight of the upper deck, as well
as making the vessels more seaworthy and creating greater freeboard. France
sold their newly constructed pre-dreadnought battleship Tsesarevich to the
Russian Imperial Navy in time for it to fight as Admiral Wilgelm Vitgeft’s
130
flagship at the Battle of the Yellow Sea on 10 August 1904. The Russo-Japanese
War did prove however, that the controversial tumblehome battleships were
excellent for transiting across the globe, especially when encountering narrow
canals, and other waterways; but still could prove dangerously unstable when
watertight integrity was breached. However, the five follow-on tumblehome
designed Borodino-class battleships, which had been built in Russian yards to
Tsesarevich’s basic design, fought the only decisive steel battleship fleet action
in naval history on 27 May 1905 at Tsushima. The fact that three of the four (the
fifth battleship, the Slava was not completed in time) ‘tumblehome’ Borodino-
class battleships were lost in this battle, resulted in the discontinuing of the
tumblehome design in future warships for nearly all navies.
A degree of tumblehome also facilitates paddling in a canoe or kayak
(Mather, 1885); while a greater degree of flare (its opposite) accommodates
more cargo (Vaillancourt).

Задание 2. Напишите реферат, используя информацию следую-


щего текста.

CRUISE SHIP

Cruise ship or cruise liner is a passenger ship used for pleasure voyages,
where the voyage itself and the ship’s amenities are part of the experience, as
well as the different destinations along the way. Transportation is not the prime
purpose, as cruise ships operate mostly on routes that return passengers to their
originating port, so the ports of call are usually in a specified region of a
continent.
In contrast, dedicated transport oriented ocean liners do ‘line voyages’ and
typically transport passengers from one point to another, rather than on round
trips. Traditionally, an ocean liner for the transoceanic trade will be built to a
higher standard than a typical cruise ship, including high freeboard and stronger
plating to withstand rough seas and adverse conditions encountered in the open
ocean, such as the North Atlantic. Ocean liners also usually have larger
capacities for fuel, victuals, and other stores for consumption on long voyages,
compared to dedicated cruise ships.
Although often luxurious, ocean liners had characteristics that made them
unsuitable for cruising, such as high fuel consumption, deep draught that
prevented them from entering shallow ports, enclosed weatherproof decks that
were not appropriate for tropical weather, and cabins designed to maximize
passenger numbers rather than comfort (few if any private verandas, a high
proportion of windowless suites). The modern cruise ships, while sacrificing
qualities of seaworthiness, have added amenities to cater to tourists, and recent
vessels have been described as ‘balcony-laden floating condominiums’.
131
The lines between ocean liners and cruise ships have blurred, particularly
with respect to deployment. Larger cruise ships have also engaged in longer
trips such as transoceanic voyages which may not lead back to the same port for
months (longer round trips). Some former ocean liners operate as cruise ships,
such as MS Marco Polo and MS Mona Lisa, however this number is ever
decreasing. The only dedicated transatlantic ocean liner in operation as a liner,
as of February 2010, is the Queen Mary 2 of the Cunard fleet; however, she also
has the amenities of contemporary cruise ships and sees significant service on
cruises.
Cruising has become a major part of the tourism industry, accounting for
U.S. $27 billion with over 18 million passengers carried worldwide in 2010. The
world’s largest cruise liner is Royal Caribbean International’s Oasis of the Seas.
The industry’s rapid growth has seen nine or more newly built ships catering to
a North American clientele added every year since 2001, as well as others
servicing European clientele. Smaller markets, such as the Asia-Pacific region,
are generally serviced by older ships. These are displaced by new ships in the
high growth areas.

Задание 3. Дополните текст следующими словами и выражения-


ми:

for most of, because of, based, a second ship, due for,
however, was designed, estimated

Cunard Line is a British-American owned shipping company (1)… at


Carnival House in Southampton, England and operated by Carnival UK. It has
been a leading operator of passenger ships on the North Atlantic for over a
century. In 1839, Canadian-born Samuel Cunard was awarded the first British
transatlantic steamship mail contract, and the next year formed the British and
North American Royal Mail Steam-Packet Company to operate the line’s four
pioneer paddle steamers on the Liverpool-Halifax-Boston route. (2)… the next
30 years, Cunard held the Blue Riband for the fastest Atlantic voyage. (3)…, in
the 1870s Cunard fell behind its rivals, the White Star Line and the Inman Line.
To meet this competition, in 1879 the firm was reorganized as Cunard
Steamship Company, Ltd to raise capital.
White Star joined the American owned International Mercantile Marine
Co. in 1902. The British Government provided Cunard with substantial loans
and a subsidy to build two superliners needed to retain its competitive position.
Mauretania held the Blue Riband from 1909 to 1929. The sinking of her sister
ship Lusitania in 1915 was one of the causes of the United States’ entering the
First World War. In the late 1920s, Cunard faced new competition when the
132
Germans, Italians and French built large prestige liners. Cunard was forced to
suspend construction on its own new superliner (4)… the Great Depression. In
1934 the British Government offered Cunard loans to finish the Queen Mary and
to build (5)…, the Queen Elizabeth, on the condition that Cunard merged with
the then ailing White Star line to form Cunard White-Star Ltd. Cunard owned
two-thirds of the new company. Cunard purchased White Star’s share in 1947;
the name reverted to the Cunard Line in 1950.
Winston Churchill (6)… that the two Queens helped to shorten the Second
World War by at least a year. Upon the end of the war, Cunard regained its
position as the largest Atlantic passenger line. By the mid 1950s, it operated
twelve ships to the United States and Canada. After 1958, transatlantic
passenger ships became increasingly unprofitable because of the introduction of
jet airliners. Cunard withdrew from its year round service in 1968 to concentrate
on cruising and summer transatlantic voyages for vacationers. The Queens were
replaced by the Queen Elizabeth 2 (QE2), which (7)… for the dual role. In 1998
Cunard was acquired by the Carnival Corporation and five years later QE2 was
replaced on the Transatlantic runs by the Queen Mary 2 (QM2). The line also
operates the Queen Victoria (QV) and the forthcoming Queen Elizabeth (QE),
(8)… entry into service in 2010.

Задание 4. Дополните следующий план информацией из текста.

Introduction The definition of Cunard Line and its foundation ………………


Paragraph 1 The history of its development …………………………………
Paragraph 2 The unprofitability of the organization …………………………
Conclusion The replacement on transatlantic voyages ………………………

Задание 5. Составьте реферат на русском языке по теме “Cunard


Line”, используя информацию из предыдущего задания, а также сле-
дующие тексты.

ECONOMICAL DEVELOPMENT FROM 1929 TILL 71

Despite the dramatic reduction in the North Atlantic passengers caused by


the shipping depression beginning in 1929, the Germans, the Italians and the
French commissioned new ‘ships of state’ prestige liners. The German Bremen
took the Blue Riband at 27.8 knots (51.5 km/h) in 1933, the Italian Rex recorded
28.9 knots (53.5 km/h) on a westbound voyage the same year, and the French
Normandie crossed the Atlantic in just under four days at 30.58 knots
(56.63 km/h) in 1937. In 1930 Cunard ordered a 80,000 ton liner that was to be
the first of two record-breakers fast enough to fit into a two-ship weekly
Southampton-New York service. Work on hull 534 was halted in 1931 because
133
of the economic conditions.
By 1934 the White Star Line was failing and the British Government was
concerned about potential job losses. David Kirkwood, MP (Member of
Parliament) for Clydebank where the unfinished hull 534 had been sitting idle
for two and a half years, made a passionate plea in the House of Commons for
funding to finish the ship and restart the dormant British economy. The
government offered Cunard a loan of £3 million to complete hull 554 and an
additional £5 million to build the second ship, if Cunard merged with White
Star. The merger was accomplished by forming a new company, Cunard White
Star, Ltd with Cunard owning about two-thirds of the capital.
Due to the surplus tonnage of the new combined Cunard White Star fleet
many of the older liners were sent to the scrapyard, these included the
Mauretania and the ex-White Star liners Olympic and Homeric. In 1936, the ex-
White Star Majestic was sold when hull 534, now named Queen Mary, replaced
her in the express mail service. Queen Mary reached 30.99 knots (57.39 km/h)
on her 1938 Blue Riband voyage. Cunard started construction on the Queen
Elizabeth, and a smaller ship, the second Mauretania, joined the fleet and which
also could be used on the Atlantic run when one of the Queens was in drydock
for overhaul. Berengaria was sold for scrap in 1938 after a series of fires.
During 1939-45 the Queens carried over two million servicemen and were
credited by Churchill as helping to shorten the war by a year. All four of the
large Cunard express liners, the two Queens, Aquitania and Mauretania
survived, but many of the secondary ships were lost. Both the Lancastria and
Laconia were sunk with heavy loss of life.
In 1947 Cunard purchased White Star’s interest, and the company
dropped the White Star name, and the company commissioned five freighters
and two cargo liners. The Caronia was completed in 1949 as a permanent cruise
liner and the Aquitania was retired the next year. Cunard was in an especially
good position to take advantage of the increase in the North Atlantic travel
during the 1950s and the Queens were a major generator of US currency for
Great Britain. Cunard’s slogan, “Getting there is half the fun”, was specifically
aimed at the tourist trade. Beginning in 1954, Cunard took delivery of a quartet
of new 22,000-GRT intermediate liners for the Canadian route and the
Liverpool-New York route. The last White Star motor ship, the Britannic of
1930, remained in service until 1960.
In 1960, a government appointed committee recommended the
construction of project Q3, a conventional 75,000 GRT liner to replace Queen
Mary. Under the plan, the government would loan Cunard the majority of the
liner’s cost. However, some Cunard stockholders questioned the plan at the June
1961 board meeting because trans-Atlantic flights were gaining in popularity.
By 1963, the plan had been changed to a dual purpose 55,000 GRT ship that was
designed to cruise in the off season. Ultimately, this ship came into service in
134
1969 as the 70,300 GRT Queen Elizabeth 2.
Within ten years of the introduction of jet airliners in 1958, most of the
conventional Atlantic liners were gone. Mauretania was retired in 1965, the
Queen Mary and Caronia in 1967, and the Queen Elizabeth in 1968. Two of the
new intermediate liners were sold by 1970 and the other two were converted to
cruise ships. Cunard tried operating scheduled air services to North America, the
Caribbean and South America by forming BOAC-Cunard Ltd in 1962 with the
British Overseas Airways Corporation, but this venture lasted only until 1966.

TRAFALGAR HOUSE YEARS

By 1971, when the line was purchased by the conglomerate Trafalgar


House, Cunard operated cargo and passenger ships, hotels and resorts. Its cargo
fleet consisted of 42 ships in service, with 20 on order. The flagship of the
passenger fleet was the two-year-old Queen Elizabeth 2. The fleet also included
the remaining two intermediate liners from the 1950s, plus two purpose-built
cruise ships on order. Trafalgar acquired two additional cruise ships and
disposed of the intermediate liners and most of the cargo fleet. During the
Falklands War, the QE2 and the Cunard Countess were chartered as troopships
while Cunard’s container ship Atlantic Conveyor was sunk by an Exocet missile.
Cunard acquired the Norwegian America Line in 1983, with two classic
ocean liner / cruise ships. Also in 1983, the Trafalgar attempted a hostile
takeover of P&O, another large passenger and cargo shipping line, which was
formed the same year as Cunard. P&O objected and forced the issue to the
British Monopolies and Mergers Commission. In their filing, P&O was critical
of Trafalgar’s management of Cunard and their failure to correct QE2’s
mechanical problems. In 1984, the Commission ruled in favor of the merger, but
Trafalgar decided against proceeding. In 1988, Cunard acquired Ellerman Lines
and its small fleet of cargo vessels, organizing the business as Cunard-Ellerman,
however, only a few years later, Cunard opted to exit the cargo business to focus
solely on cruise ships. Cunard’s cargo fleet was sold off between 1989 and
1991, with a single container ship, the second Atlantic Conveyor, remaining
under Cunard ownership until 1996. In 1994 Cunard purchased the rights to the
name of the Royal Viking Line and its Royal Viking Sun. The rest of Royal
Viking Line’s fleet stayed with the line’s owner, Norwegian Cruise Line.
By the mid 1990s Cunard was ailing. The company was embarrassed in
late 1994 when the QE2 suffered humiliation in the media during the first
voyage of the season because of unfinished renovation work. Claims from
passengers cost the company US $13 million. After Cunard reported a US $25
million loss in 1995, Trafalgar assigned a new CEO to the line, who concluded
that the company had management issues. In 1996 the Norwegian conglomerate
Kværner acquired Trafalgar House, and attempted to sell Cunard. When there
135
were no takers, Kværner made substantial investments to turn around the
company’s tarnished reputation.

CARNIVAL

In 1998 Cunard was sold to the cruise line conglomerate Carnival


Corporation for US $500 million. The next year Carnival acquired the remaining
stock for US $205 million. Each of Carnival’s cruise lines is positioned to
appeal to a different market, and Carnival was interested in rebuilding Cunard as
a luxury brand trading on its British traditions. Under the slogan “Advancing
Civilization Since 1840”, Cunard’s advertising campaign sought to emphasize
the elegance and mystique of ocean travel. Only the QE2 and Caronia continued
under the Cunard brand and the company started Project Queen Mary to build a
new ocean liner / cruise ship for the transatlantic route.
By 2001 Carnival was the largest cruise company, followed by Royal
Caribbean and P&O Princess Cruises, which had recently demerged from its
parent P&O. When Royal Caribbean and P&O Princess agreed to merge,
Carnival countered with a hostile takeover bid for P&O Princess. Carnival
rejected the idea of selling Cunard to resolve antitrust issues with the
acquisition. European and US regulators approved the merger without requiring
Cunard’s sale. After the merger was completed, Carnival moved Cunard’s
headquarters to the offices of Princess Cruises in Santa Clarita, California so
that administrative, financial and technology services could be combined.
With the opening of Carnival House in Southampton in 2009, executive
control of Cunard Line was subsequently transferred from Carnival Corporation,
to Carnival UK, the primary operating company of Carnival plc1. As the UK
listed holding company of the group, Carnival plc now has complete executive
control of all the groups’ activities in the UK, with all UK based brands,
including Cunard, being headquartered in offices at Carnival House. Carnival
plc has additional responsibility for the UK sales and marketing of Princess
Cruises and in a similar manner, Carnival Corporation continues to operate an
office for Cunard, with responsibility for the company’s US sales and
marketing. As the sister company of P&O Cruises, Carnival plc also has control
of P&O Cruises Australia.
In 2004, the 36-year-old QE2 was replaced on the North Atlantic by
Queen Mary 2. Caronia was sold and QE2 continued to cruise until she was
retired in 2008. In 2007 Cunard added a large cruise ship, Queen Victoria. She is
not a sister for the QM2, being ordered by Carnival as a Vista class cruise ship
for the Holland America Line. To reinforce Cunard traditions, the QV has a
small museum on board. Cunard ordered a second Vista class cruise ship, Queen
Elizabeth, scheduled for delivery in 2010.
The Halifax Maritime Museum of the Atlantic has a special display on the
136
Cunard Line and a statute of Samuel Cunard is at the nearby waterfront.

Note to the text:


1) plc = public limited company – компания с ограниченной ответственностью.

Задание 6. Выполните задание 19 в Приложении 7.

Unit 20. ANNOTATION

Задание 1. Прочитайте и переведите следующие аннотации на-


учных статей. Подберите для каждой соответствующий заголовок.

a) 5th Maritime Communication & Technology Summit


b) Improving Shipping Fleet Operations
c) Enhancing Vessel Performance
d) Tough New US Regulations for Cruise Ships

1.The Cruise Vessel Security and Safety Act 2010, due to become US law
very shortly, imposes substantial requirements on cruise ships carrying over 250
passengers on international voyages which embark or disembark passengers in
any US port. They concern design and construction, medical facilities, passenger
and crew information, training and measures to report and combat crime. Non-
compliance can result in denial of entry into US ports, civil penalties up to
$50,000 per violation and criminal penalties up to $250,000 and/or one year’s
imprisonment.
All cruise ships must meet certain design and construction standards with-
in 18 months of enactment. Rails must be 42 inches above the cabin deck, 2.5
inches more than the US Coast Guard’s existing requirement. Passenger and
crew cabin doors must have a “means of visual identification”, such as pee-
pholes. Ships must be equipped with technology, if available, to detect persons
fallen overboard, and with a video surveillance system to document crimes. In
certain high risk areas, ships must have acoustic hailing and warning devices.
All new-build cruise ships must provide latches and time-sensitive key technol-
ogy on all passenger and crew cabin doors.

2. London, UK. ACI’s 5th Maritime Communications and Technology


Conference will focus on the latest developments in technologies across the ma-
ritime industry and examine how ship owners and managers use them to maxim-
ize operational efficiency and increase profits. The conference will consider in-
tegration and maintenance issues, assess real value of new and existing applica-
tions, show new investment areas in ICT and examine crew development and
137
retention strategies.
Throughout the 2 days you will have the opportunity to hear from your
industry peers and discover the hottest developments in maritime communica-
tions and technology:
− determine the return on investments in technologies for your fleet;
− understand how to integrate your ICT systems;
− examine the security of data transmission from ship to shore;
− hear how e-navigation systems improve safety;
− consider ICT solutions for onboard crew training and improving crew
welfare;
− adopt new technologies to monitor and report onboard incidents.

3. Applied Weather Technology (AWT) announced that the Odfjell


Group, a leading company in the seaborne transportation and storage of chemi-
cals and other specialty bulk liquids with about 90 ships in its fleet, recently se-
lected AWT’s routing services and onboard voyage optimization system to help
Odfjell enhance safety and efficiency, as well as reduce fuel consumption, costs
and carbon emissions.
According to AWT, during the first 90 days of implementing its optimum
ship routing services onboard approximately 65 tankers, Odfjell has seen a benefit
with a number of vessels steering clear of severe storms, potentially preventing
significant ship damage and/or crew injury. AWT was able to show time savings
of 30 sailing days and a reduction of approximately 1,000 metric tons (MT) of
fuel oil in this 90-day period. This equates to fuel savings of $475,000 USD and a
reduction in carbon emissions of 3,000 MT. As the period in question did not in-
volve the entire fleet, savings are expected to increase in the future.
For the shipping industry overall, AWT routes more than 35,000 voyages
per year and more ships per month than any other company. The company’s
staff of weather routing experts recommend the safest, most time-efficient or
fuel-efficient routes by analyzing key variables including wind, sea and ocean
currents as well as vessel type, age, stability, cargo and speed.

4. Kongsberg Maritime released three new monitoring and efficiency ap-


plications for its K-Chief automation system. The ‘Fuel Saver’ applications have
been developed as part of Kongsberg Maritime’s commitment to the Green Ship
concept, and through the provision of detailed data and advice based on multiple
factors including current engine use, can be used to enhance vessel performance
and reduce emissions.
The K-Chief marine automation system is a distributed monitoring and
control system that provides high-end functionality for power management, aux-
iliary machinery control, ballast/bunker monitoring and control, and cargo moni-
toring and control.
138
The new Fuel Saver applications can expand a K-Chief system on three
levels. The first application is ‘Fuel Saver Monitoring’ for improved information
and understanding of total fuel consumption. It monitors functions such as tor-
que, fuel index, ship’s speed and hull efficiency and provides information in a
format that enables corrective actions. The second application is ‘Fuel Saver
Advisory’, which in addition to the Fuel Saver Monitoring functionality pro-
vides trim and draft optimization. The third application is the ‘Fuel Saver Op-
timal Advisory’, providing optimal speed, optimal heading and optimal RPM in
addition to hull fouling, propeller fouling, voyage planning, bunker cost calcula-
tion and reports.
The new Fuel Saver applications are part of Kongsberg Maritime’s Green
Ship portfolio, which also consists the MetaPower® torque & power monitoring
system, which facilitates cost-effective operation by providing vital data to ena-
ble a vessel to maintain or increase speed while saving significant amounts of
fuel, and reducing CO2 and NOx emissions.

Задание 2. Прочитайте аннотации к следующим научным


статьям. Определите выражения, дающие их характеристики. Со-
ставьте свою аннотацию к какой-либо научной статье по своей спе-
циальности, используя следующие штампы аннотаций.

1. This article (paper, book, etc.) deals − 1. Эта статья (работа, книга и т.д.)
with … касается …
2. As the title implies the article de- − 2. Согласно названию, в статье
scribes … описывается …
3. It is specially noted … − 3. Особенно отмечается …
4. A mention should be made … − 4. Упоминается …
5. It is spoken in detail … − 5. Подробно описывается …
6. … are noted. − 6. Упоминаются …
7. It is reported … − 7. Сообщается …
8. The text gives a valuable informa- − 8. Текст дает ценную информацию
tion on … …
9. Much attention is given to … − 9. Большое внимание уделяется …
10. The article is of help to … −10. Эта статья окажет большую
помощь …

NEW DUAL FUNCTION DREDGE


by Kevin Tester

The Bureau of Reclamation of the US Department of Interior has selected


Ellicott Dredges’ newest and most versatile dredge, the 860SL, to maintain set-
tling basins on the lower Colorado River near Yuma, Arizona. The dredge will
139
use biodegradable oil, an engine certified by the US Environmental Protection
Agency (EPA), and a fully self-contained system environmentally sound for wa-
ter, air, and noise pollution.

RECOVERY OF MARITIME MARKET


by Henrik Hyldahn

Gouda – Imtech, technical services provider in Europe and for the global
maritime market, is observing a recovery of the technological maritime market
in the Far East and Singapore. Imtech draws this conclusion based on of the
growing intake of orders in this region over the past few months. In this period,
Imtech has obtained new orders representing a total value of 36 million euro.
With a total of 10 local offices, Imtech has a strong position in this region and
sees good opportunities for further growth in the near future.

LOW EMISSIONS TECHNOLOGY


by David Patraiko

Finnish power solutions provider Wärtsilä and Swiss turbocharging spe-


cialist ABB Turbo Systems cooperate in the development of 2-stage turbo-
charged medium speed diesel engines. In this programme, Wärtsilä is focusing
on developing advanced engine technology, which with the turbocharger, is able
to reach the highest possible performance and become a cost-effective commer-
cial solution for its customers. ABB Turbo Systems is delivering the turbocharg-
ing technology with defined performance in terms of airflow, pressure ratios and
efficiency.

NEXT GENERATION 102M TRIMARAN


by Kay Andre Fjortoft

By incorporating lessons learnt from the Austal’s inaugural 2005 trimaran


Benchijigua Express and the Austal designed and built Littoral Combat Ship
USS Independence, the company’s latest trimaran delivers innovation without
risk. Austal undertook a detailed market study on the commercial ferry industry
looking at the size and capacity of existing fleets. Based on the data collected
from this study, it was determined that 102 metres, 1165 passengers, 254 cars
were the approximate specifications most applicable to the existing market.

Задание 3. Прочитайте следующий текст:

140
THE GREEN HYBRID TUG

One of the solutions Imtech Marine Group (the Netherlands) can offer is
the Green Hybrid Propulsion System. Incorporated into a tugboat it will provide
a Green Hybrid Tug that will be environmentally friendly, energy efficient and
powerful when needed. A tugboat has a very wide range of power demands for
different operational tasks. It needs full power when towing or pushing another
ship. When sailing high speeds, a large amount of power is needed. But most of
the operational time the tugboat will be maneuvering or sailing at low speeds.
In a conventional propulsion system the diesel engines will be chosen on
maximum power. But this maximum power will be used not more than 5% of
the total operational time. The rest of the time, the tugboat will be using less
power, generated at a less energy efficient working point of the diesel engines.
To overcome this problem diesel-electric propulsion is a great step forward in
saving energy. The supply of power is more in equilibrium with the demand for
power than in conventional propulsion systems. With two or three diesel-
generator sets, the choice of which sets to run and which sets to stop depends on
the demand for power.
To even further close the gap between power demand and power supply,
energy storage is needed. An energy storage system build with high-energy li-
thium-ion battery banks can store the efficiently generated energy when not
needed. The diesel-generator sets can run either very efficiently, storing a sur-
plus of energy into the batteries or not run at all. When extra power is needed or
the diesels are not running at all, the energy can be taken from the batteries to
provide power for the propulsion system.
With large direct diesel engines the storage of excess energy is done with
a shaft generator and a lithium-ion battery system. The parallel hybrid propul-
sion system can be extended by coupling diesel-generator sets to the energy sto-
rage system and to the shaft generator. The main direct diesels can be stopped
by the use of a clutch. A calculated choice can be made in the amount of direct
diesel power, the amount of diesel-electric power and the amount of battery
energy storage installed to provide a very efficient propulsion system.

Задание 4. Просмотрите текст еще раз и озаглавьте его. Выбе-


рите тип текста, к которому он относится. Объясните свой выбор.

1. A scientific paper.
2. A fragment from a science fiction story.
3. An introduction to a book for science students.
4. A fragment from a popular scientific article.

141
Задание 5. Прочитайте текст. Найдите в нем информацию о но-
вой автопилотируемой системе. Обобщите прочитанное в виде анно-
тации на английском языке. Используйте предложенную в конце тек-
ста схему аннотации.

NEW AUTOPILOT
by Hans Göteborg

The German based navigation company Raytheon Anschütz announced


release of their new NautoPilot 5000 adaptive autopilot series. The NP 5000 is
based on the same Anschütz steering algorithms, but is enhanced to include
highly advanced functions for economic and precise navigation such as an inte-
grated steering performance display and a new course control operation mode.
NP 5000 will be available for installations in the third quarter of 2010.
The large display features an integrated heading and rudder plotter, which
provides a graphical indication of heading changes and all used rudder angles.
This indication instantaneously indicates the steering performance of the autopi-
lot due to the effects of changes to parameter settings such as rudder, counter
rudder and yawing. The operator benefits from simple adjustments of the autopi-
lot’s settings to gain optimized steering performance, which results in minimal
rudder action and thus reduced fuel consumption.
An economic navigation and reduction in fuel consumption is achieved by
the Eco-Mode of the autopilot, which provides the automatic adaptation to the
current sea-state and weather. Periodical yawing movements which can be
caused by roll and pitch will normally result in rudder actions with high ampli-
tudes. As frequent rudder actions will not compensate the heading deviation due
to environmental conditions, the autopilot reduces its sensitivity to such move-
ments. As a result, the autopilot continuously adapts to current environmental
conditions without a manual change of autopilot parameters. Subsequently less
rudder action is required, which leads to lower levels of speed reduction and
thus less fuel consumption.
The NP 5000 autopilot series features up to three possible modes of op-
eration. Besides heading control, the new autopilot maintains the proven track
control mode, allowing a vessel to steer automatically along a pre-planned route
from the start to the end point of the route. Track control is executed with Cate-
gory C accuracy which requires environmental conditions such as wind and drift
to be compensated during track course changes. A new feature in the NP 5000 is
‘course control’ as a third mode of operation. When steering in this mode, the
autopilot compensates for drift automatically and keeps the vessel on the defined
course over ground. Compared with the common heading control mode, this
leads to a more precise course keeping capability and increased safety when
steering the vessel.
142
To further increase safety of life, ship and goods at sea, the NP 5000 au-
topilot series is available with an integrated acceleration monitor, which pro-
vides a warning if a pre-defined cross acceleration limit is exceeded. This helps
to avoid damage or accident due to high acceleration stresses that might occur
for example during a heading change at high speed.

Рекомендуемая схема аннотации:

1. The author examines …


2. He considers …
3. Details given of …
4. The consequence of the development is …
5. In the future …

Задание 6. Прочитайте следующий текст, разделите его на не-


сколько логических частей и озаглавьте их.

NEW CARGO HOLD COATING

Bulk carriers’ cargo holds are the areas affected by severe operating envi-
ronments. Without excellent coating protection, the structural integrity of holds
can be compromised, jeopardizing continuing vessel profitability and safe opera-
tion. International Paint is introducing Intershield®803Plus, a new cargo hold
coating specifically designed to address the key issue of impact damage from the
loading of dry bulk cargoes. Growing exports of hard cargoes such as coal and
iron ore have increased the potential for significant coating damage to occur dur-
ing loading. This is particularly prevalent from the loading of coal by high speed
belt conveyor systems, leading to the phenomenon of ‘shooting’ damage in car-
go holds. This may occur when loaders project coal at right angles to the bulk-
head. The impact can fracture and detach coatings over a short period, leading to
loss of steel protection and subsequent corrosion. Often these areas of damage
are high on the bulkhead and are therefore difficult to repair in service. Once
suffering this form of impact damage, owners and operators are faced with more
frequent repair, increased costs and potential downtime of their vessels. The new
Intershield®803Plus has, according to the company, excellent impact resistance,
offering the effective protection against ‘shooting’ damage. It also provides
good general abrasion resistance and corrosion protection, VOC compliance
with 75% volume solids, fast drying times and all year round workability. The
product has a smooth surface for easy cleaning, is certified for the carriage of
grain and is FDA compliant.

143
Задание 7. Упростите предложения, где это возможно. Напи-
шите свое заключение.

Задание 8. Разбейте текст на абзацы и выпишите все ключевые


предложения.

Задание 9. Напишите аннотацию к тексту на русском языке.

Задание 10. Прочитайте текст и составьте его аннотацию на


английском языке, используя клише:

1. This review briefly surveys developments in the field of.…


2. It shows the advantages and disadvantages of.…
3. An attempt is made to deal with.…
4. Actually, the structure of the components permits.…

DESIGN AND OPERATION OF PASSENGER SHIPS

The passenger vessel market is emerging from one of the most challeng-
ing economic climates and is now showing strong signs of recovery. Vessels are
growing not only in size but in complexity as passengers expect a greater level
of comfort and greater range of activities on board.
Vessels are also now operating in a wider range of areas than ever; polar
cruises are particularly becoming more common, these bring their own chal-
lenges not only in design but also in terms of vessel fit out and minimizing the
local environmental impact of vessels. Changes in regulations have also had a
large impact on design, probabilistic rules for damaged stability and new rules
for the structural use of composites open up new possibilities but also bring new
challenges for all involved in design and manufacture. The introduction of the
Energy Efficiency Design Index also places greater restrictions on the design of
new vessels.
RINA invites papers from naval architects, class societies, operators, re-
searchers, and builders on all related topics, including: all aspects of design −
hull, general arrangement, interior, features etc., operation, regulation and classi-
fication, powering and propulsion, sea keeping, axillaries, features, technologies
and finishes.

Задание 11. Прочитайте текст и составьте аннотацию на анг-


лийском языке.

144
MAJOR ORDER FOR STX FRANCE’ SHIPYARD IN LANESTER

STX France Lorient SAS and STFMO (Société de Transports Fluvio-


Maritimes de l’Ouest), a subsidiary of Sablières de l’Atlantique, have just signed
a contract for the construction of a sand dredger.
This ship order is the first placed with STX Lorient since 2008 and comes
during a significantly low period. It will give the Lanester shipyard the opportu-
nity to establish itself on a new and highly competitive market at a national and
European level.
STFMO will be promoting economic, social and territorial cohesion by
entrusting the construction of a ship to a local shipyard. The ship will fly the
French flag and will be both constructed and operated by local players with an
experienced French crew on board, supplying ports on the Atlantic seaboard
with materials for local companies.
Moreover, STX Lorient has paid particular attention to the hydrodynamic
optimization of the ship to reduce fuel consumption − one of the essential points
in the client’s economic model for a vessel that will operate all year at about 40
meter extraction depths.
This contract will bring a workload of over 100,000 hours to STX staff
and subcontractors. The design phase will be launched promptly and the first
equipment orders are scheduled for this autumn. Construction will start early
2011 with delivery of the ship to STFMO scheduled for mid-2012.
The ship will operate all year round at about 40 meter extraction depths,
and will supply the dredging terminals in Montoir and Cheviré among others.

Specifications:
Length, o.a. 276 ft
Max width 51 ft
Depth 23 ft
Speed, full load 13 knots
Contractual dredging draught 19.6 ft
Capacity of tank 2,000m3
Dredging depth 147.6 ft under floating line
Propulsion 2 x 1,935 KW (2 x 2,630 ch)
MarineLink.Com, August 11, 2010

145
THESAURUS

Aa house~ – плавучий дом


inland ~ – озерно-речное судно
abaft – задний, сзади, в кормовой части patrol ~ – сторожевая лодка
above-water – надводный pilot ~ – лоцманский катер
accelerate – ускорять power~ – моторный катер
access – доступ river ~ – речное судно
accommodate – снабжать, обеспечивать tow~ – буксир
accommodation – жилое помещение tug~ – буксирный катер
across the ship and along – вдоль и попе- boatswain = bosun – боцман
рек boiler – паровой котел
advanced – передовой, развитый boom – бон, боновое заграждение
afloat – на плаву bottom – днище, дно
aft – задний, сзади, в кормовой части double ~ – двойное дно
after – задний, сзади, в кормовой части bow – нос
afterpeak – ахтпик breadth – ширина
aircraft carrier – авианосец breakwater – волнолом, волнорез, мол
alternator – генератор переменного тока bridge – мостик, средняя надстройка
amidships – посредине судна bulbous – бульбообразный
anchor – якорь bulk carrier – навалочник, балкер
anchovy – анчоус bulkhead – переборка
appear – появляться bulwark – фальшборт
appendage – выступающая часть buoy – буй
arm – кронштейн, стрела, рычаг buoyancy – плавучесть
arrange – располагать burn (burnt, burned) – жечь, сжигать
arrangement – расположение, устройство
ashore – на грунте (на берегу) Cc
athwartships – поперек судна
autonomous – автономный cable – кабель, трос
cadet – курсант
Bb cannon – пушка
canoe – каноэ, байдарка
backbone – основа, суть; позвоночник, capacity – тоннаж судна, вместимость, ем-
хребет кость
baggage – багаж capture – ловить
ballistic missile – баллистическая ракета caravel – каравелла
barge – баржа cargo – груз
bathyscaphe – батискаф bulk ~ – навалочный груз
batten – задраивать; рыбинс general ~ – генеральный груз
beam – бимс, ширина dry ~ – сухой груз
berthing – причальное место, якорное ме- liquid ~ – жидкий
сто perishable ~ – скоропортящийся
bilge – льяло груз
blow – дуть carpenter – плотник
boat – лодка, катер carrack – галеон
coastal ~ – каботажное судно carry – перевозить, иметь на вооружении
diving ~ – водолазное судно (о корабле)
flat-bottomed ~ – плоскодонка catamaran – катамаран
146
celestial navigation – астронавигация enclosed ~ – закрытая палуба
chain – цепь lower ~ – нижняя палуба
change – менять middle ~ – средняя палуба
charter – фрахтование promenade ~ – прогулочная палуба
clam – моллюск upper ~ – верхняя палуба
clinker – клинкер, котельный шлак defensive – защитный
coal – уголь definition – определение
coaming – комингс deliver – доставлять
coast – берег, побережье demand – требовать
coastal – прибрежный density – плотность
coaster – каботажное судно depth – глубина
collision – столкновение safe ~ – безопасная глубина
combat – боевой derive – выводить (формулу)
compartment – отсек derrick – грузовая стрела
competitive – конкурентный, спортивный descendent – потомок
compressor – компрессор design – v проектировать, разрабатывать; n
compulsory – обязательный проект
concrete – бетон designer – дизайнер, проектировщик
ferro-~ – железобетон destination – назначение
reinforced ~ – армированный бетон destroyer – эскадренный миноносец
coniferous – хвойный determine – определять
connect – соединять device – прибор, устройство
conquest – покорение dimension – измерение
constraint – напряженность dinghy – ялик, прогулочная лодка
consumer – потребитель direction – направление
conversion – изменение, реконструкция disaster – бедствие
cool – охлаждать dismantling – демонтаж, разборка
coolant – смазочно-охлаждающая эмуль- displace – вытеснять
сия, хладагент displacement – водоизмещение
cook – n повар; v готовить пищу distribute – распределять
chief ~ – шеф-повар dive – нырять
corvette – корвет, сторожевой корабль divert – отклонять, отводить
cover – покрывать, охватывать dock – док
crab – краб dry ~ – сухой док
craft – судно, катер, плавучее средство dome – купол, свод
pleasure ~ – прогулочное судно draft (AE) = draught (BE) – осадка
survey ~ – гидрографическое судно drainage – сток
crankshaft – коленчатый вал draw – втягивать
crew – экипаж, команда drifter – дрифтер
crosshead – крейцкопф, ползун drill – бурить
crude – сырой drive – привод
cruiser – крейсер durable – прочный
cryogenic – охлаждающий
Ee
Dd
edge – край
deck – палуба efficiency – эффективность
boat ~ – шлюпочная палуба emergency – аварийный, запасной, вспо-
bridge ~ – палуба мостика могательный
147
~ use – аварийное использование flexible – податливый, легко приспосабли-
emission – выделение, распространение ваемый, мягкий
employ – нанимать, использовать flight – рейс
encourage – одобрять, поддерживать float – плавать, ходить (о судне)
engine – двигатель, мотор flooring – настил
~ control room – диспетчерская fluid – жидкий
машинного отделения fore – перед, передний, впереди, перед
~ room – машинное отделение fore and aft – продольной, с носа до кор-
internal combustion ~ – двигатель мы
внутреннего сгорания forecastle – бак, полубак
propulsion ~ – тяговый двигатель raised ~ – возвышенный бак
pump-jet ~ – водометный движи- foremost – передний, носовой
тель forepeak – форпик
reciprocating ~ – поршневой двига- forward – в носовой части
тель frame – шпангоут, каркас
steam ~ – паровой двигатель framing – набор корпуса судна
two-stroke diesel ~ – двухтактный freeboard – надводный борт
дизель freeing port – штормовой шпигат
engrave – (вы)гравировать freighter – фрейтер (трамповое судно)
ensure – обеспечивать frigate – фрегат, сторожевой корабль
entertainment – развлечение fuel – топливо
entire – целый, весь funnel – дымовая труба
environment – окружающая среда furnace – топка
equipment – судовое устройство, оборудо-
вание Gg
exchanger – обменник
heat ~ – теплообменник gain – получить
exist – существовать galleon – галеон
exploration – исследование galley – галера; камбуз
explosion – взрыв gangway – сходня, проход
extend – продлить gearbox – коробка передач
extinguish – гасить, тушить general – общий
extinguisher – огнетушитель generator – генератор
extraction – добыча girder – балка
glide – глиссировать
Ff gondola – гондола
goods – товар(ы)
facilities – средства, возможности ground-effect machine – экраноплан
handling ~ – оборудование для об- grounding – посадка на мель
работки грузов grid – решетка, гребень
fasten – закреплять gunpowder – порох
faulty – неправильный
feature – быть характерной особенностью Hh
ferry – паром
fiberglass – стекловолокно hatch – люк
fit – соответствовать, оснащать ~ cover – крышка люка
~ into – плотно входить во ч-л ~ covering system – система закры-
flat – плоский тия грузовых люков
~-bottomed – плоскодонный ~way – отверстие люка
148
hawsepipe – клюзопровод Ll
hazard – опасность
head – топ мачты labour cost – стоимость труда
heel – крен; наклонять(ся) lack – недостаток, отсутствие
helmsman – рулевой ladder – лестница, трап
herring – сельдь lash – крепить, найтовить
hinge – шарнир lateral − боковой, горизонтальный
hoist – поднимать launch – спускать на воду
hold – трюм layout – план, схема расположения
housing – постройка leather – кожа
hovercraft – судно на воздушной подушке length – длина
hull – корпус ~ at the waterline – длина по ватер-
линии
Ii overall ~ – габаритная длина (наи-
большая)
icebreaker – ледокол lid – крышка, колпак
improve – улучшать, совершенствовать life – жизнь; спасательный
inclination – уклон, скат ~ belt – спасательный пояс
incline – наклонять ~ buoy – спасательный буй
include – включать (в состав ч-л) ~ jacket – спасательный жилет
increase – увеличивать ~ raft – спасательный плот
inflame – воспламенять limber board – льяльная крышка
inflate – надувать limit – предел
inland – внутренний acceptable ~ – допустимый предел
intake – впуск line – линия, трос
intend (for) – предназначать(ся) liquid – жидкий
intermodal – интермодальный list – крен
internal – внутренний load – v загружать, грузить; n нагрузка
invasion – вторжение safe ~ – допускаемая нагрузка
invention – изобретение loading – загрузка
inward – внутренний lobster – краб, омар
iron – железо locate – размещать
location – местоположение
Jj log – бревно
longitudinal – продольный
jacket – жилет lookout – пост наблюдения
jetfoil – судно на подводных крыльях с loss – потеря, убыток
реактивным двигателем lower – спускать на воду
junk – джонка luggage – багаж

Mm
Kk
machinery – машины, машинное оборудо-
kayak – каяк
вание
keel – киль
~ control system – система управ-
keelboat – килевая шлюпка
ления оборудованием
keelson – кильсон
mackerel – макрель
main – главный, основной
maintenance – уход, эксплуатация
149
maneuverability – маневренность operation – работа, действие
man-o’-wars = man-of-wars – военный ко- docking ~ – доковые работы
рабль operator – механик, оператор, машинист
marine – морской флот, морской, флот- origin – происхождение
ский, судовой outboard – забортный
~ industry – судостроение и судо- outline – контур, очертание
ходство output – выпуск
maritime – морской combined ~ – общая мощность
mark – n марка, отметка; v отмечать overhaul – разбирать, тщательно осматри-
draught ~ – марка углубления вать
load line ~ = load ~ – грузовая мар-
ка Pp
mast – мачта
erect ~ – вертикальная мачта paraffin – керосин
mate – помощник passability – проходимость
material – материал penalty – наказание, штраф
composite ~ – композитный (со- pentamaran – пентамаран
ставной) материал perceive – воспринимать, ощущать, чувст-
means – средство вовать
measure – мерить, размерять petrol – бензин
medieval – средневековый petroleum – нефть
merchant – торговый pierside – на пирсе
minesweeper – тральщик pinnace – пинас
monohull – однокорпусное судно piston – поршень
moor – швартоваться pitch – уклон
mount – устанавливать, монтировать place – n место; v размещать
move – двигать(ся) plating – обшивка, настил
~ through – перебросить plumbing – водопроводная система
plunge – погружаться
Nn half-plunging – полупогружной
pole – рейка; без парусов
nautical – мореходный pollack – сайда
naval – военно-морской pollution – загрязнение
navigator – штурман, навигатор, морепла- poop – ют
ватель port – порт; левый борт
navy – военно-морской флот portable – портативный
nozzle – сопло portside – левый борт
nuclear-powered – атомный post – стойка, мачта
power plant – энергетическая установка
Oo pressure – давление
fluid ~ – давление текучей среды
oar – весло productivity – производительность
~-propelled – гребной propel – приводить в движение
offshore – прибрежный propeller – движитель, гребной винт
oil – нефть, масло nozzle-style ~ – реактивное сопло,
heavy fuel ~ – судовое топливо гребной винт в направляющей
lubricating ~ – смазочное масло насадке
~ line – маслопровод screw ~ – гребной винт
opening – отверстие, крышка twin-~ – двойной винт
150
self-propelled – самоходный rim – обод, ободок, кромка
propulsion – двигатель, силовая установка, rivet – v клепать; n клепка, заклепка
движущая сила roll – катать
~ system – движущая система ~ on – вкатывать
protect – защищать ~ off – выкатывать
protection – защита rolling motion – качение
provide – обеспечивать, предусматривать rope – веревка
pump – n насос; v качать rotating – вращение
dredging ~ – землесос row – грести
feed ~ – питательный насос ~boat – гребная шлюпка
purifier – фильтр rubber – резина
fuel-lubrication oil ~ – топливно- rubbish – мусор
смазочный фильтр rudder – руль
purpose – цель, миссия, назначение
push – толкать Ss

Qq safe – безопасный, надежный


safety – безопасность
quell – подавлять, успокаивать sail – парус
rotor ~ – роторный парус
Rr ~ boat – парусная шлюпка
~ing vessel – парусное судно
race – гонки turbo ~ – турбопарус
raft – плот sailor – моряк
ramp – аппарель salmon – лосось
range – ранжировать, классифицировать sandblasting – пескоструйная очистка
ranks – рядовой состав scow (boat) – шаланда, баржа, плашкоут
rare – редкий scrapyard – скрапный двор
reach – достигать scuttle – затоплять (корабль)
rearmost – кормовой, самый задний seal – герметизировать, запечатывать
recirculate – циркулировать в замкнутом seafarer – моряк, мореплаватель
пространстве seam – шов, место соединения
rectangular – прямоугольный seaman – матрос
reduction gear – редуктор able ~ – матрос 1-го класса
reed – тростник, камыш ordinary ~ – матрос 2-го класса
reef – риф search – производить досмотр (судна)
regatta – парусные или гребные гонки, ре- seaworthiness – мореходность
гата second-in-command – заместитель, по-
regulation – предписание, правило мощник, заместитель командира
remain – оставаться security – надежность, охрана
repair – ремонтировать; ремонт segregate – изолировать, выделять(ся)
replace – заменять seiner – сейнер
rescue – спасение serve – служить
resistance – сопротивление sewage – сточные воды, нечистоты
resource – источник shaft – вал
responsibility – ответственность shallow – n мель; adj мелкий
restrict – ограничивать shape – форма
rigging – вооружение (парусное) sheathing – обшивка
rigid – жесткий shell – оболочка, обшивка
151
ship – корабль, судно spar – балка, перекладина
amphibious assault ~ – десантный ~ ceiling – рыбинс
штурмовой корабль species – вид, разновидность
battle~ – линейный корабль (лин- speed – скорость
кор) cruising ~ – крейсерная скорость
break-bulk ~ – судно для перевозки loaded ~ – скорость в грузу
генерального груза service ~ – эксплуатационная ско-
cable ~ – кабельное судно рость
dry cargo ~ – сухогруз trial ~ – скорость на испытаниях
fighting ~ – боевое судно spill – пятно
liquid cargo ~ – танкеровоз spin – вращать
merchant ~ – торговое судно spread (spread, spread) − распростра-
motor~ – теплоход нять(ся)
nuclear ~ – атомный корабль squid – кальмар
refrigerator ~ – рефрижераторное stabilizer – стабилизатор
судно staff – персонал
replenishment ~ – транспорт- starboard – правый борт
заправщик stay(s) – стойка, ванты
rescue ~ – спасательное судно steam – пар
~ of the line – линейное судно superheated ~ – перегретый пар
~board – борт корабля steer – управлять (кораблем)
~breaking – слом корабля ~ing system – система управления
~-handling – управление кораблем кораблем
~owner – судовладелец steel – сталь
~wreck – кораблекрушение steamer – пароход
~wright – судомонтажник stem – форштевень
~yard – судостроительная верфь steward – стюард
steam~ – пароход stern – корма
survey ~ – гидрографическое судно sternpost – ахтерштевень
shrimp – креветка stiffen – делать жестким
side – борт, сторона store – складировать, хранить
~ rolling system – система скольже- strap – ремень, полоска
ния лючин на роликах по боко- strength – сила, прочность
вым направлениям strengthen – усиливать, укреплять
top ~ – надводный борт strengthening – упрочнение
size – размер strong – сильный, прочный, крепкий
skiff – ялик strut – распорка, подпорка
skill – мастерство, умение stuff – наполнять, набивать
skin – кожа subject (to) – подчинять
slant – уклон submarine – подводная лодка
smokestack – дымовая труба missile ~ – ракетная подводная
soil – грунт, почва лодка
socket – паз submerge – погружаться
sonar – сонар, гидролокатор submerged – подводный
sophisticated – сложный subsequent – последующий
sound-proofed – звуконепроницаемый suck – всасывать
space – пространство, отсек, помещение suffer – страдать
cargo ~ – грузовое помещение superstructure – надстройка
machinery ~ – машинное отделение supervise – наблюдать, надзирать,
152
заведовать thermal efficiency – теплоэффективность
supplant – вытеснять thong – ремень
support – поддерживать; поддержка thruster – толкатель, гидравлический дом-
suppression – подавление (огня) крат, стартовый ускоритель,
surface – поверхность подруливающее устройство
survive – выживать toll – пошлина, сбор
survival suit – спасательная одежда tonnage – тоннаж
sustain – выдерживать, испытывать, под- tool – инструмент
держивать tow – n буксировка; v буксировать
switch – включать tower – мачта
synchronized – синхронный trade – n торговля; adj торговый
transom – транец
Tt transponder – приемоответчик
transverse – поперечный
tackle – такелаж, талы trawler – траулер
ground ~ – наземный такелаж trigger – запускать, детонировать
tank – танк, резервуар, цистерна trim – дифферент, посадка судна, пра-
ballast ~ – балластная цистерна вильное размещение груза на судне
double bottom ~ – междудонная trimaran – тримаран
цистерна trireme – трирема
atomic-power ~ – атомоход trunk – желоб, труба, магистраль
auxiliary ~ – вспомогательное суд- tug – буксир
но tumblehome – завал борта
cargo ~ – грузовое судно tuna – тунец
commercial ~ – коммерческое суд- skipjack ~ – тунец-попрыгунчик
но turn – поворачивать, вращать
electro ~ – электроход tweendeck – твиндек
fast ~ – быстроходное судно
fishing ~ – рыболовное (промысло- Uu
вое) судно
gas-turbine ~ – газотурбоход underway – на ходу, в пути
high-speed ~ – быстроходное судно unload – разгружать
hydrofoil ~ – судно на подводных
крыльях Vv
multi-purpose ~ – универсальное,
многоцелевое судно vehicle – транспортное средство
support ~ – судно поддержки vessel – судно, корабль
turbine ~ – турбоход air-cushion ~ – судно на воздушной
wing ~ – бортовая цистерна подушке
tanker – танкер voltage – напряжение
clean ~ – танкер для перевозки
очищенной нефти Ww
dirty ~ – танкер для перевозки тем-
ных нефтепродуктов waistcoat – жилет
tanktop – второе дно, палубное перекры- warfare – боевые действия
тие над цистернами двойного дна watch – n вахта, наблюдение; v следить,
tarpaulin – брезент наблюдать
tax – налог waterline – ватерлиния
waterway – водный путь watertight – водонепроницаемый
153
wave – волна winch – лебедка
shock ~ – ударная волна wiper – дворник
weapon – оружие withstand – выдержать, сопротивляться
weave (wove, woven) – сплетать, соединять wooden – деревянный
weld – сваривать wrought iron – катанное железо
whale – кит
wheel – колесо Yy
whiting – хек
windlass – брашпиль yacht – яхта

154
CONCLUSION

Данное учебное пособие содержит минимально необходимый лекси-


ческий материал, позволяющий обеспечить изучение студентами, обу-
чающихся по направлению подготовки бакалавров 180100 «Кораблестрое-
ние, океанотехника и системотехника объектов морской инфраструктуры»
по профилю «»Кораблестроение» дисциплины «Иностранный (англий-
ский) язык» в рамках требований ФГОС ВПО.
Учебное пособие позволяет осуществить сознательное отношение
студента к самому процессу обучения, предполагает речевую активность
студента в ходе занятия, предусматривает учет будущей специальности и
профессиональных интересов студента на занятиях по языку, а также спо-
собствует формированию и развитию навыков работы с аутентичным тек-
стом с применением полученных навыков в научных исследованиях.
Предполагается, что студенты в процессе обучения могут использо-
вать и другой учебный материал, имеющийся в их распоряжении.

LITERATURE

1. Полякова, Т.Ю. Достижения науки и техники ХХ века: Учебное


пособие по английскому языку для студентов технических вузов. / Т.Ю.
Полякова, Е.В. Синявская, Г.А. Селезнева. – М.: Высш. шк., 2004. – 287с.
2. Григоров, В.Б. Английский язык для авиационных вузов и техни-
кумов: Учебное пособие. / В.Б. Григоров. – М.: ООО «Издательство Аст-
рель: ООО «Издательство АСТ», 2003. – 382с.
3. Тарануха, Н.А., Першина, Е.Ю. Английский язык для транспорт-
ных специальностей вузов. Том 1: Базовый профессиональный курс: Учеб-
ное пособие. / Н.А. Тарануха, Е.Ю. Першина. – М.: СОЛОН-Пресс, 2011. –
280с.
4. Тарануха, Н.А., Першина, Е.Ю. Английский язык для транспорт-
ных специальностей вузов. Том 2: Специализированный курс: Учебное по-
собие. / Н.А. Тарануха, Е.Ю. Першина. – М.: СОЛОН-Пресс, 2011. – 272с.
5. Англо-русский авиационный словарь. / сост. М.Г. Котик, А.М.
Мурашкевич, М.И. Бухатина и др. – М.: «Советская энциклопедия», 1964.
– 687с.
6. http://www.answers.com/topic/airplane
7. http://www.answers.com/topic/airframe
8. http://video.answers.com/explore-super-jet-aircraft-284056051

155
APPENDIX 1

REFERENCES TO STATE EDUCATIONAL STANDARDS

ФЕДЕРАЛЬНЫЙ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫЙ
ОБРАЗОВАТЕЛЬНЫЙ СТАНДАРТ
ВЫСШЕГО ПРОФЕССИОНАЛЬНОГО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ

по направлению подготовки

180100 Кораблестроение, океанотехника и


системотехника объектов морской инфраструктуры

(квалификация (степень) «бакалавр»)

утвержден приказом Министерства образования и науки Российской


Федерации от 4 февраля 2010 г. № 102.

1. ОБЛАСТЬ ПРИМЕНЕНИЯ

1.1 Настоящий федеральный государственный образовательный


стандарт высшего профессионального образования (ФГОС ВПО) пред-
ставляет собой совокупность требований, обязательных при реализации
основных образовательных программ бакалавриата по направлению под-
готовки 180100 Кораблестроение, океанотехника и системотехника
объектов морской инфраструктуры образовательными учреждениями
высшего профессионального образования (высшими учебными заведения-
ми, вузами), имеющими государственную аккредитацию.

5. ТРЕБОВАНИЯ К РЕЗУЛЬТАТАМ ОСВОЕНИЯ ОСНОВНЫХ


ОБРАЗОВАТЕЛЬНЫХ ПРОГРАММ БАКАЛАВРИАТА

5.1 Выпускник должен обладать следующими общекультурными


компетенциями (ОК):
− владеть одним из иностранных языков на уровне не ниже разго-
ворного (ОК-15).

6. ТРЕБОВАНИЯ К ТРУКТУРЕ ОСНОВНЫХ


ОБРАЗОВАТЕЛЬНЫХ ПРОГРАММ БАКАЛАВРИАТА

6.1 Основная образовательная программа бакалавриата предусматри-


вает изучение следующих учебных циклов:
156
− гуманитарный, социальный и экономический циклы.

6.2 Каждый учебный цикл имеет базовую (обязательную) часть и ва-


риативную (профильную), устанавливаемую вузом.

6.3 Базовая (обязательная) часть цикла «Гуманитарный, социальный


и экономический цикл» должна предусматривать изучение следующих
обязательных дисциплин: «История», «Философия», «Иностранный язык»,
«Экономическая теория».
В результате изучения базовой части цикла обучающийся должен:
знать:
− иностранный язык в объеме, необходимом для возможности полу-
чения информации профессионального содержания из зарубежных источ-
ников;
уметь:
− самостоятельно анализировать социально-политическую и науч-
ную литературу;
владеть:
− методами управления действующими технологическими процесса-
ми при создании морской техники, обеспечивающими производство про-
дукции, отвечающей требованиям стандартов и рынка.

157
APPENDIX 2

Task. Read the information from the European Council about foreign
language thresholds. Choose your level.

FOREIGN LANGUAGE THRESHOLDS

Activities A1 A2
Listening I can recognize familiar words I can understand phrases and the high-
and very basic phrases con- est frequency vocabulary related to
cerning myself, my family and areas of most immediate personal re-
immediate concrete surround- levance (e.g. very basic personal and
UNDERSTANDING

ings when people speak slowly family information, shopping, local


and clearly area, employment). I can catch the
main point in short, clear, simple mes-
sages and announcements
Reading I can understand familiar I can read very short, simple texts. I
names, words and very simple can find specific, predictable informa-
sentences, for example on no- tion in simple everyday material such
tices and posters or in cata- as advertisements, prospectuses, me-
logues nus and timetables and I can under-
stand short simple personal letters
Spoken I can interact in a simple way I can communicate in simple and rou-
Interaction provided the other person is tine tasks requiring a simple and direct
prepared to repeat or rephrase exchange of information on familiar
things at a slower rate of topics and activities. I can handle very
speech and help me formulate short social exchanges, even though I
SPEAKING

what I'm trying to say. I can can’t usually understand enough to


ask and answer simple ques- keep the conversation going myself
tions in areas of immediate
need or on very familiar topics
Spoken I can use simple phrases and I can use a series of phrases and sen-
Production sentences to describe where I tences to describe in simple terms my
live and people I know family and other people, living condi-
tions, my educational background and
my present or most recent job
Writing I can write a short, simple I can write short, simple notes and
postcard, for example sending messages relating to matters in areas
holiday greetings. I can fill in of immediate needs. I can write a very
WRITING

forms with personal details, for simple personal letter, for example
example entering my name, thanking someone for something
nationality and address on a
hotel registration form

158
B1 B2

Listening I can understand the main I can understand extended speech and
points of clear standard speech lectures and follow even complex lines
on familiar matters regularly of argument provided the topic is rea-
encountered in work, school, sonably familiar. I can understand
leisure, etc. I can understand most TV news and current affairs pro-
the main point of many radio grammes. I can understand the majori-
UNDERSTANDING

or TV programmes on current ty of films in standard dialect


affairs or topics of personal or
professional interest when the
delivery is relatively slow and
clear

Reading I can understand texts that con- I can read articles and reports con-
sist mainly of high frequency cerned with contemporary problems in
everyday or job-related lan- which the writers adopt particular atti-
guage. I can understand the tudes or viewpoints. I can understand
description of events, feelings contemporary literary prose
and wishes in personal letters

Spoken I can deal with most situations I can interact with a degree of fluency
Interaction likely to arise whilst travelling and spontaneity that makes regular
in an area where the language interaction with native speakers quite
SPEAKING

is spoken. I can enter unpre- possible. I can take an active part in


pared into conversation on top- discussion in familiar contexts, ac-
ics that are familiar, of person- counting for and sustaining my views
al interest or pertinent to eve-
ryday life (e.g. family, hobbies,
work, travel and current
events)
Spoken I can connect phrases in a sim- I can present clear, detailed descrip-
Production ple way in order to describe tions on a wide range of subjects re-
experiences and events, my lated to my field of interest. I can ex-
dreams, hopes and ambitions. I plain a viewpoint on a topical issue
can briefly give reasons and giving the advantages and disadvan-
explanations for opinions and tages of various options
plans. I can narrate a story or
relate the plot of a book or film
and describe my reactions
Writing I can write simple connected I can write clear, detailed text on a
text on topics which are famili- wide range of subjects related to my
ar or of personal interest. I can interests. I can write an essay or re-
WRITING

write personal letters describ- port, passing on information or giving


ing experiences and impres- reasons in support of or against a par-
sions ticular point of view. I can write letters
highlighting the personal significance
of events and experiences

159
C1 C2

Listening I can understand extended I have no difficulty in understanding


speech even when it is not any kind of spoken language, whether
clearly structured and when live or broadcast, even when delivered
relationships are only implied at fast native speed, provided. I have
UNDERSTANDING

and not signalled explicitly. I some time to get familiar with the ac-
can understand television pro- cent
grammes and films without too
much effort
Reading I can understand long and I can read with ease virtually all forms
complex factual and literary of the written language, including ab-
texts, appreciating distinctions stract, structurally or linguistically
of style. I can understand spe- complex texts such as manuals, spe-
cialised articles and longer cialised articles and literary works
technical instructions, even
when they do not relate to my
field
Spoken I can express myself fluently I can take part effortlessly in any con-
Interaction and spontaneously without versation or discussion and have a
much obvious searching for good familiarity with idiomatic ex-
expressions. I can use language pressions and colloquialisms. I can
SPEAKING

flexibly and effectively for so- express myself fluently and convey
cial and professional purposes. finer shades of meaning precisely. If I
I can formulate ideas and opi- do have a problem I can backtrack and
nions with precision and relate restructure around the difficulty so
my contribution skillfully to smoothly that other people are hardly
those of other speakers aware of it

Spoken I can present clear, detailed I can present a clear, smoothly-


Production descriptions of complex sub- flowing description or argument in a
jects integrating sub-themes, style appropriate to the context and
developing particular points with an effective logical structure
and rounding off with an ap- which helps the recipient to notice and
propriate conclusion remember significant points
Writing I can express myself in clear, I can write clear, smoothly-flowing
well-structured text, expressing text in an appropriate style. I can write
points of view at some length. I complex letters, reports or articles
can write about complex sub- which present a case with an effective
WRITING

jects in a letter, an essay or a logical structure which helps the reci-


report, underlining what I con- pient to notice and remember signifi-
sider to be the salient issues. I cant points. I can write summaries and
can select style appropriate to reviews of professional or literary
the reader in mind works

© Council of Europe / Conseil de l’Europe

160
APPENDIX 3

LANGUAGE PORTFOLIO

I. SELF-ASSESSMENT GRID

Describe your English language proficiency in relation to grid on the


previous page.

SKILLS A1(√) A2(√) B1(√) B2(√) C1(√) C2(√)


Listening
Reading
Spoken
interaction
Spoken
production
Writing

II. LANGUAGE AND INTERCULTURAL EXPERIENCES

Country Travel (√) Study (√) Work (√) Language an


intercultural
experiences

III. MY LEARNING CONTRACT

At the end of this course I want to


−____________________________________________________________
−____________________________________________________________
−____________________________________________________________
−____________________________________________________________
−____________________________________________________________
−____________________________________________________________
−____________________________________________________________
−____________________________________________________________
−____________________________________________________________
−____________________________________________________________
−____________________________________________________________
−____________________________________________________________
161
IV. LEARNING HOW TO LEARN

ATTITUDE

Attitudes Sometimes (√) Always (√) Often (√) My target (√)


I have a positive attitude
to the studying process
and tasks
I have a positive attitude
to the tasks which I don’t
like
I can manage the time for
studying rationally

MY LEARNING TARGETS

I can ________________________________________________________
My next learning target: _________________________________________
Target date____/____/____
I achieved my target: YES NO

I can ________________________________________________________
My next learning target: _________________________________________
Target date____/____/____
I achieved my target: YES NO

I can _________________________________________________________
My next learning target: __________________________________________
Target date____/____/____
I achieved my target: YES NO

I can _________________________________________________________
My next learning target: __________________________________________
Target date____/____/____
I achieved my target: YES NO

MY LEARNING ACTIVITIES

The most effective learning activities for me, in order of effectiveness are:
1 = most effective, 10 = least effective
162
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
My strategies for preparing a writing task are:
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
My strategies for preparing an oral interaction or presentation are:
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________

LEARNING DIARY

Date from ____/_____/_____ to ____/____/____


In the past month I have learnt:
Writing_______________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
Speaking _____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
Reading ______________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
New vocabulary and expressions __________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
Specialised topics ______________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
I need to work more on: _________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________

VOCABULARY SHEET
Useful expressions
a) for making a summary of the article

163
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
b) for agreeing / disagreeing
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
c) for introducing your personal opinion
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
d) for interviewing people
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
e) for making an offer
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
f) for making abstracts and annotations
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________

CAREER PLANNING

Level With With With no


I can of a lot of a little help
activity help help (dates)
(dates) (dates)
list and describe my skills and qualifica- B1
tions
match job descriptions with my skills B1
and qualifications
answer questions about job interests B1
gather information for a curriculum vitae B1
read coarse brochures and job advertise- B1
ments to identify areas related to skills
and qualifications
talk about different options in relation to B1
future career paths
examine and discuss language learning B1
164
goals for future training/work
use specialist vocabulary to describe B2
previous experience and qualifications
read and understand a variety of work- B2
related texts
explain career plans with reference to B2
past experience, qualifications and future
possibilities
prepare a curriculum vitae which reflects B2
different aspects of experience and train-
ing
understand a wide range of demanding, C1
longer professional texts, and recognise
implicit meaning
express myself fluently and spontane- C1
ously without much obvious searching
for expressions
use language flexibly and effectively for C1
professional purposes
produce clear, well-structured, detailed C1
text on complex subjects, showing con-
trolled use of organisational patterns,
connectors and cohesive devices
understand with ease virtually everything C2
heard or read on professional topics
summarise information on professional C2
topics from different spoken and written
sources, reconstructing arguments and
accounts in a coherent presentation
express myself spontaneously, very flu- C2
ently and precisely, differentiating finer
shades of meaning even in more complex
professional situations

165
APPENDIX 4

CURRICULUM VITAE & COVER LETTER

How to write a resume in English Как написать резюме


на английском языке
Guidelines to write a resume or Рекомендации по написанию
Curriculum Vitae in English резюме и CV на английском языке
Nowadays, employers tend to receive Сегодня многие работодатели по-
thousands of applications for a job as soon лучают тысячи резюме от потенциаль-
as it is advertised on the job market. There- ных работников буквально в день публи-
fore it is vital that your letter should stand кации вакансии. Поэтому очень важно,
out from the thousands of CVs and letters чтобы Ваше резюме выделялось из ос-
that people are going to send. The first im- тальных. Всем известно, что первое
pression is always the most important one, впечатление играет очень важную роль,
therefore you need a good and well- struc- соответственно необходимо иметь хо-
tured CV in order to attract the employers’ рошее и правильно построенное резюме.
attention. Here are a couple of tips about Здесь Вы найдете советы о том, как со-
how to write a good CV when applying for ставить качественное резюме.
a job in the UK or in Ireland.
Presentation Презентация
An employer has very little time to Работодатель обычно не затрачива-
spend on your application. The most impor- ет много времени на прочтение Вашего
tant thing is that your CV is clear. Your CV резюме. Поэтому оно должно быть чет-
has to be word processed. It immediately ким и не превышать одной-двух страниц.
shows that you can work on word proces- Однако не пытайтесь максимально на-
sors. The CV should be between one or two полнить эти две страницы информацией.
pages long. Don't be scared to space it out, В противном случае резюме будет вы-
never condense everything onto one page глядеть неаккуратно. В резюме важно
otherwise it will look messy. Since most суметь показать, что Вы умеете выделять
employers have very little time to spend on самое главное. Обычно работодатели
each CV, they tend to skim read what you просто бегло просматривают резюме,
have written. It is therefore better to start поэтому лучше размещать информацию
by what is most important and work your в порядке убывания ее важности.
way downwards from what is important to Существует определенная система
what is not so vital. построения резюме.
The structure of a CV must follow a
certain order.
1. Personal data 1. Личная информация
First of all, you have got to introduce В первую очередь необходимо ука-
yourself: full name, address, date of birth. зать ФИО, адрес, телефон, дату рожде-
If you want, you can add your phone num- ния. Можно написать о семейном поло-
ber, marital status and nationality. Even if жении и национальности. Хоть такая
this is not compulsory, this might be impor- информация и не обязательна, порой она
tant for the type of job for which you are важна для некоторых должностей. К
applying. For example, if you are applying примеру, если Вы хотите работать в ме-
to an international company that requires ждународной компании, где требуется
knowledge of a language as a native tongue знание языка, являющегося для Вас род-

166
then it might be useful to mention your na- ным, лучше тогда указать в резюме Вашу
tionality. If there is anything that you национальность.
would feel that is important to mention, Если есть еще что-то, о чем Вы
you can do it here. считаете необходимым написать в резю-
ме, − смело пишите. “Сам себя не похва-
лишь…”
2. Education and qualifications 2. Образование
This part of the CV is one of the Эта часть резюме одна из самых
most important because it gives the em- важных. Ведь именно из этого раздела у
ployer an insight into who you are, through работодателя складывается первое впе-
your academic career. The trickiest part of чатление о Вас. Самое сложное – пра-
mentioning qualifications is to try and find вильно подобрать выражения на англий-
the equivalent in English. This is not al- ском языке для описания Вашей специа-
ways easy as the diplomas in the education лизации. Эта сложность обусловлена
system vary from country to country. The разницей в образовательных системах
best thing to do is to write the original мира. Лучше всего написать Вашу спе-
name of your qualification along with the циализацию латиницей, а затем в скоб-
equivalents in English in brackets. Grades ках дать эквивалент на английском язы-
can also be a problem. ке. Указывать оценки также не стоит, т.к.
оценочные системы разных стран разли-
чаются.
3. Work experience 3. Опыт работы
This section can be divided in vari- Этот раздел может быть разделен
ous sub-sections especially if you have got на несколько подразделов, особенно если
a lot of experience (present post, previous у Вас богатый опыт работы. Не бойтесь
employment, voluntary work). Don’t be указывать все обязанности, которые Вы
afraid to describe the tasks that you had to выполняли на всех работах, особенно
do in your different jobs, especially if these если они имеют отношение к той долж-
are relevant to the job that you are applying ности, на которую Вы претендуете.
for.
4. Skills 4. Профессиональные навыки
In this section, you can put down all Здесь Вы можете указать те навыки
the practical things that you can do that и преимущества, которые, по вашему
might be useful for the job: driving license мнению, пригодятся в работе, например:
(always say clean driving license), know- наличие водительского удостоверения,
ledge of languages and computer software. знание иностранных языков, а также
компьютерная грамотность.
5. Interests 5. Интересы
Of course, the employer is not going Конечно, работодатель не возьмет
to hire you because you have the same Вас на работу только потому, что и Вы и
hobbies as him/her but this section helps он любите заниматься спортом. Но из
him/her get a better idea of what kind of этого раздела он сможет лучше понять,
person you are. However, you should re- что Вы за человек. Но не переусердст-
main brief. вуйте. Укажите только самое главное.
6. References 6. Рекомендации
It always looks good to put down the Всегда хорошо иметь в резюме
names of two people who have agreed to имена нескольких человек, готовых дать
provide references. Ideally, one should be Вам рекомендацию. В идеале один дол-
academic and the other from one of your жен быть Вашим преподавателем из
167
previous job(s). Always give the name and университета, а другой − с прежней ра-
title of your referee. боты. Всегда указывайте полное имя и
должность того, кто готов дать рекомен-
дацию.
Guidelines to write a CV Как написать CV
If you were interested in a summer po- Если Вы хотите поработать за
sition abroad, a curriculum vitae would be границей, то CV Вам просто необходи-
the appropriate document you will send to мо. В нем находится информация о Ва-
your targeted employer. A curriculum vitae ших личных и профессиональных дос-
(CV) represents your personal and working тижениях. Оно отличается от класси-
history. ческого американского резюме объемом
It differs from the traditional U.S. – обычно CV занимает более одной
resume in that it could be (and more than страницы. Здесь нет никаких четких
likely will be) more than one page. There is правил в отношении бумаги, полей, или
no need to send your CV in traditional шрифта. Однако надо помнить, что CV
resume paper; plain white bond paper все равно должно выглядеть профессио-
would be enough. You have the freedom to нально.
choose your margins and your font style, Вот перечень того, что должно
but always remember that it should look быть в Вашем CV обязательно:
very professional. − Фотография
The following is a list of information − Личные данные (ФИО, возраст, пол,
that should appear in your CV: национальность, дата и место рождения,
− Photo семейное положение)
− Personal details such as age, gender, na- − Адрес, номер контактного телефона и
tionality, place and date of birth and marital e-mail
status − Сведения о полученном образовании
− Address, phone number (s) and e-mail (s) (школа, колледж, высшее/неоконченное
− Education (including in some cases high высшее)
school, undergraduate, graduate and post- − Зарубежные стажировки
graduate) − Название дипломной работы и имя на-
− Study abroad учного руководителя
− Thesis or Dissertation Title and Advisor − Грамоты, награды (включая получен-
− Graduate fieldwork ные гранты и стипендии)
− Education and/or Professional Awards, − Опыт научной деятельности
Honors (include in this section Grants and − Опыт работы
Fellowship appointments) − Профессиональные навыки
− Research Experience − Публикации или презентации
− Work Experience − Исследовательские работы / диссерта-
− Skills ции (с кратким описанием)
− Publications and Academic or Profes- − Сертификаты
sional Presentations − Знание иностранных языков
− Thesis or Dissertation (when applicable, − Членство в профессиональных органи-
with a brief description of the topic) зациях
− Professional Licenses and Certifications − Общественная работа, членство в об-
− Language Skills щественных организациях
− Professional Memberships − Интересы (не забудьте упомянуть о
− Extracurricular Activities (include com- путешествиях, если они были осуществ-
munity involvement) лены в страну работодателя)
− Interests (be sure to include traveling as it − Рекомендации
168
relates to the country)
− References
Structure of a Curriculum Vitae Структура Curriculum Vitae
In other countries is common to see В некоторых странах принято пи-
the phrase CURRICULUM VITAE written сать фразу ‘CURRICULUM VITAE’ по-
in the center of the page середине страницы
Personal Information: Личные данные:
− Full Name and Surname − ФИО
− Date of Birth (using the following for- − Дата рождения (день/м/год)
mat: day/month/year) − Пол (в особенности, если у Вас не-
− Gender (particularly if you have an un- обычное имя)
usual or unisex name) − Место рождения
− Place of Birth − Национальность и/или гражданство
− Nationality and/or Citizenship (if you are (если Вы пытаетесь устроиться на работу
not a citizen of the country you are apply- в страну, гражданином которой Вы не
ing to, you need to inform your potential являетесь, то необходимо сообщить ра-
employer of your visa situation) ботодателю о Вашей ситуации с визой)
− Marital Status − Семейное положение
− Address − Адрес
− Telephone − Телефон
− Fax − Факс
− E-mail − E-mail
Education: Образование:
− Years − Discipline Degree − Law − Период обучения – название специали-
School’s name, Location (city, state or зации – название ВУЗа и его местонахо-
country) ждение (страна, город)
• add academic awards • укажите любые награды и грамоты, по-
• add any subjects taken relevant to the tar- лученные в процессе обучения
geted employer • укажите предметы, которые Вы изуча-
− Years − Discipline Degree − Undergra- ли и которые имеют прямое отношение к
duate School’s name, Location (city, state желаемой должности
or country) − Период обучение – название школы и
− Years − Discipline Degree − High ее местонахождение (страна, город)
School’s name, Location (city, state or − Также укажите любое дополнительное
country) образование, которое Вы получили (кур-
− Years − Discipline Degree − Middle сы, колледж, т.д.)
School’s name, Location (city, state or − Укажите названия любых полученных
country) сертификатов
− Years − Discipline Degree − Elementary − Укажите названия всех семинаров и
School’s name, Location (city, state or конференций, в которых Вы когда-либо
country) участвовали.
− Additional training or Additional Educa-
tion or Additional Courses or Additional
Certificates or Diplomas (any of this titles,
choose the one that applies to your back-
ground)
− Year(s) − Name of the institution, degree
received, Location (city, state or country)
Conferences, Courses and/or Seminars
169
− Year(s) − Name of the institution,
Course, Seminar or Conference’s name,
Location (city, state or country)
− List all of the ones you attended and/or
participated
Languages Skills: Знание иностранных языков:
− List languages and level of proficiency, − Укажите языки, которыми Вы владеете
orally and written ability. Mention any lan- и степень владения их устной и пись-
guage certificates or degrees you might менной формой. Перечислите языковые
have. сертификаты, которые у Вас есть.
• If you are fully bilingual, say “Fluent • Если Вы свободно владеете двумя язы-
English and French (written and spoken)” ками, то укажите “Свободно владею рус-
• If you are not fluent in French but can get ским и английским языком (как пись-
by, say “English, French” менным, так и устным)”
• If you only speak English, it would prob- • Если Вы не свободно владеете англий-
ably be better to leave this section out ским, то пишите “Русский, английский”
• Если Вы говорите только по-русски, то
лучше вообще пропустить этот раздел
Technical and Specialized Skills: Технические и профессиональ-
List all the computer programs you ные навыки:
feel comfortable using. If applicable, list Перечислите все компьютерные
how many words per minute are you able программы, которыми Вы владеете. Если
to type. нужно, укажите скорость Вашей печати в
минуту.
Awards, Honors and/or Distinc- Награды и достижения:
tions: Укажите все награды и призы, ко-
List all awards and honors you торые Вы когда-либо получали в хроно-
achieve throughout your life, in ascendant логическом порядке
chronological order
Work Experience: Опыт работы:
− Years − Company Name, Division, Loca- − Период работы – Название компании –
tion (city, state or country) Название отдела – адрес (страна, город)
− Position or Title. Brief explanation of – занимаемая должность – краткое опи-
your duties, projects and activities in each сание служебных обязанностей на каж-
job. дой работе
− Professional Memberships: Years −
Name of the association, Location (city,
state or country), Title (if applicable)
Other Categories: (only if applica- Дополнительная информация:
ble) (если нужно)
− Teaching Experience: Years − Name of − Опыт преподавательской деятельно-
the Institution, Location (city, state or сти: период работы – название образова-
country) тельного учреждения (страна, город).
− Publications: List published articles, − Публикации: название статей, книг,
books, etc. т.д.
− Description of Thesis or Dissertation, Pa- − Описание исследовательской работы
pers Written, Publications − Волонтерская работа
− Community Service or Involvement/ Vo- − Отдых в других странах (его иногда
lunteer Work можно преподнести как стажировку)
170
− Travel and Summer Abroad − Презентации
− Academic Presentations and/or Lectures − Рекомендации
− References
Writing a good CV, Curriculum Как написать хорошее CV: по-
Vitae: Tips лезные советы
Your CV will look far more attrac- В первую очередь Вы должны су-
tive if you can convince the employers that меть показать в своем CV, что Вы об-
you have the qualities they require. Your ладаете необходимыми качествами для
CV could be your ticket to an interview. той или иной работы. Ознакомившись с
Think about what particular employers Вашим CV, работодатель должен захо-
want, and how you will be an asset to their теть пригласить Вас на собеседование.
company. On average an employer spends Поэтому нужно хорошо подумать о
two minutes reading a CV, so avoid long том, что бы в Вас хотел увидеть рабо-
detailed paragraphs. The employer may тодатель, понять какой сотрудник ему
only read the first page, or even the first нужен. В среднем работодатель затра-
few paragraphs to get a feeling of who you чивает 2 минуты на прочтение CV, по-
are and what you can do for them. This этому помните, что необходимо указы-
means that the most important information вать только самое значимое. Обычно
should at the top of your CV. Make your читается лишь первая страница или
CV clear, with a simple yet easy to follow даже только несколько первых разделов,
layout, showing all the important facts поэтому размещайте самую важную
about your skills, employment history and информацию в начале первой страницы
education. You should target your CV at Вашего CV. Ваше CV должно быть на-
every specific job you apply for. However писано четко и лаконично и содержать
you should send a more general CV to a только самую необходимую информа-
recruitment agency which can be sent to a цию, касающуюся Ваших навыков, опы-
variety of employers. та работы и полученного образования.
Ваше CV должно быть составлено для
определенной, конкретной должности.
Но если Вы просто ищете работу и на-
правляете Ваше резюме в агентства по
трудоустройству, то лучше составить
более полное и развернутое CV.
Layout Guidelines (up to 2 A4 Советы по оформлению CV (до 2-х
pages of attractively presented informa- страниц А4):
tion is standard):
1. The first thing is the document 1. В самом верху пишется Curricu-
title, Curriculum Vitae, followed by your lum Vitae, затем Ваше ФИО. Желательно
name. This should be in bold with a lager все это выделить жирным шрифтом и
font, but not too big. большим по размеру, чем остальной до-
кумент.
2. Your address, contact details 2. Аккуратно напишите Ваш адрес,
should be neatly presented, with date of контактную информацию и, по желанию,
birth, nationality and marital status also дату рождения, национальность и семей-
possible here. ное положение.
3. Brief Personal Profile: This will 3. Краткая личная справка: не долж-
be about 3 to 4 lines of text giving a brief на превышать 3-4 строк и обычно вклю-
overview of your key skills and attributes, чает в себя описание Ваших навыков и
and perhaps your objective regarding such достижений, а также желание получить
171
a position. Be concise, try to appear inter- ту или иную работу. Постарайтесь пока-
esting and professional to the reader. It will заться профессионалом, а также инте-
encourage them to read on. ресным человеком.
4. Work experience (employment 4. Опыт работы: начиная с самого
history) starting with your current or most последнего и заканчивая самым первым.
recent job first, then go backwards through Укажите название компании, должность
your career. State the company name, job в которой Вы в ней работали и период
title and the period you worked there. Be- времени Вашей работы там. Также не
gin by listing your duties and responsibili- забудьте описать Ваши обязанности на
ties. Be specific and detail only what is re- всех работах. Здесь пишите только то,
levant to the new position (up to 5 or 6 du- что может непосредственно повлиять на
ties). List specific achievements such as Ваше трудоустройство на желаемую
finishing a job/project ahead of schedule, or должность. Укажите Ваши достижения
learning a new skill. List any industry train- на предыдущих работах (законченный
ing and qualifications you gained while in раньше срока проект, и т.д.). Также ука-
that employment. Employers like to see жите какие-либо курсы и тренинги, ко-
employees who learn and respect new торые Вы проходили на прежнем месте
skills. If you are a graduate, you should list работы. Работодателю всегда нравятся
some work experience. This can show that сотрудники, заинтересованные в повы-
you have worked in a company and can be шении своей квалификацию. Если Вы
a team player. совсем недавно закончили ВУЗ, то пере-
числите места прохождения практики –
это тоже будет подтверждением того,
что Вы способны работать в команде.
5. Education: Briefly list your school 5. Образование: перечислите все
qualifications, college certificate/diploma школы, колледжи или ВУЗы, где Вы
and university degree giving dates, location учились. Не забудьте указать их место-
and exam results. Again start with your нахождение и полученную Вами степень
highest level or most recent training first, и специализацию. Здесь также следуйте
then go backwards through your education. порядку от последнего места обучения
до самого первого.
6. Additional skills: List your impor- 6. Профессиональные навыки:
tant everyday skills such as some IT skills, укажите такие навыки, как знание ком-
programs used, professional skills, lan- пьютерных программ (с указанием их
guages. Perhaps provide some evidence of названий), знание иностранных языков.
where you have used them. Если сможете, то представьте доказа-
тельства, подтверждающие Ваши навы-
ки.

7. Interests: Employers are usually 7. Интересы: обычно работодатели


more interested in activities which require заинтересованы в людях, умеющих рабо-
you to show team commitment or personal тать в команде. Поэтому лучше указы-
initiative and drive. вать интересы, подтверждающие Ваше
умение быть членом команды.
8. References/Referees: Write ‘Ref- 8. Рекомендации: напишите «Могу
erences available on request’ if you prefer предоставить рекомендации по требова-
that the employer asks your permission be- нию», если Вы предпочитаете, чтобы ра-
fore writing or ringing them up. Referees ботодатель попросил разрешения у Вас,
can be personal or professional, though прежде чем писать или звонить людям,
172
professional referees are much better. готовым дать Вам рекомендацию. Пред-
почтительнее иметь людей, готовых дать
Вам рекомендацию, не из своих друзей, а
тех, кто в прошлом были Вашими препо-
давателями или работодателями.
9. Do not expect to produce a great 9. Не ожидайте, что с первого раза
looking CV at your first attempt. You may у Вас получится составить качественное
need to make a few drafts. Make sure your CV. Вполне возможно сначала Вам при-
grammar and spelling are correct. Make дется сделать несколько пробных резю-
sure the font and style is the same through- ме. Следите за правильным написанием
out keeping it consistent. Microsoft Word слов и пунктуацией. Убедитесь, что
contains a variety of CV templates that en- стиль и размер шрифта везде одинаков.
sure details are presented clearly and effec- Попросите человека, которому Вы дове-
tively. Show your CV to someone whose ряете, прочитать Ваше CV, и узнайте его
advice you trust and listen to what they мнение. Распечатайте CV на качествен-
have to say. Welcome constructive criti- ной бумаге на лазерном принтере. А если
cism. Print your CV using a laser printer on Вы посылаете его по электронной почте,
good quality paper. When sending CVs via то оно должно быть в прикрепленном
email, it’s important to include them as at- файле, а не в самом письме.
tachments rather than in the body of the
email.
10. Now that you've created a good 10. Теперь, когда у Вас есть хорошо
CV, you need an equally good quality cov- составленное CV, надо составить такое
ering letter to convince the employer to же хорошее сопроводительное письмо.
look closely at your CV. Оно необходимо, чтобы заинтересовать
работодателя и заставить его полностью
прочитать Ваше СV.

173
CURRICULUM VITAE

KYLE BAILEY
918 El Segundo Blvd.
Los Angeles, CA 90011
(619) 555-0812
kbailey@earthlink.com

OBJECTIVE

A challenging and rewarding position in the airline industry.

EXPERIENCE

1997 − Present Air West San Francisco, CA


Customer Service Supervisor
Opened San Jose Airport Customer Service Center facility for Air West and
created efficient and effective operations. Trained and supervised 50 customer
service agents and ramp personnel. Responsible for daily operations decisions
and dealt effectively with all crises. Received recognition for successfully loading
planes and preparing them for departure in under 20 minutes, over 90% of the
time. Devised successful schedules enabling four planes to be serviced simulta-
neously. Reduced industrial accidents by 64%.

1990 − 1997 Air West San Francisco, CA


Customer Service Agent
Responsibilities included ticket sales, boarding supervision and customer service
during a period of phenomenal company growth. Became an expert at problem
solving and dealing with customer complaints.

1987 − 1990 Piedmont Airlines San Francisco, CA


Customer Service Agent Worked with staff to create the best connecting flight
service available to passengers. Devised schedules enabling four planes to be ser-
viced simultaneously.

EDUCATION

Biola University, La Mirada CA, 1990


B.A., Business Administration, Communications

174
COVER LETTER

How to Write a Cover Letter in English Как написать сопроводительное письмо


на английском
Guidelines to Write a Cover Letter at- Общие правила написания сопрово-
tached to your Resume дительных писем на английском языке,
Your resume should always have a которые необходимо отправлять вме-
good COVER LETTER attached, as a per- сте с резюме
sonal communication between you and the Помимо хорошего резюме, для трудо-
individual who receives the resume. Many job устройства необходимо качественно со-
hunters are intimidated by the task of writing ставленное сопроводительное письмо.
a cover letter, but it's not that hard if you Многих пугает написание этого письма,
think of it as just a friendly, simple communi- но в этом нет ничего сложного, если
cation from one person (who’s looking for a представить, что это довольно простое
good job) to another (who’s looking for a и дружелюбное письмо от того, кто
good employee). It is in the interests of both ищет хорошую работу, к тому, кто ищет
parties to make a good connection! хорошего сотрудника. В то же время,
это очень важное дополнение к Вашему
резюме.
How To Write a Good Cover Letter Как написать хорошее сопроводи-
тельное письмо
1. Be sure to address your cover letter − 1. Обязательно в начале письма ука-
by name and title − to the person who could жите имя и должность работодателя, у ко-
actually hire you. When it’s impossible to торого Вы бы хотели получить работу. Но
learn their name, use their functional title, если, по какой-то причине, Вы не знаете
such as ‘Dear Manager’. You may have to его полного имени, то пишите ‘Уважае-
guess (‘Dear Selection Committee’) but never мый генеральный директор’, т.д. Но ни в
say ‘To whom it may concern’ or ‘Dear Sir or коем случае не пишите просто ‘Уважае-
Madam’! мый/ая’.
2. Show that you know a little about the 2. Покажите, что Вы знакомы с инте-
company, and that you are aware of their cur- ресами, приоритетами и проблемами ком-
rent problems, interests, or priorities. пании, где хотите работать.
3. Express your enthusiasm and interest 3. Покажите, что Вы заинтересованы
in this line of work and this company. If you работать именно в этой компании. И если
have a good idea that might help the employ- у Вас есть предложения по тому, как
er resolve a problem currently facing their улучшить и развить ее бизнес, то предло-
industry, offer to come in and discuss it. жите работодателю встречу для обсужде-
ния этих вопросов.
4. Project warmth and friendliness, 4. Сумейте соединить в письме про-
while still being professional. Avoid any ge- фессионализм с дружелюбностью. Избе-
neric phrases such as ‘Enclosed please find’. гайте различных речевых штампов, пом-
This is a letter to a real live person! ните, что это письмо к вполне реальному,
живому человеку!
5. Make a personal link to a specific in- 5. Если у Вас есть знакомства в этой
dividual in that company, if at all possible − компании, то аккуратно укажите на них.
also called ‘name dropping’. For example, Например, ‘Мой сосед, Иван Иванович
‘My neighbor, Phil Lyons, works in your re- Иванов, работает в Вашем исследователь-
search-and-development department, and ском отделе, и из того, что он мне расска-
from what he tells me about the company and зывал о Вашей компании, я понял, что
175
its current directions, I think I could be a смогу стать для Вас ценным сотрудни-
good fit for your team’. ком’.
6. Set yourself apart from the crowd. 6. Покажите, что Вы выделяетесь из
Identify at least one thing about you that’s толпы. Укажите хотя бы одну вещь, кото-
unique − say a special talent for getting along рая делает Вас особенным: способность со
with everybody at work, or some unusual всеми ладить, или какой-то талант, может
skill that goes beyond the essential require- быть, и не имеющий отношения к работе,
ments of the position − something that distin- но способный заинтересовать работодате-
guishes you AND is relevant to the job. ля.
(Then, if several others are equally qualified
for the job, your uniqueness may be the rea-
son to choose YOU.)
7. Be specific about what you are ask- 7. Точно сформулируйте то, что Вы
ing for and what you are offering. Make it бы хотели получить от работы и что Вы
clear which position you’re applying for and могли бы дать компании.
just what experience or skill you have that
relates to that position.
8. Take the initiative about the next step 8. Берите инициативу в свои руки. ‘Я
whenever possible, and be specific. ‘I’ll call позвоню Вам на следующей неделе, чтобы
your office early next week to see if we could уточнить день и время, когда мы могли бы
meet soon and discuss this job opening’, for встретиться и обсудить мою кандидатуру’.
example. OR − if you’re exploring for UN-
announced jobs that my come up – ‘I’ll call
your office next week to see if we could meet
soon, to discuss your company’s needs for
help in the near future’.
9. Keep it brief − a few short para- 9. Пусть сопроводительное письмо
graphs, all on one page. будет кратким – несколько небольших аб-
зацев на одной странице.

176
COVER LETTER

January 1, 2002

Daryl Wilkins
1901 Hilton St.
Clarksville, TN 37040

Dear Mr. Wilkins:

Based on the criteria you listed to describe your ideal applicant, I be-
lieve I am an excellent candidate for the position of _____________.
Please accept the enclosed resume as my application for the position.

As a recent graduate, my professional job experience is necessarily


limited. However, I believe that, given the opportunity for me to
prove myself, you will find what my previous employers will attest
to: that I exhibit common sense, intelligence, initiative, diligence,
and that I am always eager to make a positive contribution to your
organization in any way possible.

I am therefore respectfully requesting a personal interview. I feel


confident that an honest , in-person discussion would best allow us to
discuss these possibilities. I would welcome this opportunity and as-
sure you that your time would be well spent. In advance, I thank you
for your consideration and look forward to meeting with you in the
near future.

Sincerely,

Jonathan Samuels

Enclosure

177
ADVERTISEMENT LETTER

January 1, 2002

Janet Harkins
5624 Oxford Ave
Suite 98
Alexandria, OH 45440-0195

Dear Ms. Harkins,

Your ad in the _______________ edition of _______________ for a


_______________ caught my attention and interest. It appears that
my professional qualifications and career interests are very much in
line with your requirements.

I am most impressed with the growth that your company has accom-
plished in such a short period of time. It is obviously an exciting time
to be part of _______________ (company). If you’ll take a moment to
review my enclosed resume, I believe you will see that I have the ne-
cessary skills to assist your company reach its stated goals.

I am very interested in scheduling an interview at your earliest con-


venience, and further discussing my qualifications in detail. I will call
you in a few days.

Sincerely,

Jonathan Samuels

Enclosure

January 1, 2002

178
BROADCAST LETTER

Tony Rosseau
2810 Horton St.
Suite 245
Athens, GA 30612

Dear Mr. Rosseau:

It is my understanding that your company has an excellent reputation


as a/an_______________ firm in the _______________ field. Per-
haps you will have an opening for a/an_______________ with my
credentials. I am seeking a position in _______________ and have
enclosed my resume for review against your current requirements.

I feel that my capabilities would be particularly useful to your organi-


zation. My recent and notable achievements include:

• ___________________
• ___________________
• ___________________

If you are seeking a strong professional with such attributes, please


call me at your earliest convenience. Thank you for your considera-
tion. I look forward to receiving your reply.

Sincerely,

Jonathan Samuels

Enclosure

179
SALARY HISTORY

Jonathan Samuels
217 Lincoln Way East
Chambersburg, PA 17201
Home: (717) 352-2961
Business: (717) 263-5252

Salary History

Head Manager (2000 − present)


Kaplan Educational Service, Chambersburg, PA
Current annual salary: $42,000
Beginning annual salary: $36,000

Reading Specialist (1996 − 2000)


Outward Bound School, Harrisburg, PA
Ending annual salary: $31,000.
Beginning annual salary: $24,000.

SAT Prep Tutor (1990 − 1995)


Score Educational Counseling, Hagerstown, Md.
Ending hourly salary: $12.50
Beginning hourly salary: $10.00

180
JOB INTERVIEW

Common job interview questions Типичные вопросы на собеседовании


By rehearsing interview questions, Заранее обдумав ответы на вопросы
you’ll become more familiar with your own перед собеседованием, Вы будете чувст-
qualifications and will be well prepared to вовать себя более уверенно и сможете
demonstrate how you can benefit an employ- лучше показать работодателю, что Вы
er. достойны той должности, на которую
претендуете.
Most common sample questions: Примеры типичных вопросов:
Tell me about yourself. Расскажите о себе.
Make a short, organized statement of Очень кратко опишите Ваши дости-
your education and professional achieve- жения в образовательной и рабочей сфере.
ments and professional goals. Then, briefly Затем скажите, почему Вы считаете себя
describe your qualifications for the job and идеальным кандидатом на предлагаемую
the contributions you could make to the or- должность.
ganization.
Why do you want to work here? or Почему Вы хотите работать здесь?
What about our company interests you? или Чем Вас заинтересовала наша ком-
Few questions are more important than пания?
these, so it is important to answer them clear- Очень важно ответить на эти вопросы
ly and with enthusiasm. Show the interviewer четко. Своим ответом вы должны показать
your interest in the company. Share what you вашу заинтересованность в данной работе.
learned about the job, the company and the Продемонстрируйте работодателю, что Вы
industry through your own research. Talk знакомы с этой компанией и ее деятельно-
about how your professional skills will bene- стью. Сумейте доказать, что именно Вы
fit the company. Unless you work in sales, обладаете необходимыми профессиональ-
your answer should never be simply: ‘mon- ными качествами для работы. Не стоит
ey.’ The interviewer will wonder if you reallyговорить, что Вы в первую очередь хотите
care about the job. получить эту должность из-за зарплаты,
ведь тогда у работодателя могут возник-
нуть сомнения относительно качества Ва-
шей работы в будущем.
Why did you leave your last job? Почему Вы ушли с прежней рабо-
The interviewer may want to know if ты?
you had any problems on your last job. If you Работодателю наверняка интересны
did not have any problems, simply give a rea- причины Вашего ухода с прежней работы.
son, such as: relocated away from job; com- Если причины не были связаны с какими-
pany went out of business; laid off; tempo- то серьезными проблемами, то можно дать
rary job; no possibility of advancement; следующие ответы: работа находилась
wanted a job better suited to your skills. слишком далеко от дома, компания реши-
If you did have problems, be honest. ла закрыть проект, не было перспектив
Show that you can accept responsibility and карьерного роста и т.д.
learn from your mistakes. You should explain Но если все-таки у Вас на работе слу-
any problems you had (or still have) with an чились какие-то неприятности, ставшие
employer, but don't describe that employer in причиной Вашего увольнения, то лучше
negative terms. Demonstrate that it was a сообщить об этом работодателю. Сумейте
learning experience that will not affect your показать, что и в таких ситуациях Вы ос-
future work. таетесь честным и ответственным. Объяс-
181
ните, с какими проблемами Вы столкну-
лись, но никогда плохо не отзывайтесь о
Вашем бывшем начальнике. Скажите, что
Вы извлекли урок из этого негативного
опыта и в будущем такое больше не по-
вторится.
What are your best skills? Какими навыками Вы обладаете?
If you have sufficiently researched the Если Вы предварительно изучили ин-
organization, you should be able to imagine формацию о предлагаемой вакансии, то
what skills the company values. List them, Вам будет не сложно ответить на этот во-
then give examples where you have demon- прос. Покажите работодателю, что Вы об-
strated these skills. ладаете именно теми навыками, которые
нужны для работы в этой области. По воз-
можности, дайте ему несколько примеров.
What is your major weakness? У Вас есть слабые места?
Be positive; turn a weakness into a Всегда старайтесь преподнести свои
strength. For example, you might say: ‘I often слабые места так, чтобы они казались
worry too much over my work. Sometimes I сильными. Например: “Я всегда очень пе-
work late to make sure the job is done well.’ реживаю, будет ли работа сдана в срок. И
поэтому часто задерживаюсь, чтобы все
успеть сделать”.
Do you prefer to work by yourself or Вы предпочитаете работать один
with others? или в команде?
The ideal answer is one of flexibility. В идеале лучше показать, что Вы мо-
However, be honest. Give examples describ- жете работать как один, так и в коллекти-
ing how you have worked in both situations. ве. Но помните, что лучше быть честным.
Дайте работодателю примеры из Вашего
опыта, когда Вы работали один и в кол-
лективе.
What are your career goals? or What Какие у Вас планы на будущее?
are your future plans? Работодателю всегда интересно, сов-
The interviewer wants to know if your падают ли планы потенциального сотруд-
plans and the company's goals are compati- ника с планами компании. Объясните ему,
ble. Let him know that you are ambitious что Вы заинтересованы в долгосрочном
enough to plan ahead. Talk about your desire сотрудничестве. Покажите, что Вы наме-
to learn more and improve your performance, рены сделать все от Вас зависящее для то-
and be specific as possible about how you го, чтобы быть наиболее полезным компа-
will meet the goals you have set for yourself. нии (лучше привести конкретные примеры
того, как Вы собираетесь добиваться по-
ставленных целей).
What are your hobbies? or Do you Какие у Вас хобби? или Вы зани-
play any sports? маетесь спортом?
The interviewer may be looking for Чтобы получить лишнее подтвержде-
evidence of your job skills outside of your ние Ваших профессиональных навыков
professional experience. For example, hob- работодатель может спросить Вас о Ва-
bies such as chess or bridge demonstrate ana- ших увлечениях. Ведь такие хобби как иг-
lytical skills. Reading, music, and painting ра в шахматы или бридж говорят об ана-
are creative hobbies. Individual sports show литическом складе ума. Чтение, музыка,
determination and stamina, while group sport рисование – о творческой натуре. Занятия
182
activities may indicate you are comfortable командными видами спорта подразумева-
working as part of a team. ет умение работать в команде, в то время
Also, the interviewer might simply be как индивидуальные занятия спортом ха-
curious as to whether you have a life outside рактеризуют человека как преданного и
of work. Employees who have creative or ответственного.
athletic outlets for their stress are often heal- Задавая такие вопросы, работодатель
thier, happier and more productive. хочет узнать, есть ли у Вас увлечения за
пределами работы. Ведь работники, кото-
рые активно занимаются спортом или
творческой деятельностью гораздо более
стрессоустойчивы.
What salary are you expecting? Какой уровень зарплаты является
You probably don’t want to answer this для Вас желаемым?
one directly. Instead, deflect the question Лучше не отвечать на такой вопрос
back to the interviewer by saying something прямо. Можно ответить на этот вопрос
like: ‘I don’t know. What are you planning on вопросом, например: “Даже не знаю. А
paying the best candidate?’ Let the employer какую сумму Вы планируете платить?”.
make the first offer. Пусть работодатель сделает первое пред-
However, it is still important to know ложение.
what the current salary range is for the pro- Но при этом надо знать, какие зарпла-
fession. Find salary surveys at the library or ты предлагаются на рынке труда за работу
on the Internet, and check the classifieds to на той или иной должности. Эта информа-
see what comparable jobs in your area are ция поможет Вам при ответе на этот во-
paying. This information can help you nego- прос.
tiate compensation once the employer makes
an offer.
What have I forgotten to ask? Что я забыл спросить?
Use this as a chance to summarize your Используйте эту возможность, чтобы
good characteristics and attributes and how еще раз напомнить работодателю о Ваших
they may be used to benefit the organization. сильных сторонах и профессиональных
Convince the interviewer that you understand качествах. Убедите работодателя в том,
the job requirements and that you can suc- что Вы понимаете, что требуется для эф-
ceed. фективного выполнения предлагаемой ра-
боты, и что Вы сможете стать ценным со-
трудником.
Additional sample questions: Список возможных дополнительных
вопросов:
Questions about your Qualifications Вопросы о Вашей специализации
What can you do for us that someone else В чем Ваша уникальность?
can’t do? У Вас есть специализация, необходимая
What qualifications do you have that relate to для данной работы?
the position? Какие новые навыки и профессиональные
What new skills or capabilities have you de- качества Вы приобрели за последние не-
veloped recently? сколько лет?
Give me an example from a previous job Приведите пример того, как Вы сумели
where you’ve shown initiative. решить какую-либо проблему на Вашей
What have been your greatest accomplish- прежней работе.
ments recently? Что Вы считаете Вашим самым большим
What is important to you in a job? достижением за последние несколько лет?
183
What motivates you in your work? Что для Вас первостепенно в работе?
What have you been doing since your last Что помогает Вам качественно выполнять
job? работу?
What qualities do you find important in a co- Чем Вы занимались с момента ухода с по-
worker? следней работы?
Какие качества Вы считаете наиболее
важными для коллеги?

Questions about your Career Goals Вопросы о Ваших карьерных пла-


нах
What would you like to being doing five Кем Вы себя видите через 5 лет?
years from now? Как Вы поймете, что достигли успеха? Как
How will you judge yourself successful? Вы добьетесь успеха?
How will you achieve success? В какой должности Вы заинтересованы?
What type of position are you interested in? Как эта работа вписывается в Ваши карь-
How will this job fit in your career plans? ерные планы?
What do you expect from this job? Что Вы ожидаете от этой работы?
Do you have a location preference? Где бы Вы хотели работать территориаль-
Can you travel? но?
What hours can you work? Вы можете ездить в командировки?
When could you start? По какому графику Вы можете работать?
Когда Вы можете приступить к работе?
Questions about your Work Expe- Вопросы о Вашем опыте работы
rience
What have you learned from your past jobs? Чему Вы научились за годы работы?
What were your biggest responsibilities? Какая у Вас была самая ответственная
What specific skills acquired or used in pre- должность?
vious jobs relate to this position? Какие навыки, приобретенные Вами на
How does your previous experience relate to прежних работах, пригодятся в нашей
this position? компании?
What did you like most/least about your last Как Ваш прежний опыт соотносится с
job? данной вакансией?
Whom may we contact for references? Что Вам больше/меньше всего нравилось
на прежней работе?
С кем мы можем связаться для получений
рекомендаций?

Questions about your Education Вопросы о Вашем образовании


How do you think your education has pre- Как Ваше образование пригодится Вам на
pared you for this position? данной позиции?
What were your favorite classes/activities at Какие были Ваши любимые предметы в
school? вузе?
Why did you choose your major? Почему Вы выбрали именно эту специ-
Do you plan to continue your education? альность?
Вы планируете продолжать учиться в бу-
дущем?
First Impressions Первое впечатление
The first impression you make on the Первое впечатление очень важно при
interviewer can decide the rest of the inter- собеседовании. От него в большинстве
184
view. It is important that you introduce your- случаев зависит результат самого собесе-
self, shake hands, and be friendly and polite. дования. Очень важно представиться, по-
The first question is often a ‘breaking the ice’ жать руку и вообще вести себя очень веж-
(establish a rapport) type of question. Don’t ливо и дружелюбно. Не удивляйтесь, если
be surprised if the interviewer asks you some- Вас сначала спросят такого рода вопросы:
thing like: • Как Вы сегодня?
• How are you today? • Вы легко нас нашли?
• Did you have any trouble finding us? • Не правда ли, сегодня замечатель-
• Isn’t this great weather we’re having? ная погода?
This type of question is common because Такими вопросами интервьюер пыта-
the interviewer wants to put you at ease (help ется Вас немного расслабить. Лучше всего
you relax). The best way to respond is in a отвечать на такие вопросы кратко, но
short, friendly manner without going into too дружелюбно. Например:
much detail. Here is some examples correct
responses:
Interviewer: How are you today? Интервьюер: Как Вы сегодня?
You: I’m fine, thank you. And you? Вы: Спасибо, хорошо. А Вы?
OR ИЛИ
Interviewer: Did you have any trouble find- Интервьюер: Вы легко нас нашли?
ing us? Вы: Да, Ваш офис найти совсем не слож-
You: No, the office isn’t too difficult to find. но.
OR ИЛИ
Interviewer: Isn’t this great weather we’re Интервьюер: Не правда ли, сегодня заме-
having? чательная погода?
You: Yes, it’s wonderful. I love this time of Вы: Да, прекрасная погода. Сейчас мое
year. самое любимое время года.
Interviewer: Did you have any trouble find-
ing us?
You: No, the office isn’t too difficult to find.

Here are some examples of incorrect res- Вот несколько примеров неправильных
ponses: ответов:
Interviewer: How are you today? Интервьюер: Как Вы сегодня?
You: So, so. I’m rather nervous actually. Вы: Не очень, я немного нервничаю.
OR ИЛИ
Interviewer: Did you have any trouble find- Интервьюер: Вы легко нас нашли?
ing us? Вы: Если честно, нет. Я свернул не на тот
You: As a matter of fact it was very difficult. переулок и боялся, что опоздаю на собесе-
I missed the exit and had to return via the дование.
highway. I was afraid I was going to be late
for the interview.
OR ИЛИ
Interviewer: Isn’t this great weather we’re Интервьюер: Не правда ли, сегодня заме-
having? чательная погода?
You: Yes, it’s wonderful. I can remember Вы: Да, хорошая. А помните, как в про-
this time last year. Wasn’t it awful! I thought шлом году в это же время шли проливные
it would never stop raining! дожди? Я думал, они никогда не прекра-
Interviewer: Did you have any trouble find- тятся.
ing us?
185
You: No, the office isn’t too difficult to find.
Getting Down to Business Переходим к делу
Once the pleasant beginnings have fi- Как только приветствия закончатся,
nished, it’s time to begin the real interview. наступит время собеседования. Вот при-
Here are a number of the most common ques- меры самых распространенных вопросов.
tions that are asked during the interview. На каждый вопрос приведено два качест-
There are two examples of excellent replies венных ответа. После каждого вопроса-
given for each question. Following the exam- ответа Вы увидите полезный коммента-
ples, you will find a comment describing the рий, нацеленный на выделение самого
type of question and important things to re- главного при ответе на такого рода во-
member when answering that type of ques- просы.
tion.
Interviewer: Tell me about yourself. Интервьюер: Расскажите о себе.
Candidate: I was born and raised in Milan, Кандидат: Я родился и вырос в Москве,
Italy. I attended the University of Milan and Россия. Я закончил экономический фа-
received my master’s degree in Economics. I культет МГИМО. В течение 12 лет я рабо-
have worked for 12 years as a financial con- тал финансовым консультантом в разных
sultant in Milan for various companies in- крупных московских компаниях и банках.
cluding Rossi Consultants, Quasar Insurance В свободное время я люблю играть в тен-
and Sardi and Sons. I enjoy playing tennis in нис и учить иностранные языки.
my free time and learning languages. Кандидат: Я совсем недавно закончил
Candidate: I’ve just graduated from the Uni- СпГУ, факультет информационных техно-
versity of Singapore with a degree in Com- логий. Летом я обычно работал систем-
puters. During the summers, I worked as a ным администратором в некрупных ком-
systems administrator for a small company to паниях.
help pay for my education. Комментарий: Это вводный вопрос. Не
Comment: This question is meant as an in- уделяйте слишком большого внимания
troduction. Do not focus too specifically on той или иной области. Этот вопрос по-
any one area. The above question will often могает интервьюеру выбрать последую-
be used to help the interviewer choose what щие вопросы. Помните, что здесь важно
he/she would like to ask next. While it is im- отметить Ваш опыт работы, ведь при
portant to give an overall impression of who трудоустройстве он куда более важен,
you are, make sure to concentrate on work чем Ваше образование.
related experience. Work related experience
should always be the central focus of any in-
terview (work experience is more important
than education in most English speaking
countries).
Interviewer: What type of position are you Интервьюер: Какая должность Вас инте-
looking for? ресует?
Candidate: I’m interested in an entry level Кандидат: Меня интересует начальная
(beginning) position. должность, с которой я бы мог начать
Candidate: I’m looking for a position in свою карьеру.
which I can utilize my experience. Кандидат: Меня интересует та долж-
Candidate: I would like any position for ность, где бы я смог применить весь свой
which I qualify. накопленный опыт.
Comment: You should be willing to take an Кандидат: Меня устроит любая долж-
entry level position in an English speaking ность, на которую я подойду.
company as most of these companies expect Комментарий: Если Вы пытаетесь уст-
186
non-nationals to begin with such a position. роиться в англоязычную компанию, то для
In the United States, most companies provide начала лучше настраиваться на самую
many opportunities for growth, so don’t be низшую должность. Такие компании
afraid to start from the beginning! предпочитают, чтобы иностранные
граждане начинали с нуля, но при этом
дают большие возможности для карьер-
ного роста в будущем.
Interviewer: Are you interested in a full-time Интервьюер: Вас интересуют работа на
or part-time position? полный день или частичная занятость?
Candidate: I am more interested in a full- Кандидат: Меня больше интересует рабо-
time position. However, I would also consid- та на полный день. Но я не против рас-
er a part-time position. смотреть варианты частичной занятости.
Comment: Make sure to leave open as many Комментарий: Соглашайтесь на любой
possibilities as possible. Say you are willing из предложенных вариантов по работе. В
to take any job, once the job has been offered конце концов, если предложенная работа
you can always refuse if the job does not ap- в итоге окажется Вам неинтересна, то
peal (not interest) to you. Вы всегда можете от нее отказаться.
Interviewer: Can you tell me about your re- Интервьюер: Расскажите о Ваших обя-
sponsibilities at your last job? занностях на прежней работе?
Candidate: I advised customers on financial Кандидат: Я проводил переговоры с кли-
matters. After I consulted the customer, I ентами. После я вводил всю информацию
completed a customer inquiry form and cata- по клиенту в нашу базу данных. Потом я
logued the information in our database. I then согласовывал с коллегами, какой пакет
collaborated with colleagues to prepare the услуг лучше предоставить клиенту. Еже-
best possible package for the client. The квартально я давал отчет о финансовой
clients were then presented with a summa- деятельности клиента.
rized report on their financial activities that I Комментарий: Помните, что необходи-
formulated on a quarterly basis. мо дать здесь как можно больше кон-
Comment: Notice the amount of detail neces- кретных обязанностей. Часто иностран-
sary when you are talking about your expe- цы говорят слишком обобщенно о своих
rience. One of the most common mistakes обязанностях, тем самым допуская серь-
made by foreigners when discussing their езную ошибку. Работодателю интересно
former employment is to speak too generally. знать, что и как Вы конкретно делали.
The employer wants to know exactly what you Чем больше Вы расскажите, тем лучше.
did and how you did it; the more detail you
can give the more the interviewer knows that
you understand the type of work. Remember
to vary your vocabulary when talking about
your responsibilities. Also, do not begin every
sentence with ‘I’. Use the passive voice, or an
introductory clause to help you add variety to
your presentation
Interviewer: What is your greatest strength? Интервьюер: Какая самая сильная Ваша
Candidate: I work well under pressure. сторона?
When there is a deadline (a time by which the Кандидат: Я стрессоустойчив. Когда есть
work must be finished), I can focus on the какие-то сроки для выполнения работы, я
task at hand (current project) and structure умею все четко распланировать, чтобы ра-
my work schedule well. I remember one бота была сдана в срок. Помню, как один
week when I had to get 6 new customer re- раз мне надо было подготовить отчеты за
187
ports out by Friday at 5. I finished all the re- неделю для 6 клиентов. Я успел все сде-
ports ahead of time without having to work лать даже раньше срока.
overtime. Кандидат: Я очень коммуникабелен. Лю-
Candidate: I am an excellent communicator. ди мне обычно доверяют и спрашивают
People trust me and come to me for advice. моего совета. Однажды мой коллега пы-
One afternoon, my colleague was involved тался уладить ситуацию с разъяренным
with a troublesome (difficult) customer who клиентом. Я сделал клиенту чашку кофе и
felt he was not being served well. I made the пригласил его вместе с коллегой в свой
customer a cup of coffee and invited both my кабинет, где мы мирно решили все про-
colleague and the client to my desk where we блемы.
solved the problem together. Кандидат: Я отлично решаю проблемы.
Candidate: I am a trouble shooter. When Когда на моей прежней работе случались
there was a problem at my last job, the man- какие-либо проблемы, менеджер всегда
ager would always ask me to solve it. Last звал меня на помощь. Прошлым летом у
summer, the LAN server at work crashed. нас на работе полетел LAN сервер. Ме-
The manager was desperate and called me in неджер был в полном отчаянии. Я смог
(requested my help) to get the LAN back on- выявить и устранить причину проблемы
line. After taking a look at the daily backup, I менее чем за час.
detected the problem and the LAN was up Комментарий: При ответе на этот во-
and running (working) within the hour. прос забудьте о скромности! Будьте уве-
Comment: This is not the time to be modest! рены в себе и не забывайте подтвер-
Be confident and always give examples. Ex- ждать Ваши слова примерами.
amples show that you are not only repeating
words you have learned, but actually do pos-
sess that strength.
Interviewer: What is your greatest weak- Интервьюер: У Вас есть слабая сторона?
ness? Кандидат: Я – трудоголик, и меня беспо-
Candidate: I am overzealous (work too hard) коит, когда мои коллеги не относятся к
and become nervous when my co-workers are работе с тем же рвением и серьезностью,
not pulling their weight (doing their job). что и я. Но, так как я знаю свой недоста-
However, I am aware of this problem, and ток, перед тем как сделать замечание кол-
before I say anything to anyone, I ask myself леге, я сначала хорошо думаю о причине
why the colleague is having difficulties. его слабой активности или незаинтересо-
Candidate: I tend to spend too much time ванности.
making sure the customer is satisfied. How- Кандидат: Я слишком много времени
ever, I began setting time-limits for myself If трачу на то, чтобы обслужить клиента по
I noticed this happening. высшему классу. Но я научился ограничи-
Comment: This is a difficult question. You вать себя по времени, затрачиваемому на
need to mention a weakness that is actually a клиента, чтобы избежать этой проблемы.
strength. Make sure that you always mention Комментарий: Это довольно сложный
how you try to improve the weakness. вопрос. Всегда старайтесь преподнести
свои слабые места так, чтобы они каза-
лись сильными. Также не забывайте ска-
зать, что Вы пытаетесь измениться в
лучшую сторону.
Interviewer: Why do you want to work for Интервьюер: Почему Вы хотите работать
Smith and Sons? в нашей компании?
Candidate: After following your firms Кандидат: Зная, что Ваша компания ак-
progress for the last 3 years, I am convinced тивно развивается, я хотел бы стать ча-
188
that Smith and Sons are becoming one of the стью Вашей замечательной команды.
market leaders and I would like to be part of Кандидат: Я поражен качеством Вашей
the team. продукции. Я уверен, что из меня полу-
Candidate: I am impressed by the quality of чится отличный менеджер по продажам,
your products. I am sure that I would be a ведь я и сам убедился в качестве Ваших
convincing salesman because I truly believe товаров.
that the Atomizer is the best product on the Комментарий: Заранее приготовьте от-
market today. вет на этот вопрос. Узнайте побольше
Comment: Prepare yourself for this question информации об интересующей Вас компа-
by becoming informed about the company. нии. Чем больше Вы покажете, что зна-
The more detail you can give, the better you комы с деятельностью данной фирмы,
show the interviewer that you understand the тем интервьюер лучше поймет серьез-
company. ность Ваших намерений.
Interviewer: When can you begin? Интервьюер: Когда Вы можете присту-
Candidate: Immediately. пить к работе?
Candidate: As soon as you would like me to Кандидат: Сегодня же
begin. Кандидат: Как только Вы скажете.
Comment: Show your willingness to work! Комментарий: Покажите Ваше желание
работать!

The above questions represent some of Приведенные вопросы относятся к


the most basic questions asked on any job разряду основных вопросов, их задают
interview in English. Probably the most im- практически на всех стандартных собесе-
portant aspect of interviewing in English is дованиях. Важно использовать как можно
giving detail. As a speaker of English as a больше деталей и подробностей при отве-
second language, you might be shy about say- тах на вопросы. Тем самым Вы дадите ра-
ing complicated things. However, this is ab- ботодателю понять, что Вам будет не
solutely necessary as the employer is looking сложно работать в данной сфере. Конечно,
for an employee who knows his or her job. If нелегко описывать сложные вещи на анг-
you provide detail, the interviewer will know лийском языке, но это необходимо для то-
that you feel comfortable in that job. Don’t го, чтобы продемонстрировать работода-
worry about making mistakes in English. It is телю Ваш профессионализм. Не бойтесь
much better to make simple grammar mis- делать ошибки на английском. Лучше
takes and provide detailed information about предоставить как можно больше качест-
your experience than to say grammatically венной информации, сделав некоторые
perfect sentences without any real content. грамматические ошибки, чем грамотно
рассказать ни о чем.

FAQ RESUME IN ENGLISH

Common Questions about Вопросы и ответы о написании резюме


Resume and CV Writing на английском языке
1. What IS a resume anyway? 1. Так что же такое резюме?
Remember: a Resume is a self-promo- Помните, что резюме составляется
tional document that presents you in the best для того, чтобы Вы предстали в лучшем
possible light, for the purpose of getting in- свете перед лицом потенциального рабо-
vited to a job interview. тодателя. От качества его составления за-
It’s not an official personnel document. висит, пригласят ли Вас на собеседование

189
It’s not a job application. It’s not a ‘career или нет. Резюме − это не официальный
obituary’! And it’s not a confessional. документ, это не заявка на поиск работы, и
это не Ваша автобиография!
2. What should the resume content 2. Что надо писать в резюме?
be about? В резюме Вы пишите не только о том,
It’s not just about past jobs! It’s about где и как долго работали. Вы пишите о се-
YOU, and how you performed and what you бе, о том, чего успели достигнуть за годы
accomplished in those past jobs − especially работы. Важно приводить факты, которые
those accomplishments that are most relevant способны заставить работодателя взять
to the work you want to do next. A good именно Вас на желаемую должность.
resume predicts how you might perform in
that desired future job.
3. What’s the fastest way to improve 3. Как можно быстро исправить ре-
a resume? зюме, чтобы оно лучше выглядело?
Remove everything that starts with ‘re- Замените ‘рабочие обязанности’ на
sponsibilities included’ and replace it with ‘достижения по работе’ (см. №11)
on-the-job accomplishments. (See Tip 11 for
one way to write them.)
4. What is the most common resume 4. Какая самая распространенная
mistake made by job hunters? ошибка при составлении резюме?
Leaving out their Job Objective! If you Часто люди забывают писать, почему
don’t show a sense of direction, employers они хотят получить ту или иную долж-
won’t be interested. Having a clearly stated ность. Важно суметь показать работодате-
goal doesn’t have to confine you if it’s stated лю Вашу заинтересованность в предло-
well. женной вакансии.
5. What’s the first step in writing a 5. Каков первый шаг в написании
resume? резюме?
Decide on a job target (or ‘job objec- Решите, как в 5-6 словах определить
tive’) that can be stated in about 5 or 6 words.Ваше желание получить работу. Старай-
Anything beyond that is probably ‘fluff’ and тесь избегать длинных описаний, ведь это
indicates a lack of clarity and direction. показывает, что Вы не можете четко и яс-
но выражать свои мысли.
6. How do you decide whether to use 6. Как решить, что лучше: резюме,
a Chronological resume or a Functional составленное в хронологическом по-
one? рядке или то, которое содержит лишь
The Chronological format is widely самую необходимую информацию?
preferred by employers, and works well if Работодатели обычно предпочитают
you’re staying in the same field (especially if резюме, составленное в хронологическом
you’ve been upwardly-mobile). Only use a порядке. Оно особенно подходит тем лю-
Functional format if you’re changing fields, дям, которые на протяжении многих лет
and you’re sure a skills-oriented format работают в одной и той же сфере. Исполь-
would show off your transferable skills to зуйте краткое резюме лишь в тех случаях,
better advantage; and be sure to include a когда Вы хотите сменить сферу деятель-
clear chronological work history! ности.
7. What if you don’t have any expe- 7. Что если у меня нет опыта в той
rience in the kind of work you want to do? сфере, где я хочу начать работать?
Get some! Find a place that will let you Найдите работу в этой сфере. Воз-
do some volunteer work right away. You only можно, какая-то компания согласится
need a brief, concentrated period of volunteer принять Вас к себе на практику. Пусть Вы
190
training (for example, 1 day a week for a проработаете всего месяц, но вы уже буде-
month) to have at least SOME experience to те иметь опыт в интересующей Вас сфере.
put on your resume. Also, look at some of the
volunteer work you’ve done in the past and
see if any of THAT helps document some
skills you’ll need for your new job.
8. What do you do if you have gaps in 8. Что делать, если у меня есть
your work experience? большие промежутки в трудовом ста-
You could start by looking at it diffe- же?
rently. Главное объясняйте причину того,
General Rule: Tell what you WERE почему Вы не работали в то время. Если
doing, as gracefully as possible − rather than Вы занимались чем-то полезным (пусть
leave a gap. даже неоплачиваемым) во время так назы-
If you were doing anything valuable ваемых ‘промежутков’, то лучше написать
(even if unpaid) during those so-called ‘gaps’ об этом в резюме. Например:
you could just insert THAT into the work- • 2005 − 2007 декрет
history section of your resume to fill the hole. • 2000 − 2005 студент очного отделения
Here are some examples:
• 2003 − 2005 Full-time parent − or
• 2002 − 2004 Maternity leave and family
management − or
• Travel and study − or Full-time student − or
• Parenting plus community service
9. What if you have several different 9. Что если я хочу попробовать по-
job objectives you’re working on at the дать свое резюме на разные должности?
same time? Or you haven’t narrowed it Тогда напишите по резюме на каждую
down yet to just one job target? должность. Резюме, нацеленное на полу-
Then write a different resume for each чение определенной должности, ГОРАЗ-
different job target. A targeted resume is ДО лучше обычного общего резюме.
MUCH, much stronger than a generic
resume.

10. What if you have a fragmented, 10. Что если у меня нет длительного
scrambled-up work history, with lots of опыта работы на одном месте?
short-term jobs? Тогда соедините опыт на похожих ра-
To minimize the job-hopper image, ботах в один, например:
combine several similar jobs into one • 2003 − 2005 Секретарь; Jones Bakery, Mi-
‘chunk,’ for example: cro Corp., Carter Jewelers;
• 2003 − 2005 Secretary/Receptionist; Jones • 2001 − 2003 Официант; Ресторан
Bakery, Micro Corp., Carter Jewelers − or McDougal’s, Coffee House.
• 2003 − 2005 Waiter/Busboy; McDougal’s Малозначительные работы можно во-
Restaurant, Burger King, Traders Coffee обще опустить. Но никогда не забывайте
Shop. написать про ту работу, где Вам удалось
Also you can just drop some of the less получить хороший опыт, даже если рабо-
important, briefest jobs. тали Вы там недолго.
But don’t drop a job, even when it
lasted a short time, if that was where you ac-
quired important skills or experience.
11. What’s the best way to impress 11. Как лучше всего поразить рабо-
191
an employer? тодателя?
Fill your resume with ‘PAR’ state- В своем резюме указывайте Ваши
ments. PAR stands for Problem-Action- достижения, а не должностные обязанно-
Results; in other words, first you state the сти. Покажите, как Вы смогли справиться
problem that existed in your workplace, then с трудной задачей или решить ту или
you describe what you did about it, and final- иную проблему.
ly you point out the beneficial results. Например: “Объем продаж увеличен с
Here’s an example: “Transformed a нуля до 1 млн. USD” или “Выигран ряд
disorganized, inefficient warehouse into a крупных конкурсов и тендеров в коммер-
smooth-running operation by totally redesign- ческих и государственных структурах”.
ing the layout; this saved the company thou-
sands of dollars in recovered stock.”
12. What if your job title doesn’t re- 12. Что если занимаемая мною
flect your actual level of responsibility? должность не полностью отражает все
When you list it on the resume, either мои обязанности?
replace it with a more appropriate job title Тогда просто замените ее на ту, кото-
(say ‘Office Manager’ instead of ‘Adminis- рая, по Вашему мнению, более точно под-
trative Assistant’ if that’s more realistic) OR ходит к тем обязанностям, которые Вы
use their job title AND your fairer one to- выполняете. К примеру, лучше написать
gether, i.e. ‘Administrative Assistant (Office ‘офис-менеджер’ вместо ‘помощник руко-
Manager)’. водителя’.
13. How can you avoid age discrimi- 13. Как избежать возрастной дис-
nation? криминации?
If you’re over 40 or 50 or 60, remember Помните, что если Вам за 40-50, то не
that you don’t have to present your entire следует указывать весь свой опыт работы.
work history! You can simply label THAT Укажите лишь те компании где Вы рабо-
part of your resume ‘Recent Work History’ or тали в последние 10-15 лет.
‘Relevant Work History’ and then describe
only the last 10 or 15 years of your expe-
rience.
14. What if you never had any ‘real’ 14. Что если Вы никогда не работа-
paid jobs − just self-employment or odd ли в крупных компаниях, а лишь вы-
jobs? полняли краткосрочную работу или за-
Give yourself credit, and create an ac- нимались собственным бизнесом?
curate, fair job-title for yourself. For exam- Просто укажите название компании,
ple: которая у Вас была, а рядом с должностью
• A&S Hauling & Cleaning (Self-employed) поставьте ‘частный предприниматель’. Не
− or забудьте написать, что при желании мож-
• Household Repairman, Self-employed − or но получить рекомендации от Ваших по-
• Child-Care, Self-employed купателей или лиц, которым Вы предос-
Be sure to add ‘Customer references тавляли услуги.
available on request’ and then be prepared to
provide some very good references of people
you worked for.
15. How far back should you go in 15. Какой давности работу следует
your Work History? указывать в резюме?
Far enough; and not too far! About 10 Ту, где Вы работали максимум 15 лет
or 15 years is usually enough − unless your назад. Но если самая интересная и пре-
‘juiciest’ work experience is from farther стижная работа у Вас была 20 лет назад,
192
back. то об этом все-таки стоит упомянуть.
16. How can a student list summer 16. Как студенту лучше писать о
jobs? своем опыте работы?
Students can make their resume look Для указания периода работы студен-
neater by listing seasonal jobs very simply, там можно просто писать ‘весна 2007’ или
such as ‘Spring 2006’ or ‘Summer 2006’ ra- ‘лето 2006’ вместо ‘Май 2007’.
ther than 6/06 to 9/06. (The word ‘Spring’
can be in very tiny letters, say 8-point in
size.)
17. What if you don't quite have your 17. Что если на данном этапе у Вас
degree or credentials yet? пока неоконченное высшее образова-
You can say something like: ние?
• Eligible for U.S. credentials − or Просто укажите ВУЗ, где Вы учитесь,
• Graduate studies in Instructional Design, in Вашу специализацию и год, когда Вы
progress − or должны получить диплом.
• Master’s Degree anticipated December
2007
18. What if you worked for only one 18. Что если на протяжении 20-30
employer for 20 or 30 years? лет Вы работали на одного работодате-
Then list separately each different posi- ля?
tion you held there, so your job progression Тогда просто укажите по порядку все
within the company is more obvious. должности, которые Вы когда-либо зани-
мали в этой компании.
19. What about listing hobbies and 19. Стоит ли писать в резюме о сво-
interests? их хобби и увлечениях?
Don’t include hobbies on a resume un- Указывать в резюме свое хобби стоит,
less the activity is somehow relevant to your только если оно как-то связано с позици-
job objective, or clearly reveals a characteris- ей, на которую Вы претендуете.
tic that supports your job objective.

20. What about revealing race or re- 20. Стоит ли указывать свою расо-
ligion? вую и религиозную принадлежность?
Don’t include ethnic or religious affilia- Эту информацию стоит указывать,
tions (inviting pre-interview discrimination) только если она сможет помочь Вам при
UNLESS you can see that including them трудоустройстве.
will support your job objective. Get an opi-
nion from a respected friend or colleague
about when to reveal, and when to conceal,
your affiliations.

21. What if your name is Robin Wil- 21. Что если у меня необычное имя?
liams? В этом случае лучше указать Ваш
Don’t mystify the reader about your пол. Не надо заставлять работодателя раз-
gender; they’ll go nuts until they know мышлять о том, мужчина Вы или женщи-
whether you’re male or female. So if your на?
name is Lee or Robin or Pat or anything else
not clearly male or female, use a Mr. or Ms.
prefix.
22. What if you got your degree from 22. Что если я получил диплом о
193
a different country? высшем образовании в другой стране?
You can say “Degree equivalent to U.S. Вы можете сказать, что Ваша степень
Bachelor’s Degree in Economics − Teheran, соответствует степени бакалавра/магистра
Iran.” иностранного вуза.
23. What about fancy-chancy paper? 23. На какой бумаге лучше распе-
Employers tell they HATE parchment чатывать резюме?
paper and pretentious brochure-folded resume Лучше всего использовать качествен-
‘presentations.’ They think they’re phony, ную белую бумагу. Никогда не используй-
and toss them right out. Use plain white or те цветную бумагу.
ivory, in a quality appropriate for your job
objective. Never use colored paper unless
there’s a very good reason for it (like, you’re
an artist) because if it gets photo-copied the
results will be murky.
24. Should you fold your resume? 24. Можно ли складывать резюме?
Don’t fold a laser-printed resume right Лучше не складывать. Но если выбора
along a line of text. The ‘ink’ could flake off нет, то следите, чтобы сгиб не проходил
along the fold. по напечатанному тексту.

194
APPENDIX 5

GRAMMAR REFERENCE

1. ИМЯ СУЩЕСТВИТЕЛЬНОЕ
(THE NOUN)

Множественное число имени существительного образуется путем


добавления окончаний -s, -es к основе слова: plane – planes, facility - facili-
ties.
Притяжательный падеж образуется путем добавления ‘s к основе
слова: airport’s facilities и может переводиться на русский язык двумя спо-
собами: оснащение аэропорта или аэропортовое оснащение.

Таблица 1. Таблица образования множественного числа существительных

№ Правила Примеры
1 Существительные образуют множественное чис- scientist – scientists, day – days,
ло прибавлением окончания -s к форме единст- science – sciences, radio – radios
венного числа
2 Существительные, оканчивающиеся на свистя- class – classes, box – boxes,
щий или шипящий звук, принимают окончание match – matches
-es
3 В существительных, оканчивающихся на -у с city – cities,
предшествующей согласной, у переходит в i и library – libraries
прибавляется окончание -es
4 Существительные, оканчивающиеся на -о с negro – negroes,
предшествующей согласной, принимают оконча- tomato – tomatoes
ние -es
5 В существительных, оканчивающихся на leaf – leaves,
-f или -fe, f обычно переходит в v и прибавляется life – lives,
окончание -es но roof – roofs
6 Существительные, заимствованные из греческого basis – bases, crisis – crises,
и латинского языков, сохранили форму множест- datum – data,
венного числа этих языков phenomenon – phenomena
7 Некоторые существительные латинского проис- medium – media – mediums,
хождения имеют две формы множественного memorandum – memoranda –
числа memorandums
8 Несколько существительных сохранили древнюю man – men, woman – women,
форму образования множественного числа и яв- child – children,
ляются исключениями tooth – teeth, foot – feet
9 Сложные имена существительные образуют мно- sister-in-law – sisters-in-law,
жественное число путем добавления окончания к editor-in-chief – editors-in-chief,
основному слову carpet-sweeper – carpet-sweepers

195
Таблица 2. Таблица сравнения падежных отношений в русском и англий-
ском языках

Падеж В русском языке В английском Собственное лексическое


языке значение предлогов
(кто? что?) Нет предлога. Место
И.п.
друг – перед сказуемым.
Р.п. (кого? чего?) of of – из
друга The book of friend. one of them – один из них
is made of glass – сделан из
стекла
Д.п. (кому? чему?) to to – указывает направление
другу I often write to my to the plant – на завод
friend. to Moscow – в Москву
В.п. (кого? что?) Нет предлога. Место
друга – после сказуемого.
Т.п. (кем? чем?) by by – у, к, посредством
другом The work is done by by the window – у окна
my friend. by summer – к лету
by radio – посредством (по)
радио
with with – с
(с неодушевленными with my friend –
предметами) с моим другом
I write with a pen.
П.п. (о ком? о чем?) about – о, of – о аbout – около,
о друге I often think about (of) приблизительно
my friend. About 45 students are
present at the lecture. –
На лекции присутствует
около 45 студентов.

2. ИМЯ ПРИЛАГАТЕЛЬНОЕ
(THE ADJECTIVE)

Прилагательное – часть речи, выражающая качество или свойство


предмета (явления, лица). В английском языке прилагательные не изменя-
ются ни по числам, ни по падежам, ни по родам и переводятся в соответст-
вии с родом, числом и падежом существительного, к которому относятся:
a young man – молодой человек
a young woman – молодая женщина
young people – молодые люди
196
Таблица 3. Таблица степеней сравнения прилагательных

Исходная форма Сравнительная степень Превосходная степень


Односложные прилагательные
big bigger the biggest
young younger the youngest
Многосложные прилагательные
interesting more interesting the most interesting
beautiful more beautiful the most beautiful
Исключения
good/well better the best
bad worse the worth
many more the most
much more the most
little less the least
old older / elder the oldest / the eldest
far farther / further the farthest / the furthest

Таблица 4. Таблица наречий

Прилагательные Наречия Наречия с суффиксом


без суффикса
long – длинный, долгий long – давно
very – самый, тот самый very – очень
only – единственный only – только
far – далекий far – далеко;
намного
direct – прямой directly – сразу, непосредст-
венно
ready – готовый readily – быстро, легко
large – большой largely – в основном, очень,
главным образом
real – настоящий real – настоящий really – действительно
hard – трудный hard – упорно hardly – едва
high – высокий high – высоко highly – весьма, очень, чрез-
вычайно
wide – широкий wide – широко widely – очень, значительно
near – близкий near – близко nearly – почти
late – поздний late – поздно lately – за последнее время,
недавно
close – близкий close – близко, closely – тщательно, тесно,
рядом внимательно
197
3. ЧИСЛИТЕЛЬНОЕ
(THE NUMERAL)

Числительные обозначают количество или порядок предметов и де-


лятся на количественные и порядковые.

Таблица 5. Таблица образования числительных

Числительные
Количественные Порядковые
1 — 12 13 — 19 (–teen) 20 — 90 (–ty)
1 — one 1 — the first (1st)
2 — two 20 — twenty 2 — the second (2nd)
3 — three 13 — thirteen 30 — thirty 3 — the third (3rd)
4 — four 14 — fourteen 40 — forty 4 — the fourth (4th)
5 — five 15 — fifteen 50 — fifty 5 — the fifth (5th)
6 — six 16 — sixteen 60 — sixty 13 — the thirteenth (13th)
7 — seven 17 — seventeen 70 — seventy 15 — the fifteenth (15th)
8 — eight 18 — eighteen 80 — eighty 20 — the twentieth (20th)
9 — nine 19 — nineteen 90 — ninety 21 — the twenty-first (21st)
10 — ten 30 — the thirtieth (30th)
11 — eleven 40 — the fortieth (40th)
12 — twelve 100 — the hundredth (100th)
100 – hundred 1 000 000 – million
1 000 – thousand 1 000 000 000 – billion

4. МЕСТОИМЕНИЕ
(THE PRONOUN)

Местоимение – это часть речи, которая употребляется вместо имени


существительного или прилагательного. Местоимения делятся на личные,
притяжательные и возвратно-усилительные.

Таблица 6. Таблица местоимений

Личные Притяжательные
и. п. объектный падеж простая абсолютная Возвратно-
(кто? (кому? кого?) форма форма усилительные
что?) (чей?) (чей?)
I me мне, меня my мой mine myself
you you тебе, тебя your твой yours yourself
he him ему, его his его his himself
she her ей, её her её hers herself
it it ему, его, ей, её its его, её its itself
we us нам, нас our наш ours ourselves
you you вам, вас your ваш yours yourselves
they them им, их their их theirs themselves
198
Таблица 7. Таблица производных слов

Местоиме- + thing + body + where Употреб-


ния + one ление
some something somebody somewhere в утверд.
некоторый что-то someone где-то, куда-то предложе-
какой-то что-нибудь кто-то куда-нибудь нии
какой-нибудь кто-нибудь где-нибудь
any anything anybody anywhere в утверд.
всякий всё anyone везде предложе-
любой всякий, все повсюду нии
not any not … anything not … anуbody not … anуwhere в отриц.
= no = nothing = nobody = nowhere предложе-
никакой ничто no one, none нигде нии
ничего никто никуда
any? anything? anybody? anywhere? в вопрос.
какой-нибудь? что-то? кто-то? где-то? предложе-
что-нибудь? кто-нибудь? куда-то? нии
где-нибудь?
куда-нибудь?
еvery everything everybody everywhere во всех
каждый всё everyone везде предложе-
всякий все повсюду ниях

5. ГЛАГОЛ
(THE VERB)

Глаголы в английском языке имеют категории залога и времени.


Залог. 1) в активном залоге подлежащее само выполняет действие:
The general director controls the entire airport operations. – Генеральный ди-
ректор управляет всей деятельностью аэропорта.
2) в пассивном залоге действие совершается над подлежащим: Air-
port operations management is divided by three channels. – Деятельность ад-
министрации аэропорта делится по трем направлениям.
Время. В английском языке имеется четыре группы глагольных вре-
мен: Simple, Continuous, Perfect, Perfect Continuous.

По своему значению и функции в предложении глаголы делятся на


смысловые, вспомогательные и модальные.
1) смысловые глаголы имеют самостоятельное значение и в предло-
жении являются сказуемым (в таблицах обозначаются знаком V от англий-
ского слова ‘verb’ – глагол);
2) вспомогательные глаголы (to be, to do, to have, shall, will) служат
для образования сложных глагольных форм, не имеют самостоятельного
значения и на русский язык не переводятся.
199
Students don’t study German, they study English. – Студенты не изу-
чают немецкий язык, они изучают английский.

В нижеприведенных табл. 8, 9 дана краткая характеристика образо-


вания, употребления и перевода на русский язык каждой видовременной и
залоговой формы глагола.

Таблица 8. Таблица времен активного залога (Active Voice Tenses)

to ask – asked – asked (спрашивать) to take – took – taken (брать)

Времен-
Группа

Present Past Future ные


указатели
do (does), V1(s) did, V2(ed) will + V1 usually, ago,
ask(s) asked will ask seldom,
Indefinite

take(s) took will take every day,


спрашивает спрашивал спросит today,
берёт брал возьмёт always,
yesterday,
tomorrow
am + V(ing) was + V(ing) will be + V(ing) during,
is + V(ing) were + V(ing) now,
Continuous

are + V(ing) at this


am asking was asking will be asking moment,
is taking were taking will be taking at present,
are asking спрашивал будет спрашивать for,
спрашивает брал будет брать from 5 to 7
берёт
have + V3(ed) had + V3(ed) will have + V3(ed) ever, never,
has + V3(ed) just,
Perfect

have asked had asked will have asked already, yet,


has taken had taken will have taken lately, since,
спросил спросил спросит when he
взял взял возьмёт came
have been + V(ing) had been + V(ing) will have been + V(ing) by the time,
has been + V(ing) since
Perfect Continuous

have been asking had been asking will have been asking morning,
has been taking had been taking will have been taking for 3 hours,
спрашивает, спрашивал будет спрашивать since he
берёт брал будет брать came

200
Таблица 9. Таблица времён пассивного залога (Passive Voice Tenses)

to ask – asked – asked (спрашивать) to take – took – taken (брать)


Группа

Present Past Future

am + V3(ed) was + V3(ed) will be + V3(ed)


are + V3(ed) were + V3(ed)
Indefinite

is + V3(ed)
The student is asked. The student was asked. The student will be asked.
Студента спрашивают. Студента спросили. Студента спросят.
The books are taken. The books were taken. The books will be taken.
Книги берут(ся). Книги были взяты. Книги возьмут.
am being + V3(ed) was being + V3(ed)
are being + V3(ed) were being + V3(ed)
Continuous

is being + V3(ed)
The student is being asked. The student was being -----------------------
Студента спрашивают. asked.
The books are being taken. Студента спрашивали.
Книги берут(ся). The books were being taken.
Книги брали.
have been + V3(ed) had been + V3(ed) will have been + V3(ed)
has been + V3(ed)
The student has been The student had been asked. The student will have been
Perfect

asked. Студент был спрошен. asked.


Студента спросили. The books had been taken. Студента спросят.
The books have been tak- Книги были взяты. The books will have been
en. taken.
Книги взяли. Книги возьмут.

Таблица 10. Порядок слов в вопросительном предложении

Пример
1 The chief engineer took part in the testing last month.
2 The chief engineer took part in the testing last month, didn’t he?
3 Who took part in the testing last month?
4 What engineer took part in the testing last month?
5 Did the chief engineer take part in the testing last month?
6 Did the chief engineer take part in the testing or in the party last month?
7 What did the chief engineer take part ------------ last month in?
8 When did the chief engineer take part in the testing --------- ?
1 – повествовательное предложение; 2 – разделительный вопрос; 3 – вопрос к подле-
жащему; 4 – вопрос к определению подлежащего; 5 – общий вопрос; 6 – альтерна-
тивный вопрос; 7 – специальный вопрос (к обстоятельству места); 8 – специальный
вопрос (к обстоятельству времени)
201
6. ГЛАГОЛ to be
(THE VERB to be)

Глагол to be переводится на русский язык быть, есть, находиться,


относится к группе неправильных глаголов (to be – was, were – been) и
спрягается по лицам и числам.

Таблица 11. Спряжение глагола to be

Present Past Future


I am I was I will be
you are you were you will be
he, she, it is he, she, it was he, she, it will be
we are we were we will be
you are you were you will be
they are they were they will be

Вопросительная форма образуется с помощью соответствующей


формы глагола to be, которая ставится перед подлежащим:
Are you students? – Yes, we are. (No, we aren’t.)
Were they workers? – Yes, they were. (No, they weren’t.)
Will she be a teacher? – Yes, she will. (No, she won’t.)

Отрицательная форма образуется с помощью отрицательной частицы


not, которая ставится сразу же после глагола to be:
I am not an engineer. He was not a doctor. We will not be workers.

Существуют следующие краткие формы: I’m, I’m not, you’re, you


aren’t, he’s, she’s, it’s, he isn’t, she isn’t, it isn’t, we’re, we aren’t, they’re, they
aren’t, wasn’t, weren’t, I’ll be, I’ll not be, won’t be.

7. МОДАЛЬНЫЕ ГЛАГОЛЫ
(THE MODAL VERBS)

Модальные глаголы выражают долженствование, обязательство, со-


вет или разрешение выполнения действия.

202
Таблица 12. Таблица модальных глаголов

Модальный Случаи Перевод Примеры


глагол употребления
1. возможность 1. могу, умею, воз- 1. I can speak English.
can (could) = можно
to be able to 2. разрешение 2. можно 2. You can read aloud.
3. запрещение 3. нельзя 3. You can’t cross
street here.
1. разрешение 1. можно, разреша- 1. May I come in?
ется
may (might) = 2. строгое запреще- 2. не смей 2. You may not smoke
to be allowed to ние here.
3. предположение 3.возможно, 3. He may know her
может быть address.
must = 1. долг, обязательство 1. должен 1. We must study hard.
2. настоятельный 2. должен 2. You must consult a
совет, приказ doctor.
3. запрещение 3. запрещено, нельзя 3. You mustn’t run here.
to have to 4. в связи с обстоя- 4. приходится, 4. You have to go to
тельствами вынужден hospital.
to be to 5. с планом, по дого- 5. должен 5. He is to meet us at 5.
ворённости
моральный долг, должен, следует, You should stop smok-
should обязательство, совет, нужно (было бы), ing.
ought to рекомендация, следовало бы You ought to help your
порицание friends.
1. необходимость 1. нужно, есть ли 1. Need I do it today?
необходимость
2. отсутствие 2. не надо, нет необ- 2. He needn’t hurry.
need (–,?) необходимости ходимости
3. разрешение не 3. можно не 3. You needn’t copy
делать чего-либо the text.
4. смысловой глагол 4. нуждаться в ч-л 4. He needs a long rest.

8. ИНФИНИТИВ
(THE INFINITIVE)

Инфинитив – неопределенная форма глагола, отвечает на вопросы


что делать?, что сделать?

Active Passive
Simple to ask to be asked
Continuous to be asking -------------
Perfect to have asked to have been asked
Perfect Continuous to have been asking -------------
203
Инфинитив переводится:
1) неопределённой формой глагола: I asked him to help me. – Я попро-
сил его помочь мне.
2) именем существительным: To skate is pleasant. – Катание на
коньках приятно.
3) придаточным предложением: I went to the station to see my friend
off. – Я поехал на вокзал, чтобы проводить своего друга.
Кроме этих функций, инфинитив может входить в состав
− сложного дополнения (объектный инфинитивный оборот): We con-
sider the results to be satisfactory. − Мы считаем, что результаты удовле-
творительны;
− сложного подлежащего (субъектный инфинитивный оборот): The
results are considered to be satisfactory. − Считают, что результаты удов-
летворительны.

9. ПРИЧАСТИЕ
(THE PARTICIPLE)

Причастие – неличная форма глагола, имеющая признаки глагола и


прилагательного, отвечающая на вопрос какой?

Active Passive
Participle I taking being taken
Participle II ------------ taken
Perfect Participle having taken having been taken

Причастие переводится:
1) глаголом: She is reading. – Она читает.
2) деепричастием: He left the room smiling. – Он вышел из комнаты
улыбаясь.
3) конструкцией при (предлог) + существительное: (While) translat-
ing the text he used dictionary. – При переводе текста он использовал сло-
варь.
4) причастием: The boy sitting by the window is our head-boy. – Маль-
чик, сидящий у окна, наш староста.
5) придаточным предложением: Having never been to London he could
not take part in the discussion. – Так как он никогда не был в Лондоне, он не
смог принять участие в обсуждении.
Существует два причастных оборота:
1) зависимый причастный оборот относится к подлежащему пред-
ложения: Having repaired the engine, the mechanic showed it to the engineer.
− Отремонтировав двигатель, механик показал его инженеру.
204
2) независимый причастный оборот – причастие выражает действие
существительного (местоимения), стоящего перед ним:
а) причастный оборот, стоящий в начале предложения, переводится с
союзами когда, после того как, поскольку, так как: It being late, we decided
to stop working. − Так как было поздно, мы решили прекратить работу;
б) причастный оборот, стоящий в конце предложения, переводится с
союзами причем, а, и, но: The students wrote their English test-paper, each
doing his variant. − Студенты писали контрольную работу по английско-
му языку, причем каждый делал свой вариант.

10. ГЕРУНДИЙ
(THE GERUND)

Герундий – неличная форма глагола, обладающая признаками глаго-


ла и существительного, выражающая процесс действия.

Active Passive
Indefinite taking being taken
Perfect having taken having been taken

Герундий переводится:
1) отглагольным существительным: Skating is my favorite occupation.
– Катание на коньках моё любимое занятие.
2) инфинитивом: I like skating. – Я люблю кататься на коньках.
3) деепричастием: After skating for two hours we went home. – Пока-
тавшись на коньках два часа, мы пошли домой.
4) личной формой глагола в составе придаточного предложения: We
were surprised at Peter having got an excellent mark in physics. – Мы были
удивлены, что Пётр получил отличную оценку по физике.

СРАВНЕНИЕ ГЕРУНДИЯ И ПРИЧАСТИЯ

Формы герундия совпадают с формами причастия. Герундий от при-


частия отличается:
1) по функции в предложении. Герундий может быть любым чле-
ном предложения, причастие − только определением, обстоятельством или
частью сказуемого:

Герундий перед глаголом-сказуемым Причастие перед подлежащим


Testing the motor was necessary. – Testing the motor, he saw… −
Испытать мотор было необходимо. Испытывая мотор, он увидел…

205
2) по наличию предлога. Как герундий, так и причастие могут быть
обстоятельством и определением. В отличие от причастия перед герундием
в этом случае, как правило, стоит предлог. Перед причастием может стоять
союз when или while.

Герундий Причастие
в функции обстоятельства
After testing the motor they put down (While) testing the motor they put
the results. − После испытания down the results. − Испытывая мо-
мотора они записали результаты. тор, они записывали результаты.
в функции определения
1) There are several ways of produc- 1) The plant producing electricity is
ing electricity. − Имеется несколь- very powerful. − Эта установка,
ко способов производства элек- производящая электричество,
тричества. очень мощная.
2) Герундий может употребляться 2) Причастие перед определяемым
без предлога, если стоит перед оп- словом означает, что действие вы-
ределяемым словом: полняется самим предметом или
operating principle − принцип дей- лицом:
ствия operating engine − работающий
reading hall − читальный зал двигатель
reading man − читающий человек

11. ОТГЛАГОЛЬНОЕ СУЩЕСТВИТЕЛЬНОЕ


(THE VERBAL NOUN)

Отглагольное существительное образуется путем прибавления к


форме инфинитива окончания -ing: to read (читать) – reading (чтение, по-
казание) и обладает свойствами существительного.
Отглагольное существительное отличается от герундия по следую-
щим признакам:
1) отглагольное существительное употребляется с артиклем;
2) может иметь форму множественного числа;
3) может определяться прилагательным.
The readings of this device are correct. − Показания этого прибора
верны.

206
Таблица 13. Таблица основных префиксов (приставок)

Префиксы с отрицательным значением


не- important – важный unimportant – неважный
un- без(с)- limited – ограниченный unlimited – безграничный
раз(с)-
im- accuracy – точность inaccuracy – неточность
in- не- possible – возможный impossible – невозможный
il- без(с)- legal – легальный illegal – нелегальный
ir- responsible – irresponsible –
ответственный безответственный
non- не- conductor – проводник non-conductor –
без- непроводник (изолятор)
раз(с)- to disclose – раскрыть
to close – закрыть
dis- без(с)- to disconnect – разъединить
to connect – соединить
не-
mis- означает to understand – to misunderstand –
неверно понимать неверно понять
Префиксы с разными значениями
re- снова write – писать rewrite – переписать
еще раз use – использовать reuse – снова использовать
super- сверх- conductive – superconductive –
над- проводимый сверхпроводимый
sub- ниже- way – путь, дорога subway – подземная дорога
под- и др. system – система subsystem – подсистема
сверх-
over- пере- to load – нагрузить to overload – перегрузить
над-
semi- полу- semiconductor –
conductor – проводник
полупроводник
между- interaction –
action – действие
inter- среди- взаимодействие
взаимо-
(для
еn- образования large – большой to enlarge – увеличить
глагола)
рrе- до- to preheat –
to heat – нагреть
заранее предварительно нагреть
post- после- war – война post-war – послевоенный

207
Таблица 14. Список неправильных глаголов

Infinitive Past Indefinite Participle II Перевод


1 2 3 4
to be was, were been быть
to become became become становиться
tо begin began begun начинать(ся)
tо blow blew blown дуть
to break broke broken ломать, разбивать
to bring brought brought приносить
to broadcast broadcast; -ed broadcast; -ed передавать по радио
to build built built строить
to buy bought bought покупать
to choose chose chosen выбирать
to come came come приходить, приезжать
to cost cost cost стоить
to cut cut cut резать
to deal (with) dealt (with) dealt (with) иметь дело с
to do did done делать
to draw drew drawn рисовать, чертить
to drink drank drunk пить
to drive drove driven везти, управлять
to eat ate eaten есть (принимать пищу)
to fall fell fallen падать
to feel felt felt чувствовать
to find found found находить
to fly flew flown летать
to foresee foresaw foreseen предвидеть
to forget forgot forgotten забывать
to get got got получать, становиться
to give gave given давать
to go went gone идти, ехать
to grow grew grown расти, становиться
to hang hung hung висеть, вешать
to have had had иметь
to hear heard heard слышать
to hold held held держать, владеть
to keep kept kept держать, хранить
to know knew known знать
to lay laid laid класть
to lead led led вести
to learn learnt; ~-ed learnt; ~-ed учиться, узнавать
208
Продолжение табл. 14
1 2 3 4
to leave left left оставлять, уезжать
to let let let позволять, пускать
to lose lost lost терять
to make made made делать
to mean meant meant значить, предполагать
to meet met met встречать
to pay paid paid платить
to put put put класть
to read read read читать
to ring rang rung звонить, звенеть
to rise rose risen вставать
to run ran run бежать
to say said said говорить, сказать
to see saw seen видеть
to sell sold sold продавать
to send sent sent посылать
to set set set ставить, устанавливать
to show showed shown показывать
to sit sat sat сидеть
to speak spoke spoken говорить
to spend spent spent тратить, проводить
to spread spread spread распространять(ся)
to stand stood stood стоять
to swim swam swum плавать
to take took taken брать
to teach taught taught учить, обучать
to tell told told рассказывать
to think thought thought думать
to understand understood understood понимать
to wear wore worn носить
to win won won выигрывать
to write wrote written писать

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APPENDIX 6

SCIENTIFIC PATTERNS

The title of the article is… − Заглавие статьи…


It is published in… − Она опубликована в…
The author of the article is… − Автор статьи…
The article deals with the problem (question) of… − Статья имеет дело с
проблемой (вопросом)…
It also touches upon… − Она также касается…
The article says in detail about… − Статья говорит в деталях о…
The article gives facts (figures, names) illustrating… − Статья приводит
факты (цифры, имена), иллюстрирующие…
It should be noted that… − Следует отметить, что…
In conclusion the author says that… − В заключении автор говорит, что…
I think the most important fact in the article is… − Я думаю, что самый
важный момент в этой статье это…
I found the article… − Я нахожу статью…
interesting − интересной informative – информативной
useful – полезной hard (easy) to understand – трудной
important for me – важной для ме- (легкой) для понимания
ня

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APPENDIX 7

TEXTS FOR ANALYTICAL READING

Task 1. Read the text “THE WORLD’S FIRST COMPASS” and do as-
signments.

THE WORLD’S FIRST COMPASS

It was in the compass that magnetism first found a practical use.


Many centuries ago the people of ancient China noticed the attracting
properties of loadstones1, that is, magnetic oxides of iron. A loadstone, which
means loading stone, is a name given to the natural magnet.
The property they had noticed helped them to discover that a freely sus-
pended magnetized bar2 points North and South, and so it can be used to deter-
mine direction. Thus the compass was invented.
In ancient books we find a description of the compass of those days. It
was shaped like a spoon mounted on a graduated plate3. We know the spoon had
to be rotated by hand and when it came to rest, it was pointing North and South.
The Chinese not only invented the compass but as early as the 11th century
had discovered how to make magnetic needles4. This was the first time such a
thing had been done anywhere in the world. These needles made of fish-shaped
pieces of iron which floated on water, were acted on by the earth’s magnetic
field.
About the end of the 11th century the Chinese began to use the compass in
navigation. In the 12th century the compass of the floating needle type came into
use. Its iron-needle was fastened to a thin strip of cork5 or wood, so that it
floated in a bowl of water. The needle was magnetized by contact with a natural
magnet taken from the earth. This early seagoing compass was in use on Chi-
nese ships up to the 17th century. It was probably the best type available if we
consider the scientific and technical level of the time.
In Middle Ages there was a lively trade and a busy cultural exchange be-
tween China and the Arab countries.
It was from the Chinese that the Arabs first learnt to make compasses and
to use them in navigation. The Arabs in their turn introduced the compass to Eu-
rope, where it began to appear over 800 years ago. We know it was used on Ital-
ian, Portuguese and Norwegian ships of the 12th century.
The great invention of the ancient Chinese was further developed thanks
to the skilled Arab and European scientists and thus reached its present perfec-
tion.
Notes to the text:
1. loadstone – магнетит, магнитный железняк;
211
2. bar – стержень;
3. plate – пластина, дощечка;
4. needle – игла, стрелка;
5. cork – пробка.

Assignments:

1. Render the content of the text in short in Russian.


2. Find the passage where the description of the compass is given. Read it.

Task 2. Read the text “HISTORY OF A SHIP” and do assignments. Use


thesaurus if necessary.

HISTORY OF A SHIP

1. Prehistory and antiquity


The history of boats parallels the human adventure. The first boats known
date back to the Neolithic Period, about 10,000 years ago. They were used
mainly for hunting and fishing and were often cut from coniferous tree logs,
using simple stone tools. By around 3000 BC, Ancient Egyptians already knew
how to assemble planks of wood into a ship hull. They used woven straps to lash
the planks together, and reeds or grass stuffed between the planks helped to seal
the seams. At about the same time, people living near Kongens Lyngby in
Denmark invented the segregated hull, which allowed the size of boats to
gradually be increased. Boats soon developed into keel boats similar to today’s
wooden pleasure craft.
The first navigators began to use animal skins or woven fabrics as sails.
Before the introduction of the compass, celestial navigation was the main
method for navigation at sea. In China, early versions of the magnetic compass
were being developed and used in navigation between 1040 and 1117.

2. Through the Renaissance


Until the Renaissance, navigational technology remained comparatively
primitive. This absence of technology didn’t prevent some civilizations from
becoming sea powers. Towards the end of the 14th century, ships like the carrack
began to develop towers on the bow and stern. These towers decreased the
vessel’s stability, and in the 15th century, the caravel, a descendent of the Arabic
qárib which could sail closer to the wind, became more widely used. The towers
were gradually replaced by the forecastle, as in the carrack Santa Maria of
Christopher Columbus.
In the 16th century, the use of freeboard and freeing ports become
widespread on galleons. The English modified their vessels to maximize their
firepower and demonstrated the effectiveness of their doctrine, in 1588, by
212
defeating the Spanish Armada.
At this time, ships were developing in Asia in much the same way as
Europe. Japan used defensive naval techniques in the Mongol invasions of Japan
in 1281. Middle Age Swahili Kingdoms are known to have had trade port
islands and trade routes with the Islamic world and Asia and were described by
Greek historians as ‘metropolises’. Famous African trade ports such as
Mombasa, Zanzibar, Mogadishu and Kilwa were known to Chinese sailors such
as Zheng He and medieval Islamic historians such as the Berber Islamic voyager
Abu Abdullah ibn Battua. In the 14th century King Abubakari I, the brother of
King Mansa Musa of the Mali Empire is thought to have had a great armada of
ships sitting on the coast of West Africa. This has lead to great speculation, with
historical evidence, that it is possible that Malian sailors may have reached the
coast of Pre-Colombian America under the rule of Abubakari II, nearly two
hundred years before Christopher Columbus and that black traders may have
been in the Americas before Columbus.
Fifty years before Christopher Columbus, Chinese navigator Zheng He
traveled the world at the head of a huge armada. The largest of his ships had
nine masts, were 130 metres (430 ft) long and had a beam of 55 metres (180 ft).
His fleet carried 30,000 men aboard 70 vessels, with the goal of bringing glory
to the Chinese emperor.

3. Specialization and modernization


Parallel to the development of warships, ships in service of marine fishery
and trade also developed in the period between antiquity and the Renaissance.
Maritime trade was driven by the development of shipping companies with
significant financial resources. Canal barges, flat-bottomed and flexible scow
boats also became widely used for transporting small cargoes. During the first
half of the 18th century, the French Navy began to develop a new type of vessel
known as a ship of the line, featuring seventy-four guns. This type of ship
became the backbone of all European fighting fleets.
Ship designs stayed fairly unchanged until the late 19th century. The
industrial revolution, new mechanical methods of propulsion, and the ability to
construct ships from metal triggered an explosion in ship design. Ships built for
entirely new functions, such as firefighting, rescue, and research, also began to
appear.

4. Today
Nowadays the world’s fleet included about 50, 000commercial vessels
with gross tonnage totaling 1.00 billion tons. In terms of tonnage, 39% of these
ships are tankers, 26% are bulk carriers, 17% container ships and warships and
15% were other types counting small vessels such as patrol boats.

213
Assignments:

1. Render the content of the text in short in Russian.


2. Make up a plan to the text.
3. Write an abstract to the text.

Task 3. Read the text “ARCHITECTURE” using thesaurus and do as-


signments.

ARCHITECTURE

Some components exist in vessels of any size and purpose. Every vessel
has a hull of sorts. Every vessel has some sort of propulsion, whether it’s a pole
or a nuclear reactor. Most vessels have some sort of steering system. Other cha-
racteristics are common, but not as universal, such as compartments, holds, a
superstructure, and equipment such as anchors and winches.
Main parts of ship: smokestack or funnel, stern, propeller and rudder,
portside (the right side is known as starboard), anchor, bulbous bow, bow, deck,
superstructure.
For a ship to float, its weight must be less than that of the water displaced
by the ship’s hull. There are many types of hulls, from logs lashed together to
form a raft to the advanced hulls of America’s Cup sailboats. A vessel may have
a single hull (called a monohull design), two in the case of catamarans, or three
in the case of trimarans. Vessels with more than three hulls are rare, but some
experiments have been conducted with designs such as pentamarans. Multiple
hulls are generally parallel to each other and connected by rigid arms.
Hulls have several elements. The bow is the foremost part of the hull.
Many ships feature a bulbous bow. The keel is at the very bottom of the hull, ex-
tending the entire length of the ship. The rear part of the hull is known as the
stern, and many hulls have a flat back known as a transom. Common hull ap-
pendages include propellers for propulsion, rudders for steering, and stabilizers
to quell a ship’s rolling motion. Other hull features can be related to the vessel’s
work, such as fishing gear and sonar domes.
Hulls are subject to various hydrostatic and hydrodynamic constraints.
The key hydrostatic constraint is that it must be able to support the entire weight
of the boat, and maintain stability even with often unevenly distributed weight.
Hydrodynamic constraints include the ability to withstand shock waves, weather
collisions and groundings.
Larger boats and ships generally have multiple decks and compartments.
Separate berthings and heads are found on sailboats over about 25 feet (7.6 m).
Fishing boats and cargo ships typically have one or more cargo holds. Most of
larger vessels have an engine room, a galley, and various compartments for
214
work. Tanks are used to store fuel, engine oil, and fresh water. Ballast tanks are
equipped to change a ship’s trim and modify its stability.
Superstructures are found above the main deck. On sailboats, these are
usually very low. On modern cargo ships, they are almost always located near
the ship’s stern. On passenger ships and warships, the superstructure generally
extends far forward.

Assignments:

1. Copy down all new words in your vocabulary.


2. Render the content of the text in short in English.
3. Make up a plan to the text.

Task 4. Read the text “WHAT IS A MODERN SHIP?” using thesaurus


and do assignments.

WHAT IS A MODERN SHIP?

There have always been floating structures to carry things and people. As
the length of the voyage increased, these structures grew in size and seaworthi-
ness. However, in odd parts of the world the most primitive types of ships are
still used within a few yards of the most modern liners.
What is a modern ship? An overall answer to this question is difficult be-
cause there are so many types and sizes. A cargo carrying ship may be likened to
a box-shaped steel structure built at each end in conformity with the laws of re-
sistance and according to the speed desired. Above the main ‘lid’ or deck of the
structure is a superstructure or a smaller box. On the deck there are hatches, or
openings, to the box through which cargo is loaded or unloaded. Inside the box
there are spaces for carrying cargo. Deep spaces are called holds and interme-
diate spaces between the decks are known as ‘tweendecks’. Portions of the holds
at each end are reserved for the carriage of water ballast. The middle part of the
box is used to house the propelling machinery. Some ships have one main en-
gine to propel them, and others – two, three or four according to size, duties and
speed. There are more ways of propelling a ship than there are kinds of ships.

Assignments:

1. Copy down all new words in your vocabulary.


2. Render the content of the text in short in English.
3. Make up a plan to the text.
4. Answer the question: What is a modern ship?

215
Task 5. Read the text “TYPES OF SHIPS” using thesaurus and do as-
signments.

TYPES OF SHIPS

On one hand, all cargo ships are divided into two types: dry cargo ships
and tankers. On the other hand, cargo ships may be divided into universal ships
designed to carry principal different types of cargo and specialized ships de-
signed to carry one type of cargo (e.g. bulk cargo, timber, refrigerated goods,
oil, etc.) Such specialized ships as bulkers (=bulk-carriers), timber-carriers, ree-
fer ships1, tankers have long been known.
Nowadays three kinds of specialized ships are very popular. One is cargo-
carriers with cargo handling equipment on board for special purposes or routes,
such as, for example, heavy / bulky cargo ships with derricks or cranes capable
of handling single lifts over 500 tons without requiring outside assistance (these
ships are also called special-purpose ships). The second trend is Roll-on / Roll-
off ships (RO-RO), in which bow and stern doors and adjustable steel ramps
permit vehicles to drive on board and drive off again, requiring only minimum
dock-side facilities. The third trend is the container ship. The use of containers
for cargoes has encouraged2 the design of ships specifically to carry containers.
In their extreme form, as in the LASH3 barge-carrying ships, the container is a
60-foot steel lighter, which can be quickly launched over the ship’s stern. One
(single) purpose ships designed to carry one particular kind of cargo are also
widely used, the most popular of them being cellular type full container ships.
There are specialized ships designed to carry different types of cargoes
(e.g. OBO ships4, PROBO ships5, CONBULKERs6, etc.). These are called com-
bined ships.
A comparatively new development is the multi-purpose ship combining
characteristic features of both universal and specialized vessels.
According to the cargo handling method used dry cargo ships may also be
divided into: LO-LO (lift-on / lift-off) vessels where handling of cargo is ef-
fected by derricks or cranes through cargo hatches; RO-RO (roll-on / roll-off)
vessels where the cargo is rolled on board and rolled off through cargo ports7 or
doors in the bow, stern or sides of the ship; FO-FO (float-on / float-off) vessels
where dock lift cargo handling method is used, that is floating cargo units (e.g.
barges) are floated into cargo spaces (usually large holds). But there are also hy-
brid vessels8, where combinations of the above mentioned methods are used,
such as LO-LO / RO-RO (or LO / RO), RO-RO / FO-FO (or RO / FO) vessels
and others.

Notes to the text:


1. reefer = reefer ships – суда для перевозки рефрижераторных грузов;

216
2. to encourage – способствовать;
3. LASH-carrier = lighters aboard ship-carrier – лихтеровоз;
4. OBO ship = oil / bulk / ore-carrier – нефтерудовоз, балктанкер;
5. PROBO ship = product / oil / bulk / ore-carrier – судно, предназначенное для
транспортировки нефтепродуктов, сырой нефти, навалочных грузов и руды;
6. CONBULKER = container / bulk-carrier – комбинированное судно, предназначен-
ное для перевозки контейнерных и / или навалочных грузов;
7. cargoports – лацпорты;
8. hybrid vessels – суда гибридного типа, сочетающие различные способы погрузки
/ выгрузки.

Answer the questions:

1. What two types are all cargo ships divided into?


2. How can dry cargo vessels be classified according to the cargo han-
dling methods they use?
3. What are advantages / disadvantages of specialized vessels?
4. Do you believe that specialized ships will increase in number in future?
Why do you think so?
5. What are special-purpose ships? Can you give any examples?
6. What kinds of combined ships do you know?
7. What features do they combine?
8. What are hybrid ships?

Task 6. Read the text “STEAMSHIPS, SAILING AND OTHER VES-


SELS” using thesaurus and do assignments.

STEAMSHIPS, SAILING AND OTHER VESSELS

1. Force of a wind is used by means of sails on sailing vessels. Sailing


vessels have from one to five masts. The first sailing vessels appeared in 3000
BC. They floated on the rivers of India and China. Then sails were used on ships
of Ancient Rome, Egypt, Assyria, and Oceania and by other ancient people. The
famous Vikings have opened Greenland and Iceland on sailing vessels. For
twenty centuries sailing vessels were widely used by people. The first wheel
steamships also have been supplied by masts with sails which were preferable
during storms.
Sailing vessels have reached the top point of the development in 18th and
19th centuries. They were used both for transportation of cargoes and passengers
and for military actions. There were frigates and battleships which had tree le-
vels of cannons in the hull.
Now sailing vessels are not used. They are yachts and boats with a sail,
but they are intended for rest and sports.

217
2. The first prototype of a steamship has appeared on the river Sona in
1783. Frenchman Claude de Djoufroi was its designer. And the first real steam-
ship has been let out in the USA in 1807. It was a river steamer Clermont under
Robert Fulton’s project. The first sea steamer has appeared in Russia in 1815 –
the vessel Elizabeth – with the capacity of a steam engine of 10 kW. The sailing
became useless for the international fast transportations and then there appeared
steamships. They differed from sailing vessels in the fact that could move in
windless weather. The first steamships worked by means of wheels which have
been strengthened by placing on both sides of the ship (sometimes there was on-
ly one wheel in the hull, in the centre of the ship). Wheels were set in motion by
means of steam formed from high temperature. The high temperature was pro-
vided by the furnace in which coal were burning.
Steamships had wide spread worldwide in the second half of the 19th and
at the beginning the 20th centuries. Initially masts with sails were erected. In
windy weather it saved coal. Later rowing wheels of steamships were replaced
by the screw propeller.
During two world wars only steamships were used, that is all military
ships moved by means of steam. At the end of the 20th century steamships have
started to give way to new types of ships, such as motor vessel, electro vessel
and atomic-power vessel. Some of them are used nowadays.
3. A motor vessel is a vessel which put in motion a diesel internal com-
bustion engine. Capacity of the main engine is passed directly on a propeller or
through a reduction gear. A motor vessel differs from a steamship that spends
less fuel and possesses high qualities. The first motor vessel appeared in 1903.
Then three diesel engines with the capacity of 120 hp were put on tanker Vandal
and it has turned from a steamship to a motor vessel. The tanker Sarmat
equipped with two diesel engines with the capacity of 180 hp became the second
motor vessel. Sarmat has already been designed as a motor vessel. A motor ves-
sel has more reliable and safe engine than a steamship. A motor vessel, the most
widespread kind of modern sea vessels, occupies about 90% of transport ships.
4. The wide experience in developing, manufacturing and operation of
ship power plants working on natural fuel, and also the advanced infrastructure
of its extraction and delivery to the consumer, have made natural fuel the most
widespread source of energy for the prevailing vessels. The lack of natural fuel
in future results in searching alternative sources of energy. Wallenius Wilhelm-
sen Co has developed a vessel which uses energy of the Sun, waves and wind.
The work began in 2004 and should end in2025.
5. A turbine vessel is a vessel which uses gas or steam turbine for move-
ment. The first turbine vessel Turbinia was created in 1896; the steam turbine
was used on it. Now this type of vessel is used basically with gas turbines. Tur-
bine vessels are used in the nave from the beginning of the 20th century. The
cruiser Aurora is an example of the turbine vessel.
218
An atomic-power vessel is a vessel with a nuclear power-plant aboard.
Nuclear vessels are both surface and underwater types. They have good passa-
bility. Ice-breaker Lenin launched in 1959 in the former USSR became the first
atomic-power vessel.
A gas-turbine vessel is set in motion with the help of gas-turbine engine.
The most-known Russian gas-turbine vessels are Burevestnik and Cyclone.

Assignments and questions:

1. What ships are mentioned in the text?


2. Make up a plan to the text.
3. Render the content of the text.
4. What additional information about different types of vessels can you
say?

Task 7. Read the text “STEAM ENGINES AND TURBINES” paying


attention to the notes and do assignments.

STEAM ENGINES AND TURBINES

1. Reciprocating steam engines1


The development of piston-engine2 steamships was a complex process.
Early steamships were fueled by wood, later ones by coal or fuel oil. Early ships
used stern or side paddle wheels, while later ones used screw propellers.
The first commercial success accrued3 to Robert Fulton’s North River
Steamboat (often called Clermont) in the US in 1807, followed in Europe by the
45-foot Comet of 1812. Steam propulsion progressed considerably over the rest
of the 19th century. Notable4 developments included the steam surface condens-
er5, which eliminated6 the use of sea water in the ship’s boilers. This permitted
higher steam pressures, and thus the use of higher efficiency multiple expansion
(compound) engines7. As the means of transmitting8 the engine’s power, paddle
wheels gave way to more efficient screw propellers.

2. Steam turbines
Steam turbines were fueled by coal or, later, fuel oil or nuclear power.
The marine steam turbine developed by Sir Charles Algernon Parsons raised the
power to weight ratio in 1897 by demonstrating in the 100-foot Turbinia. This
facilitated9 a generation of high-speed liners in the first half of the 20th century
and rendered the reciprocating steam engine obsolete10, first in warships and lat-
er in merchant vessels.
In the early 20th century, heavy fuel oil came into more general use and
began to replace coal as the fuel of choice in steamships. Its great advantages
219
were convenience, reduced manning11 due to removing the need for trimmers
and stokers12, and reduced space needed for fuel bunkers.
In the second half of the 20th century, rising fuel costs almost led to the
demise13 of the steam turbine. Most new ships since around 1960 have been
built with diesel engines. Most new-build ships with steam turbines are special-
ist vessels such as nuclear-powered vessels, and certain merchant vessels (nota-
bly LNG and coal carriers) where the cargo can be used as bunker fuel.

Notes to the text:


1. reciprocating steam engine – поршневой паровой двигатель;
2. piston-engine – поршневой двигатель;
3. to accrue – накапливать;
4. notable – выдающийся, знаменитый;
5. surface condenser – поверхностный конденсатор;
6. to eliminate – исключать, устранять;
7. expansion (compound) engine – расширенный (сложный) двигатель;
8. transmitting – передача;
9. to facilitate – способствовать;
10. obsolete – устаревший;
11. manning – укомплектование;
12. trimmers and stokers – укладчики груза и кочегары;
13. demise – кончина.

Assignments:

1. Make up a plan to the text.


2. Get ready with the report according to your plan.
3. State the difference between diesel and steam engines.

Task 8. Read the text “RMS TITANIC” and do assignments.

RMS TITANIC

RMS Titanic was a passenger liner that struck an iceberg on her maiden
voyage from Southampton, England, to New York City, and sank on 15 April
1912, resulting in the deaths of 1,517 people in one of the deadliest peacetime
maritime disasters in history.
The largest passenger steamship in the world at the time, the Olympic-
class RMS Titanic was owned by the White Star Line and constructed at the
Harland and Wolff shipyard in Belfast, Ireland, UK. After setting sail for New
York City on 10 April 1912 with 2,223 people on board, she hit an iceberg four
days into the crossing, at 11:40 pm on 14 April 1912, and sank at 2:20 am on the
morning of 15 April. The high casualty rate resulting from the sinking was due
in part to the fact that, although complying with the regulations of the time, the
220
ship carried lifeboats for only 1,178 people. A disproportionate number of men
died due to the “women and children first” protocol that was enforced by the
ship’s crew.
Titanic was designed by experienced engineers, using some of the most
advanced technologies and extensive safety features of the time. The sinking of
a passenger liner on her maiden voyage, the high loss of life and media frenzy
over Titanic’s famous victims, the legends about the sinking, the resulting
changes in maritime law, and the discovery of the wreck have all contributed to
the enduring interest in Titanic.

Assignments:

1. Render the content of the text.


2. Tell any additional information about this disaster.

Task 9. Read the text “GERMAN BATTLESHIP TIRPITZ” and do


assignments.

GERMAN BATTLESHIP TIRPITZ

Tirpitz was the second of two Bismarck-class battleships built for the
German Kriegsmarine during World War II. Named after Grand Admiral Alfred
von Tirpitz, the architect of the Imperial Navy, the ship was laid down at the
Kriegsmarinewerft in Wilhelmshaven in November 1936 and launched two and
a half years later in April 1939.
Work was completed in
February 1941, when she was
commissioned into the German
fleet. Like her sistership
Bismarck, Tirpitz was armed
with a main battery of eight 38-
centimeter (15 in) guns in four
twin turrets. As a result of a
series of wartime modifications
she was some 2,000 metric tons (2,000 long tons; 2,200 short tons) heavier than
Bismarck.
After completing sea trials in early 1941, Tirpitz briefly served as the
centerpiece of the Baltic Fleet, which was intended to prevent a possible
breakout attempt by the Soviet Baltic Fleet. In early 1942, the ship sailed to
Norway to act as a deterrent against an Allied invasion. While stationed in
Norway, Tirpitz could also be used to intercept Allied convoys to the Soviet
Union; two such missions were attempted in 1942, but both failed. Despite her
221
inability to attack the convoys directly, Tirpitz acted as a fleet in being, forcing
the British Royal Navy to retain significant naval forces in the area to contain
the battleship.
In September 1943, Tirpitz, along with the battleship Scharnhorst,
bombarded Allied positions on the island of Spitzbergen, the first time the ship
used her main battery in anger. Shortly thereafter, the ship was damaged in an
attack by British mini-submarines and subsequently subjected to a series of
large-scale air raids. On 12 November 1944, British Lancaster bombers
equipped with 12,000 pounds (5,400 kg) “Tallboy” bombs destroyed the ship;
two direct hits and a near miss caused the ship to capsize rapidly. A deck fire
spread to the ammunition magazine for one of the main battery turrets, which
caused a large explosion. Figures for the number of men killed in the attack
range from 950 to 1,204. The wreck was broken up by a joint Norwegian and
German salvage operation after the war, with work lasting from 1948 until 1957.

Assignments:

1. Make up a plan to the text. Compare it with your group mates. Choose
the best one.
2. What situation described in the text was demonstrated in the film?

Task 10. Read the text “MIR (SUBMERSIBLE)” and do assignments.

MIR (SUBMERSIBLE)

Mir is a self-propelled Deep Submergence Vehicle. The project was


initially developed by the USSR Academy of Sciences (now the Russian
Academy of Sciences) along with Design
Bureau Lazurith. Later two vehicles were
ordered from Finland. The Mir 1 and Mir 2,
delivered in 1987, were designed and built by
the Finnish company Rauma-Repola’s
Oceanics subsidiary. The project was carried
out under the supervision of constructors and
engineers of the Shirshov Institute of
Oceanology. The vessels are designed to be
used for scientific research. They might also be
used to assist in submarine rescue operations,
although they do not have the capacity to take
anybody aboard when underwater. The carrier
and command centre of both Mir submersibles
is the R/V Akademik Mstislav Keldysh.
222
Currently the two Mir units are operated by the Russian Academy of Sciences.
The MIR submersibles can dive to a maximum depth of 6,000 metres (19,685
ft). This makes them two of only seven manned submersibles in the world that
can dive beyond 3,000 metres (9,843 ft), the others being the US submersibles
Alvin, Sea Cliff and Deepstar 20000, the Japanese owned Shinkai and the
French owned Nautile. Up to 98% of the world’s oceans are no deeper than
6,000 metres. All these deep-ocean submersibles utilize three-person crews.
Traditionally, the personnel sphere of a deep sea submersible is manufactured of
titanium plates that are welded together. On Mir, the personnel sphere is made
of a maraging steel alloy that has 10% better strength/weight ratio than titanium.
This alloy contains about 30% cobalt and smaller amounts of nickel, chrome and
titanium. Two hemispheres were made by casting and machining, and then
bolted together, thus avoiding welded joints. The resulting construction is close
to the density of water, thus making it easier to move in different depths.
Additional buoyancy is provided by 8 cubic metres (280 cu ft) of syntactic foam.
Unlike other Deep Submergence Vehicles that use iron ballast to reach the ocean
floor, the buoyancy and depth is adjusted by ballast tanks.

Assignments:

1. Render the content of the text.


2. Divide it into logical parts and entitle them. Compare with your group
mates.
3. Name materials used in construction of the vessel.

Task 11. Read the text “NAUTILUS (1800 SUBMARINE)” and do


assignments.

NAUTILUS (1800 SUBMARINE)

Nautilus, first tested in 1800, is often considered the first practical


submarine, though preceded by Cornelius Drebbel’s of 1620.
The Nautilus was designed between 1793 and 1797 by the American
inventor Robert Fulton, then living in the French First Republic. He proposed to
the Directory that they subsidize its construction as a means to balance British
seapower, but he was turned down. His second proposal to them was that he be
paid nothing until the Nautilus had sunk British shipping, and then only a small
percentage of the prize money. Again, the design was rejected. Fulton directed
his next proposal to the Minister of Marine, who finally granted him permission
to build.

223
The Nautilus (1800)

Full-sized section model at Cité de la Mer, Cherbourg, France

224
Career
Name: Nautilus
Laid down: Perrier boatyard in Rouen
General characteristics
Length: 21 ft, 3 in
Beam: 6ft. 4 in
Propulsion: Hand-cranked screw propeller or Sail (when surfaced)

Assignments:

1. According to the information in the text and charts make up a summary


about the Nautilus.
2. Do you find figures ‘1800’ in the title to be strange? What do they
mean?
3. What main technical parts are similar to modern ones?

Task 12. Read the text “RUSSIAN CRUISER AURORA” and do


assignments.

RUSSIAN CRUISER AURORA

Aurora is a 1900 Russian protected cruiser, currently preserved as a


museum ship in St. Petersburg. She battled
the Japanese Navy in the Russo-Japanese
War. One of the first incidents of the
October Revolution in Russia took place on
the cruiser Aurora.
Aurora was one of three Pallada-
class cruisers, built in St. Petersburg for
service in the Pacific Far East. All three
ships of this class served during the Russo-
Japanese War. The second ship, Pallada, was sunk by the Japanese at Port
Arthur in 1904. The third ship, Diana, was interned in Saigon after the Battle of
the Yellow Sea.
Aurora was part of the Russian 2nd Pacific Squadron formed mostly from
the Russian Baltic Fleet, which was sent from the Baltic Sea to the Pacific,
under the command of Vice-Admiral Zinovy Rozhestvensky. On the way to the
Far East, she sustained light damage from confused friendly fire in the Dogger
225
Bank incident.
On 27 and 28 May 1905, Aurora took part in the Battle of Tsushima,
along with the rest of the Russian squadron. During the battle, the wounded
senior officer of the ship, Captain of 2nd rank Arcadi Konstantinovich Nebolsine
took command of the cruiser. After that Aurora, covering other, much slower
Russian vessels, under the command of Rear-Admiral Oskar Enkvist, with two
other Russian cruisers broke through to neutral Manila, where she was interned.
In 1906, Aurora returned to the Baltic and became a cadet training ship.
From 1906 until 1912 the cruiser visited a number of other countries; in
November 1911 the ship was in Bangkok as part of the celebrations in honour of
the coronation of the new King of Siam.
The cruiser cooperated also in the international operation to care for the
survivors of the earthquake of Messina.

Assignments:

1. Do you know what historical period is described in the text?


2. Where is Aurora moored nowadays?
3. What other additional information can you tell about Aurora?

Task 13. Read the text “AMERICAN QUEEN” and do assignments.

AMERICAN QUEEN

American Queen is the largest steamboat ever built. The ship was built in
1995 and is a six-deck recreation of a classic Mississippi riverboat, built by the
Delta Queen Steamboat Company. Although the American Queen’s stern
paddlewheel is indeed powered by a genuine steam plant, her secondary
propulsion and much maneuverability comes from a set of diesel-electric
propellers, known as Z-drives, on either side of the stern wheel. She has 222
state rooms for a capacity of 436 guests and a crew of 160. She is 418 feet
(127 m) long and 89 feet
(27 m) wide.
The Str. American
Queen was retired to the
reserve fleet in Violet,
Louisiana, on 20 November
2008. Due to the failure of
Majestic America Line (her
owner) she was returned to the
United States Maritime
Administration (MARAD) who held her $30 million mortgage. She is currently
226
in storage in Beaumont, Texas. As of April 2011 American Queen is under
contract for $15.5 million to HMS Global Maritime, based in New Albany,
Indiana. The new operator, The Great American Steamboat Company
announced plans to return her to Mississippi River service from a port in
Memphis, Tennessee. She will re-join her fellow sternwheeler steamboats
Natchez, Chautauqua Belle, Minne-Ha-Ha, and the Belle of Louisville.
In 2012 the American Queen will participate for the first time in the Great
Steamboat Race.

Assignments:

1. Have you ever met such type of ship on our rivers? Is it typical only for
American rivers?
2. Describe the type of propulsion system used?
3. Write an abstract to the text.

Task 14. Read the text “ICEBREAKER YERMAK” and do assignments.

ICEBREAKER YERMAK

Yermak (sometimes spelled Ermak) was a Russian and later Soviet


icebreaker, the first polar icebreaker in the world, having a strengthened hull
shaped to ride over and crush pack ice.
Yermak was built for the Imperial Russian Navy under the supervision of
Admiral Stepan Osipovich Makarov
by Armstrong Whitworth in Newcastle
upon Tyne at its Low Walker yard and
launched in 1898. She was named
after the famous Russian explorer of
Siberia, Don Cossack ataman Yermak
Timofeyevich.
She was commissioned on 17
October 1898. She arrived in
Kronstadt on March 4 of 1899 after
breaking through ice and a formal reception was held to mark her arrival. Later
in 1899 she reached 81°21'N north of Spitsbergen. She had been constructed to
break through a heavy (up to 2 m thickness) ice.
Yermak had been used in winter of 1899-1900 to set up 1st radio
communication link in Russia between Kotka and Gogland (Suursaar) island
(distance 47 km). In 1900 she came to the aid of the cruiser Gromoboi which
had grounded in the Baltic.
Between 1899-1911 Yermak sailed in a heavy ice conditions for more than
227
1000 days.
During World War I she assisted the Baltic Fleet during the Ice cruise
when the fleet was evacuated from Helsinki to Kronstadt in February 1918.
During World War II Yermak was mobilized again and took part in the
evacuation of Hanko naval base. She was armed with two 102 mm, two 76 mm,
four 45 mm and four machine guns.
Yermak served with different branches of Russian and Soviet Navy and
Merchant Marine up until 1964, becoming one of longest-serving icebreakers in
the world. An island in the Nordenskiöld Archipelago was named after this
icebreaker.
A monument to the icebreaker Yermak was opened in Murmansk. In
November 1965 this included mosaic panels and the original anchor on the
pedestal.
Another icebreaker with the name Yermak was built for the Soviet Union
at Wärtsilä shipyard in Helsinki, Finland in 1974. Russia employs an icebreaker
named Yermak in the Baltic as late as 2010.

Assignments:

1. What is the main idea of the text?


2. Make up a plan to the text.
3. Render the content of the text according to the plan.

Task 15. Read the text “SANTA MARIA” and do assignments.

SANTA MARIA

La Santa Maria de la Inmaculada Concepción (Spanish for The Saint


Mary of the Immaculate Conception), was the largest of the three ships used by
Christopher Columbus in his first voyage. Her master and owner was Juan de la
Cosa.
The Santa Maria was probably a small carrack, about 70 feet long, used
as the flagship for the expedition. The other ships of the Columbus expedition
were the smaller caravel-type ships Santa Clara, remembered as La Niña (The
Girl), and La Pinta (The Painted One). All these ships were second-hand (if not
third or more) and were never meant for exploration. The Niña, Pinta, and the
Santa Maria were not the largest ships in Europe at the time. They were smaller
trade ships surpassed in size by ships like the Great Michael, built in Scotland in
1511 with a length of 73.2 m (240 ft), and a crew of 300 sailors, 120 gunners,
and up to 1,000 soldiers. The Peter von Danzig of the Hanseatic League was
built in 1462 and was 51 m (167.3 ft) long. Another large ship, the English
carrack Grace Dieu, was built during the period 1420–1439, was 66.4 m (218 ft)
228
long, and weighed between 1,400 tons and
2,750 tons. The reason size is mentioned is
that Columbus’ three ships were built to sail
the Mediterranean Sea, not the open ocean.
This says a great deal about the courage of
Columbus and his crew.
The Santa Maria was originally named
La Gallega (The Galician), because she was
built in Pontevedra, Galicia, in Spain’s north-
west. It seems the ship was known to her
sailors as Marigalante, Spanish for ‘Gallant
Maria’. Bartolomé de Las Casas never used
La Gallega, Marigalante or Santa Maria in
his writings, preferring to use la Capitana or
La Nao.
The Santa Maria had a single deck and
three masts. She was the slowest of
Columbus’s vessels but performed well in the Atlantic crossing. She ran
aground off the present-day site of Cap-Haitian, Haiti on December 25, 1492,
and was lost. Realizing that the ship was beyond repair, Columbus ordered his
men to strip the timbers from the ship. The timbers from the ship were later used
to build Môle Saint-Nicolas, which was originally called La Navidad
(Christmas) because the wreck occurred on Christmas Day.
The anchor of the Santa Maria now resides in the Musée du Panthéon
National Haitien (MUPANAH), in Port-au-Prince, Haiti.

Assignments:

1. Render the content of the text.


2. What part of the text d’you consider of less importance?
3. Write down short summary of the text.

Task 16. Read the text “MS QUEEN ELIZABETH” and do assign-
ments.

MS QUEEN ELIZABETH

MS Queen Elizabeth is a Signature class cruise ship operated by Cunard


Line. She is the second largest ship to be built by Cunard, exceeded only by the
QM2 and she is running mate to the Queen Victoria, and the Queen Mary 2.
The Elizabeth is a Vista Class cruise ship, which is a modified design
from other Vista class vessels; she is slightly larger than Queen Victoria, at
229
92,000 gross tons, largely due to a
more vertical stern. Capable of
carrying up to 2,092 passengers, she is
the second largest Cunard ship ever
built, after RMS Queen Mary 2.
The ship’s name was announced
by Cunard on 10 October 2007. The
company now operates three vessels
once more (since the retirement of
QE2 in 2008).
The naming of the ship as
Queen Elizabeth sees a situation similar to that between 1940 and 1948, when
Cunard’s original Queen Elizabeth was in service at the same time as the Royal
Navy battleship HMS Queen Elizabeth. In 2014, four years after this ship joins
the fleet, the Royal Navy plans to introduce the aircraft carrier HMS Queen
Elizabeth into service.
The first master of Queen Elizabeth is Captain Chris Wells.
At the end of October 2011 Queen Elizabeth and her sisters for the first
time will change their registry to Hamilton, Bermuda in order to host weddings
aboard.

Assignments:

1. Give general characteristics to the QE.


2. Describe the situation with naming the ship.
3. Render the content of the text.

Task 17. Read the text “RUSSIAN SUBMARINE K-141 KURSK” and
do assignments.

RUSSIAN SUBMARINE K-141 KURSK

K-141 Kursk was an Oscar-II class nuclear-powered cruise missile


submarine of the Russian Navy, lost with all hands when it sank in the Barents
Sea on August 12, 2000. Kursk, full name the nuclear powered submarine
‘Kursk’ in Russian, was a Project 949A Antey, but was also known by its NATO
reporting name of Oscar II. It was named after the Russian city Kursk, around
which the largest tank battle in military history, the Battle of Kursk, took place
in 1943. One of the first vessels completed after the fall of the Soviet Union, it
was commissioned into the Russian Navy’s Northern Fleet.

230
A consortium formed by the
Dutch companies Mammoet and Smit
International using the barge Giant 4
eventually raised Kursk and recovered
the dead, who were buried in Russia –
although three of the bodies were too
badly burned to be identified. The heat
generated by the first blast detonated
the warheads on 5 to 7 torpedoes
causing a series of blasts big enough to be measured on a geological
seismometer in the area – and those secondary explosions fatally damaged the
vessel.
Major concerns existed throughout the salvage operations relating to the
armed cruise missiles remaining in the silo compartments, the risk of detonation
of unaccounted-for torpedo and torpedo charge fragments, and recriticality1 or
radioactive release from the two nuclear propulsion reactors on board. The
London-based nuclear consultant John Large undertook the risk and hazard
assessment, adapting this as further facts came to light throughout the salvage
period.
Russian officials strenuously denied claims that the sub’s Granit cruise
missiles were carrying nuclear warheads, and no evidence has been provided to
the contrary. When the salvage operation raised the boat in 2001, there were
considerable fears that preparing to move the wreck could trigger explosions,
because the bow was cut off in the process, using a tungsten carbide-studded
cable. This tool had the potential to cause sparks which would ignite remaining
pockets of volatile gases, such as hydrogen. The successfully recovered portion
of Kursk was towed to Severomorsk and placed in a floating dry dock where
extensive forensic analysis was accomplished.
The remains of Kursk’s reactor compartment were towed to Sayda Bay on
Russia’s northern Kola Peninsula – where more than 50 reactor compartments
were afloat at pier points – after a shipyard had defueled the boat in early 2003.
The rest of the boat was then dismantled.
In the end the bow was not recovered and was destroyed by explosives in
2002. Only small pieces of the bow were recovered (some torpedo and torpedo
tube fragments etc.).

Note to the text:


1. recriticality – восстановление критичности (ядерного реактора)

Assignment:

1. What is the main idea of the text?


231
2. Translate the part of the text about Kursk raising in written.

Task 18. Read the text “U-BOAT” and do assignments.

U-BOAT

U-boat is the anglicized version of the


German word U-Boot, itself an abbreviation
of Unterseeboot (undersea boat), and refers to
military submarines operated by Germany,
particularly in World War I and World War
II. Although in theory U-boats could have
been useful fleet weapons against enemy
naval warships, in practice they were most
effectively used in an economic warfare role
(commerce raiding), enforcing a naval
blockade against enemy shipping. The primary targets of the U-boat campaigns
in both wars were the merchant convoys bringing supplies from Canada, the
British Empire and the United States to the islands of Great Britain. Austrian
submarines of World War I were also known as U-boats.
The distinction between U-boat and submarine is common in several
languages, including English (where U-boat refers exclusively to the German
vessels of the World Wars) but is unknown in German, in which the term U-
Boot refers to any submarine.
Germany had the largest submarine fleet during World War II. Due to the
Treaty of Versailles limiting the surface navy, the rebuilding of the German
surface forces had only begun in earnest a year before the outbreak of World
War II. Expecting to be able to defeat the Royal Navy through underwater
warfare, the German High Command pursued commerce raiding and
immediately stopped all construction on capital surface ships save the nearly
completed Bismarck-class battleships and two cruisers, switching its resources
to submarines, which could be built more quickly. Though it took most of 1940
to expand the production facilities and get the mass production started, more
than a thousand submarines were built by the end of the war.
During World War II, Germany utilized submarines to devastating effect
in the Second Battle of the Atlantic, attempting to cut Britain’s supply routes by
sinking more merchant ships than Britain could replace. (Shipping was vital to
supply Britain’s population with food, industry with raw material, and armed
forces with fuel and armaments.) While U-boats destroyed a significant number
of ships, the strategy ultimately failed. Although the U-boats had been updated
in the interwar years, the major innovation was improved communications,
encrypted using the famous Enigma cipher machine. This allowed for mass-
232
attack tactics (Rudeltaktik, commonly known as ‘wolfpack’), but was also
ultimately the U-boats’ downfall.
After putting to sea, U-boats operated mostly on their own, trying to find
convoys in areas assigned to them by the High Command. If a convoy was
found, the submarine did not attack immediately, but shadowed to guide other
submarines in the area. These then attacked more or less simultaneously,
preferably at night while surfaced, which offered a speed advantage over the
escorting corvettes and denied the Allies the ability to use ASDIC, which was
unable to detect surfaced submarines.

Assignments:

1. Make up a plan to the text.


2. Write an abstract according to the plan.

Task 19. Read the text “LNG CARRIER” and do assignments.

LNG CARRIER

An LNG carrier is a tank


ship designed for transporting
liquefied natural gas (LNG).
As the LNG market grows
rapidly, the fleet of LNG
carriers continues to
experience tremendous growth.
Containment systems.
Today there are four
containment systems in use for
new build vessels. Two of the designs are of the self supporting type, while the
other two are of the membrane type and today the patents are owned by Gaz
Transport & Technigaz (GTT).
There is a trend towards the use of the two different membrane types
instead of the self supporting storage systems. This is most likely because
prismatic membrane tanks utilize the hull shape more efficiently and thus have
less void space between the cargo-tanks and ballast tanks. As a result of this,
Moss-type design compared to a membrane design of equal capacity will be far
more expensive to transit the Suez Canal. However, self-supporting tanks are
more robust and have greater resistance to sloshing forces, and will possibly be
considered in the future for offshore storage where bad weather will be a
significant factor.

233
Assignments:

1. Render the content of the text.


2. According to the below Picture describe the inside of an LNG carrier.

The inside of an LNG carrier

Task 20. Read the text “RUSSIAN AIRCRAFT CARRIER ADMIRAL


KUZNETSOV” and do assignments.

RUSSIAN AIRCRAFT CARRIER ADMIRAL KUZNETSOV

Fleet Admiral of the Soviet Union Kuznetsov, originally named Riga,


renamed Leonid Brezhnev then Tbilisi is an aircraft cruiser (heavy aircraft
carrying missile cruiser (TAVKR) in Russian classification) serving as the
flagship of the Russian Navy.
She was originally commissioned in the Soviet Navy, and was intended to
be the lead ship of her class, but the only other ship of her class, Varyag, was
never commissioned and was sold to the People’s Republic of China by Ukraine
under the condition she would never be refitted for combat.
234
Kuznetsov was named after the Admiral of the Fleet of the Soviet Union
Nikolai Gerasimovich Kuznetsov.

Assignments:

1. Using the below chart give the full technical characteristic to aircraft
carrier Kuznetsov.

Career (So-
viet Union ⁄
Russia)
Name: Admiral of the Fleet of the Soviet Union Kuznetsov
(Russian: Адмирал Флота Советского Союза Кузнецов)
Namesake: Nikolai Gerasimovich Kuznetsov
Ordered: March 3, 1981
Builder: Nikolayev South
Designer: Nevskoye Planning and Design Bureau
Laid down: 22 February 1983
Launched: 5 December 1985
Commissioned: 21 January 1991
Fully operational in 1995
Status: in active service, as of 2011
General characteristics
Class and type: Admiral of the Fleet of the Soviet Union Kuznetsov-class
aircraft carrier
Displacement:
• 43,000 tons (Standard-load)

235
• 55,000 tons (Full-load)
• 58,600 tons (Max-load)
Length: 1,005.5 ft (306.5 m) o/a
900 ft (270 m) w/l
Beam: 237.2 ft (72.3 m) o/a
125 ft (38 m) w/l
Draft: 29.9 ft (9.1 m)
Propulsion: Steam turbines, 8 turbo-pressurized boilers, 4 shafts,
200,000 hp (150 MW)
2 × 50,000 hp (37 MW) turbines
9 × 2,011 hp (1,500 kW) turbogenerators
6 × 2,011 hp (1,500 kW) diesel generators
4 × fixed pitch propellers
Speed: 32 knots (37 mph; 59 km/h)
Range: 8,500 nmi (15,700 km) at 18 kn (21 mph; 33 km/h)
Endurance: 45 days
Complement: 1,993 (total); 1,960 ship’s crew
626 air group
40 flag staff
3,857 rooms
Armament: • 8 × AK-630 AA guns (6×30 mm, 6,000
round/min/mount, 24,000 rounds)
• 8 × CADS-N-1 Kashtan CIWS (each 2 × 30 mm Gatling
AA plus 32 3K87 Kortik SAM)
• 12 × P-700 Granit SSM
• 18 × 8-cell 3K95 Kinzhal SAM VLS (192 missiles; 1
missile per 3 seconds)
• RBU-12000 UDAV-1 ASW rocket launchers (60 rockets)
Aircraft carried: 41-52
• Fixed Wing;
o 14 × Su-33 fighters (current)
o 28 × MiG-29K fighters (planned after refit)
o 4 × Sukhoi Su-25UTG/UBP aircraft
• Rotary Wing;
o 4 × Kamov Ka-27LD32 helicopters
o 11 × Kamov Ka-27PLO helicopters
o 2 × Kamov Ka-27S helicopters

236
APPENDIX 8

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

Английские сокращения:

AA – anti-aircraft −противовоздушный
АВВ – Asia Brown Boveri – компания Эйшиа Браун Бовери
ABS Steels − types of structural steel standardized by the American Bureau of
Shipping for shipbuilding – тип конструкционной стали для судостроения по
стандартам Американского бюро судоходства
ASDIC – Allied Submarine Detection Investigation Committee – Следствен-
ный комитет по обнаружению союзнических подводных лодок. Существу-
ет легенда, что комитет с таким названием не зафиксирован в архивах
ВМС Великобритании.
ACI – adjacent-channel interference – межканальная помеха
AD – Anno Domini (лат.) – наша эра
AE – American English − американский английский
a.m. – ante meridiem (лат.) – до полудня
AWT – Applied Weather Technology – технология применения прогноза по-
годы
AUV – autonomous underwater vehicle – автономный подводный аппарат
ВС – before Christmas – до н.э. (до нашей эры)
BE – Britain English – Британский английский
BOAC-Cunard Ltd – British Overseas Airways Corporation-Cunard Limited –
общество с ограниченной ответственностью Британских авиакомпаний и
компании Кунард
CAPA – computer aided performance analysis – автоматизированный анализ
деятельности
СЕО – chief executive officer − исполнительный директор
CIWS – close-in weapon system – система оружия ближнего действия
Co – company – компания
CONBULKER − container / bulk-carrier – комбинированное судно, предна-
значенное для перевозки контейнерных и / или навалочных грузов
СО2 – carbon dioxide – углекислый газ
cu – cubic − кубический
CV – curriculum vitae – краткая биография
e.g. – exemple gratia (лат.) – for example – например
EPA – Environmental Protection Agency – Агентство по охране окружающей
среды
etc. – et cetera (лат.) – and so on – и так далее
FAQ – frequently asked questions − часто задаваемые вопросы
237
FATT – fracture appearance transition temperature – температура перехода в
хрупкое состояние
FDA – Food and Drug Administration – Управление по санитарному надзору
за качеством пищевых продуктов и медикаментов в США
Fig. – figure − рисунок
FO-FO – float on / float off – вплывать / выплывать (способ погрузки)
ft – feet (foot) – фут (футы) = 30,48 см
GRT liner – gross register tonnage liner – лайнер регистрового брутто тон-
нажа
GTT – Gaz Transport and Technigaz – компания Газ Транспорт и Технигаз
h – hour – час
HMS – Her Majesty’s Ship – корабль ВМС Великобритании
hp − horse power − лошадиная сила (мощность), л.с.
ICT – Information and Communication Technologies – информационно-
коммуникационные технологии
i.e. – id est (лат.) – that is – то есть, т.е.
in – inch − дюйм = 2,5 см
kg – kilogram – килограмм
km – kilometer − километр
km/h – kilometer per hour – километров в час
kn – knot − узел
kW – kilowatt – кВт – киловатт
LASH-carrier − lighters aboard ship-carrier – лихтеровоз
lb – pound – фунт = 0,453592 кг
LNG – liquid natural gas – жидкий природный газ
LO-LO – lift on / lift off − поднимать / опускать (способ погрузки)
Ltd – limited – общество с ограниченной ответственностью
m – meter – метр
MAN B&W Diesel – diesel engines for marine propulsion systems− дизель-
ные двигатели для морских движущих систем
MARAD – the US Maritime Administration – Управление торгового флота
США
MARPOL – Marine Pollution − the International Convention for the Prevention
of Pollution from Ships – Международная конвенция по предотвращению
загрязнения от судоходства
MFM – Marine Fuel Management – управление судовым топливом
mid – middle – середина
MIT – Massachusetts Institute of Technology − Массачусетский Технологи-
ческий Институт
mm – millimeter – миллиметр
MP – member of Parliament − член Парламента
mph – mile per hour − миля в час
238
MS – motor ship – моторная лодка, теплоход, дизельное судно
mt – metric ton − метрическая тонна
MW – milliwatt − милливатт
NATO – North Atlantic Treaty Organization – Североатлантический союз
nmi – nautical mile – морская миля
NOx – oxides of nitrogen – окислы азота
o.a. length (o/a) – overall length – по всей длине
OBO ship − oil / bulk / ore-carrier – нефтерудовоз, балктанкер
OK – Okey − хорошо
OPA – Oil Pollution Act – Закон о запрете загрязнения прибрежных вод
нефтью
OS – ordinary seaman − простой матрос
oz – ounce – унция = 28,35 г
PAHs – polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons – полиароматические углеводороды
PBCFs – propeller boss cap fins − лопасти-обтекатели на ступице винта
pc – propulsive coefficient – пропульсивный коэффициент
plc – public limited company − компания с ограниченной ответственностью
p.m. – post meridiem (лат.) – после полудня
P&O – Peninsular and Oriental Steam Navigation Company – бывшая Британ-
ская компания судоходства и логистики
PROBO ship − product / oil / bulk / ore-carrier – судно, предназначенное для
транспортировки нефтепродуктов, сырой нефти, навалочных грузов и руды
revs (сокр.) – reverse − оборот
RINA – Royal Institution of Naval Architects – Общество инженеров-
кораблестроителей Великобритании
RMS – Royal Mail Ship – Королевское почтовое судно
RO-RO – roll on / roll off – вкатывать / выкатывать (способ погрузки)
ROV – remotely operated underwater vehicle – дистанционно управляемый
подводный аппарат
RPM – round per minute –оборотов в минуту
R/V – Research Vessel – исследовательское судно
QE2 – Queen Elizabeth II − Королева Елизавета 2
QM2 – Queen Mary II – Королева Мэри 2
QV – Queen Victoria − Королева Виктория
SA – steward’s assistant – помощник стюарда
SAM – surface-to-air missile – ракета «земля-воздух»
SPURV – Special Purpose Underwater Research Vehicle – подводное иссле-
довательское судно специального назначения
SS – steam ship − пароход
SSM – Surface-to-Surface Missiles – ракета «земля-земля»
St. – Saint – святой
Str. – steamer (сокр.) − пароход
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STX Europe − Европейская группа Южнокорейской кораблестроительной
компании
STX Shipbuilding – Южнокорейская кораблестроительная компания
TAVKR − heavy aircraft carrying missile cruiser – тяжелый авианесущий
крейсер
UK – (the) United Kingdom (of Great Britain and Northern Ireland)− Соеди-
ненное Королевство Великобритании и Северной Ирландии
US − (the) United States (of America) − Соединенные Штаты Америки
USA − (the) United States of America − Соединенные Штаты Америки
USD – United States dollar – американский доллар
USS – United States Ship − корабль ВМС США
USSR − (the) Union of Soviet Socialist Republics − Союз Советских Социа-
листических Республик (СССР), Советский Союз
UUV – unmanned underwater vehicle – беспилотное подводное транспорт-
ное средство
via (лат.) – через
vice versa (лат.) – наоборот
VLC – vertical launching system – система вертикального старта
VOC – volatile organic component – летучее органическое соединение
w/l – length at waterline − длина по ватерлинии

Русские сокращения:

АК – артиллерийский комплекс
зд. – здесь
ФГОС ВПО – Федеральные государственные образовательные стандарты
высшего профессионального образования

240
ABOUT AUTHOR

ПЕРШИНА ЕЛЕНА ЮРЬЕВНА

Старший преподаватель кафедры об-


щего и профессионального английского
языка Комсомольского-на-Амуре государ-
ственного технического университета. Член
Европейской Академии Естествознания.
Автор более 40 научных и методических
трудов.
Окончила Новокузнецкий государст-
венный педагогический институт, факуль-
тет иностранных языков. Проводит практи-
ческие занятия со студентами, бакалаврами
и магистрами направлений «Организация
перевозок и управление на транспорте»,
«Кораблестроение, океанотехника и систе-
мотехника объектов морской инфраструк-
туры», «Промышленное строительство», «Городской кадастр», «Земель-
ный кадастр», «Экспертиза недвижимости», «Финансы и кредит», «Бух-
галтерский учет и аудит», «Менеджмент организаций», «Коммерция»,
«Финансовая экономика», «Технология самолетостроения и вертолето-
строения», «Машины и аппараты химического производства», «Техноло-
гия химического производства» и др.
Занимается научной и методической работой в области общекуль-
турных компетенций и особенностей преподавания английского языка для
студентов технических и экономических специальностей.
E-mail: g.curl@mail.ru.

241
Учебное издание

Першина Елена Юрьевна

АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК
ДЛЯ КОРАБЛЕСТРОИТЕЛЕЙ

Учебное пособие

Подписано в печать 20.02.2012.


Электронное издание для распространения через Интернет.

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