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Now a days-automatic machine is used to achieve optimum
result. Automatic fitting, welding, screwing, testing etc
machines are used in all sectors for faster operation and
accurate work. Development of new sensors & driving
elements, it is easier to sense different parameters and control
using a processing body. Sensors like water, temperature, light,
infrared, etc. helps like human being to read input parameters.
Most of industrialist wants to use automatic machines which
work automatically without intervention of human being. It
reduces manpower to be used, also it gives accurate result.
Behind this entire machine an intelligent body is working which
is a silicon chip MICROCONTROLLER. An embedded program in
the chip works for the operation.

Here is another machine we are going to develop which is


called industrial monitoring system. It uses different sensors
like water sensors, temperature sensor, IR sensor & light
sensor. This system at a time monitors four areas like water
level in a tank, checks upper limit temperature of a medium,
the intruder & lux inside industry. It provided better result of
monitoring system as it is automated. It provides 24 hour
service of monitoring four things at a time.

Here we are using a smart & intelligent device called


MICROCONTROLLER PIC16F54. It is 8 bit MICROCONTROLLER,
18 pin chip. It is a RISC processor. MICROCONTROLLER reduces
lot of component to be used.
6
   
Voltage is drawn from A.C. supply. The step-down transformer converts 230V into 12V AC.
Rectifier circuit converts 12V AC to 12V DC. The capacitor 1000 microfarad is used for filtering
purpose it removes any pulsating AC into pure DC. From here +12V is going to relay circuit.7805
is +ve voltage DC regulator that is used to get a fixed voltage output (5V). the capacitor 0.1
microfarad is used for filtration of high frequency noise. This +5V supply goes to the input
terminals.

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Here IR led is connected directly to power supply +5v using a proper value of resistor. IR led
emits light straight. It follows all the theories of light like reflection & refraction. It cannot pass
the opaque object as light passes through it. As IR light falls on the IR transistor, it starts to
switch ON. Here we are making a optical coupling between a LED & a transistor. This is called IR
barrier. According to intensity of light falls on base of transistor, it͛s output varies. When a
person enters into barrier it totally blocks the light flow therefore making a large change in
output signal. This signal variation may be high or low according to transistor type NPN/PNP.
This signal is to be fed to logic device for further action. Before that the signal must be made
1/0. So an OPAMP is used as a comparator to make it possible.

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The circuit uses a IR transistor as the basic element for IR sensing sensing. The variation in light
reflection light will result into a corresponding variation in voltage at collector/emitter of the
transistor which is provided to pin 3 of MCP602 opamp. A 10k resistor is used in collector.
Preset 10k ɏ is used as a reference voltage generator. There are two OPAMPS inside the IC so
two comparators operates simultaneously in it. Sensor inputs are provided to pin 3 . Reference
voltage is given to pin 2 . Power supply given +5 v to pin 8 & gnd to pin 4. Output is taken at
pin 1 and fed to ʅc.




One such system is automatic intruder alarm. It is invisible in nature. It uses invisible IR light to detect
intruder. It is fitted to door frame at waist height. One of the system is IR transmitter another is a IR
receiver. IR transmitter transmits IR signal towards IR receiver. IR receiver always gets a IR signal
therefore it͛s output is 0.00 V. When some one passes through the light barrier, the light falling upon
the IR sensor will obstructed. Therefore output of the receiver will be now +5v.

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The three terminal IC LM35, used for temperature sensing, gives voltage output which is
directly proportional to absolute temperature variations, over a temperature range of ʹ50îC to
150îC. The output of the LM35 varies at the rate of 10mV/îC and is inherently linear, thus
requiring no external linearizing circuit. Please note that zero deg. Centigrade is equal to 0V.
The IC is pre-calibrated to give an output of 250mV at 25îC, but external calibration can also be
performed.
This temperature sensor works over a wide range of voltages, starting from +4V to +40V
, which adds to the versatility of its application in various temperature sensing circuits. The
temperature transducer can be used for temperature monitoring at far off places without at
drop in the signal level.
For digital temperature display, the voltage output of the sensor is fed to the analog
input of the MICROCONTROLLER. The middle element here is an operational amplifier which is
connected in between the sensor and the MICROCONTROLLER. The op-amp acts as a voltage
follower. The output of the temperature sensor is connected to the input of the op-amp which
provides a very high input impedance to the sensor. This method is used to reduce the loading
on the sensor and to keep the self heating of the sensor to a minimum.


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Here we are using LM35 IC as a temperature sensor. It has a linear response to temperature
rise in 0 C . It͛s output voltage rises by 10m V per 10 c temperate rise. It is then amplified by a
OPAMP CA3130. It forms a comparator which compares with a reference voltage derived by a
potentio meter & using +5v source .
A reference voltage can be set at 0.4 v by the 10k preset. As temperature around sensor rises
above 40 0 C the output of the OPAMP goes high. Output pin 6 is fed to microcontroller.

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Damp sensors are acting as a sensor in water. Sensor shown bellow is just like two electrodes
drawn like below. Two electrodes are placed close to each other. This is made so to increase
area of contact to each other. Whenever water touch the sensor the resistance between two
electrode reduces so that current can conduct through this. In actual case it is placed in series
with a high value resistance. A fixed voltage is applied across this. These two resistance acts as
a potential divider circuit. When water comes in contact with sensor potential across it
reduces. This lowering of potential is fed into a inverter/ buffer circuit. It amplifies the output
and inverts the output. This output is fed into MICROCONTROLLER.




Sensors are mounted on a plastic stick like shown below. 

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The heart of this section is IC 40106. It is inverter and buffer IC. It inverts the voltage so that +5v
is available for microcontroller. Damp sensor forms a potential divider circuit with 47k ]
resistance. 10 F capacitor used here to make constant input instead of fluctuations. The
inverter also acts as Schmitt trigger.

 
   

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Light sensor connected in the circuit is called LDR (light dependent resistor). As light falls on its
surface it͛s resistance reduces and in dark it is high. So voltage across it rises and falls according
to light. This is main point of measuring.
Current limiting resistor limits current within limit which is safe to be fed into IC.
Time delay unit helps in delaying the switching effect which improves quality as it is not
sensible to faster change in
Voltage comparator IC takes the signal and compare with reference voltage, if this rises above it
then output is made ON, if it remains less than reference voltage then output is OFF.

  

 


The circuit is built around the 8 bit 18 pin DIP MICROCONTROLLER and this is the heart of the
system. Here we choose the MICROCONTROLLER not the microprocessor because
microprocessor will create a complex arrangement. The MICROCONTROLLER has in-built
memory, I/O ports & other modules. Therefore the circuit is very simple to see and most stress
is given in logic.
 Here we use RC oscillator as clock pulse generator. Inputs are provided at pin 17,18,1 &
2. Output taken at pin 6, 7 ,8 & 9 respectively. First & second output meant for temperature
control and water level control controller respectively therefore we use two relays as
switches. To drive relay a relay driver is used.
Third output is meant for IR sensor for industries. Therefore a alarm is fitted to pin 8.
Fourth input is from light sensor and it͛s output is controlled at pin 9.
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We should really look at the relay driver as a type of interface. After all, it forms the link
between the control circuitry or PC and the outside world. The relay is used by the control
circuitry to switch external appliances, lamps, pumps, sirens, etc on and off. Because they're
used so often, the relay driver is as common as the integrated volt-age regulator, an LED driver
or a power-up network. The description usually skims over the operation of these basic circuits.
We feel we should look at the relay driver circuit in more detail.
Apart from the bypass capacitor, the circuit for the relay driver contains only four or five
components, as shown in Figure 1. It's all very simple really, but all components need to be
chosen according to their function. Next we'll look in detail at each of the components.

Relay-
YFirst we should determine what load we're switching; for example a 100 W lamp operating at
240 V AC. A suitable relay would be the E-Card relay (made by Siemens) which we've often used
before. This can switch 500 VA at a maximum current of 4 A and a maximum voltage of 250 V
AC.
But note that you can't just multiply the maximum current by the maximum voltage (4 A x 250
V = 1000 VA), since the manufacturer rates the relay at a lower power.
This relay is available for many operating voltages: 5, 6, 12, 24, 48 or 60 V. The 12 V relay is
often used, since the required voltage can be obtained Ñ Yan inexpensive mains adapter. It is
also very simple to derive a secondary voltage of 5 V from the 12 V mains adapter should this
be required. Deriving this from a 6 V adapter would be much trickier.
The manufacturer's datasheet tells us that the resistance of the coil of the 12 V relay is 330 Q
(alternatively, we could have found the" resistance using a multimeter). When we use this 12 V
relay, the current through it will be 12 V / 330 ] =37 mA.
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Figure I. Circuit of the relay driver. The values chosen for the components depend on the size 6fthe load
to be switched.
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When the operating voltage of the relay is 12 V. the transistor should be able to cope with at
least this volt-age across the collector-emitter junction. To be on the safe side, we'll choose a
value that is half as much again, which is at least 18v.

The transistor also has to be capable of switching the required current; in our example that is
37 mA. In this case we'll use a safety margin of 100%, so choose a transistor which can switch at
least 74 mA. In this example it makes sense to use the smallest and most commonly used
transistor: the BC547. This can switch 45 V and 100 mA.
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Ãase esisto (R2)

Table 1 shows the most important characteristics of several popular transistors. The BC547 is
made avail-able in two versions; the A-type has a gain (Hfe) of 110-220 and the B-type 200-450.
To be certain that the circuit will work under all conditions we'll use the lowest gain (110) when
calculating the value of the base resistor (R2). The relay current goes into the collector and is 37
mA in our example. The gain of the transistor is 110, so we'll need a base current of 37 mA /110
=0.34 mA. As a rule of thumb well assume that the output that drives the transistor can deliver
at least 3 V. The voltage across the base resistor is then 3 V minus the base-emitter voltage
(0.65 V). The value for the resistor is therefore (3 V - 0.65 V) / 0.34 mA = 6910 ]. We'll round
this down to the nearest value resistor in the E12 series, which is 6k8.

 ll-  esisto (R1)

Table 2 shows the source and sink current capabilities of several popular logic families. When
the source current is less than the required base current, the difference has to be supplied .by a
pull-up resistor (R1). As you can (see-,in Figure 1 it's not connected to the 12 V relay supply, but
to the 5 V logic supply! The value of the pull-up resistor is calculated as follows:
Determine how much current is required for the logic family used. If we used 1S logic the value
for our example would be 0.34 mA - 0.4 mA = - 0.06 mA. The negative result means that there is
enough current, so we don't need a pull-up resistor in this case. Had we used a 6 V relay with an
80 n coil we would need a base current of 75 mA / 110 = 0.68 mA. The difference of 0.68 - 0.4 =
0.28 mA would then have to be provided by the pull-up resistor. From our earlier rule of thumb
we know that the voltage across the pull-up resistor is 5 V - 3 V = 2 V. This gives a resistance of
2 V / 0.28 mA = 7140 ɏ. Again we choose the nearest value in the E12 series, which is 6k8.
We just h3.ve to check that the driver IC can pull the base and pull-up resistor to ground. The
current flow would then be 5 V / 6800 ɏ = 0.735 mA. This value has to be less than the given
sink current. In our example for the LS-family that is the case. But note that we couldn't have
used a device from the 4000 series! In this case we would have to choose a transistor for T1
with a higher gain, as that would reduce the required base current.

Flyback diode (m)

The function of the flyback (or 'suppressor') diode is to protect the transistor. The relay coil has
the property (like all inductors) that it resists a change in the current flow through it. So when a
voltage is applied across a coil it will take a while for the current to flow, but the reverse is also
true: when the voltage across a coil is suddenly removed the coil will attempt to keep the
current, flowing at all costs. In practice the means that at the point when the transistor is
switched off the coil becomes a generator and will supply a voltage with a reversed polarity.
That causes a voltage to appear at the collector that is equal to the supply voltage plus the
voltage that is induced across the coil. A risky business really, but the diode limits the induced
voltage to 0.7 V, which prevents the transistor from being damaged.

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The past three decades have seen the introduction of a technology that has radically
changed the way in which we analyze the control the world around us. Born of parallel
developments in computer architecture and integrated circuit fabrication, the microprocessor
or ͞ computer on a chip͟ first became a commercial reality in 1971 with introduction of 4-bit
4004 by Intel corp.

A byproduct of microprocessor development was the MICROCONTROLLER. The same


fabrication techniques and programming concept that make possible the general purpose
microprocessor also yielded the MICROCONTROLLER.

MICROCONTROLLER are not as well as known to the general public, or to many in the
technical community, as are he more glamorous microprocessor . The public is however very
aware that ͞ something ͞ is responsible for all of the smart VCRs, clock radios, washers and
dryers, video games, telephones, microwaves ,TVs, automobiles, toys vending machines,
copiers, elevators, irons and myriads of other articles that are intelligent and programmable.
Companies are also aware that being competitive in this age of microchip requires their
products, or the machinery they use to make those products, to have some ͞smart͟.

Figure below shows the block diagram of a typical MICROCONTROLLER , which is true
computer on a chip. The design incorporates all of the features found in a microprocessor
CPU; ALU, PC, SP, register. It also has added the other features needed to make a complete
computer: ROM, RAM, parallel I/O, serial I/O, counters, and a clock circuit.

Like the microprocessor , a MICROCONTROLLER is a general purpose device, but one


that is meant to read data, perform limited calculations on that data, and control its
environment based on those calculation. The prime use of a MICROCONTROLLER is to control
the operation of a machine using a fixed program that is stored in ROM and that does not
change over the lifetime of the system.

The design approach of the MICROCONTROLLER mirrors that of the microprocessor :


make a single design that can be used in as many applications as possible in order to sell,
hopefully, as many as possible. The microprocessor accomplishes the goal by having a very
flexible and extensive repertoire of multibyte instructions. These instruction work in a
hardware configuration that enables large amounts of memory and I/O to be connected
address and data bus pins on integrated circuit package. Much of the activity in the
microprocessor has to do with moving code and data to and from external memory to the
CPU. The architecture feature s working registers that can be programmed to take part in the
memory access process, and instruction set is aimed at expediting this activity in order to
improve throughput. The pins connected to the microprocessor to external memory are
unique, each having a single function. Data is handled in byte, or larger , sizes.

The MICROCONTROLLER design uses a much more limited set of single and double ʹ
byte instructions that are used to move code and data from internal memory to ALU. Many
instructions are coupled with pins on integrated circuit package, the pins are ͞programmable͟
ʹ that is capable of having several different functions depending on the wishes of the
programmer. The MICROCONTROLLER is concerned with getting data from and to its own
pins ; the architecture and instruction set are optimized to handle data in bit and byte size.

The contrast between a MICROCONTROLLER and a microprocessor is best exemplified


by the fact that most microprocessor s have many operational codes(opcodes) for moving data
from external memory to the CPU; MICROCONTROLLERs may have one or two. Microprocessor
may have one or two types of bit handling instructions; MICROCONTROLLERs have many.

BLOCK DIAGRAM OF MICROCONTROLLER


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A microcontroller can be considered a self-contained system with a processor, memory and


peripherals and can be used as an embedded system. The majority of microcontrollers in use
today are embedded in other machinery, such as automobiles, telephones, appliances, and
peripherals for computer systems. These are called embedded systems. While some embedded
systems are very sophisticated, many have minimal requirements for memory and program
length, with no operating system, and low software complexity. Typical input and output
devices include switches, relays, solenoids, LEDs, small or custom LCD displays, radio frequency
devices, and sensors for data such as temperature, humidity, light level etc. Embedded systems
usually have no keyboard, screen, disks, printers, or other recognizable I/O devices of
a personal computer, and may lack human interaction devices of any kind.
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Microcontrollers must provide real time (predictable, though not necessarily fast) response to
events in the embedded system they are controlling. When certain events occur, an interrupt
system can signal the processor to suspend processing the current instruction sequence and to
begin an interrupt service routine (ISR, or "interrupt handler"). The ISR will perform any
processing required based on the source of the interrupt before returning to the original
instruction sequence. Possible interrupt sources are device dependent, and often include
events such as an internal timer overflow, completing an analog to digital conversion, a logic
level change on an input such as from a button being pressed, and data received on a
communication link. Where power consumption is important as in battery operated devices,
interrupts may also wake a microcontroller from a low power sleep state where the processor
is halted until required to do something by a peripheral event.
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Microcontroller programs must fit in the available on-chip program memory, since it would be
costly to provide a system with external, expandable, memory. Compilers and assemblers are
used to convert high-level language and assembler language codes into a compact machine
code for storage in the microcontroller's memory. Depending on the device, the program
memory may be permanent, read-only memory that can only be programmed at the factory, or
program memory may be field-alterable flash or erasable read-only memory.
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©Y central processing unit - ranging from small and simple 4-bit processors to complex 32-
or 64-bit processors
©Y volatile memory (RAM) for data storage
©Y ROM, EPROM, EEPROM or Flash memory for program and operating parameter storage
©Y discrete input and output bits, allowing control or detection of the logic state of an
individual package pin
©Y serial input/output such as serial ports (UARTs)
©Y other serial communications interfaces like I²C, Serial Peripheral Interface and Controller
Area Network for system interconnect
©Y peripherals such as timers, event counters, PWM generators, and watchdog
©Y clock generator - often an oscillator for a quartz timing crystal, resonator or RC circuit
©Y many include analog-to-digital converters, some include digital-to-analog converters
©Y in-circuit programming and debugging support


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•ic ocont olle feat es:-

©Y Only 35 instructions to learn


©Y High performance RISC CPU
©Y All single cycle instruction except for program branches which are two cycle
©Y Operating speed DC- 20MHz clock input
DC ʹ 200 ns instruction cycle

©Y 1024 words of program memory


©Y 68 bytes of data EEPROM
©Y 64 bytes of data EEPROM
©Y 14-bit wide instruction words
©Y 8-bit wide data bytes
©Y 15 special function hardware registers
©Y eight level deep hardware stack
©Y direct , indirect and relative addressing modes
©Y four interrupt sources
-Y external RB0/INT pin
-Y TMR0 timer overflow
-Y PortB ,7:4> interrupt on change
-Y Data EEPROM write complete
e ie al feat es:-
©Y 13 I/O pins with individual direction control
©Y high current sink/source for direct LED drive
-Y 25mA sink max per pin
-Y 25mA source max per pin

TMR0 : 8-bit timer /counter with 8-bit programmable prescaler

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©Y 1000 erase/write cycles enhanced flash program memory
©Y 1,000,000 typical typical erase/write cycles EEPROM data memory
©Y EEPROM DATA RETENTION > 40 YEARS
©Y INCIRCUIT SERIAL PROGRAMMING - VIA TWO PINS
©Y POWER ON RESET (POR) POWER UP TIMER (PWRT)
OSILLATOR START-UP TIMER (OST)

©Y WATCHDOG TIMER (wtd) WITH ITS OWN ON-CHIP RC OSCILLATOR FOR RELIABLE
OPERATION
©Y CODE PROTECTION
©Y POWER SAVING SLEEP MODE
©Y SELECTABLE OSCILLATOR OPTIONS

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©Y LOW POWER, HIGH-SPEED TECHNOLOGY
©Y FULLY STATIC DESIGN
©Y WIDE OPERATING VOLTAGE RANGE
-Y COMMERCIAL : 2.0 V TO 5.5 V
-Y INDUSTRIAL : 2.0 V TO 5.5 V
©Y LOW POWER CONSUMPTION
-Y <2Ma TYPICAL @ 5v 4Mhz
-Y 15 A typical standby current @ 2V

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The high performance of the PIC16F84A can be attributed to a number of architectural


features commonly found in RISC microprocessors. To being with, the PIC16F84A uses a
Harvard architecture, in which, program and data are accessed from separate memories. This
improves bandwidth over traditional von Neumann architecture where program and data are
fetched from the same memory. Separating program and data memory further allows
instructions to be sized differently than the 8-bit wide data word. Instruction opcodes are 14-
bits wide making it possible to have all single word instructions. A 14-bit wide program memory
access but fetches a single cycle. A two-stage pipeline overlaps fetch and execution of
instructions (see Example 3-1). Consequently, all instructions execute in a single cycle (200 ns @
20 MHz) except for program branches. The PIC16F84A addresses 1K x 14 program memory. All
program memory is internal.

The PIC16F84A can directly indirectly address its register files or data memory. All
special function registers including the program counter are mapped in the data memory. An
orthogonal (symmetrical) instruction set that makes it possible to carry out any operation on
any register using any addressing mode. This symmetrical nature and lack of ͚special optimal
situations͛ make programming with the PIC16F84A simple yet efficient. In addition, the learning
curve is reduced significantly.

PIC16F84A devices contain an 8-bit ALU and working register. The ALU is a general
purpose arithmetic unit. It performs arithmetic and Boolean functions between data in the
working register and any register file.

The ALU is 8-bit wide and capable of addition, subtraction, shift and logical operations. Unless
otherwise mentioned, arithmetic operations are two͛s complement in nature. In two operand
instruction, typically one operand is the working register (W register), and the other operand is
a file register or an immediate constant. In single operand instructions, the operand is either
the W register or a file register.

The W register is an 8-bt working register used for ALU operation. It is not an
addressable register. Depending on the instruction executed, the ALU may affect the values of
the Carry ©, Digit Carry (DC), and Zero (Z) bits in the STATUS register. The C and DC bits
operate as a borrow and digit borrow out bit, respectively, in subtraction.

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An #!"#%!* ("op-amp") is a DC-coupled high-gain electronic voltage amplifier with
a differential input and, usually, a single-ended output. An op-amp produces an output voltage
that is typically hundreds of thousands times larger than the voltage £ ÑÑ  between its
input terminals.

Operational amplifiers are important building blocks for a wide range of electronic circuits. They
had their origins in analog computers where they were used in many linear, non-linear and
frequency-dependent circuits. Their popularity in circuit design largely stems from the fact the
characteristics of the final elements (such as their gain) are set by external components with
little dependence on temperature changes and manufacturing variations in the op-amp itself.

Op-amps are among the most widely used electronic devices today, being used in a vast array
of consumer, industrial, and scientific devices. Many standard IC op-amps cost only a few cents
in moderate production volume; however some integrated or hybrid operational amplifiers
with special performance specifications may cost over $100 US in small quantities. Op-amps
may be packaged as components, or used as elements of more complex integrated circuits.

The op-amp is one type of differential amplifier. Other types of differential amplifier include
the fully differential amplifier (similar to the op-amp, but with two outputs),
the instrumentation amplifier (usually built from three op-amps), the isolation amplifier (similar
to the instrumentation amplifier, but with tolerance to common-mode voltages that would
destroy an ordinary op-amp), and negative feedback amplifier (usually built from one or more
op-amps and a resistive feedback network).
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The circuit symbol for an op-amp is shown to the right, where:

ÈY : non-inverting input
ÈY : inverting input
ÈY : output
ÈY : positive power supply
ÈY : negative power supply
The power supply pins ( and ) can be labeled in different ways (YcY YY
 ). Despite different labeling, the function remains the same Ͷ to provide additional power
for amplification of the signal. Often these pins are left out of the diagram for clarity, and the
power configuration is described or assumed from the circuit.
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The amplifier's differential inputs consist of a input and a input, and ideally the op-amp
amplifies only the difference in voltage between the two, which is called the £ ÑÑ  Y Y
. The output voltage of the op-amp is given by the equation,

where is the voltage at the non-inverting terminal, is the voltage at the inverting
terminal and  is the open-loop gain of the amplifier. (The term "open-loop" refers to
the absence of a feedback loop from the output to the input.)

Typically the op-amp's very large gain is controlled by negative feedback, which largely
determines the magnitude of its output ("closed-loop") voltage gain in amplifier
applications, or the transfer function required (in analog computers). Without negative
feedback, and perhaps with positive feedback forregeneration, an op-amp acts as
a comparator. High input impedance at the input terminals and low output impedance at
the output terminal(s) are important typical characteristics.

With no negative feedback, the op-amp acts as a comparator. The inverting input is held at
ground (0 V) by the resistor, so if the Vinapplied to the non-inverting input is positive, the
output will be maximum positive, and if Vin is negative, the output will be maximum
negative. Since there is no feedback from the output to either input, this is an Y
 circuit. The circuit's gain is just the  of the op-amp.
Adding negative feedback via the voltage divider Rf,Rg reduces the gain. Equilibrium will be
established when Vout is just sufficient to reach around and "pull" the inverting input to the
same voltage as Vin. As a simple example, if Vin = 1ÚV and Rf = Rg, Vout will be 2ÚV, the
amount required to keep Vʹ at 1ÚV. Because of the feedback provided by Rf,Rg this is
a £YYcircuit. Its over-all gain Vout / Vin is called the £Y  c . Because
the feedback is negative, in this case c is less than the  of the op-amp.

The magnitude of  is typically very largeͶ10,000 or more for integrated circuit op-
ampsͶand therefore even a quite small difference between and drives the
amplifier output nearly to the supply voltage. This is called    of the amplifier. The
magnitude of  is not well controlled by the manufacturing process, and so it is
impractical to use an operational amplifier as a stand-alone differential amplifier. If
predictable operation is desired, negative feedback is used, by applying a portion of the
output voltage to the inverting input. The £Y feedback greatly reduces the gain of
the amplifier. If negative feedback is used, the circuit's overall gain and other parameters
become determined more by the feedback network than by the op-amp itself. If the
feedback network is made of components with relatively constant, stable values, the
unpredictability and inconstancy of the op-amp's parameters do not seriously affect the
circuit's performance.

If no negative feedback is used, the op-amp functions as a switch or comparator.

{  
A  is an electrically operated switch. Electric current through the coil of the relay
creates a magnetic field which attracts a lever and changes the switch contacts. The coil current
can be on or off so relays have two switch positions and they are double-throw (changeover)
switches.

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When a current flows through the coil, the resulting magnetic field attracts an armature
that is mechanically linked to a moving contact. The movement either makes or breaks a
connection with a fixed contact. When the current to a coil is switched off, armature is returned
by a forced approximately half as strong as the magnetic force to its relaxed position. Usually
this is as spring, but gravity is also used commonly in industrial starters. Most relays are
manufactured to operate quickly. In low voltage application, this is to reduce noise. In a high
voltage or high current application, this is to reduce arcing.

If the coil is energized with DC, a diode is frequently installed across the coil, to dissipate the
energy from the collapsing magnetic field at deactivation, which would otherwise generate a
spike of voltage and might cause damage to circuit components. If the coil is designed to be
energized with AC, a small copper ring can be crimped to the end of the solenoid. This ͞shading
ring͟ creates a small out-of-phase current, which increases the minimum pull on the armature
during the AC cycle.

By analogy with the functions of the original electromagnetic device, a solid-state relay is made
with a thyristor or other solid-state switching device. To achieve electrical isolation, a light
emitting diode(LED) is used with a photo transistors.

 g
g Mg
g/


 gg

g/

The tripping device is electromechanical switch. The relay will trip whenever it will receive
a 12v.

The inside construction is a simple. There is a magnetic coil on plastic & magnetic
material. Copper wire is wound on it . The wire used is very thin having a resistance 200]. It is
hinged on a iron frame at one side. An iron plate is coated and copper contact is set. The
contact point is always set between two contact points A & B. The one side of the plastic is
always attached by a spring S with iron frame, that its contact point remain contact with upper
contact point with A. There is a plastic plate set on the iron frame to hold contacts. There are
two contacts. There are two contacts for two coil sides. The contact pin for A, B contact point
and there is another point which is connected to load contact(movable). The moving contact
helps in changing taps in auto-transformer. As takes load current it is made thicker.
Electromagnetic force is produced by the magnetic flux which is produced by the
operating quantity. The electromagnetic force exerted on the moving element, is proportional
to the square of the flux in the air gap or the square of the current.

M'""')"'#*"("!!$ )

,¬P /M
g/

,¬P+
g  
g/:

A
")(has two relaxed states(bistable). These are also called ͚keep͛ relays. When
the current is switched off, the relay remains in its last state. This is achieved with a solenoid
operating a ratchet and cam mechanism, or by having two opposing coils with an over-center
spring or permanent magnet to hold the armature and contacts in position while the coil is
relaxed, or with a remnant core. In the ratchet and cam example, the first pulse to the coil turns
the relays on and the second pulse turns it off. In the two coils example, a pulse to one coil
turns the relays on and a pulse to the opposite coil turns the relay off. This type of relay has the
advantage that it consumes power only for an instant, while it is being switched, and it retains
its last setting across a power outage.

g  
g/

,¬PP 
g/

A $  has a set of contacts inside a vacuum or inert gas filled glass tube, which
protects the contacts against atmospheric corrosion. The contacts are closed by a magnetic
field generated when current passes through a coil around the glass tube. Reed relays are
capable of faster switching speeds than conventional relays.

,¬P¬/  
g/

A )'0""$  is a form of reed relay in which the contacts are wetted with
mercury. Such relays are used to switch low-voltage signals because its low contact resistance,
or for high-speed counting and timing applications where the mercury eliminated contact
bounce. Mercury wetted relays are position-sensitive and must be mounted vertically to work
properly. Because of the toxicity and expense of liquid mercury, these relays are rarely specified
for new equipment.

,¬P
g1 
g/

A #2$  placed the armature between the poles of a permanent magnet to
increase sensitivity. Polarized relays were used in the middle 20th century telephone exchanges
to detect faint pulses and correct telegraphic distortion. The poles were on screws, so a
technician could first adjust them for maximum sensitivity and then apply bias spring to set the
critical current that would operate the relay.

,¬P3g 

g/

A )("## is a type standardized for industrial control of machine tools, transfer


machines and other sequential control. They are characterized by a large number of contacts
which are easily converted from normally-open to normally-closed status, easily replaceable
coils, and a form factor that allows compactly installing many relays in a control panel. Although
those relays were once the backbone of automation in such industries as automobile assembly,
the programmable logic controller mostly displaced the machine tool relay from sequential
control application.
,¬P, g 
g/

A #")"# is a very heavy-duty relay used for switching electric motors and lighting
loads. With high current, the contacts are made with a pure silver. The unavoidable arcing
causes the contacts to oxidize and silver oxide is still a good conductor. Such devices are often
used for motors starters. A motor starter is a conductor with a overload protection devices
attached, the overload sensing devices are a form of heat operated relay where a coil heats a
bi-metal strip, or where a solder pot melts, releasing a spring to operate auxiliary contacts.
Contractor relays can be extremely loud to operate , making them unfit for use where noise is a
chief concern.

,¬¬g
g 

A relay is used :

©Y To control a high-voltage circuit with a low-current signal, as in the some types of


modems,
©Y To control a high current circuit with a low current signal as in starter solenoid of an
automobile,
©Y To detect and isolate faults on transmission and distribution lines by operating and
closing circuit breakers.

,¬#$"(#0

Y Y

)'"%&##*-$#""()#%%#"% $  "! 


Since relays are switches, the terminology applied to switches is also applied to relays. A relay
will switch one or more , each of whose contacts can be   by energizing the coil in
one of three ways:

ÈY Normally-open () contacts connect the circuit when the relay is activated; the circuit is
disconnected when the relay is inactive. It is also called a M#%g contact or "make" contact.
ÈY Normally-closed () contacts disconnect the circuit when the relay is activated; the circuit
is connected when the relay is inactive. It is also called a M#% contact or "break" contact.
ÈY Change-over (), or double-throw ( ), contacts control two circuits: one normally-open
contact and one normally-closed contact with a common terminal. It is also called a M#%
 contact or "transfer" contact ("break before make"). If this type of contact utilizes a "make
before break" functionality, then it is called a M#% contact.
The following designations are commonly encountered:

ÈY  ʹ Single Pole Single Throw. These have two terminals which can be connected or
disconnected. Including two for the coil, such a relay has four terminals in total. It is
ambiguous whether the pole is normally open or normally closed. The terminology "SPNO"
and "SPNC" is sometimes used to resolve the ambiguity.
ÈY  ʹ Single Pole Double Throw. A common terminal connects to either of two others.
Including two for the coil, such a relay has five terminals in total.
ÈY  ʹ Double Pole Single Throw. These have two pairs of terminals. Equivalent to two SPST
switches or relays actuated by a single coil. Including two for the coil, such a relay has six
terminals in total. The poles may be Form A or Form B (or one of each).
ÈY  ʹ Double Pole Double Throw. These have two rows of change-over terminals.
Equivalent to two SPDT switches or relays actuated by a single coil. Such a relay has eight
terminals, including the coil.
The "S" or "D" may be replaced with a number, indicating multiple switches connected to a
single actuator. For example 4PDT indicates a four pole double throw relay (with 14 terminals).

{  
,+   

A ""# is a semiconductor device commonly used to amplify or switch


electronic signals. A transistor is made of a solid piece of a semiconductor material,
with at least three terminals for connection to an external circuit. A voltage or current
applied to one pair of the transistor's terminals changes the current flowing through
another pair of terminals. Because the controlled (output) power can be much more
than the controlling (input) power, the transistor provides amplification of a signal.
Some transistors are packaged individually but most are found in integrated circuits.

The transistor is the fundamental building block of modern electronic devices, and its
presence is ubiquitous in modern electronic systems.

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g4  g 

The BJT was the first type of transistor to be mass produced. BJT are so named because
they conduct by using both majority and minority carriers. The three terminals of BJT are
named as emitter, base and collector. Two PN junction exist inside a BJT:- the base-
emitter junction and the base-collector junction. The BJT is commonly described as the
current operated device because the collector-emitter current is controlled by current
flowing between base and emitter junction. Unlike the FET, the BJT a low input impedance
device. As the base emitter voltage VBE is increase the base emitter current and hence the
collector emitter current increase exponentially(ICE = KVbe where K is a constant).

,¬g 

In the early days of transistor circuit design the BJT was the most commonly used
transistor even before MOSFET become available. The BJT remained the transistor of
choice for digital and analog circuit because of their age and manufacture and speed.
However the MOSFET has several desirable properties for digital circuits.

,¬+0")(

Transistor are commonly used as electronic switch for high power applications including
switched mode power supplies and low power
applications such as logic gates.

,¬Pg%!*

From mobile phones to television, vast numbers of


products include amplifiers for sound reproduction and
radio transmission and signal processing. The first discrete
transistor audio amplifier barely supplied a few hundred
millivotls but power and audio fidelity gradually increased
as better transistor become available and amplifier
architecture evolved.
{  ! 
!#*#0'!!

There are many types of power supply. Most are designed to convert high voltage AC mains
electricity to a suitable low voltage supply for electronics circuits and other devices. A power
supply can by broken down into a series of blocks, each of which performs a particular function.
Power supply used in the project:

Power supply is important part for operation of the MICROCONTROLLER.


MICROCONTROLLER operate at +5 volt and also for other digital IC and for displays. A 220V AC
to 12-0- 12 v transformer is used and for rectification two diodes 1N4007 are connected for
rectification of the step down AC supply. Filter capacitor of 1000 F is used. Then it is
regulated to +5V using a regulator 7805. 0.1 F capacitor is used for filtration of high frequency
noise. LED is given for power on indication.

Each of the blocks is described in more detail below:

©Y Transformer - steps down high voltage AC mains to low voltage AC.


©Y Rectifier - converts AC to DC, but the DC output is varying.
©Y Voltage Regulator- A voltage regulator is an electrical regulator designed to
automatically maintain a constant voltage level.

*#%
The #0 #"g output is suitable for lamps, heaters and special AC motors. It is #"
suitable for electronic circuits unless they include a rectifier and a smoothing capacitor.

)'"%&#

Transformers convert AC electricity from one voltage to another with little loss of power.
Transformers work only with AC and this is one of the reasons why mains electricity is AC.

Step-up transformers increase voltage, step-down transformers reduce voltage. Most power
supplies use a step-down transformer to reduce the dangerously high mains voltage (230V in
UK) to a safer low voltage.

The input coil is called the !% and the output coil is called the )#$. There is no
electrical connection between the two coils, instead they are linked by an alternating magnetic
field created in the soft-iron core of the transformer. The two lines in the middle of the circuit
symbol represent the core.

Transformers waste very little power so the power out is (almost) equal to the power in. Note
that as voltage is stepped down current is stepped up.

The ratio of the number of turns on each coil, called the "'"#, determines the ratio of the
voltages. A step-down transformer has a large number of turns on its primary (input) coil which
is connected to the high voltage mains supply, and a small number of turns on its secondary
(output) coil to give a low output voltage.

Vp Np power out = power in


turns ratio = = and
Vs Ns Vs × Is = Vp × Ip
Vp = primary (input) voltage Vs = secondary (output) voltage
Np = number of turns on primary coil Ns = number of turns on secondary coil
Ip = primary (input) current Is = secondary (output) current

)"*
There are several ways of connecting diodes to make a rectifier to convert AC to DC. The
bridge rectifier is the most important and it produces *'0  varying DC. A full-wave rectifier
can also be made from just two diodes if a centre-tap transformer is used, but this method is
rarely used now that diodes are cheaper. A single diode can be used as a rectifier but it only
uses the positive (+) parts of the AC wave to produce (*0  varying DC.
$#$)"*
A single diode can be used as a rectifier but this produces (*0  varying DC which has gaps
when the AC is negative. It is hard to smooth this sufficiently well to supply electronic circuits
unless they require a very small current so the smoothing capacitor does not significantly
discharge during the gaps.

'"!'"(*0   
$#$)"*
(using only half the AC wave)

%##"(
Smoothing is performed by a large value electrolytic capacitor connected across the DC supply
to act as a reservoir, supplying current to the output when the varying DC voltage from the
rectifier is falling. The diagram shows the unsmoothed varying DC (dotted line) and the
smoothed DC (solid line). The capacitor charges quickly near the peak of the varying DC, and
then discharges as it supplies current to the output.

Smoothing is not perfect due to the capacitor voltage falling a little as it discharges, giving a
small !! #". For many circuits a ripple which is 10% of the supply voltage is satisfactory
and the equation below gives the required value for the smoothing capacitor. A larger capacitor
will give less ripple. The capacitor value must be doubled when smoothing half-wave DC.

Smoothing capacitor for 10% ripple, C = 5 × Io


Vs × f

C= smoothing capacitance in farads (F)


Io = output current from the supply in amps (A)
Vs = supply voltage in volts (V), this is the peak value of the unsmoothed DC
f = frequency of the AC supply in hertz (Hz), 50Hz in the UK

.#"'"#-5 3 

A voltage regulator may be a simple "feed-forward" design or may include negative


feedback control loops. It may use an electromechanical mechanism, or electronic components.
Depending on the design, it may be used to regulate one or more AC or DC voltages.

Electronic voltage regulators are found in devices such as computer power supplies where they
stabilize the DC voltages used by the processor and other elements. In automobile
alternators and central power station generator plants, voltage regulators control the output of
the plant. In an electric power distribution system, voltage regulators may be installed at a
substation or along distribution lines so that all customers receive steady voltage independent
of how much power is drawn from the line.
¬ %+g#" .#"'"#

M"'

ͻ Output Current up to 1A
ͻ Output Voltages of 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, 12, 15, 18, 24V
ͻ Thermal Overload Protection
ͻ Short Circuit Protection
ͻ Output Transistor Safe Operating Area Protection

)!"#

The MC78XX/LM78XX/MC78XXA series of three terminal positive regulators are available in the
TO-220/D-PAK package and with several fixed output voltages, making them useful in a wide
range ofapplications. Each type employs internal current limiting, thermal shut down and safe
operating area protection, making it essentially indestructible. If adequate heat sinking is
provided, they can deliver over 1A output current. Although designed primarily as fixed voltage
regulators, these devices can be used with external components to obtain adjustable voltages
and currents.
{ { 
A resistor is a two-terminal electronic component that produces a voltage across its terminals
that is proportional to the electric current passing through it in accordance with Ohm's law:
è = 
Resistors are elements of electrical networks and electronic circuits and are ubiquitous in most
electronic equipment. Practical resistors can be made of various compounds and films, as well
as resistance wire (wire made of a high-resistivity alloy, such as nickel/chrome).
The primary characteristics of a resistor are the resistance, the tolerance, maximum working
voltage and the power rating. Other characteristics include temperature coefficient, noise,
and inductance. Less well-known is critical resistance, the value below which power dissipation
limits the maximum permitted current flow, and above which the limit is applied voltage.
Critical resistance is determined by the design, materials and dimensions of the resistor.

"#

   



A !(#"#"#, ("$!$""# (LDR) or )$%'%'*$-$ ) is
a resistor whose resistance decreases with increasing incident light intensity.Y
A photo resistor is made of a high resistance semiconductor. If light falling on the device is of
high enough frequency, photons absorbed by the semiconductor give bound electrons enough
energy to jump into the conduction band. The resulting free electron (and its hole partner)
conduct electricity, thereby lowering resistance.

g!!)"##*!(#"#"#

Photo resistors come in many different types. Inexpensive cadmium sulfide cells can be found
in many consumer items such as camera light meters, street lights, clock radios, alarms, and
outdoor clocks.
They are also used in some dynamic compressors together with a small incandescent
lamp or light emitting diode to control gain reduction.
Lead sulfide (PbS) and indium antimonide (InSb) LDRs (light dependent resistor) are used for the
mid infrared spectral region. Ge:Cu photoconductors are among the best far-infrared detectors
available, and are used for infrared astronomy and infrared spectroscopyVY
Y
    

Preset resistors are used in circuits when it is necessary to alter the resistance. Dark/light and
temperature sensors usually have these components as the preset resistor allows the circuit to
be made more or less sensitive (they can be turned up or down - reducing or increasing
resistance).

The two circuits below are sensor circuits. The one of the left is a temperature sensor and the one on the
right is a light sensitive circuit. Increasing the value of the preset resistor by turning the centre with a small
screwdriver makes the circuit less sensitive. For instance, the temperature sensor would require a higher
temperature and the light sensitive circuit would need more intense light before they activated.
YY YY
Y

YY YY
 Y Y
Y Y

A small screwdriver can be used to turn the centre part of the preset resistor, altering the value
of the resistance.

The range of resistance varies, for example:


0 to 100 ohms
0 to 1M ohms

{ "#$%% 
A &'22 or &! is an audio signaling device, which may be mechanical, electromechanical,
or piezoelectric. Typical uses of buzzers and beepers include alarms, timers and confirmation of
user input such as a mouse click or keystroke.

)()

A joy buzzer is an example of a purely mechanical buzzer.

)"#%)()

Early devices were based on an electromechanical system identical to an electric bell without
the metal gong. Similarly, a relay may be connected to interrupt its own actuating current,
causing the contacts to buzz. Often these units were anchored to a wall or ceiling to use it as a
sounding board. The word "buzzer" comes from the rasping noise that electromechanical
buzzers made.
2#)")

A piezoelectric element may be driven by an oscillating electronic circuit or other audio


signal source, driven with a piezoelectric audio amplifier. Sounds commonly used to indicate
that a button has been pressed are a click, a ring or a beep.


ÈY Annunciate panels
ÈY Electronic metronomes
ÈY Game shows
ÈY Microwave ovens and other household appliances
ÈY Sporting events such as basketball games

{ &'' 
In electronics, a $#$ is a two-terminal electronic component that conducts electric current in
only one direction. The term usually refers to a %)#$')"#$#$, the most common type
today. This is a crystalline piece of semiconductor material connected to two electrical
terminals. A )''%"'&$#$ (now little used except in some high-power technologies) is
a vacuum tube with two electrodes: a plate and a cathode.

The most common function of a diode is to allow an electric current to pass in one direction
(called the diode's Ñ  £ direction) while blocking current in the opposite direction
(the   direction). Thus, the diode can be thought of as an electronic version of a check
valve. This unidirectional behavior is called rectification, and is used to convert alternating
current to direct current, and to extract modulation from radio signals in radio receivers.

However, diodes can have more complicated behavior than this simple on-off action, due to
their complex non-linear electrical characteristics, which can be tailored by varying the
construction of their P-N junction. These are exploited in special purpose diodes that perform
many different functions. For example, specialized diodes are used to regulate voltage (Zener
diodes), to electronically tune radio and TV receivers (varactor diodes), to generate radio
frequency oscillations (tunnel diodes), and to produce light (light emitting diodes).

Diodes were the first semiconductor electronic devices. The discovery of


crystals' rectifying abilities was made by German physicist Ferdinand Braun in 1874. The first
semiconductor diodes, called cat's whisker diodes were made of crystals of minerals such
as galena. Today most diodes are made of silicon, but other semiconductors such
as germanium are sometimes used.

"!#* #$
'"6 #")()"")
A semiconductor diode͛s behavior in a circuit is given by its currentʹvoltage characteristic, or Iʹ
V graph (see graph below). The shape of the curve is determined by the transport of charge
carriers through the so-called £ Y or £ Y   that exists at the p-n
junction between differing semiconductors. When a p-n junction is first created, conduction
band (mobile) electrons from the N-doped region diffuse into the P-doped region where there
is a large population of holes (vacant places for electrons) with which the electrons
͞recombine͟. When a mobile electron recombines with a hole, both hole and electron vanish,
leaving behind an immobile positively charged donor (dopant) on the N-side and negatively
charged acceptor (dopant) on the P-side. The region around the p-n junction becomes depleted
of charge carriers and thus behaves as an insulator.

However, the width of the depletion region (called the depletion width) cannot grow without
limit. For each electron-hole pair that recombines, a positively charged dopant ion is left behind
in the N-doped region, and a negatively charged dopant ion is left behind in the P-doped region.
As recombination proceeds more ions are created, an increasing electric field develops through
the depletion zone which acts to slow and then finally stop recombination. At this point, there
is a ͞built-in͟ potential across the depletion zone.

If an external voltage is placed across the diode with the same polarity as the built-in potential,
the depletion zone continues to act as an insulator, preventing any significant electric current
flow (unless electron/hole pairs are actively being created in the junction by, for instance, light.
see photodiode). This is the  Y Yphenomenon. However, if the polarity of the external
voltage opposes the built-in potential, recombination can once again proceed, resulting in
substantial electric current through the p-n junction (i.e. substantial numbers of electrons and
holes recombine at the junction). For silicon diodes, the built-in potential is approximately 0.7 V
(0.3 V for Germanium and 0.2 V for Schottky). Thus, if an external current is passed through the
diode, about 0.7 V will be developed across the diode such that the P-doped region is positive
with respect to the N-doped region and the diode is said to be ͞turned on͟ as it has a Ñ  £Y
 .

A diode͛s 'ô  ca acte istic' can be approximated by four regions of operation..

.()"")#*$#$
, P
5

M"'

©Y Diffused Junction
©Y High Current Capability and Low Forward Voltage Drop
©Y Surge Overload Rating to 30A Peak
©Y Low Reverse Leakage Current


5

, P
+ 


M"'

g!!)"#
High-speed switching
M"'
1) Glass sealed envelope. (GSD)
2) High speed.
3) High reliability.
(#"#$#$

All semiconductors are subject to optical charge carrier generation. This is typically an
undesired effect, so most semiconductors are packaged in light blocking material. Photodiodes
are intended to sense light(photodetector), so they are packaged in materials that allow light to
pass, and are usually PIN (the kind of diode most sensitive to light). A photodiode can be used
in solar cells, in photometry, or in optical communications. Multiple photodiodes may be
packaged in a single device, either as a linear array or as a two-dimensional array. These arrays
should not be confused with charge-coupled
devices.
gg  

A )!)"# or )#$ is a passive


electronic component consisting of a pair of
conductors separated by a dielectric. When a
voltage potential difference exists between the
conductors, an electric field is present in the
dielectric. This field stores energy and produces
a mechanical force between the plates. The
effect is greatest between wide, flat, parallel,
narrowly separated conductors. An ideal
capacitor is characterized by a single constant value, capacitance, which is measured in farads.
This is the ratio of the electric charge on each conductor to the potential difference between
them. In practice, the dielectric between the plates passes a small amount of leakage current.
The conductors and leads introduce an equivalent series resistance and the dielectric has an
electric field strength limit resulting in a breakdown voltage.

Capacitors are widely used in electronic circuits to block the flow of direct current while
allowing alternating current to pass, to filter out interference, to smooth the output of power
supplies, and for many other purposes. They are used in resonant circuits in radio frequency
equipment to select particular frequencies from a signal with many frequencies.

,PPggg 

In electronics )%))!)"# is a capacitor constructed of alternating layers of metal


and ceramic, with the ceramic material acting as the dielectric. The temperature coefficient
depends on whether the dielectric is Class 1 or Class 2. A ceramic capacitor (especially the class
2) often has high dissipation factor, high frequency coefficient of dissipation.

,PP+  

A ceramic capacitor is a two-terminal, non-polar device. The classical ceramic capacitor is


the "disc capacitor". This device pre-dates the transistor and was used extensively in vacuum-
tube equipment (e.g., radio receivers) from about 1930 through the 1950s, and in discrete
transistor equipment from the 1950s through the 1980s. As of 2007, ceramic disc capacitors are
in widespread use in electronic equipment, providing high capacity & small size at low price
compared to other low value capacitor types.

Ceramic capacitors come in various shapes and styles, including:

ßY Disc, resin coated, with through-hole leads.


ßY Multilayer rectangular block, surface mount.
ßY Bare leadless disc, sits in a slot in the PCB and is soldered in place, used for
UHF applications.
ßY Tube shape, not popular now.

,P¬
 
/ gg 

An )"#") )!)"# is a type of capacitor that uses an ionic conducting liquid as


one of its plates with a larger capacitance per unit volume than other types. They are valuable
in relatively high-current and low-frequency electrical circuits. This is especially the case in
power-supply filters, where they store charge needed to moderate output voltage and current
fluctuations in rectifier output. They are also widely used as coupling capacitors in circuits
where AC should be conducted but DC should not.
Electrolytic capacitors can have a very high capacitance, allowing filters made with them
to have very low corner frequencies.


 
/ gg 

,P¬+  

Aluminum electrolytic capacitors are constructed from two conducting aluminum foils,
one of which is coated with an insulating oxide layer, and a paper spacer soaked in electrolyte.
The foil insulated by the oxide layer is the anode while the liquid electrolyte and the second foil
act as cathode. This stack is then rolled up, fitted with pin connectors and placed in a cylindrical
aluminum casing. The two most popular geometries are axial leads coming from the center of
each circular face of the cylinder, or two radial leads or lugs on one of the circular faces. Both of
these are shown in the picture.

¬3 g 

The LM35 is a temperature sensor which provides an output voltage that is directly
proportional to the temperature being measured in degree Celsius. This means that if the
temperature is 0îC, the output voltage is 0 V. the output voltage increases by 10mV for every
degree Celsius, i.e. at 19.8îC, the output voltage is 0.198V.
This is an important advantage over other temperature sensors that are calibrated in Kelvin.
Using such sensors to measure in degree Celsius requires a very stable reference voltage that
must be deducted from the reading.
Another advantage of the LM35 is its very low current consumption of less than 60 A. this
means a long battery life and small internal power dissipation, so errors caused by internal heat
are minimal
The accuracy of the LM35 is typically 0.4îC at 25îC
Y
Y

^ 
Y
1.Y It provides 24 hour service of monitoring four things at a time.
2.Y It uses MICROCONTROLLER which reduces lot of components to be used.
3.Y As it is automated it reduces manpower to be used, also it gives accurate
result.
4.Y It Provides control of parameters as well as Audio Signal for Alarm.
5.Y It uses different sensors like water sensors, temperature sensor, IR sensor
& light sensor. This system at a time monitors four areas like water level
in a tank, checks upper limit temperature of a medium, the intruder & lux
inside industry.

¦ 
Y
1. As it is automated, if there is any error then its difficult to detect.

Y
Y
ÿ    
Y
1. Water Sensing-
a) In water tank and reservoir monitoring.
b) Flood warning systems.
c) Irrigation systems.
d) River level monitoring.
2. Light Sensing-
Automatic switching on and off the boundary lights or the lights inside the industry.
3. Temperature Sensing-
a) Some machines or computers in the industry they are working for 24 hours a day. So when it
gets overheated temperature sensors are used for cooling.
b) Some chemicals require certain optimum temperature for functioning, temperature sensing
can be used there.
4. Intruder Sensing-
Without using any operators we can sense any person entering the industry by setting the
intruder alert.

? 
Industrial Monitoring and control system is a micro-controller based design where 4 sensors are
been used which monitors water, light, intruder and temperature of a medium. These 4 sensors
can be used separately in various places for different functions. As the project simultaneously
checks a lot of inputs therefore it is cost effective against human power. It makes automisation
of the industries. It avoids human error.

??   Y

1.Y —Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory͟ by R.L. Boylested and Louis Nashelsky.
2.Y ͞Basic Electronics͟ by V.K Mehta.
3.Y ͞Micro-Electronics circuit͟ by Sedra & Smith.
4.Y www.yahoo.com
5.Y www.wikipedia.com
6.Y www.scribd.com
7.Y www.google.com

Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y