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Food Research International 36 (2003) 365–372


Effect of frozen storage and freeze–thaw cycles on the rheological

and baking properties of frozen doughs
Monisha Bhattacharyaa,*, Tami M. Langstaffa, William A. Berzonskyb
Department of Cereal and Food Sciences, North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND 58105, USA
Department of Plant Sciences, North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND 58105, USA

Received 14 July 2002; accepted 25 October 2002

The effects of prolonged frozen storage and repeated partial freeze–thaw cycles on the rheological and baking properties of nine
commercial wheat cultivars were evaluated. The gluten strength of the cultivars ranged from medium to high, whereas the starch
swelling characteristics were similar for most cultivars, except Parshall, which exhibited exceptionally high swelling properties. The
doughs were subjected to frozen storage for 4–12 weeks, with and without freeze–thaw cycles. The enthalpy of freezable water was
significantly affected by initial freezing, whereas, the rheological properties of the doughs were more susceptible to freeze–thaw
cycles. After baking, all cultivars produced bread of acceptable quality, although cv. Parshall exhibited the highest crumb softness,
irrespective of the frozen treatment. Results indicate that flours with high starch swelling characteristics, along with moderately
high gluten strength, may be most ideal for producing optimum quality frozen doughs, with good shelf life and baking properties.
# 2003 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Frozen dough; Freeze–thaw cycles; Starch; Gluten; Bread

1. Introduction Bushuk, 1991, 1992). Flour protein strength was found

to be more important than flour protein content for
Demand and market opportunities for value-added optimum frozen dough quality (Inoue & Bushuk, 1991;
wheat-based products have been growing rapidly over Wolt & D’Appolonia, 1984b). Yeast survival and gas
the past few decades. The frozen dough market has retention in dough after prolonged storage are other
steadily grown in recent years due to consumer demand major problems in frozen dough production. Yeast via-
for convenience and high quality baked products. bility or gassing power is strongly affected by freezing
Dough strength and frozen storage play an important rate and frozen storage temperatures (Bender & Lamb,
role in the quality of bread produced from frozen 1977), frozen storage time (Berglund & Shelton, 1993),
doughs, since they must withstand harsh freezing and and freeze–thaw cycles (Hsu, Hoseney, & Seib, 1979).
thawing conditions. The ice crystals formed during fro- Freezable water, or the fraction of free water that
zen storage and repeated freeze–thaw cycles reportedly does not bind to gluten during dough formation, freezes
causes physical damage to the gluten protein structure when the dough is subjected to frozen storage (Davies &
(Varriano-Marston, Hsu, & Mahdi, 1980), resulting in Webb, 1969). Berglund et al. (1991) observed that
the weakening of hydrophobic bonds, redistribution of dough subjected to prolonged frozen storage encoun-
water in the dough gluten network (Räsänen, Blan- tered water migration with concomitant dough dete-
shard, Mitchell, Derbyshire, & Autio, 1998), loss of gas rioration. Lu and Grant (1999a) compared the freezable
retention (Autio & Sinda, 1992; Berglund, Shelton, & water content of doughs made from an extra strong
Freeman, 1991), and poor loaf volume (Inoue & hard red spring wheat cultivar, and a weak wheat culti-
var, after subjecting the doughs to 16 weeks of frozen
storage. The amount of freezable water was found to be
* Corresponding author. Tel.: +1-701-231-7737; fax: +1-701-231-
significantly higher in the extra strong wheat, suggesting
E-mail address: monisha.bhattacharya@ndsu.nodak.edu that while strong flours are necessary for frozen dough
(M. Bhattacharya). production, extremely strong gluten may be detrimental
0963-9969/03/$ - see front matter # 2003 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
366 M. Bhattacharya et al. / Food Research International 36 (2003) 365–372

because of the formation of a high amount of freezable strength, a prerequisite for making frozen doughs. A
water in the dough. Canadian Western Extra Strong Red Spring (CWESRS)
Dough extension properties are very important when wheat, Glenlea, known to maintain good oven spring
evaluating frozen doughs because they influence oven and high loaf volume after prolonged frozen storage
spring and loaf volume of the final baked product. Wolt (Inoue & Bushuk, 1992), was included for comparison.
and D’Appolonia (1984a) found a decrease in exten- All nine cultivars were grown at two locations, Prosper
sibility with an increase in frozen storage time, which was and Casselton, situated within 20 miles of each other in
attributed to overall gluten network deterioration. Inoue the southeastern region of North Dakota. Each cultivar
and Bushuk (1991) observed no significant changes in had two replications at each location.
rheological properties during short-term storage. How- Wholemeal samples were obtained by grinding kernels
ever, repeated freeze–thaw cycles produced a significant on an Udy Cyclone Mill (UD Corp., Boulder, CO), fit-
decrease in dough resistance and an increase in dough ted with a 1 mm screen. Flour samples were obtained by
extensibility. They concluded that doughs made from tempering the grains to 15.5% moisture for 16 h before
strong flours are generally resistant to freeze damage, but milling into straight-grade flour on a Buhler laboratory
severe processing conditions, such as repeated freeze– mill. All flour samples were placed in plastic bags and
thaw cycles, could significantly weaken dough structure. kept at room temperature for 2 weeks to condition the
The type of wheat flour used for frozen dough pro- flour before conducting quality evaluations.
duction is crucial in imparting desirable baking charac-
teristics after prolonged frozen storage. Hard red spring 2.2. Physicochemical analyses of wholemeal and flour
(HRS) wheat is preferred for making different bread and
frozen dough products because of its superior gluten Wholemeal samples were tested for falling number
strength. However, not all HRS wheat cultivars that values using AACC Approved Method 56-81B (2000).
possess superior bread baking traits produce bread of The moisture content of the flour samples was deter-
comparable quality after frozen storage, possibly due to mined using AACC Approved air oven method 44-15A
higher susceptibility of some cultivars to harsh proces- (2000). Protein content (14% mb) of the flours was
sing and frozen storage conditions (Lu & Grant, 1999b). determined using the combustion method with a Leco
Frozen dough manufacturers generally use a blend of FP428 nitrogen analyzer (St. Joseph, MI) according to
some popular bread wheat genotypes for frozen dough Approved Method 46-30 (AACC, 2000). Rheological
production, which often leads to inconsistency in quality properties of the dough samples were determined with
due to lack of adequate information about ideal quality the Brabender farinograph according to Approved
attributes (personnel communication). Lack of know- Method 54-21 (AACC, 2000). Parameters recorded were
ledge of the performance of different commercial wheat water absorption of flour (%) (14% mb), peak time
cultivars in a frozen dough system makes it difficult for (time between the addition of water and development of
frozen dough manufacturers to select superior, identity- maximum consistency of the dough), mixing stability
preserved wheat cultivars, for consistently producing (the time in minutes that the farinogram remained
high quality frozen dough. The objectives of this study horizontal on the 500 BU line), and time to breakdown
were to (1) study the effects of prolonged frozen storage (the time in minutes from the start of mixing to the time
and partial freeze–thaw cycles on the rheological and at which consistency decreased 30 BU from the peak
baking properties of selected popular bread wheat cul- point).
tivars; and (2) determine flour quality attributes asso-
ciated with improved end-use quality and frozen storage 2.3. Flour swelling volume
stability, so as to provide criteria for selection of
improved cultivars for frozen dough markets in the Flour samples (0.4 g, dwb) were mixed with 12.5 ml of
future. 1 mM AgNO3 in 125  16 mm Pyrex culture tubes and
heated at 92.5  C for 30 min, following the procedure of
Bhattacharya, Jafari-Shabestari, Qualset, and Corke
2. Materials and methods (1997). The samples were cooled in ice water bath for 1
min, and centrifuged at 1000  g for 15 min. The swel-
2.1. Wheat cultivars and sampling ling volume was calculated by converting the height of
the resultant gels to a volume basis, and the results were
Eight regionally adapted commercial hard red spring recorded as ml/g of dry flour.
(HRS) wheat cultivars, with acceptable bread making
quality, were evaluated for their performance in a fro- 2.4. Rapid visco analyzer
zen dough system. The cultivars included Alsen, Argent,
Grandin, McNeal, Oxen, Parshall, Russ, and Trenton. Pasting profiles were determined on wholemeal sam-
These HRS cultivars were selected for their high gluten ples using a Rapid Visco-Analyser (RVA) Model 4
M. Bhattacharya et al. / Food Research International 36 (2003) 365–372 367

(Newport Scientific, Narrabeen, Australia) in presence At the end of the storage time, the doughs were thawed
of 1 mM AgNO3 to eliminate possible a-amylase activity and baked as described later.
(Bhattacharya & Corke, 1996). In an earlier study, it
was established that wholemeal was a reliable alter- 2.6. Dough quality testing
native to flour or starch when samples available for
testing were limited (Bhattacharya & Corke, 1996). An identical set of dough samples were prepared
Wholemeal (4 g, 14% mb) was mixed with 25 g of 1 mM under similar conditions, and subjected to the same four
AgNO3 solution in a RVA canister. A standardized treatments. Samples were evaluated for thermal and
heating and cooling cycle was employed according to rheological changes in gluten properties during frozen
the method of Bhattacharya et al. (1997). Parameters storage and freeze–thaw cycles by physical dough mea-
recorded were peak viscosity (PV), hot paste viscosity surements. The control sample was tested after the
(HPV), breakdown (PV-HPV), cold paste viscosity molding step, while the frozen doughs were thawed, but
(CPV) and setback (CPV-HPV). All measurements were not proofed before the analysis. Each frozen storage
replicated twice and the results were reported in Rapid treatment had four replications per cultivar.
Visco Units (RVU). Freezable water of the dough was measured after each
frozen storage treatment using a DSC (DSC-220C,
2.5. Dough preparation and frozen dough treatments Seiko Instrument Inc., Tokyo, Japan), following the
method of Lu and Grant (1999a). The control and
Flour samples (400 g per sample) were mixed to opti- thawed dough pieces were weighed (5.0 mg, dwb)
mum using a no-time dough mixing procedure (Inoue & directly into an aluminum pan and hermetically sealed.
Bushuk, 1991). The baking formula (flour basis) was: The sample pan was run with an empty crucible for
100 g flour (14% mb), 5 g compressed yeast, 4 g short- reference. The sample was frozen to 50  C using liquid
ening, 4 g sugar, 1.5 g salt, 100 ppm ascorbic acid, and nitrogen, and then heated to 50  C at the rate of 10  C/
50 ppm potassium bromate (Lu & Grant, 1999b). The min. The enthalpy (H) of the endothermic freezable
water added to form optimum dough was calculated as water transition was recorded as the energy change that
the water absorption of flour obtained on the farino- occurred during the melting of ice in the frozen dough.
graph, minus 4%, which resulted in better machinability Dough micro-extension testing was done using a
and reduced stickiness for moulding and sheeting. TA.XT2 texture analyzer, equipped with SMS/Kieffer
Sugar, salt, and oxidants were pre-dissolved in chilled dough and gluten extensibility rig, following the method
water (part of the total water amount). Dough tem- of Suchy, Lukow, and Ingelin (2000) with slight modifi-
perature was maintained at about 20  C by utilizing ice cations. The thawed dough was placed into a Ziploc bag
water, and a chilled mixing bowl. A common check and allowed to equilibrate at 4  C for 15 min. A small
sample was included with every batch of dough mixed portion of the dough was placed into a Teflon-coated
per day to ensure that experimental error was kept to a block, lined with parafilm, and cut into dough strips
minimum. The dough was divided into four 160 g pie- using the mould. The dough strips were allowed to rest
ces, rounded, and rested for 10 min at 4  C. After for an additional 15 min at 4  C, before being stretched
sheeting and molding, three dough pieces were placed by the hook extension at the speed of 3.3 mm/s for a
into pans, and were subjected to a 23  C freezer until a distance of 100 mm. Parameters, dough extensibility
core dough temperature of 5  C was maintained. The (mm) from start to rupture, and maximum resistance
frozen dough pieces were then depanned, bagged in (g), the maximum height of the curve, were auto-
freezer bags, and stored in a 23  C freezer for different matically calculated by the data processing software
time periods. The fourth dough piece (control) was supplied with the instrument.
baked on the same day without being subjected to any
frozen treatment. 2.7. Baking quality testing
The dough pieces were subjected to the following four
frozen storage treatments: (1) control, no frozen sto- At the end of the storage period, the frozen dough
rage, (2) frozen storage for 4 weeks, with no freeze–thaw pieces were removed from the freezer, placed in greased
cycle prior to baking, (3) frozen storage for 12 weeks, pans, and allowed to retard at 4  C for 13 h. Following
with no freeze–thaw cycle during the frozen storage, and thawing, the dough pieces were placed into a proof box
(4) frozen storage for 12 weeks, with two freeze–thaw at 30  C, 85% RH. Time required to proof the dough
treatments, one after 4 weeks and one after 8 weeks of pieces to a desired proof height of  3 cm above the pan
frozen storage. A freeze–thaw cycle was established as sidewall was recorded. The dough pieces were then
partially thawing the dough at 4  C for 8 h, after which baked at 220  C for 25 min. Bread loaves were allowed
the panned dough piece was subjected to frozen storage to cool for a minimum of 1 h prior to further testing.
again. Each frozen storage treatment had four repli- Loaf volume was determined by rapeseed displacement
cations per cultivar (two locations  two replications). after 1 h of oven exit. Crust color, crumb color, and
368 M. Bhattacharya et al. / Food Research International 36 (2003) 365–372

grain and texture were evaluated by visual comparison Table 1

to a standard using constant illumination source. Each Physicochemical and rheological properties of the wheat cultivarsa
loaf was scored using a scale of 1–10, with 10 repre- Cultivars Protein Farinograph
senting the highest quality. The central slices of each (%)
loaf were used to measure crumb firmness using the Absorption Stability Time to Peak
TA.XT2 texture analyzer, following AACC Approved (%) (min) breakdown time
(min) (min)
Method 74-09 (2000).
Alsen 16.6 66.0 15.8 17.8 9.9
2.8. Statistical analysis Argent 16.9 66.0 13.5 14.0 8.1
Glenlea 16.5 63.8 18.1 19.8 13.6
Grandin 16.5 66.5 14.8 17.5 9.5
Data were analyzed using the general linear model pro- McNeal 16.1 66.4 18.1 18.8 7.8
cedure of Statistical Analysis System (SAS) (ver. 6.10, Oxen 15.8 64.3 15.4 18.0 10.1
SAS Institute, Cary, NC). For each dependent variable, Parshall 16.7 65.1 14.1 17.0 9.4
the error mean squares from each location were tested for Russ 16.5 66.8 14.5 16.0 9.5
homogeneity of error variance at P< 0.001, to determine Trenton 16.8 65.9 15.8 19.8 11.2
if experiments could be combined across locations. If the Mean 16.5 65.6 15.6 17.6 9.9
dependent variable was non-significant, the two locations LSD (P <0.05) 0.3 0.8 2.7 2.8 1.5
were analyzed as a combined ANOVA. Fisher’s least a
Mean values represent nine genotypes and four replicates (n=36).
significance difference (LSD) test was used to separate
means at the 5% significance level. Dough and baking
data were analyzed following a randomized complete took comparatively less time to form optimum dough.
block design (RCBD) with factorial arrangement of Frozen dough production generally employs a rapid,
nine genotypes and four frozen storage treatments. no-time dough method, so as to minimize yeast fer-
mentation during dough preparation (Inoue & Bushuk,
1991). Flours with extremely long mixing times are
3. Results and discussion generally not desirable since they promote excessive
heat build-up due to the motion of the mixing blades,
3.1. Flour quality characteristics which is detrimental on the yeast cells (Marston, 1978;
Merritt, 1960). Therefore, the dough mixing charac-
The cultivar  location interaction was found to be teristics of McNeal, as characterized by high gluten
non-significant, and therefore the results presented in strength and short mixing time, was found to be opti-
this study consisted of data combined across two loca- mum for frozen dough production.
tions. As expected with commercial bread wheat culti- Parshall displayed a mean FSV value of 69.3 ml/g,
vars, all cultivars in this study exhibited high protein which was significantly different from the other culti-
content, ranging from 15.8% in Oxen to 16.9% in vars. All other cultivars exhibited values ranging from
Argent, with a mean of 16.5% (db) (Table 1). Farino- 44.8 to 49.3 ml/g (Table 2). The RVA data corroborate
graph absorption of the cultivars ranged from 63.8 to FSV data, with Parshall exhibiting pasting charac-
66.8%. Alsen, Argent, Grandin, McNeal, and Russ had teristics that were significantly different compared with
the highest absorption (66.0–66.8%), Parshall and the other cultivars. Parshall displayed extremely high
Trenton displayed intermediate values (65.1–65.9%, peak viscosity (259 RVU) and breakdown values (153
respectively), while Oxen and Glenlea displayed the RVU), and low setback (114 RVU) value (Table 2).
lowest (64.3 and 63.8%, respectively) (Table 1). Mixing Higher peak and lower setback values have been often
stability, which measures the tolerance of a dough to associated with partial waxy wheat containing low
mechanical shear by the mixing blades, and hence indi- amylose content (Moss, 1980; Wang & Seib, 1996).
cates gluten strength, ranged from 13.5 min in Argent, Synthesis of amylose in starch is predominantly con-
to 18.1 min in McNeal and Glenlea (Table 1). Time to trolled by waxy (wx) proteins known as granule-bound
breakdown, which is directly proportional to gluten starch synthase (GBSS) (Miura & Sugawara, 1996).
strength, ranged widely among the cultivars. Argent Additional tests are currently being conducted in our
exhibited the shortest (14.0 min), while McNeal, Trenton, laboratory to assess the unique starch swelling properties
and Glenlea displayed the longest time to breakdown of Parshall and to validate its waxy trait by determining
(18.8 and 19.8 min, respectively) (Table 1). Peak time if it lacks one or more genes for production of GBSS.
ranged from 7.8 min in McNeal to 13.6 min in Glenlea
(Table 1). In spite of their similar mixing strength, 3.2. Dough quality characteristics
Glenlea and McNeal displayed different dough mixing
times. This suggests that the gluten network of McNeal DSC was used to measure the freezable water con-
was not as tough and inextensible as Glenlea, and it tent of the dough pieces subjected to different time and
M. Bhattacharya et al. / Food Research International 36 (2003) 365–372 369

Table 2 shown). However, Lu and Grant (1999a) observed that

Flour swelling volume and RVA pasting parameters of the wheat cul- wheat genotypes with extremely high gluten strength
displayed a consistent increase in freezable water with
Cultivars FSVb RVA pasting characterisitics (RVU) increase in frozen storage time, possibly due to a greater
association of water molecules with the nonpolar and
Peak Breakdown Setback
polar amino acids of the flour protein. They concluded
that the gluten strength of wheat genotypes significantly
Alsen 49.3 184 93 115 affected the quality of frozen dough, and the subsequent
Argent 46.0 182 76 133
baked end product. This discrepancy in results could be
Glenlea 44.8 164 56 144
Grandin 45.0 164 63 129 attributed to the different genotypes used in the two
McNeal 45.5 178 60 146 studies. Lu and Grant (1999a) compared genotypes
Oxen 45.3 168 59 139 ranging widely in their gluten strength, so as to evaluate
Parshall 69.3 259 153 114 their susceptibility to frozen storage, whereas the cur-
Russ 48.8 174 74 132
rent study evaluated some top-ranking commercial cul-
Trenton 48.5 190 82 136
tivars with a narrow range of high gluten strength,
Mean 49.2 185 80 132 which subsequently resulted in a non-significant range
LSD (P< 0.05) 1.8 7.9 5.8 7.1
of freezable water content during frozen storage.
Mean values represent nine genotypes and four replicates (n=36). Extensibility of the thawed doughs did not change
FSV=flour swelling volume (ml/g) significantly as the storage time increased from day 0 to
week 4 (Table 3). However, at week 12, there was a
temperature treatments. Across treatments, the mean small increase in dough extensibility, followed by a fur-
freezable water content of the doughs was found to be ther significant increase in the presence of freeze–thaw
76 J/g on day 0, which increased substantially to 84 J/g cycles (Table 3), suggesting dough weakening. Similarly,
after 4 weeks, and to 86 J/g after 12 weeks of frozen Inoue and Bushuk (1992) observed a gradual increase in
storage (Table 3). Thus, the largest increase in the extensibility with frozen storage for up to 10 weeks. The
enthalpy of freezable water occurred during the initial maximum resistance of the doughs increased steadily as
frozen storage, from day 0 to week 4. This moisture the storage time increased from day 0 to week 12, in the
migration and increase in freezable water immediately absence of freeze–thaw cycles (Table 3), possibly due to
after freezing was attributed to the deterioration of glu- the stiffening of the doughs during frozen storage (Var-
ten network as a result of initial exposure of dough to riano-Marston et al., 1980; Wolt & D’Appolonia,
extremely low freezing temperatures. There was a fur- 1984a). However, in the presence of freeze–thaw cycles,
ther increase in the enthalpy of freezable water in pre- the doughs showed a significant drop in maximum
sence of two partial freeze–thaw cycles within 12 weeks resistance (Table 3), possibly due to ice crystallization
(Table 3). This could be attributed to the melting and during freeze–thaw cycles (Inoue & Bushuk, 1992).
recrystallization of ice during freeze–thaw cycles, with Based on the micro-extensigraph results, we infer that
subsequent damage to the gluten network and separa- maximum gluten damage of frozen doughs occur mostly
tion of water molecules (Autio & Sinda, 1992; Kulp, under the influence of repeated temperature fluctuations
1995). The wheat cultivars used in the present study did during freeze–thaw cycles, compared to storage at con-
not differ significantly among each other in their freez- stant frozen temperature. The moisture migration or
able water content during frozen storage (data not enthalpy of freezable water on the other hand, was more
strongly influenced by the initial exposure of the doughs
Table 3
to frozen storage, followed by a more gradual increase
Enthalpy of freezable water, dough extensibility and maximum resis- under the impact of freeze–thaw cycles.
tance of frozen dough as affected by frozen storage and freeze–thaw
cyclesa 3.3. Baking quality characteristics
Treatment Freezable Extensibility Maximum
water (mm) resistance It is generally accepted that as frozen storage time
(J/g) (g) increases, proof time of the dough also increases (Inoue
Day 0 (control) 76 c 36 c 89 c
& Bushuk, 1992; Lu & Grant, 1999b; Wolt & D’Appo-
Week 4 84 b 36 c 95 b lonia, 1984a,b). This increase in proof time has been
Week 12 86 b 37 b 110 a attributed to low freezing temperatures, which sig-
Week 12+FTCb 89 a 40 a 95 b nificantly decrease the viable yeast cell count, thereby
a reducing the gassing power (Kline & Sugihara, 1968). In
Mean values represent nine genotypes and four replicates (n=36).
Means within columns followed by common letters are not sig- this study, a significant increase in proof time was
nificantly different at P <0.05. observed with an increase in frozen storage time, and
FTC=two freeze–thaw cycles. ranged from a mean of 85 min on day 0–108 min at
370 M. Bhattacharya et al. / Food Research International 36 (2003) 365–372

week 4 (Table 4). At week 12, there was a further Crumb softness, which is a desirable quality char-
increase in proof time, possibly due to an additional acteristic, was significantly different among cultivars,
reduction in viable yeast cells. However, doughs sub- independent of the frozen treatments. On Day 0, Glen-
jected to freeze–thaw cycles during 12 weeks of storage lea, Oxen, and McNeal displayed undesirably higher
did not show significantly higher proof times compared crumb firmness, Alsen, Argent, Grandin, Russ, and
to doughs not subjected to any freeze–thaw cycle (139 Trenton displayed intermediate firmness, whereas Par-
min vs. 136 min, respectively) (Table 4). These results shall exhibited the softest crumb texture (Table 5). At
suggest that the increase in proof time was more week 4, most cultivars displayed a substantial increase
strongly affected by extended frozen storage, than due in crumb firmness, except McNeal, which did not show
to freezing and thawing. Our results are in agreement any change, irrespective of frozen storage or freeze–
with the findings of Bruinsma and Giesenschlag (1984) thaw cycles (Table 5). Interestingly, the doughs stored
who observed that yeast activity was not appreciably for 12 weeks displayed lower crumb firmness similar to
reduced after consecutive freeze–thaw cycles, and there- the control, irrespective of the freeze–thaw cycles
fore attributed the increase in proof time to significant (Table 5). Lu and Grant (1999b) reported that crumb
destruction of normal dough structure during freezing. firmness was influenced by the gluten strength of frozen
Loaf volume typically decreases with an increase in dough. Doughs made from extremely strong flour
frozen storage (Inoue & Bushuk, 1992; Wolt & resulted in firmer crumb texture due to restricted starch
D’Appolonia, 1984b). In this study, the effect of geno- swelling during baking.
typic differences on loaf volume was non-significant, The crumb softness exhibited by Parshall was mark-
whereas, the effect of frozen treatments was small, but edly different from all other cultivars. Despite its gra-
statistically significant. The average loaf volume at week dual increase in firmness values from day 0 to week 12,
4 was 924 cc, which was not significantly different from the overall mean values were significantly lower than the
the volume at day 0 (Table 4). At week 12, there was a other cultivars for all frozen treatments (Table 5). Most
significant decrease in loaf volume compared to week 4, of the cultivars evaluated in this study possessed desir-
irrespective of the freeze–thaw cycles (Table 4). This was able gluten characteristics for producing bread of opti-
consistent with the trends observed with the proof time mum quality (Table 1), and yet the crumb softness of
data, again signifying that the cultivars examined were these cultivars varied widely in a frozen dough system.
not as greatly affected by temperature fluctuations dur- This disparity in performance among cultivars could be
ing storage, as they were by ice recrystallization during attributed to the influence of other flour components,
prolonged frozen storage. Except for crust color, no such as variation in the starch pasting characteristics
significant differences were evident in bread scores for (Seib, 2000). The gluten strength of Parshall was not
external and internal characteristics of the loaves. The appreciably higher than the other samples (Table 1), but
overall visual quality characteristics of the frozen it had the highest starch swelling capacity among all the
doughs were minimally affected by prolonged frozen cultivars (Table 2). Possibly, the higher starch swelling
storage and freeze–thaw cycles (Table 4), which are in characteristics of Parshall was responsible for its super-
agreement with the findings by Nemeth, Paulley, and ior frozen dough quality, signifying the role of starch, in
Preston (1996). In contrast, Wolt and D’Appolonia
(1984b) found an open and gummy grain and crumb Table 5
texture, which significantly decreased the bread scores Crumb firmness of bread baked from frozen dough as affected by
with prolonged storage. frozen storage and freeze–thaw cyclesa

Genotypes Crumb firmness

Table 4 Day 0 Week 4 Week 12 Week 12
Bread baking characteristics of frozen dough as affected by frozen +FTCb
storage and freeze–thaw cyclesa
Alsen 42 45 44 40
Treatment Proof Loaf Crust Crumb Grain Argent 42 48 42 41
time volume colorb colorb and Glenlea 58 62 53 55
(min) (cc) textureb Grandin 45 55 49 48
McNeal 52 52 52 52
Day 0 (control) 85 c 931 a 9.6 a 9.2 a 9.2 a
Oxen 53 58 55 60
Week 4 108 b 924 a 9.4 b 9.1 a 9.0 a
Parshall 31 36 38 32
Week 12 136 a 909 b 9.1 c 9.0 a 9.1 a
Russ 43 57 53 47
Week 12+FTCc 139 a 903 b 9.0 c 9.0 a 9.1 a
Trenton 43 56 47 45
Mean values represent nine genotypes and four replicates (n=36). Mean 45 52 48 47
Means within columns followed by common letters are not sig- LSD (P <0.05) 4.5
nificantly different at P <0.05.
b a
Scores ranged from 0 to 10, with 10 being the best. Mean values represent nine genotypes and four replicates (n=36).
FTC=two freeze–thaw cycles. FTC=two freeze–thaw cycles.
M. Bhattacharya et al. / Food Research International 36 (2003) 365–372 371

addition to gluten strength, on crumb softness. We 1972, reviewed September 1992, and Method 74-09, approved
speculate that the unique starch swelling properties of November 1995; reviewed October 1996; reapproval November
1999. American Association of Cereal Chemists. The Association: St.
Parshall may have facilitated higher water retention
Paul, MN.
within the starch granules during baking, and contri- Autio, K., & Sinda, E. (1992). Frozen doughs: rheological changes and
buted to its desirable crumb softness. Conversely, the yeast viability. Cereal Chemistry, 69, 409–413.
doughs possessing medium to low starch swelling capa- Bender, L. D., & Lamb, J. (1977). The preservation of yeast viability in
city may have been less effective at imbibing the water frozen dough. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 28, 952–953.
released from the gluten network during thawing and Berglund, P. T., & Shelton, D. R. (1993). Effect of frozen storage
duration on firming properties of breads baked from frozen doughs.
baking (Hoseney, 1998), resulting in a comparatively Cereal Foods World, 38, 89–93.
firmer and compact bread crumb structure. Results Berglund, P., Shelton, D., & Freeman, T. (1991). Frozen bread dough
suggest that flours with moderately strong gluten and ultrastructure as affected by duration of frozen storage and freeze–
high starch swelling capacity would be ideal in providing thaw cycles. Cereal Chemistry, 68, 105–107.
structural integrity to the dough during frozen storage, Bhattacharya, M., & Corke, H. (1996). Selection of desirable starch
pasting properties in wheat for use in white salted or yellow alkaline
and desirable crumb softness after baking. Additional noodles. Cereal Chemistry, 73, 721–728.
research is being conducted in our laboratory to evalu- Bhattacharya, M., Erazo, S., Doehlert, D. C., & McMullen, M. S.
ate the quality of frozen doughs made from blends of (2002). Effect of waxy wheat flour on firmness and staling of fresh
waxy and normal wheat genotypes, possessing a bread. Cereal Chemistry, 79, 178–182.
broader range of starch pasting characteristics, so as to Bhattacharya, M., Jafari-Shabestari, J., Qualset, C., & Corke, H.
(1997). Diversity of starch pasting properties in Iranian hexaploid
further validate the significance of starch on the texture wheat landraces. Cereal Chemistry, 74, 417–423.
and staling of frozen dough (Bhattacharya, Erazo, Bruinsma, B. L., & Giesenschlag, J. (1984). Frozen dough perfor-
Doehlert, & McMullen, 2002). Moreover, the influence mance. Compressed yeast—instant dry yeast. Baker’s Digest, 58, 6–
of diverse growing locations on the protein and starch 11.
quality parameters in relation to frozen dough is also Davies, R. J., & Webb, T. (1969). Methods, apparatus: new product
research, process development and design. Chemistry and Industry,
being evaluated. 16, 1138–1139.
Traditionally, bread wheat genotypes were screened Hoseney, R. C. (1998). Yeast-leavened products. In R. C. Hoseney
based on their protein quality and quantity alone, as it (Ed.), Principles of cereal science and technology (2nd ed.) (pp. 229–
related closely with good loaf volume. Presently, manu- 273). St. Paul, MN: American Association of Cereal Chemists, Inc.
Hsu, K. H., Hoseney, R. C., & Seib, P. A. (1979). Frozen dough. II.
facturers and consumers are more cognizant to quality,
Effect of freezing and storing conditions on the stability of yeasted
and are prepared to pay a higher premium for superior doughs. Cereal Chemistry, 56, 424–426.
products. Consequently, it is imperative for wheat pro- Inoue, Y., & Bushuk, W. (1991). Studies on frozen dough. I. Effects of
ducers and breeders to develop elite bread wheat culti- frozen storage and freeze–thaw cycles on baking and rheological
vars with value-added quality characteristics to meet properties. Cereal Chemistry, 68, 627–631.
this need. By screening for diversity in starch swelling Inoue, Y., & Bushuk, W. (1992). Studies on frozen dough. II. Flour
quality requirements for bread production from frozen dough. Cer-
properties, in addition to protein quality, breeders and eal Chemistry, 69, 423–428.
producers would be better equipped to respond faster to Kline, L., & Sugihara, T. F. (1968). Factors affecting the stability of
new market demands and create unique niche for iden- frozen bread dough I. Prepared by the straight dough method.
tity preserved wheat cultivars for various end uses, such Baker’s Digest, 42, 44–50.
as frozen dough. Kulp, K. (1995). Frozen & refrigerated doughs and batters. In
K. Kulp, K. Lorenz, & J. Brummer (Eds.), Biochemical and biophy-
sical principles of freezing (1st ed.) (pp. 63–89). St. Paul, MN: Amer.
Assoc. Cereal Chem.
Acknowledgements Lu, W., & Grant, L. (1999a). Role of flour fractions in breadmaking
quality of frozen dough. Cereal Chemistry, 76, 663–667.
Lu, W., & Grant, L. (1999b). Effects of prolonged storage at freezing
We appreciate the financial support by the North
temperatures on starch and baking quality of frozen doughs. Cereal
Dakota Wheat Commission, the State Board of Agri- Chemistry, 76, 656–662.
cultural Research and Education, and the Spring Wheat Marston, P. E. (1978). Frozen dough for breadmaking. Baker’s Digest,
Bakers. Technical assistance by the NDSU Cereal 52, 18–20, 37.
Science HRS Wheat Quality team and the statistical Merritt, P. P. (1960). The effect of preparation on the stability and
advice of Dr. Richard Horsley are gratefully appreciated. performance of frozen, unbaked, yeast-leavened doughs. Baker’s
Digest, 34, 57–58.
Miura, H., & Sugawara, A. (1996). Dosage effects of the three Wx
genes on amylose synthesis in wheat endosperm. Theoretical and
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