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Федеральное агентство по образованию

Государственное образовательное учреждение


высшего профессионального образования
«Владимирский государственный гуманитарный университет»

Галицкая С. Ю., Дружинин А. С.

CONTINUOUS ASPECT: REFERENCE AND PRACTICE


Учебно – методическая разработка

Владимир 2009
ББК 81.432.1
УДК 43

Галицкая, С. Ю. Continuous aspect: reference and practice: учебно –


методическая разработка / С. Ю. Галицкая, А. С. Дружинин. – Владимир:
ВГГУ, 2009. – 49 с.

В учебно-методической разработке представлено систематизированное


теоретическое обоснование и подробное объяснение значений четырех форм
Continuous (Present, Present Perfect, Past, Future) с учетом предполагаемых
сложностей, которые могут возникнуть при изучении данного
грамматического правила, проводится сравнение и сопоставление
параллельных случаев употребления некоторых времен, таких как Future
Continuous и Present Continuous, Present Perfect Continuous и Past Continuous,
рассматриваются факторы, определяющие выбор между формами Continuous
и Indefinite, Perfect и Perfect Continuous. Каждый раздел снабжен рядом
тренировочных упражнений и контрольных тестов разнообразного характера
и уровня сложности, составленных на основе авторитетных словарных
источников и учебной литературы. В разработку также включены
приложения, представляющие собой справочную информацию по правилам
орфографии Participle I и список некоторых окказиональных случаев
употребления изучаемых временных форм с примерами и переводом.
Предлагаемый материал адресован студентам I-III курсов факультета
иностранных языков англо-немецкого отделения и может быть использован в
широкой практике преподавания и самостоятельного изучения английского
языка с целью повышения общего уровня владения английской грамматикой
до продвинутого уровня.
доктор фил. Наук, проф. Кафедры
английского языка ГОУ ВПО
Ответственный за выпуск:
«ВГГУ» Левина Т. В.
канд. пед. наук, доцент кафедры
Рецензенты: методики преподавания
иностранных языков ГОУ «ВГГУ»
Максимова О.А.

канд. пед. наук, доцент кафедры


профессиональной языковой
подготовки ВЮИ ФСИН России
Романова Е.Н.
Печатается по решению редакционно-издательского совета ВГГУ
© Владимирский государственный гуманитарный университет, 2009

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INTRODUCTION

Progressive (Continuous) Aspect

With progressive aspect, the focus is principally on the duration of the event. It
may therefore be used to indicate that something is ongoing, unfinished or that it is
extended but temporary. It may indicate that something is/was/will be already in
progress when something else happens/happened. In other words, the focus is not
on the starting or the finishing point of an event, but on the event as seen from its
centre. Examples are given below.
Progressive aspect involves the use of auxiliary be and the ing form of a lexical
verb.

1. [on the present an ongoing process at the moment


telephone] It’s progressive of speaking
about half past two
and I’m
approaching Lyon.
2. He has been present perfect continuing from a year ago till now
doing some progressive and possibly into the future
research for an MP
for about a year.
3. My knees were past progressive
an ongoing process at the point in
shaking. the past the speaker is referring to
4. This had been past perfect continuing from September till the
going on since progressive moment in the past the speaker is
September. talking about
5. I’ll be working future progressive will be an ongoing process at the
when you get home. point in the future the speaker is
referring to
6.We’ll have been future perfect will continue from twelve years
living twelve years progressive before till the moment in the future
soon. referred to by ‘soon’
7. It must have modal perfect an ongoing process probably
been going on for progressive occurring over a period of time
years. leading up to now or up to a point in
the past

Some of the sentences in the table above are better understood in contrast with
their possible meanings of their simple form equivalents:
2. He has done some research…this sees the action more as a completed event,
and could mean – though not necessarily – the action is finished
3. My knees shook. – This could mean the knees shook for a defined period of time
(a few seconds, e.g.) then stopped.

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6. I’ll work when you get home. – This could mean ‘I’ll start work when you get
home’.

(From Carter, R. Cambridge


Grammar of English / R. Carter, M. McCarty. – Cambridge: Cambridge University
Press, 2006.)

§ 1. THE PRESENT CONTINUOUS

§ 1.1.

•The Present Continuous denotes actions going on at the moment of speaking and
situations developing or changing over a period of present time. At this very
moment the fact that such actions continue is important.
Look, how happily they are playing!
We are doing a lot of driving these days.
Such adverbials and adverbs as at the moment, (right) now, still, these days, at
present, day by day, with every passing day and the comparative degree of
adjectives or adverbs may be used.
He is still doing his homework.
Prices are rising higher and higher.
•The Present Indefinite denotes actions of the same characteristic with certain
verbs that are not used in progressive (all the deficient modal verbs, link verbs,
verbs of general sense perception, emotional state and mental ability).

Note 1. However, it should be kept in mind that the restriction of usage of one
or another verb does not often relate to the whole number of meanings it may
express.

Verb Indefinite Continuous


to be •Used as a linking verb. •To behave, to act.
The children are usually The children are being very
quiet. quiet.
Дети обычно спокойные. Что-то дети приутихли.
to have •To own, possess. •To do.
China has a large population. He is having a bath.
В Китае большое Он принимает ванну.
население.
to smell •To have a particular smell. •To put your nose near
She smells of garlic. something in order to discover
От нее пахнет чесноком. what kind of smell it has.
•To notice or recognize a I am smelling the flowers.
particular smell. Я нюхаю цветы.
Do you smell something
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burning?
Чувствуете, пахнет
гарью?

to taste • To have a particular kind of • To eat or drink a small amount


taste. of something to see what it is
The milk tastes sour. like
Это молоко прокисло. “Stop eating the cake”. “I’m just
• To experience or recognize tasting if it is OK”.
the taste of food or drink. – Хватит есть торт. – Я
Do (can) you taste the ginger просто пробую, какой он. [11]
in this cake?
Чувствуете вкус имбиря в
этом торте? [16]

to weigh To have a particular weight. To use a machine to discover


He weighs 67 kg. how much something or
Он весит 67 кг. [1] someone weighs.
I am weighing myself.
Я взвешиваюсь. [1]
to To be a particular size, To find the size, length, or
measure length, or amount. amount of something.
The room measures 6x6 Now I am measuring the room. [1]
metres. [10] Сейчас я измеряю комнату.
Площадь комнаты 36 кв. м.
/ Комната 6 метров в
длину и 6 метров в ширину.
to feel •To notice something that is • To touch something with your
happening to you. fingers to find out about it.
I feel myself blushing. The doctor is feeling the boy’s
Чувствую, что краснею. [11] arm to see whether the bone was
• To give you a particular broken.
physical feeling, especially Врач ощупывает руку
when you touch or hold мальчика, чтобы определить,
something. сломана ли кость. [16]
The clothes still feel slightly • To experience a particular
damp. physical feeling or emotion* (see
Note2)
Одежда еще сырая на .
ощупь. [16] You can never tell what he is
• To have a particular feeling.
opinion. Никогда не знаешь, что у него
Liz's parents feel she isn't old на душе. [8,15]
enough to leave home.
Родители Лизы полагают,
что она не повзрослела
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настолько, чтобы уехать
из дома. [9,15]
to look • To have a particular • To turn your eyes towards
appearance*. something, so that you can see it.
How do I look?[11] Don’t be afraid, she is not
Как я выгляжу? looking.
Не бойся, она не смотрит. [9,15]
•To seem*.
The future’s looking good[9].
Будущее кажется неплохим.

to hear • To know that a sound is •To listen to and judge a case in


being made, using your ears. court.
Old Zeke doesn't hear too Which judge is hearing the case?
well any more. Какой судья разбирает
У старика Зика уже не (слушает) это дело? [16]
такой острый слух. [16] • To imagine you can hear a
• To listen to. sound when really there is no
Do you hear someone moving sound.
about in the next room? I don’t think I am hearing things.
Слышите, кто-то ходит в Не думаю, что мне
соседней комнате? [16] послышалось. [9]
• To be told or find out a
piece of information.
I hear you're moving to
Toronto.
Слышал, ты переезжаешь
в Торонто. [15]
to see • To notice or examine • To watch a television
someone or something, using programme, play, film etc
your eyes. What film are you seeing?[11]
Do you see the green bird Что за фильм вы смотрите?
near the stream? [16] •To spend time with somebody
Видите зеленую птичку у (often used in progressive)
ручья? Are you seeing anyone?
• To be able to use your eyes Ты с кем-нибудь
to look at things. встречаешься? [2,9]
Dad doesn’t see as well as he •To imagine that you see
used to. someone or something which is
У папы зрение не такое not really there.
острое, как раньше. [8, 10, 15] There is no one here, you are
• To understand. (must be) seeing things.
I see what you mean. Здесь нет никого, тебе
Понятно, что вы имеете в чудится. [10]
виду. •To meet with.
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• To make sure or check that She is seeing a client at the
something is done. moment. [3]
The hotel's owners see to it Сейчас она на встрече с
that their guests are given клиентом.
every luxury.
Владельцы гостиницы
заботятся о том, чтобы
их гостям предоставлялась
вся роскошь. [9,15]

to know •To have information, •To recognize.


experience; to be sure, to be I feel I am knowing the city for
familiar. the first time.
I don’t know him very well. [9, Я чувствую, что впервые
10]
узнаю этот город. [11]
Я его знаю не очень
хорошо.
to •To have an opinion. •To use your mind to decide
consider, I consider it necessary to something.
to think inform him. I am still considering your
I think it is necessary to request.
inform him. Я все еще рассматриваю вашу
заявку. [10,15]
Wait a minute, I am thinking.
Подожди минуту, я думаю.
to •To seem, to give an •To take part in a film, play, etc.
appear impression. The opera singer is appearing on
He appears to be working. stage tonight.
Кажется, он работает. Сегодня на сцене споет
оперная певица. [3]
to expect •To think something is •To be waiting for somebody to
probably true. arrive (often used in progressive
‘Will you be late?’ ‘I expect tenses).
[10]
so’. Are you expecting visitors?
– Ты будешь поздно? – Ты ждешь посетителей? [10,15]
Наверное. •To think that something will
•To demand that someone happen because it seems likely
does something because it is a or has been planned.
duty or seems reasonable. We are expecting a rise in food
The school expects a lot of its prices this month. [10]
students. [10] Мы ожидаем рост цен на
Школа возлагает большие продукты в этом месяце.
надежды на своих
учеников.
to fit •To be the right size, shape. •To put or fix something
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The key fits the lock. [15] somewhere.
Ключ точно подходит к My car is in the garage today.
замку. They are fitting new brakes. [7]
Моя машина сегодня в
гараже. В нее устанавливают
новые тормоза.
to •To think that something is •To have a false or wrong idea
imagine true or may happen, but about something.
without being sure or having There is nobody here, you’re
proof. imagining things.
A very complicated subject, I Здесь нет никого, тебе
imagine. чудится. [16]
Очень сложная тема, я
считаю (мне
представляется). [16]

Note 2. The verbs to feel and to look can be used in certain meanings in either
tense when a continuous action is in question. These meanings are marked above
by the symbol “*” (e.g. I think Reg is looking very tired[8]; How are you feeling
today?[10]). Other verbs of this type to be considered are the following:
a) to sound used in progressive when the question is about the upcoming changes:
The car sounds/is sounding a bit rough these days.
b) to love and to like used in progressive in the meaning ‘to enjoy’ when talking
about specific actions:
How are you liking your new job? [16]
Jean’s with us at the moment. The children are loving having
[3]
her here.
c) to itch used often in progressive when the question is about living things:
My hands are itching terribly[9].
My label on this shirt itches me[9].

Note 3. All the verbs of mental and emotional state generally not used in
progressive can be found in the continuous form when the ideas they express are to
be emphasized (often it is connected with the difference in style – see §1.3) or they
indicate a developing process:
I am understanding things better now as I started going to the
[3]
lectures.
What is he wanting this time, I wonder?[16]
Чего же он хочет (ему понадобилось) на этот раз,
интересно?

•The Present Indefinite denotes actions going on at or around the moment of


speaking

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with certain the verbs that due to their semantic peculiarities express prolongation:
to continue; to last; to keep (on) doing smth; to progress (продолжаться); to
go on (продолжать).
Now I continue it.
She keeps crying.
Daddy, he keeps on hitting me! [8]
I go on with the dynamite none the less[B. Shaw].
Note. The verb to miss is rarely used in the Present Progressive due to its semantic
peculiarities:
I miss the car really, but the bus system is good[8].
I miss you so much!

•The Present Indefinite denotes actions going on at the moment of speaking in


certain constructions:
1) in exclamatory sentences after here, there[16]:
Here (there) he comes!
Here comes the bus!
Here you go! Вот, бери!
There you go! Вот, возьмите!
Here goes! Приступим! Начнем!
Here we go! Начинается!
2) in special questions beginning with who and ending in here, there[16]:
Who comes there? Who goes here?
3) in why don’t/doesn’t- questions when it is unnecessary to accentuate the actual
progress of the action by the continuous form (the situation is well-known).
Compare:
Why don’t you play? (someone has just stopped playing and
the speaker asks him why; ‘Why aren’t you playing?’ would sound excessive);
Why don’t you play golf? (=in general, like ‘why don’t you
like to play golf?’);
Why aren’t you playing golf? (someone is supposed to be
playing golf at the moment of speech but he is busy with something different, and
the speaker asks him why).

Exercises

Ex. 1. Divide the verbs in italics of the sentences given below into 4 groups
according to the types of meaning they imply
1) a state; 2) an emphasized idea; 3) a developing or changing situation; 4) a
progressive action at the moment of speech.

a) He is considering taking early retirement; b) It looks as if it’s going to rain; c)


I’m loving this film; d) I’m understanding biology a lot better now that we’ve got a
new teacher; e) Do you think it is a good idea? f) John is feeling worse today; g) I
am feeling the radiator; h) Are you wanting a smack?
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Ex. 2 Match the sentences with the appropriate variants of their translation

1 a You are clever enough. а Какой ты сегодня умный!


b You are being clever today. б Ты достаточно умен.
2 a I’m not silly. а Я не глуп.
b I’m not being silly. б Я не придуриваюсь.
3 a He is funny. а Да это он шутит.
b He is being funny. б Он забавный.
4 а Mary is being an idiot. а Мэри идиотка.
b Mary is an idiot. б Мэри ведет себя по-идиотски.
5 a John is a policeman. а Джон – полицейский.
b John is being a policeman. б Джон ведет себя как полицейский.
6 a He is being angry. а Он зол (он разозлился).
b He is angry. б Да он (только) сейчас такой сердитый.
7 a He knows that he is being а Он знает, что он человек ученый и
scientific and restrained. сдержанный.
b He knows that he is scientific б Он знает, что ведет себя, как
and restrained подобается человеку ученому и
сдержанному.
8 a The washing machine sounds а Стиральная машина издает какие-то
a little strange. странные звуки.
b The washing machine is б Что-то стиральная машина
sounding a little strange. подозрительно шумит.
9 a I regret my decision to her the а Я начинаю жалеть, что дал ей эту
job. работу.
b I am regretting my decision б Я жалею, что дал ей эту работу.
to give her the job.
10 a I feel more confident these а За последние дни я почувствовал себя
days. увереннее.
b I’m feeling more confident б Теперь я чувствую себя увереннее.
these days.
11 a Do you see what I have а Вам видно, что я написал?
written? б Вы видите, что я написал?
b Can you see what I have
written?

Ex. 3. Match the sentences with the appropriate variants of their translation
1) Daddy! He keeps on hitting a) Мне действительно не хватает
me! машины;
2) Here he comes! b) Пап, он опять меня бьет!
3) Here you go! c) Поехали!
4) Here goes! d) Вот он идет;
5) This comes hoping to find e) Дело проясняется!

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you well. f) Я пишу тебе и надеюсь, что у
6) I miss the car really. тебя все хорошо;
7) I cannot hear you well. g) Вас плохо слышно;
8) Oh, why don’t you listen?! h) Вот, возьмите!
9) Out it comes! i) Да ты меня совсем не слушаешь!

Ex. 4. Name
1) 4 verbs of perception (see the table above) that are often found with the
modal can to express ‘noticing things using your senses’;
2) All the expressions meaning different kind of hallucinations;
3) The verbs (see the table above) which are grammatically restricted to be
always used in progressive when expressing certain meanings;
4) The modal verb which is particularly often used in the expressions meaning
different kind of hallucinations;
5) The verb which is rarely found in progressive though it is not stative or the
one which expresses prolongation;
6) 2 verbs which are most frequently found in the exclamatory sentences after
here and there;
7) All the verbs from the table which can mean ‘to understand’;
8) All the verbs from the table which can mean ‘to have an opinion’.

Ex. 5. Complete the sentences with the verbs given, using negatives or
questions where necessary. Use the same verb for each sentence in the pair.
Choose the present continuous or the present simple
consider consist of expect look feel fit have like measure

1) a I hear you’re having your house repainted. How it ….?


b I bought this new dress today. How it …?

2) a A: What are you doing with that ruler? B: I …the area of the kitchen.
b The garden …12 by 20 metres.

3) a They ….to reach the top of the mountain by evening.


b We …Jean to visit us in June if she can get a cheap flight.

4) a I …selling my house and buying a flat.


b Many people …her to be the finest violinist in the country at the moment.

5) a Mike won’t work at the top of the 20-storey building because he …heights.
b A: How’s the new job? B: Well, at the moment I …it at all.

6) a My car’s in the garage today. They …new brakes.


b I bought this jumper for Sue, but it …her so I’ll have to take it back.
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7) a What’s your shirt made from? It …like silk.
b I won’t be coming to work today. I …very well.

8) a The roof of the house …only plastic sheets nailed down in a few places.
b Their school uniform …now black trousers and a dark green jumper.

9) a I had a postcard from Joanne on holiday in Spain. It sounds like she …a really
good time.
b My sister …long blonde hair. You’re bound to recognize her.

Ex. 6. Change the following sentences using the Present Indefinite to express
the same idea
Model: Look! He is coming. – Here he comes!
I am still writing the article, I have not stopped doing it. – I continue to
write the article.

1) He is cheating again! 2) Look! Your husband is coming. 3) What is humming, I


wonder? 4) She is still thinking of him. 5) I am still working at the paper. 6) Our
bus is arriving at last! 7) I am feeling terrible without you. 8) Mike is getting on
my nerves. 9) She is not going back home. I don’t know why.

Ex. 7. Choose the appropriate explanations of the verbal forms used in the
sentences below (you can have more than one variant)
1) I am depending on you.
a) ‘to depend on’ is used here emphatically;
b) it expresses a developing situation;
c) it expresses a temporary state of affairs;
d) the verb ‘depend on’ can be used in progressive when it does not indicate
permanent or abstract characteristics like ‘it depends on circumstances’ or
‘children depend on their parents’.
2) Which guest is missing?
a) ‘to miss’ is used here emphatically;
b) it can be used in progressive in this meaning;
c) it is not a verb;
d) it expresses a changing situation.
3) Why aren’t you wearing your glasses?
a) the use of the continuous form is obligatory here as the sentence ‘why don’t you
wear your glasses’ may indicate a habit or a usual action;
b) the use of the continuous form is optional here;
c) why don’t/doesn’t–questions are often used with intransitive verbs;
d) the verb ‘to wear’ is never used in the simple tenses when the question is about
a specific action.
4) He is forgetting his French.
a) ‘to forget’ is used here emphatically;
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b) it expresses a developing situation;
c) it can be used in either form, simple or progressive;
d) this use is an exclusion.
5) The house looks east.
a) the continuous form is possible here too;
b) ‘to look’ in this meaning is never used in progressive;
c) it indicates a permanent characteristic therefore the Present Continuous cannot
be used;
d) it is a linking verb, linking verbs are never used in progressive.
6) I feel like having a drink.
a) ‘to feel’ in this meaning is never used in progressive;
b) it is part of the idiom ‘to feel like’ which is not used in progressive;
c) the continuous form is possible here too;
d) it expresses a habitual action therefore the continuous form is inadequate.

Ex. 8. Open the brackets choosing between the Present Continuous and the
Present Indefinite. Explain the meanings of the verbs and translate the
sentences
1) What the perfume (smell) like? 2) It (smell) in here. 3) She (smell) the cakes
cooking in the kitchen. 4) This yoghurt (taste) of strawberries. 5) He says he (taste)
freedom at last after he has left his parents. 6) You still (feel) hungry? 7) I (feel)
sorry for him. 8) I (feel) your arms going round me. 9) How it (feel) to be 40? 10)
He (feel) guilty for not writing to her. 11) I still (feel) this thing and can’t
understand what it is made of. 12) I (feel) sure you will succeed. 13) It (look) like
they won’t be needing us any more. 14) Why he (look) so sad? 15) ‘Can I help
you?’ ‘No, thanks, I just (look). 16) He’s had another heart attack, things (look)
bad for him, I’m afraid. 17) This year’s sales figures (look) good.18) I (hear) what
you are saying, but you are wrong. 19) I (hear) you’ve been away this weekend.
20) The Supreme Court (hear) the case at the moment. 21) Marge still (see) Tom?
22) I (itch) all over. 23) You really (expect) me to believe you? 24) I (expect) him
to arrive today. 25) Don’t pay attention, I (imagine) things. 26) Despite all these
warnings people (continue) to smoke.

Ex. 9. Translate
1) Он по-прежнему работает над своим динамитом. 2) От тебя пахнет вином.
3) Тебе видно, что она сегодня сама не своя (strange)? 4) Ну что, приступим!
5) Мне совсем не слышно, что он там говорит. 6) Я очень скучаю по ней и в
очередной раз пишу письмо! 7) Она все кричит и кричит. Я, право, узнаю ее
с новой стороны (in a new light). 8) – Что-то Майкл приутих. – Он смотрит
новости спорта по телевизору. Вообще, он человек говорливый (loquacious).
– Мне кажется, это ты что-то разговорился. 9) Сегодня она выглядит
превосходно, не правда ли?10) – Почему ты не покупаешь это? – Я просто
смотрю. 11) Нет, мне все правильно слышится (я не ослышался): вы
продолжаете говорить ерунду. 12) Джулия думала про себя: «Почему же он
меня не целует?» 13) Он сейчас следит за тем, чтобы комнаты приводили в
13
порядок (to be straightened up). 14) Она еще встречается с Джоном? 15) Я весь
чешусь! 16) Каково это, зарабатывать на жизнь самостоятельно? 17) Цифры
действительно впечатляют в этом году! (to look good) 18) В салате
чувствуется привкус чеснока. 19) Я жду приезда брата. 20) Ты слишком
многого от меня хочешь (ожидаешь). 21) Все выглядит по-другому. 22)
Почему он выглядит таким сердитым? 23) Город спит. (to lie sleeping)

§1.2.

The Present Indefinite The Present Continuous

1. Is used to express a regular, 1. Can be used to describe a regular


habitual activity (with the activity at a certain time:
adverbs of frequency):
At 8 o’clock I usually At 8 o’clock I’m usually driving to work,
drive to work (=I start driving at so phone me on my mobile (=I’m already in
8) [3]. the process of driving) [3].
2. •Is used with speech act verbs 2. •Can be used with some speech act verbs
(apologize, admit, advise, agree, (apologize, deny, guarantee, promise,
beg, confess, congratulate, suggest) in negative sentences:
declare, deny, forbid, guarantee, I don’t deny/I’m not denying taking the
name, order, permit, predict, books, but Andy said it would be OK[7].
promise, refuse, remind, request,
say, swear, tell, thank, warn) to
express declaration,
announcement, observation
referring to the moment of
speech. In this case the speaker
performs actions by saying the
words[1]:
It says here that the police
expect more trouble in the city.
I declare the exhibition
over.
•In a similar way, the Present • The continuous form is characteristic here
Indefinite is used in formal of a less formal style (§1.3.).
statements and in business or
legal communication (various
verbs can be found in this case)
[3]
:
I choose the first stage.
I write to inform you that…

I leave this letter open for

14
everybody to read.
3. Is generally used to express
suppositions, assertions
characterizing the speaker’s
attitude to the situation which is
going on at the moment of
speech:
You leave me no choice[14].
You talk as if you were a
[14]
child .
In a similar way, this use of the
Present Indefinite relates to
describing feelings and reactions
or immediate perceptions
experienced at the moment of
speech[3]:
Oh, mummy! That hurts!
4. Both the Present Continuous and Indefinite tenses can be found in live
commentaries on events taking place at the moment, particularly on radio or
and television. In such cases the Present Indefinite describes rapid actions
completed at the moment of speaking while the Present Continuous describes
longer-lasting actions[1,7]:
MacFee passes to Franklyn. Franklyn makes a quick pass to Booth.
Booth is away with the ball, but he’s losing his advantage.
5. Used when referring to the 5. Expresses actions describing what is
contents of books, films, etc.: shown in different images (photos,
In the film John Smithson pictures, etc.). It seems as if the actions
takes a role of a private were taking place before our eyes[3]:
detective[7]. We can see Marry in the photo. She is
sitting in the armchair.
6. The Present Indefinite and the Present Continuous are used in the so-called
“dramatic narration” in stories to make them vivid. The main events
described in sequence are used with the present Indefinite and longer
background events are described using the Present Continuous[1,3]:
I am driving along this country road and I’m completely lost. Then I see
this old fellow. He is leaning against a gate. I stop the car and ask him the way.
7. The Present Indefinite and the Present Continuous are used in newspaper
headlines and photographic captions.
The Present Indefinite is used to The abbreviated Present Continuous refers
refer to past events[1]: to the future (the infinitive is also possible
FREAK SNOW STOPS in this case) [1]:
TRAFFIC CABINET MINISTER RESIGNING
SOON

15
Exercises

Ex. 10. Identify the tenses and match them with the correct description

1) Smith going forward now, and a) a progressive action at the moment


Henry staying behind. of speaking;
2) You talk in riddles, really. b) a completed action in a newspaper
3) He is smoking 20 cigarettes a headline;
day. c) an action giving a general
4) He smokes 20 cigarettes a day. characteristic within a present period of
5) I admit I can’t see as well as I time which is indefinite;
used to. d) actions commented at the moment of
6) FIRE BREAKS OUT IN A speaking (with the abbreviated
HOTEL ROOM. continuous form);
7) 7 o’clock is a bit early. We are e) a regular activity at a given moment
generally eating then of time;
8) What are you drinking? f) an action performed be saying the
9) What do you drink? word;
g) an action giving a temporary
characteristic;
h) an action viewed as a supposition;
i) a habitual action.

Ex. 11. Match the beginnings of the sentences with their endings
1)I am working as a teacher… a) …at the canteen;
2) FOREIGNER MINISTERS b) …in a month.
RESIGNING… c) …but I am an engineer by
3) You speak… profession.
4) Commonly, I am having d) … to someone very eagerly in this
breakfast… picture. Who is that?
5) You are speaking… e) …at 11, so do not come until 11:30.
6) Commonly, I have breakfast … f) …like a child.

Ex. 12. Complete the dialogue with the answers addressed to your friend who
is going to call you
A: 9 is a bit early, isn’t it?
B: Yes, at this time my family and I …(have breakfast).
A: What about 11?
B: You know, at 11 in the morning I usually (do my room).
A: What would you say to midday?
B: Hm. At noon I (take my dog out for a run), maybe, a bit later?
A: Let me call you at two.
16
B: Oh, I almost forget. At two I always (phone my mother), she lives in Germany.
A: Will 3 be all right?
B: I’m afraid, not. At 3 we normally (have dinner).
A: So, at 5 o’clock you are busy too, aren’t you?
B: Perhaps. At 5 I commonly (have a swim), call me at 7.
A. Oh, 7 is my busiest time. I usually (do lots of things) at 7.

Ex. 13. Add to each sentence a speech act verb given in brackets to make a
statement expressing the same idea
Model. I am not going to do this (refuse) = I refuse to do it.

1) I will do my best to provide her with money (guarantee). 2) Let’s come to my


house for a cup of tea (ask). 3) Why not have a walk about the park? (suggest). 3) I
didn’t break the window (deny). 4) Sorry, I have troubled you a lot (apologize). 5)
This meeting is open (declare). 6) You were nervous just before your driving test
(bet). 7) This ship is called Beatrice II (name, use “they…”). 8) I saw tears in her
eyes (swear). 9) I won’t forget about it (promise).

Ex.14. Complete the story using either the present simple or the present
continuous form of the verbs given. Each verb can be used once [5]
come continue go not have notice see not shine swerve (сворачивать)
walk wear

A man …(1) home along a deserted country road after being at a late-night party.
The road isn’t busy, so the man …(2) in the middle of the road. There are no street
lights to illuminate the road and the moon …(3). The man …(4) dark clothes.
Suddenly a car …(5) down the road well over the speed limit. It …(6) its
headlights on. At the last moment the driver …(7) the man in the road and …(8) to
avoid him. The man hardly …(9) the near miss and …(10) on his way home.
How does the driver manage to see the man walking in the middle of the
road?
Ex. 15. Open the brackets using either the Present Continuous or the Present
Indefinite
1) I went to a concert yesterday in Town Hall. In the middle of it, while the
orchestra (play) this man (stand) on his seat and (start) to conduct them. 2) A man
(arrive) home late one night after the office Christmas party. His wife (wait) for
him, and she (say) to him…3) Beckham (pass) to Giggs who (shoot) just over the
bar. Manchester United (attack) much more in this half. 4) I certainly (agree) with
you that people shouldn’t drink and drive. 5) Oxford (draw) slightly ahead of
Cambridge now; they (row) with a beautiful rhythm; Cambridge (look) a little
disorganized. 6) And Smith (pass) to Davaney, Devaney to Barnes, Barnes across
to Lucas – and Taylor (intercept), Taylor to Peters – and he (shoot) – and it’s a
goal! Whitney (lead) by three goals to nil in the first half. 7) The novel is a
historical romance set in London in the 1880’s. The action (take) place over a
period of 30 years. 8) Paris is a wonderful place. I like the food here and I (eat) like
17
mad. 9) I (give up), you (win). 10) Why (not agree) to come with me? I (ask) you
as a friend! 11) (in a letter) Dear Tom, I (enclose) the money for your tips as I
shan’t see you in the morning. 12) I (tell) you’ve got the makings of a great
actress!

Ex. 16. Translate


1) Ты говоришь загадками (in riddles)! Я прошу тебя, изъясняйся проще. 2) Я
пишу Вам, чтобы известить о несчастном случае. 3) В шестой главе Томпсон
дает подробное описание этой деревни. 4) На этой фотографии Анна
собирает букет цветов. Красиво, не правда ли? 5) Обычно в полвосьмого я
отвожу детей в школу, поэтому меня не будет дома, позвоните в десять. 6) А!
Жжется! 7) Она подходит к этому мужчине и смотрит прямо ему в глаза. Он
без очков (to wear), поэтому он ее не узнает. 8) Бэкхэм делает пас Руни, тот
бьет по мячу и забивает гол. «Манчестер» ведет три ноль. 9) Я сомневаюсь,
что это произойдет. Спорим, он откажется от участия в конкурсе! 10) Ты
целуешь ее так, как будто бы боишься, что стоишь на сквозняке. 11) «Мы
будем вас ждать», – воскликнул Эндрю. – «Да я вас как друг приглашаю» (to
ask). 12) Взгляни на заголовок: «Распускается Верховная Рада».

§ 1.3. The Present Continuous vs. the Present Indefinite (Stylistic and emotive
difference)

1) The forms of the Present Indefinite and the Present Continuous differ
stylistically: the former is characteristic of colloquial speech while the latter is
more official used to make a request, enquiry or statement of opinion more
indirect, often out of politeness (see Ex. 16):
I hope you can lend me $10.
I am hoping you can lend me $10. [11]
However, the Present Continuous is inadequate in business or legal
communication, as in this case it is not already felt as a characteristic of a formal
style: [3,7]
We are writing to let you know…(less formal)
We write to advise you…
2) The form of the Present Continuous sometimes serves to express implied
negation with a shade of irony (in case the form of the Present Indefinite is
inadequate):
He helps me every day
He is helping me every day! Как же, помогает он мне!
[11]

3) The adverbs always, constantly, continually, forever, perpetually, repeatedly,


incessantly can be used with progressive forms to describe
a) continually-repeated actions which have already become a characteristic of a
person or an object and are often intentionally exaggerated by the speaker to
express irritation, reproach, etc.:
18
I am always hearing strange stories about him.
You are constantly changing your mind!
b) continual processes for the sake of emphasis:
Our planet is forever moving around the Sun. [1,11]
Наша планета как вращалась, так и будет
вращаться вокруг Солнца.
4) The Present Continuous may be found to express an emphatic denial or an
intention not to do something[11]:
Sorry, you are not taking my car. [11]
I’m not asking Tom to the party. [7]
I’m never going home![E.O’Brien]
Я не пойду домой никогда в жизни!

Exercises

Ex. 17. Match the sentences with the appropriate variants of their translation:

1 a I hope you can lend me $10. а Хотел бы надеяться, что ты одолжишь


b I am hoping you can lend me мне десять долларов
$10. б Надеюсь, ты одолжишь мне десять
долларов.
2 a Please, let us know what time а Пожалуйста, дайте нам знать, во
you plan to arrive. сколько вы планируете приехать.
b Please, let us know what time б Пожалуйста, дайте нам знать, во
you are planning to arrive. сколько вы собираетесь приехать.
3 a I look forward to seeing you а Буду рад увидеться.
again. б С нетерпением жду новой встречи.
b I am looking forward to
seeing you again.
4 а Are you wanting a muffin, а Хочешь кекса, Петр?
Peter? б Не хочется кекса, Петр?
b Do you want a muffin, Peter?
5 a I wonder whether you а Интересно, ты все их посчитал?
counted them all? б Я просто точно не знаю, ты все их
b I am wondering whether you посчитал?
counted them all?
6 a I don’t suggest that you are а Я не говорю, что ты лжешь, но это
lying, but it is very misleading. очень путано.
b I am not suggesting that you б Я не то, что бы говорю, что ты лжешь,
are lying, but it is very misleading. но это очень путано.
7 a The Volga is forever flowing а Волга впадает в Черное море.
into the Black Sea. б Волга впадала, впадает и будет
b The Volga flows into the впадать в Черное Море.
Black Sea.

19
Ex. 18. Convert the sentences according to the model
Your friend asks you for a pen (take). – Sorry, you are not taking my pen.
You do not know where House Five is situated, you ask a passenger (wonder). –
I am wondering, could you tell me where House Five is situated?
1) Your friend makes a mistake in his paper (suggest). 2) You ask your boss for an
extra day-off (hope). 3) Nice to have met you! It would be fine to see you again
(look forward). 4) Your little son wants to go out late in the evening (go out). 5)
You are not going to leave your things in the cloakroom (leave). 6) Your glasses
are broken and you ask you fellow-passenger to help him by giving his own
glasses for a while (wonder). 7) You have lost your key and your mother is looking
for it (hope).

Ex.19. Expand one of the sets of notes below to complete each dialogue.
continually/chan perpetually/criticiz repeatedly/moa always/com Forever/
ge/mind e/driving n/work plain/ ask
handwriting me/mon
ey

1) A: I can’t read this. B: You’re……………………


2) A: Can I borrow $10? B: You’re ………………….
3) A: That was a dangerous thing to do. B: You’re …………….
4) A: I think I’ll stay here after all. B: You’re ……………..
5) A: I had a bad day at the office again. B: You’re ……………..
Try to make up your own sentences to complete the following dialogues:
6) A: The car has broken down again. B: It……..
7) A: Look! You’ve made the same mistake again! B: Oh, no, not again. I
………
8) A: Oh, I’ve left the lights on again. B: Typical! You………..
9) A: Please, do it without me, there is a very interesting programme on TV. B:
You ……
10) A: Sorry, I’m a little late. B: You ……

Ex. 20. Translate


1) – Я прямо и не знаю, сможете ли вы мне помочь. – Я сомневаюсь. 2) Она
постоянно критикует наше правительство. 3) Буду рад получить ваш ответ.
Хотел бы надеяться, что он будет положительным. 4) Поймите меня
(suggest), это не то чтобы неправильно, но все-таки следует исправить в
некоторых местах. 5) – Я надеюсь, что все наконец-то получится. – Да уж,
хотелось бы надеяться. 6) Человек никогда не перестанет совершать ошибки!
7) Извини, но я не разрешаю тебе уходить. 8) Я пишу тебе не просто так. 9)
Как же, моет он посуду! 10) Он с роду забывает свой телефон дома. 11)
Дорогой Том, я оставляю в конверте (to enclose) деньги тебе в качестве
скромного подарка (for your tips).

Revision Test
20
Ex. 21. Complete this conversation between two ex-colleagues who have not
seen each other for some time. Choose the appropriate forms of the verbs in
brackets
A (only Present Simple), B (only Present Continuous), C (both the tenses are
possible without any difference) or D (both the tenses are possible but it makes
difference in meaning or style).

Dave: So, Matt, how are things with you? You ...1…(look) very well. I…2…(hear)
you …3…(do) OK for yourself.
Matt: I can’t complain. I…4…(run) my own consultancy business. It’s pretty hard
work, but I…5…(enjoy) the challenge.
Dave: So you …6…(not regret) leaving your safe job at the bank, then?
Matt: Not a bit. I…7…(admit) it was a bit scary to start with, but now I…8…
(realise) it’s the best move I’ve ever made.
Dave: That’s great! I…9…(just wonder) whether you …10…(look) for any senior
staff at the moment?
Matt: Well, I could be. But you…11…(not want) to move do you?
Dave: To be honest, Matt, I …12…(think) about it- I’ve been with Evergreen for
nearly five years. I’ve got about as far as I can with them. I …13…(want) a
challenge.
Matt: Well, as you know, this is a specialised line of work and I …14…(confess),
I…15…(have) difficulties finding the right calibre of person.
Dave: I …16…(consider) applying for a job in Australia-the money’s good and it
would provide the challenge I…17…(need), but I…18…(not really want) to move
to the other side of the world.
Matt: Well, we’ve worked together before Dave-I …19…(believe) we could do it
again. I…20…(expect) you’d have to give Evergreen a month’s notice, wouldn’t
you?
Dave: Yes, probably.
Matt: Listen, Dave, I’ll give this some thought over the weekend and call you back
on Monday.
Dave: That …21…(sound) great! I…22…(look forward) to next hearing from you.

Ex. 22. Choose between the same A, B, C and D to put the verbs in brackets
into the right form in the sentences below
1) You always (imagine) dangers that do not exist.
2) I always (feel) better after a good night’s sleep.
3) I (expect) again. That’ll be my third.
4) You always (take) money from my wallet without asking.
5) I (feel) much better now, thanks.
6) I (imagine) it will rain.
7) We (expect) August to be warm and sunny.
8) I (weigh) 2 kilos less than I did this time last week.
9) I always (take) my camera with me when I go out.
21
10) As you can see, I (weigh) all the ingredients very carefully.

Ex. 23. Match each of the above extracts from conversations (1-10, Ex.22)
with the most appropriate speaker (a-j)
a) someone on a diet f) a father to his son
b) a pregnant woman g)someone making guesses about the
c) a weather forecaster weather
d) a keen photographer h) a TV chef
e) someone irritably to i) an insomniac
his/her friend j) a person returning to work after
illness
Ex. 24. Read the following newspaper stories and write a suitable headline for
each of them
1)
………………………………….
A man has escaped serious injury in a house fire in
West London. 38-year-old Ali Rashid was woken by
smoke at three o’clock on Sunday morning. Mr.
Rashid clambered through his bathroom window as
flames swept through his five-bedroom house in St
John’s Wood. According to the police, the fire almost
certainly started in Mr. Rashid’s kitchen.
2) ……………………………………………………………
More than fifty families have been trapped in their
homes since their village was hit by floods at the
weekend. The rain started on Friday evening and did not
stop until early Monday morning….

Prompt: try to make up the headlines using the words printed in italics in the appropriate form .

§ 2. THE FUTURE CONTINUOUS

§ 2.1

1. It expresses an action that will be in progress at a specified moment of time or


during a certain period in the future [1,3]. Such a moment or period is usually
indicated by:
a) an adverbial phrase:
I’ll be taking my exam at 3 tomorrow.
In two hours we’ll be flying over the Atlantic Ocean.
b) another future action introduced in the subordinate clause:
If you do this, she will be shouting at you.
The children will be sleeping when she comes.
22
c) the context where they are implied, they are understood from the situation
the speaker is involved in:
– Where will you be at 5? – I’ll be walking past your house.

2. It is used to refer to a future activity that is part of the normal course of events
or that is one of a repeated or regular series of events[1,7]:
Will you be driving to Glasgow, as usual?
The occurrence of such actions is expected and usually anticipated by the speaker:
By this time tomorrow I’ll be lying on the beach.

3. It can be used like the Present Continuous to refer to planned events and
arranged activities, particularly in connection with travel[1,7] (see § 2.2):
We’ll be spending the winter in Australia. (=we are
spending)

4. It is used to describe simple futurity, but with a ‘softening effect’ that takes
away the element of deliberate intention often implied by will[1]:
I’ll work on this tomorrow. (=intention, possibly a promise)
I’ll be working on this tomorrow. (=futurity)
I won’t see him. (=refusal)
I won’t be seeing him. (=futurity)

5. It is used in polite requests, questions and in formulae of cultural


communication, overall[1,11]:
I am afraid I shall be going.
(I’ll) be seeing you! [2]
Will you be using your pen? May I take it?

§ 2.2. The Future Continuous vs. the Present Continuous

Both the Future and Present Continuous may be used when the question is about
arranged activities or events in the future. However, the difference between the two
tense forms used to express actions of the same characteristic lies in the following:
1) The form of the Future Continuous suggests another implied action which is
dependent on or conditioned by the one already planned[16]:
I’m seeing Green tomorrow. (=it is my arrangement with
Green)
I shall be seeing Green tomorrow. (Is there anything you’d
like me to tell him?)
2) The Future Continuous often suggests casualty and sounds less definite than the
Present Continuous[16]:
I’m seeing Green tomorrow. (=we have arranged)
I shall be seeing Green tomorrow. (=I count not on the
arrangement but on the circumstances, e.g. we finish work at the same time and

23
often walk home together, that’s why it is quite possible that I’ll meet him
tomorrow)
3) The Future Continuous is used in polite questions about someone’s
arrangements or plans[16]:
Will you be going to the party?

Exercises

Ex. 25. Match the sentences with the correct descriptions and comments of
tense used there
1) Will you be driving into town а) an arranged or scheduled activity;
this afternoon? Can you give me b) an action durative at a specified moment
a lift? in the future;
2) I’ll be going to the bank c) an action which is the result of a routine;
tomorrow. d) a polite question about people’s plans;
3) Don’t worry, I’ll be waiting e) a future action which is in progress
for you at the station. because of the normal course of events.
4) Professor Craig will be giving
a lecture on Etruscan poetry
tomorrow evening.
5) It will be all plain sailing

Ex.26. Match the sentences with the appropriate variants of their translation
1 a Mary won’t pay this bill. а Мария не намерена оплачивать этот
b Mary won’t be paying this счет.
bill. б Мария не оплатит / будет оплачивать
этот счет.
2 a Will you join us for dinner?. а А не пообедать ли нам вместе?
b Will you be joining us for б А вы будете с нами обедать?
dinner?
3 a Won’t you come with us? а Вы разве с нами не пойдете?
b Won’t you be coming with б Вы не хотите пойти с нами?
us?
4 а Ann will be helping us to а Анна поможет нам с организацией
organize the party. вечеринки.
b Ann will help us to organize б Анна помогает/будет помогать нам с
the party. организацией вечеринки.

5 a Will you stay with us tonight? а Вы не хотите у нас остаться сегодня?


b Will you be staying with us б Вы останетесь у нас сегодня?
tonight?

Ex. 27. Match the sentences


1) Shall I be seeing you а) тебе сильно нужна будет эта ручка?

24
tomorrow? Могу я взять ее?
2) Will you be using your pen? б) мы направимся в самое веселое место
May I take it? на земле;
3) I shall be going; в) мне уже пора идти;
4) We’ll be visiting the most г) в субботу магазин работает последний
cheerful place in the world; день;
5) The shop will be closing д) смогу ли я вас завтра увидеть?
down for good on Saturday.

Ex. 28.Choose a verb that can complete both sentences in the pair. Use either
the Future Continuous or the Future Indefinite in different types of sentences
give leave move use work
1 a I’m sorry that the train is delayed, ladies and gentlemen, but we ….the station
as soon as the driver arrives.
b Without more cheap housing, families ….the village and find homes in town.

2 a …you …late at the office again? I want to know when to cook.


b ‘We need to get this order sent out before Monday.’ ‘Well, I…over the
weekend if that will help.

3 a I …may car until next week, so you can borrow it if you like.
b My father …a computer. He says he’s very happy with his old typewriter for
letters and doesn’t want to change now.

4 a Is your suitcase very heavy? I…you a hand with it if you like.


b Dr Sankey ….evidence at the trial of James Morgan next week.

5 a He’s parked his car across our drive and says he …it. Shall I call the police?
b The company’s headquarters closes in June, when most of the staff …ti its new
building in Madrid.

Ex. 29. Ask questions or make requests based on the information given using
the appropriate tense form (the Future Indefinite or the Future Continuous)
of the italicized verbs
Model: You are eager to read your friend’s book and you want to ask him for it. –
Will you be reading the book? May I take it?

1) The guests are planning to stay with you for the weekend. You want to ask
them about it – ____________?
2) You friend is coming to your party on Sunday. You want to ask him about it
– _____________?
3) You want to invite your friends to stay with you for the weekend. –
_________________?

25
4) You are eager to watch a new DVD-film, and your friend has it in his
collection. –________?
5) Kate is going to help you with your studies. –____________?
6) At dinner you want your mother to pass you the salt. –_________?
7) You are told by your boss that you must see him tomorrow. –
_____________?
8) You want to ask your boss if there will be any possibility to see him
tomorrow. –________?
9) Your neighbours are going downtown in their car. You need to get there too
and ask them to give you a lift. –____________?

Ex. 30. Translate


1) Когда вы сможете увидеть Мистера Уайта? 2) Не беспокойся, все пойдет
как по маслу! (to sail plain) 3) Еще неделя, и я уже буду плавать в Карибском
море каждый день. 4) Начальство (senior officials) будет обсуждать, каким
образом можно снизить объёмы продаж (volume of sales). 5) Как я понял, вы
скоро сюда переезжаете. 6) Вам сильно будет нужна машина завтра? Если
нет, одолжите? 7) Ходит слух, что она скоро выходит замуж. 8) Через
несколько часов наступит второй день чемпионата (to get into the second day).
9) Скоро в продаже появится новый урожай табака (to come in). 10) – Жаль, я
больше не буду здесь работать. – Тогда, до встречи!11) Понимаете, доктор,
вызовов больше не нужно (to be called). 12) Вы надолго здесь?

§ 3. THE PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS


§ 3.1

1. The Present Perfect Continuous is used to express the idea of an activity in


progress until recently or until the time of speaking. This occurs with for+, since+,
all + time references[1] (see Ex. 25).
I have been writing since morning.
What? I have been trying to do this all my life!
2. The present Perfect Continuous is used to express frequently repeated actions
with verbs terminative in meaning[1]:
Jim has been phoning him every night for the past week.

Note 1. The Russian adverb уже used in such a context is misleadingly translated
into English by already. As a rule, the time indicators specified in the Present
Perfect Continuous context are not used with an adverb emphasizing them as they
are in Russian. However, the word now is sometimes found to semantically
complete the idea of the period during which this action begun in the past
continues into the moment of speaking (‘I have been doing it for two hours
now’[9,10,15]).

Note 2. Adverbials with since[9,10,15]:


-since then/since that time- с тех пор / с того времени;
26
-ever since(conjunction)- с тех самых пор:
Ever since we first met we have been friends.
Мы дружим с самой первой встречи.
Mind that ‘since’ as an adverb is commonly used with the Present or Past Perfect
tenses:
I’ve long since forgotten her.
Я давным давно забыл ее.

3. The Present Perfect Continuous is used to show conclusions based on direct or


indirect evidence. It often occurs in complaints and criticisms[3]:
Who’s been messing around with my papers?

§ 3.2. The Present Perfect Continuous vs. the Present Perfect

1. The Present Perfect and the Present Perfect Continuous are both used to talk
about something that has recently finished if its results can be still seen. However,
the choice of the form depends on:
a) the fact if the effects of events are still continuing or not[3]:
Have you been watching ‘The Lonely Planet’? (the TV
programme, The Lonely Planet, is still continuing each week and people continue
to watch it)
Have you watched ‘The Lonely Planet’? (it may suggest that
‘The Lonely Planet’ is a film)

b) the sense of what the speaker wants to say. If we talk about the result
of circumstances, the Present Perfect is used. If we focus on the process, we use
either the Present Perfect or the Present Continuous[2,6]:
Prices have decreased by 7%
Prices have been decreasing recently (or ‘Prices have
decreased…’)

2. The Perfect and the Present Perfect Continuous are both used to talk about
situations that exist until the present.

a) The Present Perfect is used with verbs expressing unchanging states


(belong, know, like, understand etc)[1,7]:
Have you known each other long?
Note. The verbs want and mean can be frequently used in the present perfect
continuous context:[8,11,15]
Thank you for the book. I've been wanting it for ages!
b) Some verbs like learn, live, lie, rain, sleep, stand, sit, study, wait,
work suggest continuity and often occur with either the Present Perfect or the
Present Perfect Continuous forms. The difference here is that the simple form may
suggest the possibility of permanence and emphasize a state, while the

27
continuous form may suggest a more temporary state of affairs and emphasize a
process itself[1,7]:
The church has stood on this site since the 12th century.
He’s lived/been living here for years and years.

c) The Present Perfect is used to state the frequency of a repeated action


or event[1,7]:
That’s happened to Linda several times this morning.

Exercises

Ex. 31. Match the word combinations expressing the period of duration with
the appropriate variants of their translation. Mind that one and the same
expression may have several translations
1) for hours а) столько лет
2) for forty-eight hours б) целую вечность
3) for days в) целыми днями
4) for a couple of days г) полдня уже
5) for months д) всю жизнь
6) for years е) месяцами
7) for ages ж) сто лет
8) all the time з) два дня
9) all one’s life и) долгие годы
к) месяца три уже
л) все время
м) пару дней

Ex. 32. Match the sentences with the appropriate variants of their translation
1) What? I have been trying to do а) Ходят слухи о тайных планах
this all my life! правительства.
2) He has been acting so strangely б) Что? Всю жизнь мечтала делать это!
recently. в) Решение президента они называли
3) It’s been years since I enjoyed закулисной сделкой.
myself so much. г) Он так странно вел себя в последнее
4) Stories have been going round время;
concerning the government's д) Что ты еще придумал?
secret intentions. е) Лет тридцать так не развлекался!
5) They have been calling the
Presidency decision a backroom
deal.
6) What have you been thinking
up?
Ex. 33. Complete the sentences with appropriate verbs, using the same one for
each sentence in the pair. Choose between the Present Perfect and the Present
Perfect Continuous. Use negative forms where necessary
28
disappear give move put read stay stop swim
1 a Maria Harris …in a rented flat since returning to Liverpool.
b We … at this hotel a couple of times before.

2 a With their win yesterday, Italy …into second place in the table.
b As house prices in the cities have risen, people …into the countryside.

3 a All day, the police …motorists to question them about the accident.
b Good, the noise … . I can start concentrating on my work.

4 a I …any of Dickens’ novels.


b I …this book on astrophysics for hours and I’m still only on page 6.

5 a Dr Fletcher …the same lecture to students for the last ten years.
b Mr. Goldman …nearly a million pounds to the charity this year.

6 a I did 20 lengths of the pool today. I …that far since I was at school.
b I …and I feel exhausted.

7 a In recent years, Brazilian companies …a lot of money into developing


advanced technology.
b The South African coal company …the Calverton Mine up for sale.

8 a An important file …from my office.


b Plants and vegetables …from my garden since we had new neighbours.

Ex. 34. Match the beginnings and endings. Sometimes there is more than one
possibility
1. I’ve watched ‘The Sound of Music’…
2. I’ve been watching ‘The Sound of Music’…
3. Unemployment has risen…
4. Unemployment has been rising…
5. I’ve been playing squash…
6. I’ve played squash…
7. John has been painting the door….
8. John has painted the door…

a)…It looks nice, doesn’t it?


b)…since my doctor advised me to lose weight.
c)…at least ten times already.
d)…ever since the present government came to power.
e)…Be careful! Don’t touch it.
f)…by 58% since the present government came to power.
g)…a couple of times before, but I can’t get the hang of it.
h)…and now I keep humming the songs to myself.
29
Ex. 35. Translate
1) Я пыталась весь день сказать тебе об этом. 2) Что же ты сделала со
стариком Чэллисом? 3) Мы уже полдня ждем тебя! 4) А вот ваш знаменитый
сын! Я все так хотела с вами встретиться! 5) Я почти три месяца изо дня в
день работаю над ней. 6) Он смотрит телевизор всю ночь напролет (without a
break). 7) Джим и Мэри так часто ссорятся, что их друзья опасаются, что они
могут разойтись. 8) Я просто в восторге (to admire) от ваших сервантов; это
верх элегантности (to be the very pink of elegance). 9) Вы, мальчики, опять
чёрт знает чем занимались (to horse around), извозились все.10) В последнее
время количество студентов всё уменьшается (to drop away). 11) Ты говорил
обо мне со своими друзьями? 12) Ты мне изменяла (to cheat on sb), пока я был
в отъезде? 13) Извиняюсь за свое грязное платье. Я чистила погреб. 14) Дети
играли в теннис. Вот почему они так разгорячились. 15) Дети играли в
теннис уже два раза. 16) Наверное, мальчик чувствует себя лучше, потому
что он целый день не хочет лежать в постели и пытается встать (to want up).

§ 4. THE PAST CONTINUOUS


§ 4.1.

1. The Past Continuous refers generally to events or actions in progress around a


particular time in the past[3]. The past moment may be marked by:
a) an adverb or adverbial phrase, such as at night, last night, by that time, still, all
day, the whole day, all through the day, from ...till and others. They emphasize
either the temporary or extended nature of an event: [3]
By the end of the week I was thinking that I had done a
[A.Cronin]
wrong thing.
We were working in the garden all day yesterday. [3]

b) another short coinciding action (see §4.2).


When they arrived, I was cleaning the room.
c) the context and the situation well-known for the speakers. In this case, the form
of the Past Continuous is used to give a reason for an event[3]:
– I rang you yesterday but there was no answer!
– I was gardening.

2. The Past Continuous may refer to ongoing and repeated events in the past.
There is often a suggestion that the situation was temporary and subject to
changes[1,3]:
He enjoyed the evenings when Mrs. Watkins was visiting
[A.Cronin]
him .

3. The Past Continuous often occurs when referring to past-time events as a


background and being used for scene-setting[1]:

30
Two builders were working on our house when it was being
built, and a ghost passed them on the stairs, and they refused to come back and
finish the building[3].

Sometimes the continuous form is omitted in such a case with the verbs implying
continuity, such as to lie, to sit, to stand, etc. [1]
He entered the sitting-room. Phillip lay on the sofa. [A.Cronin]

§ 4.2. The Past Continuous vs. the Past Indefinite

1. In complex sentences with subordinate clauses of time there can be found


different types of past actions to be expressed in either (both) the Past Indefinite or
(and) the Past Continuous
Types of Past Indefinite + Past Continuous + Past Indefinite +
actions/Tenses Past Indefinite Past Continuous Past Continuous
to express
Parallel •As a rule, two Two parallel
parallel actions actions connected
connected with as: with while
e.g. As she grew (whilst) or rarely
older, she gained in when[3]:
confidence[10]. e.g. She was
С годами она reading to the
становилась children while
увереннее. Kevin was
He sat watching her washing up[7].
as she got ready[2]. In this case the
Он сидел и situation spoken
рассматривал ее, about is seen from
пока она the middle of its
готовилась. development, ----
•Parallel actions in a happening. It can
sentence with the be implied to
comparative degree serve as a
of adjectives or background for
adverbs: some other past
e.g. The more she events.
thought about it,
the more depressed
she became[10].
• Occasionally, two
parallel actions
connected with
while (whilst):
e.g. She read to the
31
children while
Kevin washed up[7].
It can be implied in
this case that the
situation is part of
some past routine,
habit or narration.
Coinciding One of the two
actions is used with
the past continuous
to indicate a
background (usually
----- ---- longer) event of
secondary
importance:
e.g. I read the letter
on the Underground
as I was coming
into town[3].
They arrived while
we were having
dinner [2].
Successive Successive past One of the two
actions are usually actions in a
found in sentences --- succession may be
with until, before, progressive:
after, when, as soon e.g. When he learnt
as, as: to drive, he was
e.g. He waited till living with his
she arrived. parents (=He had
When she learnt it, learnt to drive and
she got worse. was living with his
I tripped as I got parents)[7].
off the bus[2]. But: When he was
Я споткнулся, learning to drive, he
выходя из was living with his
автобуса (при parents (=while he
выходе из was learning to
автобуса) drive…)

2. When we use the form of the Past Continuous unlike the form of the Past
Indefinite in identical contexts, it means that we are involved only in the past
moment referred to and are not interested in the completion or final results of
the action [1,3]:

32
It was snowing at night (when I fell asleep, I haven’t been
outside this morning yet)
It snowed at night (Look, the roofs are covered with snow!)

‘Do you remember what happened to Harry in Book VI?’


‘Yes, I read about it’ (I know)
‘Yes, I was reading about it’ (I partially know, I remember
something)
Likewise, we can use the Past Continuous to talk about intentions which were not
realised[7]:
I was thinking/I thought of coming to you, but I was
called to work = I was coming to you yesterday.

3. The Past Continuous occurs with such adverbs as always, constantly,


repeatedly, perpetually to express repeated unplanned and undesired event, often
with emotional colouring[1,3]:
People were always warning me that my success wouldn’t
last!

4. With the verbs of mental and emotional state (to wonder, to think, to suggest, to
want, to forget, to hope, etc) the form of the Past Continuous sounds politer or less
definite to express recent actions in requests, uncertain statements etc. [1,3,11] The
most common situations are:
a) when addressing somebody (‘I was wondering/am wondering/wonder*, where
Red Square is situated?’);
b) when suggesting something (‘I was thinking/thought, what would you say to
going out to the theatre?’);
c) when apologizing (‘Sorry. I wasn’t thinking’);
d) in polite questions (‘Were you wanting/did you want/do you want to see
someone?’[see Appendix2]).
e) in intentions for the future[7] (‘I was thinking/am thinking of going down to
London next weekend’.)
(*The variants given illustrate the falling degree of politeness and (or) certainty)

Exercises

Ex. 36. Identify the tenses, then match them with the correct descriptions

1) ‘Where were you yesterday? a) A progressive action at the past moment


You weren’t at school’. ‘I was marked by another shorter action.
having a problem with influenza’. b) A polite apology.
2) Sorry, I was forgetting. c) An action which did not take place.
3) They were flying over the d) A progressive action in the past which
Andes when plane crashed. is used in the simple form because of
33
4) He was coming to see me Participle I.
yesterday. e) A progressive action at the past moment
5) We were wondering about implied in the situation.
inviting Kate over Tomorrow. f) A repeated past action.
6) At the age of 17 Jack was g) A doubtful intention.
already asking this question.
7) Julia read quickly, skimming
over the scenes in which she was
not concerned.

Ex. 37. Match the sentences with the appropriate variants of their translation
1 a At that moment I started to а В тот момент я готова была заплакать.
cry. б В тот момент я начала плакать.
b At that moment I was starting
to cry.
2 a It is better than that sinking а …о которой говорил Ричардс.
bottle of medicine Richards was б …о которой как-то тут говорил
talking about. Ричардс.
b It is better than that sinking
bottle of medicine Richards talked
about.
3 a I am wondering if I might а Мне очень не удобно спрашивать, но
have a piece of bread? могу ли я взять хлеба?
b I was wondering if I might б Извините, могу ли я взять хлеба?
have a piece of bread?
4 а I was thinking that you might а Я думал, может, тебе молоток нужен
have a hammer. был.
b I thought that you might have б Я просто подумал, может, тебе
a hammer. молоток понадобился.
5 a I was talking to Tom the other а Я поговорил с Томом на днях.
day б Мне довелось на днях поговорить с
b I talked to Tom the other day. Томом.

6 a After all I was getting a few а В конце концов, у меня уже недавно
private patients lately. начали появляться первые частные
b After all I have been getting a пациенты.
few private patients lately. б В конце концов, у меня в последнее
время есть уже первые частные
пациенты.

Ex. 38. Match the beginnings with appropriate endings


1) We were intending to call in and see you on our way back, but…
2) I was expecting to hear something today, but…

34
3) They were thinking about coming on holiday with us, but…
4) I was thinking of changing my car, but…
5) I was meaning to phone you all day, but…

a) …I never got round to it – there are always so many things to do.


b) …I’ll wait and see what deals are available.
c) …it was getting late and everyone was tired.
d) …the phone hasn’t rung all morning.
e) …they changed their minds when they realised we preferred sightseeing to
beach parties.
Use your ideas to complete the sentences
1) I was thinking of replacing all my old clothes with new ones, but…..
2) I was intending to tell you the whole story, but…
3) I was expecting to find out the results of the test this week, but…

Ex. 39. Join the sentences logically by means of the conjunctions till, when,
while, as or the…the expression where possible. You may have more than one
variant. Mind the tense (the sentences are offered in the past simple form)
1) Everyone cheered. The winners received their medals.
2) He worked all night. He got tired.
3) I sat down to watch TV. The phone rang
4) The flames grew larger. The fire spread.
5) I found these photos. I cleaned my room.
6) I read it. You dried your hair.
7) They played in the garden. It grew dark.
8) I missed it a lot. I lived in France.

Ex. 40. Open the brackets using the verb in the appropriate form:
1) It was evening. The sun (set). A gentle wind (blow) through the trees. In the
distance I (notice) a Land Rover moving across the dusty plain. It (stop) and two
men (jump) out of it. 2) I (wonder) if you could give a lift. 3) While Reggie and
Mrs. Witcher (discuss) whether or not Clifford Lar (wear) a wig, I (write) a minute
about a complex back-dated pay award and (think) about Tommy. 4) You don’t
mean you (speak) like that of my father. 5) I (buy) a new alarm-clock the other day
in Taylor’s the jewellers.6) She (laugh) till the tears (ran down) her cheeks. She
(laugh) so hard that he (sit up) concerned. 7) Julia (reach) over to take out the first
of the cupboard cases in which Michael’s photographs were kept. She (sit)
comfortably on the floor. She (turn) the early photographs over quickly. 8) Next
morning he (read) every file on his desk, (initial) them and (range) about his room
by 11 o’clock. 9) The next minute they all (laugh) happily.

Ex. 41. Translate:


1) Не может быть (you don’t mean), чтобы вы говорили так о моем отце! 2)
Простите, я что-то подзабыл. Потом исправлюсь. 3) Через 14 часов мы уже
были на подъезде к городу. 4) Мой муж писал докторскую (do a PhD) в
35
университете, вот так (that was how) я с ним и познакомилась. 5) Мы вчера
весь день работали в саду. 6) Чтобы похудеть перед гонкой, я не ела сладкого
недели три (for weeks). 7) Когда я учился водить машину, я жил с
родителями. 8) Это те самые ключи, которые я вчера никак не могла найти
(look for). 9) Вот, именно эти ключи я искала вчера. 10) Я подумываю о
переезде во Флориду. 11) Я играл в бадминтон четыре раза в неделю, до того
как вывихнул лодыжку. 12) Он объяснял ей это до посинения. 13) Сегодня
утром девушки пекли торты. 13) С годами пьеса становилась популярнее. 14)
Простите, это я не вам; так, мысли вслух (to think aloud). 15) Мне только-
только начало нравиться задание (to warm to smth.).

§ 4.3. The Present Perfect Continuous vs. the Past Continuous for
uncompleted actions

The forms of the Present Perfect Continuous and the Past Continuous serve to
express an uncompleted action, but with different shades of accomplishment.
•The Past Continuous implies a certain moment in the past that is why the focus
is on the actual development of the action which is cut off the present.
•The Present Perfect Continuous emphasizes the action itself seen as a process
whose consequences exist in the present[11].
Compare:
‘What’s happened?’
‘He was eating my chocolates.’ (but I caught him and
prevented, for example)
‘He has been eating my chocolates.’ (he has eaten part of
them)

•In this case we can say ‘he has eaten my chocolates’ implying that he has eaten all
of them, thus the use of the Present Perfect indicates the evident result of the
action which is already completed[11].

Exercises

Ex. 42. Choose an appropriate form of the verbs to show, to run to drink and
to work to use in one and the same situation judging by the comments given in
brackets
1) ‘Do you like my photos?’ ‘ I … them to Tommy’ (and I am eager to know if he
likes them); ‘I …them to Tommy’ (he is astonished); ‘I …them to Tommy’ (it took
me a long time, indeed); ‘I…them to Tommy’ (but all of a sudden the boss
phoned). 2) …all day? (you are breathing hard); …all day? (I couldn’t find you in).
3) He …my coffee (the cup is empty); He …my coffee (can you imagine that?
Fortunately, I prevented this!); He…my coffee (look at it! The cup is half –
empty). 4) ‘Where Dr Owen’s office?’ ‘Sorry, I don’t know. I … here for long’
(my activity of working has lasted not so long); ‘Sorry, I don’t know. I …here for
long’ (I have had a job here not for long).
36
Ex. 43. Do the following test
1) We …to this holiday for ages.
a) are looking; b) have been looking; c) have looked; d)have been looking/have
looked.
2) Look out of the window! It …
a) has been raining; b) was raining; c) has rained; d) has been raining/has rained.
3) I …better since I started taking these tablets.
a) have been feeling; b) am feeling; c) have felt; d) have been feeling/have felt.
4) Joseph …a football against the wall all day.
a) has been kicking; b) has kicked; c) has been kicking/has kicked; d) was kicking.
5) Prices … up even more quickly this year.
a) were shooting up; b) have shot up; c) have been shooting up; d) have been
shooting up/have shot up.
6) I…a new kind of paint on the kitchen walls.
a) have been using; b) have used; c) am using; d) all the variants.
7) He …for the national team in 65 matches so far.
a) has played; b) has been playing; c) is playing; d) has been playing/has played.
8) I …three tins of paint on the kitchen walls.
a) have been using; b) have used; c) am using; d) all the variants.
9) I …ice cream since I ate too much and was sick.
a) didn’t like; b) haven’t liked; c) haven’t been liking; d) haven’t liked/haven’t
been liking.
10) This room sinks. Someone …here.
a) was smoking; b) has been smoking; c) has smoked; d) was smoking/has been
smoking.
11) Jack? It’s strange I see you here. What …in my room?
a) have you been doing; b)have you done; c) were you doing; d) were you
doing/have you been doing.
12) What is this? What …to my toy?
a) were you doing; b) have you done; c) have you been doing; d) have you
done/have you been doing.

Revision Test

Ex. 44. Choose which of the underlined forms is incorrect. If all is correct,
write the letter D
Example: 0) A: Since that time I have been covering(A) only twenty
miles in this old car.
B: But I was offering(B) you a motorbike.
A: I regret(C) that I refused to take it.
Answer: 0 - A (‘I have been covering’ is incorrect)

1) A: I don’t think Peter’s coming (A), do you?


B: No, I don’t. Let’s go home. We’ve been waiting (B) long enough.
37
A: I expected (C) to meet him at five. It’s a pity.

2) A: Are you all right? You are looking (A) as though you’ve been crying (B).
B: I’ve had (C)some bad news, but I’m OK, thanks.
3) A: Nothing too serious, I’m hoping (A)?
B: My brother’s been having (B) a motorbike accident.
C: Oh, I feel (C) sorry.

4) A: Have you been (A) a member here for a long time?


B: Yes, I’ve been belonging (B) to this club since it opened 25 years ago. I’ve
seen (C) a lot of changes in that time.

5) A: You can’t imagine how much I’ve been missing (A) you all this time.
B: You speak (B) as if we hadn’t corresponded.
A: We did. And I’ll be looking (C) forward to your next reply!

6) A: I was wondering (A), how you are settling (B) the question?
B: Though I hate to say that, but you’ll be talking to the manager(C) yourself.
A: Me? That’s unbelievable!

7) A: I’m visiting (A) Maria, do you feel (B) like giving her a present through me?
B: I was thinking (C).

8) A: What have you been whispering (A) about?


B: Nothing special.
A: I’m not hearing things (B). Tell me.
B: Why don’t you believe (C) me?

9) A: I’m not denying (A) that you are right.


B: But why are you defending (B) him?
A: As for me, I’m thinking (C) of leaving this place.

10) A: Do you know Michael will be leaving(A) our place?


B: Somebody was telling (B) me. He is being (C) strange, really.

Ex. 45. Correct the mistakes revealed by putting the verbs into the
appropriate tense form. Choose between the following variants
A – The Present Continuous
B – The Present Perfect
C – The Present Indefinite
D – The Past Continuous
Example: 0) A: Since that time I have been covering(A) only twenty
miles in this old car.
B: But I was offering(B) you a motorbike.
A: I regret(C) that I refused to take it.
38
Answer: 0 – B (the incorrect Present Perfect Continuous in the
sentence ‘A’ is corrected by the Present Perfect which is a B-variant in Ex.44)

Ex. 46. Indicate where in ex.43 it is possible to use other tense forms
Example: 0) A: Since that time I have been covering(A) only twenty
miles in this old car.
B: But I was offering(B) you a motorbike.
A: I regret(C) that I refused to take it.
Answer: 0 – C ( ‘I’m regretting’ is possible and it indicates a recent
grow of the feeling)

ANSWERS TO EXERCISES
Ex. 1 1b,e; 2h; 3d, f,a; 4c,g.
Ex. 2. 1) a+б, b+а; 2) a+а, b+б; 3) a+б, b+а; 4) a+б, b+а; 5) a+а, b+б; 6) a+б, b+а;
7) a+б, b+а; 8) a+а, b+б; 9) a+б, b+а; 10) a+б, b+а; 11) a+б, b+а.
Ex. 3. 1b; 2d; 3h; 4c; 5f; 6a; 7g; 8i; 9e.
Ex. 4. 1) see, hear, smell, taste; 2) be hearing/seeing/imagining things; 3) to expect
(=to wait), to see (=to spend time) + the expressions from #2; 4) must (e.g. You
must be seeing things!); 5) to miss; 6) to go, to come; 7) to see, to feel; 8) to think,
to consider, to feel, to imagine, to expect.
Ex. 5. 1) a – is it looking (=does it look), b – does it look; 2) a – am measuring, b –
measures; 3) a – are expecting(=expect); b – are expecting; 4) a – am considering,
b – consider; 5) a – doesn’t like, b – am not liking (=don’t like); 6) a – are fitting, b
– doesn’t fit; 7) a – feels, b – am not feeling (= don’t feel); 8) a,b – consists of; 9) a
– is having, b – has.
Ex. 6. 1) He keeps on cheating! 2) Here comes your husband. 3) What hums here?
4) She continues to think of him (…keeps thinking…). 5) I go on with the paper. 6)
Here arrives our bus! 7) I miss you. 8) Mike keeps getting on my nerves. 9) Why
doesn’t she go (home)?
Ex. 7. 1) c,d; 2) c; 3) a; 4) b; 5) b, c; 6) b.
Ex. 8. 1) smells; 2) smells; 3) is smelling; 4) tastes; 5) is tasting; 6) feel (= are you
feeling); 7) feel; 8) feel; 9) does it feel; 10) is feeling (= feels); 11) am feeling; 12)
feel; 13) looks; 14) is he looking (= does he look); 15) am looking; 16) are looking;
17) are looking; 18) hear; 19) hear; 20) is hearing; 21) is seeing; 22) itch (= am
itching); 23) do you expect; 24) am expecting; 25) am imagining; 26) continue.
Ex. 9. 1) He goes on with the dynamite none the less.2) I can smell alcohol on your
breath. 3) Can you see that she is being strange today? 4)Here goes! 5) I can’t hear
at all what he is saying. 6) I miss her greatly and I keep on writing to her! 7) He
never stops shouting/he keeps shouting. I am knowing him in a new light,
really.8)’Michael is being quiet’. ‘He is seeing sport news on TV. Generally, he is
loquacious’. ‘I think it is you who is being loquacious’. 9) Today she is
looking/looks perfect, isn’t/doesn’t she? 10) ‘Why don’t you buy it?’ ‘I’m just
looking’. 11) No, I’m not hearing things: you keep talking nonsense. 12) Julia
thought. ‘Why doesn’t he kiss me?’ 13) He sees now that the rooms are
39
straightened up. 14) I she still seeing John? 15) I’m itching 9itch) all over! 16)
How does it feel to earn your living single-handed? 17) This year’s figures are
looking really good. 18) The salad tastes of garlic. 19) I am expecting my brother.
20) You expect too much of me. 21) Everything looks different. 22) Why is he
looking so angry? 23) The city lies sleeping.
Ex. 10. 1d; 2h; 3g; 4i; 5f; 6b; 7e; 8a; 9c.
Ex. 11. 1c; 2b; 3f; 4e; 5d; 6a.
Ex. 14. Answer: The driver manages to avoid hitting the man because in fact it’s
daylight. The first part of the story leads us to believe that it’s dark.
1) is going (= goes); 2) is walking (= walks) (In examples 1 and 2, the present
continuous is more natural as the first two sentences set the scene, or provide the
background, to what follows. However, the present simple can also be used if the
speaker wishes to present these as the first two events in the story); 3) isn’t
shining; 4) is wearing; 5) comes; 6) doesn’t have; 7) sees; 8) swerves; 9) notices;
10) continues.
Ex. 15. 1) is playing, stands, starts. 2) arrives, is waiting, says; 3) passes, shoots, is
attacking; 4) agree; 5)are drawing, are rowing, are looking; 6)passes, intercepts,
shoots, are leading; 7)takes place; 8) am eating; 9) give up, win; 10) don’t you
agree, am asking; 11) am enclosing; 12) tell.
Ex. 16. 1) You talk in riddles. I ask you, express yourself clearly. 2) I write to you
to inform about the accident. 3)In Chapter Six Thompson gives (us) a thorough
description of the village. 4) In the photo Ann is picking up flowers to make a
bouquet (in a bunch). Looks lovely, doesn’t it? 5) Usually, at 7:30 I am driving the
children to school, that’s why I won’t be at home, call at 11. 6) Oh, that hurts!
7)She goes up to this man and looks straight into his eyes. He isn’t wearing his
glasses, and he doesn’t recognize her. 8) Beckham passes to Rooney, who shoots
and scores a goal. Manchester are leading three to nil. 9) I doubt if it will happen. I
bet he won’t take part in the contest. 10) You kiss me as if you were afraid you
were standing in the draught.11) ‘We’ll expect (= ’ll be expecting) you’- Andrew
said. ‘I am asking you as a friend’. 12) Look at the headline. ‘RADA
DISSOLVING SOON’
Ex. 17. 1) a+б, b+а; 2) a+а, b+б; 3) a+б, b+а; 4) a+б, b+а; 5) a+а, b+б; 6) a+а,
b+б; 7) a+б, b+а.
Ex. 19. 1) You’re always complaining about my handwriting. 2) You’re forever
asking me for money. 3) You’re perpetually criticizing my driving. 4) You’re
continually changing your mind. 5) You’re repeatedly moaning about your
work….*10) You’re always coming late.
Ex. 20. 1) ‘I wonder/am wondering if you can help me’. ‘I doubt’. 2) She is
constantly criticizing our Government. 3) I’m looking forward to your reply. I’m
hoping it is/will be positive. 4) I’m not suggesting that it is wrong, but it should be
corrected a little. 5) ‘I hope everything will be/is all right at last’. ‘Yes, I AM
hoping’. 6) A man is forever making mistakes. 7) Sorry, but you are not going out.
8) I’m writing to you for a particular reason. 9) He is washing up every day! 10)
He is constantly leaving his phone at home. 11) Dear Tom, I am enclosing the
money for your tips.
40
Ex. 21. 1c; 2a; 3b; 4c; 5d (the continuous form suggests that the speaker is happy
with the experience so far, but this situation may or may not continue); 6d (the
Present Continuous suggests a possible recent change of mind); 7a; 8d (the
continuous form suggests a recent growing awareness); 9d (the continuous form
sounds politer and less definite); 10b; 11a; 12b; 13a; 14a; 15c; 16b; 17a; 18a; 19a;
20a; 21a; 22d.
Ex. 22. 1b; 2a; 3b; 4d (the continuous form describes characteristic behaviour the
speaker finds annoying); 5c; 6a; 7c; 8a; 9a; 10b.
Ex. 23. 1e; 2i; 3b; 4f; 5j; 6g; 7c; 8a; 9d; 10h.
Ex. 24. Examples: 1) A 38-year-old man escapes fire. 2) Floods trap families in
homes for 6 hours.
Ex. 25. 1d; 2c; 3b; 4a; 5e.
Ex. 26. 1 a+i, b+ii; 2) a+i, b+ii; 3) a+ii, b+i; 4) a+ii, b+i; 5) a+i, b+ii.
Ex. 27. 1д; 2а; 3в; 4б; 5г.
Ex. 28. 1 a – will be leaving (= will leave), b – will leave; 2 a – will you be
working (= will you work), b – ’ll work; 3 a – won’t be using (= won’t use), b –
won’t use; 4 a – ’ll give, b – will be giving (= will give); 5 a – won’t move, b – will
be moving (= will move).
Ex. 29. 1) Will you be staying with me for the weekend? 2) Will you be coming to
my party on Sunday? 3) Will you come to me for the weekend? 4) Will you be
watching this film? May I borrow the disc? 5) Will you be helping me with my
studies? 6) Will you pass me the salt? 7) Shall I see you tomorrow? 8) Shall I be
seeing you tomorrow? 9) Will you be going downtown? Will you give me a lift?
Ex. 30. 1) When will you be seeing Mr. White? 2) Don’t worry, it will be all plain
sailing. 3) Next week I’ll be swimming in the Caribbean every day. 4) Senior
officials will be discussing how the volume of sales might be reduced. 5) As I
understand that you will be moving here soon. 6)Will you be using you r car? If
not, can I borrow it? 7) Rumour has it that she will be getting married soon. 8) The
Championship will be getting into its second day in a few hours. 9) The new crop
of tobacco will be coming in soon. 10) ‘It is a pity, I won’t be working here.’ ‘So,
‘Be seeing you’’! 11) You understand, Doctor, you won’t be calling any more. 12)
Will you be staying here for long?
Ex. 31. 1г; 2з; 3в; 4 м; 5 е,к; 6 а, и; 7 б,ж; 8л; 9 д.
Ex. 32. 1б; 2г; 3 д; 4 а; 5в.
Ex. 33. 1) a – has been staying (‘has stayed’ is possible), b – have stayed; 2 a –
have/has moved, b – have been moving (‘have moved’ is possible); 3 a – have
been stopping (‘have stopped’ is possible), b – has stopped; 4 a – haven’t read, b –
have been reading (‘have read’ is possible); 5 a – has been giving (‘has given’ is
possible), b – has given; 6 a – haven’t swum, b – have been swimming; 7 a – have
been putting (‘have put’ is possible), b – has/have put; 8 a – has disappeared, b –
have been disappearing (‘have disappeared’ is possible).
Ex. 34. 1c or h; 2h; 3d or f; 4d; 5b; 6g; 7e; 8a or e.
Ex. 35. 1) I’ve been trying to tell you about it all day. 2) What have you been
doing/have you done to Challis? 3) We’ve been waiting for you for hours! 4) Your
celebrated son! I’ve been wanting to see you! 5) I have been working at her for
41
months every day. 6) He has been watching TV all night without a break. 7) Jim
and Mary have been quarrelling so much recently that their friends are afraid they
might split up. 8) I have been admiring your cupboards; they are the very pink of
elegance. 9) You boys have been horsing around again, getting yourselves dirty.
10) Student numbers have been dropping away recently. 11) Have you been
discussing me with your friends? 12) Have you been cheating on me while I've
been away? 13) Excuse my dirty clothes. I’ve been cleaning out the cellar. 14) The
children have been playing tennis. That’s why they are so hot. 15) The children
have played tennis twice. 16) The boy must be feeling better, he's been wanting up
all day.
Ex. 36. 1e; 2b; 3a; 4c; 5g; 6f; 7d.
Ex. 37. 1-5 a+ii, b+i; 6 a+i, b+ii.
Ex. 38. 1c; 2d; 3e; 4b; 5a.
Ex. 39. 1) Everyone cheered as the winners received their medals. Everyone
cheered/was cheering while/when the winners received/were receiving their
medals. 2)He worked all night till he got tired. 3) As/when/while I was sitting
down to watch TV, the telephone rang. 4) The larger the frames grew, the more the
fire spread. The frames grew larger as the fire spread. 5) I found those photos
as/when/while I was cleaning my room. When I cleaned my room, I found those
photos. 6) I read it when/as/while you were drying your hair. I read/was reading it
while you dried/were drying your hair. 7) They played in the garden till it grew
dark. 8) I missed it a lot while/when I was living in France. I missed it a lot as I
lived in France.
Ex. 40. 1) was setting, was blowing, noticed, stopped, jumped; 2) was
wondering/am wondering/wondered; 3) were discussing, wore, was writing; 4)
were speaking; 5) was buying; 6) laughed, ran, sat; 7) reached, was sitting, turned;
8) read, initialled, was ranging; 9) were laughing.
Ex. 41. 1) You don’t man that you were speaking like that of my father. 2) Sorry, I
was forgetting. I’ll mind that. 3) In 14 hours we were entering the city. 4) My
husband was doing a PhD at the university, that’s how I came to meet him. 5) We
were gardening all day yesterday. 6) To lose weight before the race, I wasn’t
eating/didn’t eat sweets for weeks. 7) When I was learning to drive, I was
living/lived with my parents. 8) These are the keys I was looking for yesterday. 9)
Here are the keys I looked for yesterday. 10) I’m thinking of moving to Florida.
11) I was playing badminton four times a week before I twisted my ankle. 12) He
explained it to her till he was blue in the face. 13) This morning the girls were
making cakes. 13) As the years passed, the play gained popularity. 14) Sorry, I
wasn’t talking to you, I was just thinking aloud. 15) I was just warming to the task.
Ex. 42. 1) have been showing; have shown; have shown; was showing; 2)have you
been running; were you running; 3) has drunk; was drinking; has been drinking; 4)
haven’t been working; haven’t worked.
Ex. 43. 1d; 2a; 3d; 4a; 5c; 6d; 7a; 8b; 9b; 10b; 11c; 12d.
Ex. 44. 1d; 2a; 3b; 4b; 5a; 6d; 7d; 8a; 9d; 10a.
Ex. 45. 1--; 2c; 3b; 4b; 5b; 6--; 7--; 8d or a; 9--; 10a.

42
Ex. 46. 1a (‘will come’), c (‘was expecting’); 2 c (‘I have’); 3 a (‘I hope’), c (‘I’m
feeling’). 4 --; 5 c (‘I look/am looking forward’); 6 a (‘wonder/am wondering’); 7 a
(‘I’ll be visiting’-more possible), c (‘I thought’); 8 --; 9 a (‘I don’t deny’), c (‘I was
thinking’); 10 b (‘told’).

SOURCES

1. Alexander, L. G. Longman English Grammar / L. G. Alexander. – Harlow:


Pearson Education Limited, 2001.
2. Cambridge Advanced Learner’s Dictionary, 3d ed. – Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press, 2008.
3. Carter, R. Cambridge Grammar of English / R. Carter, M. McCarty. –
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006.

43
4. Evans, V. Round-up-6: English Grammar Book / V. Evans. – Essex: Pearson
Education Limited, 2005.
5. Haines, S. Advanced Grammar in Use: Supplementary Exercises / S. Haines,
M. Nette, M. Hewings. – Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007.
6. Hewings, M. Advanced Grammar in Use / M. Hewings. – 1st ed. –
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002.
7. Hewings, M. Advanced Grammar in Use / M. Hewings. – 2st ed. –
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006.
8. Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English, 3d ed. – Harlow: Pearson
Education Limited, 2001.
9. Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English, 4th ed. – Harlow: Pearson
Education Limited, 2005.
10.Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary, 7th ed. – Oxford: Oxford University
Press, 2005.
11.Вейхман, Г. А. Новое в грамматике английского языка: уч. пособие для
вузов / Г. А. Вейхман. – 2-е изд., дополн. и испр. – М.: ООО
«Издательство Астрель»: ООО «Издательство АСТ», 2006.
12.Кобрина, Ю. А. Грамматика английского языка. Морфология.
Синтаксис / Ю. А. Кобрина, Е. А. Корнеева, М. И. Оссовская, К. А.
Гузеева. – СПб.: Союз, 2006.
13.Крылова, И. П. Грамматика современного английского языка / И. П.
Крылова, Е. М. Гордон. – 13 изд. – М.: КДУ, 2007.
14.Крылова, И. П. Сборник упражнений по грамматике английского языка
/ И. П. Крылова. – 8-е изд. – М.: Книжный дом «Университет»: Высшая
школа, 2003.
15.Новый большой Англо-Русский словарь: в 3 т. / Авт.: Ю.Д. Апресян,
Э.М. Медникова, А.В. Петрова и др.; под общ. рук. акад. Ю.Д.
Апресяна и проф. Э.М. Медниковой. – 7 изд, стереотип. – М.: Русский
язык, 2002.
16.Хорнби, А.С. Конструкции и обороты английского языка / А.С.
Хорнби; пер. с англ. А.С. Игнатьева. – М.: АО «Буклет», 1992.
17.Ястребова, Е.Б Курс английского языка для студентов языковых вузов.
Coursebook for Upper Intermediate Students: учебник для вузов / Е.Б.
Ястребова, Л.Г. Владыкина, М.В. Ермакова. – 3-е изд., испр. и доп. –
М.: Издательство «Экзамен», 2007.

LIST OF AUTHORS QUOTED

1. Cronin, A. J. The Citadel / A.J. Cronin. – Moscow, 2003.

2. Maugham, W. S. Theatre / W.S. Maugham. – Moscow, 2006.

3. Murdoch, I. A Word Child / I. A. Murdoch. – Middlesex, 1975.

4. O’Brien, E. Country Girls / E. O’Brien. – Moscow, 1982.


44
5. Priestly, J. B. Angel pavement / J. B. Priestly. – Moscow, 1974.

6. Shaw B. Pygmalion / B. Shaw. – Moscow, 1972.

7. Shaw B. Four Plays / B. Shaw. – Moscow, 1952.

APPENDIX 1

SPELLING OF PARTICIPLE I
Participle I of both regular and irregular verbs is composed by adding the suffix –
ing to the stem of the verb. The following rules of spelling are observed:

1) The mute –e is dropped:


skate-skating but: ski- skiing
place-placing
45
Note1. The verbs in –ee, -oe, -ye retain –e:
disagree-disagreeing
dye-dyeing
Note2. The mute –e is retained when it is necessary to distinguish two different
verbs:
sing – singing ting – tinging
(звенеть)
singe – singeing (опаливать) tinge- tingeing
(оттенять)
Note3. Very few verbs retain the mute –e as an exception:
age – ageing
2) Any final consonant is doubled when it is preceded by a single stressed vowel:
stop-stopping prefer-preferring
but: develop-developing steer – steering
root- rooting
Note4. The final consonant is also doubled in the following verbs:
program – programming
handicap – handicapping
kidnap – kidnapping
format – formatting
diagram – diagramming
bias – biassing (=biasing)
combat – combatting (=combating)
focus – focussing (=focusing)
worship – worshipping

3) The final –l is doubled when it is preceded by a single vowel (in BrE):


travel – travelling control – controlling
but: reveal – revealing
4) Verbs ending in –ie are formed in the following way:

lie-lying
die – dying
vie – vying
hie – hying
tie - tying

APPENDIX 2

SPECIAL CASES WHEN THE PROGRESSIVE TENSES


OCCUR

• What do you want? – Что надо? [9,15]


What are you wanting? – Что (тебе) понадобилось? [16]
What were you wanting? – Что Вам было нужно? (Что Вы хотели?) [15,10]
46
Are you wanting a smack? – Что, шлепка захотел? [11]

Keep in touch, Mr. Rosnovsky. I’ll be wanting to talk to you. [11]


Мне нужно будет…

• I’m forgetting (literary)– Я чуть не забыл! [16]


Are you forgetting your manners? – Что, забыл, как надо себя вести? [16]
Aren’t you forgetting something? (used to tell someone that they have forgotten
to consider something important) – А ты ничего не забыл? [8]

• to be looking to do smth – собираться, намереваться что-либо сделать[,8,9,15]

• be going (informal) – to be available:


There just aren’t any jobs going in this area.
В этих местах не найдешь ни одной работы. [9,15]

• to be going on (for) smth – to be nearly a particular age, time etc:


It was going on for midnight.
Дело шло к полуночи. [9,15]

• I tell you…– говорю вам…[11]


I’m telling you… – послушайте, …[11]

• He is being sick (AmE)= He is vomiting (BrE) [11]

CONTENTS

Introduction………………………………………………………………………...3
§ 1.1. The Present Continuous…………………………..……………………….....4
Exercises……………………………………………………………………………9
§ 1.2. The Present Continuous vs. the Present Indefinite…………………………14
Exercises………………………………………………………………………… .16
§ 1.3. The Present Continuous vs. the Present Indefinite (stylistic difference)….. 18
Exercises…………………………………………………………………………..19
47
Revision Test……………………………………………………………………...21
§ 2.1. The Future Continuous………………………………..……………………22
§ 2.2. The Future Continuous vs. the Present Continuous……...………………...23
Exercises…………………………………………………………………………..24
§ 3.1. The Present Perfect Continuous…..………………………………………..26
§ 3.2. The Present Perfect Continuous vs. the Present Perfect…………………....27
Exercises………..…………………………………………………………………28
§ 4.1. The Past Continuous…………...………………………………………..….30
§ 4.2. The Past Continuous vs. the Past Indefinite…………...……………...……31
Exercises………………………………………………………………..…………33
§ 4.3. The Past Continuous vs. the Present Perfect Continuous…………...…..….36
Exercises……………………………………………………………………..……36
Revision Test…………………………………………………………………...…37
Answers to Exercises………………………………...……………………………39
Sources…………………………………………………………………………....44
Appendix 1 ……………………….………………………………………………46
Appendix2…………….………………………………………………………......47

CONTINUOUS ASPECT: REFERENCE AND PRACTICE


Учебно – методическая разработка

ГАЛИЦКАЯ Светлана Ювенальевна


ДРУЖИНИН Андрей Сергеевич
Позиция 103а План университета 2009
Редактор: Арсеньева Е. А.

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