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Geometric Design Standards in Airport Engineering

(Part 2)

Dr. A. A. Trani
Associate Professor of Civil Engineering
Virginia Tech

CEE 4674
Airport Planning and Design

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Outline of this Presentation

• Ground maneuvering issues


• Examples of geometric design standards
• Taxiways and taxilanes
• Taxiways and runways

• Use of CAD software

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Aircraft Maneuvering Principles

• Aircraft use tricycle landing gear configurations


• Special maneuvering requirements need to be
accounted for
• Tricycle gears are less stable than four wheelers
• Tricycle gears permit tighter maneuvers
• Always consult with the aircraft manufacturer
documents fro airport design

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Sample Aircraft Maneuvering Envelopes
Boeing 777-300

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Few Definitions

Steering angle = angle defined by the aircraft


longitudinal axis and the nose gear (usually up to 70
degrees for some aircraft)

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Few Definitions

Turning Center = the imaginary point where the


aircraft pivots while turning at a given steering angle.

Turning center

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Sample Aircraft Maneuvering (B777-300)

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Operational Issues

• While steering angles as high as 60-70 degrees are


technically possible in some aircraft, it is unwise to ask
pilots to use such high steering angles in practice while
on a taxiway
• Very high steering angles are typically associated with
apron maneuvering (while aircraft is moving at very
low speeds)
• Consider the pilot visibility when designing your
airport infrastructure. Aircraft have limited frontal and
lateral visibilities
• Consult the appropriate aircraft manuals when in doubt

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Sample Aircraft Forward Visibility

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Implications of Aircraft Maneuvering

• Apron design requirements


• Taxiway design requirements
• Taxilane design requirements
• Runway exit design requirements
• Holding bay design

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Taxiway Design Standards and Requirements

• Source: FAA AC 5300-13 (Chapter 4)


• Dictated by safety analyses
• Provide sufficient taxiway and runway-taxiway
intersection width to avoid accidents (i.e., landing gears
go into the shoulder or grass)
• Use simple FAA criteria to design taxiway-taxiway or
taxiway-runway intersections

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Where is the Info. in FAA AC 150/5300-13?

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Why Do We Need Taxiway Fillets?
Track-in distance = 0
Track-in distance > 0

As the aircraft maneuvers


around the taxiway, the
main gears get farther
away from the taxiway
centerline (track-in distance)

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Taxiway Fillet Design Rationale
Track-in distance = 0
Track-in distance > 0

PC
Safety Distance
Distance from
outer main gear

Minimum safety
distance
Distance from PC

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Taxiway Fillet Design Solution

Critical Dimensions
R - Radius of CL
L - Length of fillet
F - Inner fillet radius
W - Width of taxiway
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Taxiway Fillet Design Standards (per FAA)

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Taxiway Dimensional Standards (per FAA)

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Taxiway Design Equivalencies

According to FAA the following equivalent design


procedures can be used instead of the values in the
previous table
• Taxiway safety area equals the aircraft wingspan
• Taxiway OFA (Object Free Area) equals 1.4 times the
critical aircraft wingspan + 20 ft. (6 m.)
• Taxilane OFA (Object Free Area) equals 1.2 times the
critical aircraft wingspan + 20 ft. (6 m.)

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Example: Taxiway Intersection for B777-300

Goal: Design a suitable taxiway-taxiway intersection


for a Boeing 777-300
• Look at Boeing 777-300 airport compatibility
documents
• Aircraft fits design group V (< 213 ft. wingspan) - 199
ft. in wingspan
• 31.22 m (102 ft. and 5 inches) of wheel base
• 10.97 m (36 ft.) of wheel track (between center of main
landing gear struts)

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Boeing 777-300 (per Boeing data)

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Use FAA Criteria for Taxiway Fillet Design

From Table 4-2 in the FAA AC 150/5300-13 obtain the


following parameters:
• R = 150 ft. (radius of taxiway)
• L = 250 ft. (lead-in fillet)
• F = 85 ft. (fillet inner radius - centerline tracking)
• W = 75 ft. (taxiway width)

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Solution Drawing

W = 75 ft.
F= 85 ft.

L = 250 ft. R= 150 ft.

Taxiway-Taxiway
Design Geometry
for Boeing 777-300

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Reality Check (with Manufacturer)

• Some minor problems are identified


• The aircraft has a long wheel base and thus track-in
distances are excessive
• According to Boeing the distance from the pavement
edge to the outer wheel is 4.0 m (14 ft.)
• This is below the FAA required value of 15 ft. (4.5 m.)
• See the examples in the following pages

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Sample Solution for Boeing 777-300
Taxiway
Runway

Source: Boeing 777-300 data

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Sample Solution for Boeing 777-300
Taxiway

Runway

NOTE: FAA
requires 4.5 m.
of safety distance
from taxiway edge
to outboard wheel

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Example Boeing 777-300 Taxiway-Taxiway

NOTE: FAA
requires 4.5 m.
of safety distance
from taxiway edge
to outboard wheel

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Recall FAA Table 4-2 (AC 150/ 5300-13)

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Holding Bays

• Large paved areas to hold more than one aircraft at a


time near a runway end
• Provide the physical space for a runway departure
queue
• Provide operational flexibility to ATC personnel to
sequence aircraft in a departure queue
• Should be simple for pilots to use them adequately
• Some busy airports use 5-6 holding bays

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Sample Holding Bay (Boeing 777-300)

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Taxiway Fillet Design (Table 4-2)

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Detailed Aircraft Trajectory Analysis

• Use detailed add-on packages to Autocad such as


Autoturn software (from Transoft Solutions)
• Use FAA AD42 software (approximate techniques to
study aircraft kinematics on the ground)

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Detailed CAD Analysis Using Transoft
AutoturnTM

• Autoturn simulates the vehcile trajector and checks for


inconsistencies (i.e., large steering angles)
• Requires a centerline track (aircraft follows the track
designed in AutoCad - say a cricular segment)
• Has new aircraft templates (version 5.0 has a template
for the Airbus A380). Version 5 has a standard library
of over 50 aircraft
• Ability to “user define” your own aircraft
• Conduct “jet blast” analysis and evaluate fuel service
points. Try this in the CEECL lab!

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Autoturn Example (Transoft Solutions)

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Autoturn Procedures

In order to test a taxiway/apron maneuvering geometry


through Autoturn vehicle simulation execute the
following steps:
• Select an aircraft library
• Select the aircraft type to be modeled
• Set simulation parameters (steering angle limits, etc.)
• Choose a path and run the animation
• The program provides feedback on the actual track and
the possible constrainst of the vehicle to complete the
desired maneuver

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Autoturn Example (Transoft Solutions)

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Autoturn - Evaluation of Service Points

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Autoturn Jet Blast Analysis

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Instructions to Start Autoturn

Step 1 = Start AutoCad in the standard way


Step 2 = load acad.lsp (in Autoturn folder) by:
selecting the file acad.lsp located in the Autoturn folder.
From the Tools menu (go to load Application) and
select the file acad.lsp
Step 3 = At the command prompt in AutoCad , type
LOADAT to start Autoturn
You are ready to use Autoturn and a new pull down
menu should be available in the AutoCad environment

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Example Using Autoturn

Suppose we want to evaluate the turning envelop of a


Boeing 757-200 through a 150 ft. tangent segment
followed by a curve segment with radius 125 ft.
Solution:
Construct in AutoCad two segments containing the path
of the vehicle (one straight segment and one curved
segment)

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Example Using Autoturn (Construct Path)

150 ft. segment

125 ft. radius

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Select Autoturn Settings

Select the aircraft to be modeled in Autoturn settings

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Running a Simulation

Using the Autoturn simulation menu ran the simulation


of the aircraft over selected drawing objects

Boeing 757

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Run the Animation from Command Line

You can run the animation form the AutoCad command


menu by typing “ra”
The animation should display the path of the vehicle as
it negotiates the two segments selected

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Import Envelope to AutoCad

To edit the path of the aircraft in AutoCad import the


animation to the AutoCad environment by selecting
Import Envelope from the Autoturn pull-down menu

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Imported Trajectory (View 1)
Wingtip Envelope
Centerline Path

Main Gear Paths

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Imported Trajectory (View 2)

Wingtip Envelope
Centerline Path

Main Gear Paths

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Things to Observe

• The vehicle is capable of turning in 125 ft. as illustrated


from the resulting trajectory
• The track-in distance is substantial. By the time the
vehicle ends the maneuver, the outer main gear track
follows the curve centerline. For a Boeing 757-200 this
is equivalent to 4.2 meters (or half of the main gear
track = 1.15 x 7.32 meters)
• The steeting angles are acceptable for the turn (<20
degrees)

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Adding Jet Blast Envelopes

• Once the aircraft track has been imported into


AutoCad, you can add service points and jet blast
envelopes easily
• Suppose we would like to add jet blast envelopes to the
previous drawing
• Select Import Air Symbols from the Autoturn pull
down menu
• This provides several options: service points, jet blast
for idle thrust, breakaway thrust and takeoff thrust

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Importing Air Symbols

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Jet Blast Contours Added

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FAA AD42 Software to Model Aircraft
Trajectories

• DOS version program


• Generates good output on vehicle steering angles,
offsets and general track parameters

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Types of Analyses in AD42

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Sample Application

• Design a 90 degree taxiway layout with a centerline


radius of 250 ft.
• Define entrance and exit stations (as shown in the
diagram)
PT station
Left offet 0 + 393 ft.

R = 250 ft.
Right offet
PC station
0 + 000 ft.

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FAA AD42 Program Screens

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FAA AD42 Program Screens

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FAA AD42 Program Solution (layout)

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Obtain Aircraft Data (Boeing 777-300ER)

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FAA Offset Taxiway Design Procedure

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Enter Aircraft Data (Boeing 777-300ER)

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FAA AD42 Solution (Offsets and Steering
Angle)

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FAA AD42 Solution (Offsets and Steering
Angle - continuation)

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