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# Geometric Design Standards in Airport Engineering

(Part 2)

Dr. A. A. Trani
Associate Professor of Civil Engineering
Virginia Tech

CEE 4674
Airport Planning and Design

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Outline of this Presentation

## • Ground maneuvering issues

• Examples of geometric design standards
• Taxiways and taxilanes
• Taxiways and runways

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Aircraft Maneuvering Principles

## • Aircraft use tricycle landing gear configurations

• Special maneuvering requirements need to be
accounted for
• Tricycle gears are less stable than four wheelers
• Tricycle gears permit tighter maneuvers
• Always consult with the aircraft manufacturer
documents fro airport design

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Sample Aircraft Maneuvering Envelopes
Boeing 777-300

Few Definitions

## Steering angle = angle defined by the aircraft

longitudinal axis and the nose gear (usually up to 70
degrees for some aircraft)

Few Definitions

## Turning Center = the imaginary point where the

aircraft pivots while turning at a given steering angle.

Turning center

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Sample Aircraft Maneuvering (B777-300)

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Operational Issues

## • While steering angles as high as 60-70 degrees are

technically possible in some aircraft, it is unwise to ask
pilots to use such high steering angles in practice while
on a taxiway
• Very high steering angles are typically associated with
apron maneuvering (while aircraft is moving at very
low speeds)
• Consider the pilot visibility when designing your
airport infrastructure. Aircraft have limited frontal and
lateral visibilities
• Consult the appropriate aircraft manuals when in doubt

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Sample Aircraft Forward Visibility

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Implications of Aircraft Maneuvering

## • Apron design requirements

• Taxiway design requirements
• Taxilane design requirements
• Runway exit design requirements
• Holding bay design

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Taxiway Design Standards and Requirements

## • Source: FAA AC 5300-13 (Chapter 4)

• Dictated by safety analyses
• Provide sufficient taxiway and runway-taxiway
intersection width to avoid accidents (i.e., landing gears
go into the shoulder or grass)
• Use simple FAA criteria to design taxiway-taxiway or
taxiway-runway intersections

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Where is the Info. in FAA AC 150/5300-13?

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Why Do We Need Taxiway Fillets?
Track-in distance = 0
Track-in distance > 0

## As the aircraft maneuvers

around the taxiway, the
main gears get farther
away from the taxiway
centerline (track-in distance)

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Taxiway Fillet Design Rationale
Track-in distance = 0
Track-in distance > 0

PC
Safety Distance
Distance from
outer main gear

Minimum safety
distance
Distance from PC

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Taxiway Fillet Design Solution

Critical Dimensions
L - Length of fillet
W - Width of taxiway
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Taxiway Fillet Design Standards (per FAA)

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Taxiway Dimensional Standards (per FAA)

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Taxiway Design Equivalencies

## According to FAA the following equivalent design

procedures can be used instead of the values in the
previous table
• Taxiway safety area equals the aircraft wingspan
• Taxiway OFA (Object Free Area) equals 1.4 times the
critical aircraft wingspan + 20 ft. (6 m.)
• Taxilane OFA (Object Free Area) equals 1.2 times the
critical aircraft wingspan + 20 ft. (6 m.)

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Example: Taxiway Intersection for B777-300

## Goal: Design a suitable taxiway-taxiway intersection

for a Boeing 777-300
• Look at Boeing 777-300 airport compatibility
documents
• Aircraft fits design group V (< 213 ft. wingspan) - 199
ft. in wingspan
• 31.22 m (102 ft. and 5 inches) of wheel base
• 10.97 m (36 ft.) of wheel track (between center of main
landing gear struts)

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Boeing 777-300 (per Boeing data)

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Use FAA Criteria for Taxiway Fillet Design

## From Table 4-2 in the FAA AC 150/5300-13 obtain the

following parameters:
• R = 150 ft. (radius of taxiway)
• L = 250 ft. (lead-in fillet)
• F = 85 ft. (fillet inner radius - centerline tracking)
• W = 75 ft. (taxiway width)

Solution Drawing

W = 75 ft.
F= 85 ft.

## L = 250 ft. R= 150 ft.

Taxiway-Taxiway
Design Geometry
for Boeing 777-300

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Reality Check (with Manufacturer)

## • Some minor problems are identified

• The aircraft has a long wheel base and thus track-in
distances are excessive
• According to Boeing the distance from the pavement
edge to the outer wheel is 4.0 m (14 ft.)
• This is below the FAA required value of 15 ft. (4.5 m.)
• See the examples in the following pages

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Sample Solution for Boeing 777-300
Taxiway
Runway

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Sample Solution for Boeing 777-300
Taxiway

Runway

NOTE: FAA
requires 4.5 m.
of safety distance
from taxiway edge
to outboard wheel

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Example Boeing 777-300 Taxiway-Taxiway

NOTE: FAA
requires 4.5 m.
of safety distance
from taxiway edge
to outboard wheel

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Recall FAA Table 4-2 (AC 150/ 5300-13)

Holding Bays

## • Large paved areas to hold more than one aircraft at a

time near a runway end
• Provide the physical space for a runway departure
queue
• Provide operational flexibility to ATC personnel to
sequence aircraft in a departure queue
• Should be simple for pilots to use them adequately
• Some busy airports use 5-6 holding bays

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Sample Holding Bay (Boeing 777-300)

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Taxiway Fillet Design (Table 4-2)

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Detailed Aircraft Trajectory Analysis

Autoturn software (from Transoft Solutions)
• Use FAA AD42 software (approximate techniques to
study aircraft kinematics on the ground)

AutoturnTM

## • Autoturn simulates the vehcile trajector and checks for

inconsistencies (i.e., large steering angles)
• Requires a centerline track (aircraft follows the track
designed in AutoCad - say a cricular segment)
• Has new aircraft templates (version 5.0 has a template
for the Airbus A380). Version 5 has a standard library
of over 50 aircraft
• Ability to “user define” your own aircraft
• Conduct “jet blast” analysis and evaluate fuel service
points. Try this in the CEECL lab!

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Autoturn Example (Transoft Solutions)

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Autoturn Procedures

## In order to test a taxiway/apron maneuvering geometry

through Autoturn vehicle simulation execute the
following steps:
• Select an aircraft library
• Select the aircraft type to be modeled
• Set simulation parameters (steering angle limits, etc.)
• Choose a path and run the animation
• The program provides feedback on the actual track and
the possible constrainst of the vehicle to complete the
desired maneuver

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Autoturn Example (Transoft Solutions)

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Autoturn - Evaluation of Service Points

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Autoturn Jet Blast Analysis

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Instructions to Start Autoturn

## Step 1 = Start AutoCad in the standard way

selecting the file acad.lsp located in the Autoturn folder.
Step 3 = At the command prompt in AutoCad , type
You are ready to use Autoturn and a new pull down

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Example Using Autoturn

## Suppose we want to evaluate the turning envelop of a

Boeing 757-200 through a 150 ft. tangent segment
followed by a curve segment with radius 125 ft.
Solution:
Construct in AutoCad two segments containing the path
of the vehicle (one straight segment and one curved
segment)

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Example Using Autoturn (Construct Path)

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Select Autoturn Settings

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Running a Simulation

## Using the Autoturn simulation menu ran the simulation

of the aircraft over selected drawing objects

Boeing 757

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Run the Animation from Command Line

## You can run the animation form the AutoCad command

The animation should display the path of the vehicle as
it negotiates the two segments selected

## To edit the path of the aircraft in AutoCad import the

animation to the AutoCad environment by selecting
Import Envelope from the Autoturn pull-down menu

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Imported Trajectory (View 1)
Wingtip Envelope
Centerline Path

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Imported Trajectory (View 2)

Wingtip Envelope
Centerline Path

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Things to Observe

## • The vehicle is capable of turning in 125 ft. as illustrated

from the resulting trajectory
• The track-in distance is substantial. By the time the
vehicle ends the maneuver, the outer main gear track
follows the curve centerline. For a Boeing 757-200 this
is equivalent to 4.2 meters (or half of the main gear
track = 1.15 x 7.32 meters)
• The steeting angles are acceptable for the turn (<20
degrees)

## • Once the aircraft track has been imported into

envelopes easily
• Suppose we would like to add jet blast envelopes to the
previous drawing
• Select Import Air Symbols from the Autoturn pull
• This provides several options: service points, jet blast
for idle thrust, breakaway thrust and takeoff thrust

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Importing Air Symbols

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FAA AD42 Software to Model Aircraft
Trajectories

## • DOS version program

• Generates good output on vehicle steering angles,
offsets and general track parameters

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Sample Application

## • Design a 90 degree taxiway layout with a centerline

• Define entrance and exit stations (as shown in the
diagram)
PT station
Left offet 0 + 393 ft.

R = 250 ft.
Right offet
PC station
0 + 000 ft.

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Obtain Aircraft Data (Boeing 777-300ER)

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FAA Offset Taxiway Design Procedure

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Enter Aircraft Data (Boeing 777-300ER)

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FAA AD42 Solution (Offsets and Steering
Angle)

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FAA AD42 Solution (Offsets and Steering
Angle - continuation)