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1995

0045-7949(93)EOOWX Copyright 0 1995 Elsevier Science Ltd

Prmted in Great Britain. All rights reserved

0045-794919s 19.50 + 0.00

IMPELLERS

S. N. AI-Zubaidy

Mechanical Engineering Department, United Arab Emirates University, United Arab Emirates

Abstract-A scheme for the Computer Aided Design and manufacture of radial impellers is described.

Starting with a one-dimensional calculation, the principal dimensions (for given performance require-

ments) are optimized using a suitable optimization algorithm. Then, employing a direct design procedure,

the detailed geometry of the impeller is established. These geometrical data are then processed as input

data to a host of separate programs which check the flow distribution characteristics, blade stress and

vibration. Interaction between designer and design package was kept to minimum. The final output could

be obtained in the form of tabulated data for direct production by N.C. machines.

NOTATION in incidence

B blockage U tangential

b width, constraints (optimization program) r radial component

c absolute velocity rms root mean square

G friction coefficient Z axial direction

CP specific heat at constant pressure 6 tangengial component

d diameter SF skin friction

e inducer to tip diameter ratio

F objective function (optimization program)

h hub to tip diameter ratio

INTRODUCTION

L path length

impeller axial length Many Computer Aided Design (CAD) procedures

M Mach number

have been developed in the last three to four decades

m mass flow rate

N rotational speed for the design and analysis of both centrifugal im-

P pressure pellers and turbine rotors. Benson and Fischer [I] for

4 head example, proposed a computer assisted procedure for

radius the design and manufacture of radial turbine rotors.

T temperature

The input data include the design specifications and

time

u tangential velocity the inlet and outlet flow conditions (i.e., pressure,

W relative velocity temperature and the rotational speed). Baines

number of impeller blades, axial coodinate et a/. [2] proposed a procedure for the design of mixed

tangential direction

flow turbines which has several logical steps that

flow angle

blade angle, relative flow angle necessitate designer intervention at various locations.

deceleration ratio, viscosity Came [3] described a computer based compressor

assumed isentropic efficiency design procedure which deals mainly with the im-

efficiency peller. The package includes geometry modelling,

density

ratio of specific heats

aerodynamic analysis, stress analysis and the gener-

slip factor ation of geometrical data for manufacturing pur-

displacement thickness poses. The common features of the aforementioned

kinematic viscosity design packages could be summarized as follows:

w speed of rotation

(i) Interventions by the operator are required at

Subscripts many stages during the execution, furthermore nei-

ther the conditions on which decisions may be made,

0 stagnation condition

1 impeller inlet nor the remedial steps or modifications that would

2 imbeller exit help to satisfy the acceptable conditions have been

3 diffuser exit defined.

aV. average (ii) The axial length of the impeller along its axis

b blade

BL blade loading

of rotation appears to be chosen quite arbitrary.

DF disk friction (iii) Emphasis appears to have been on the geo-

i incidence angle metrical description of the impeller. Blade definition

347

348 S. N. Al-Zubaidy

could be accompiished by conic sections, LamC Ovals For a given set of performance requirements, the

(supercircle) or by using polynomial patches. equations of continuity, energy and Newton’s second

(iv) These procedures are suitable essentially for law can be combined and re-written in dimensionless

analysis and may be used for design work in an form using the assumptions that the flow is one-di-

indirect mode. mensional, steady and the fluid is a perfect gas. It may

The procedure in this paper is capable of overcom- also be assumed that the condition of zero pre-whirl

ing some of the above mentioned drawbacks. The at the impeller inlet prevails. Then based on the above

package consists of a suite of programs that requires mentioned, the following general expressions could

mainly the design specifications as input data. A be obtained.

detailed description of the package core programs An expression for the dimensionless speed par-

will be presented in the following sections. ameter could be written as:

GENERAL DESCRIPTION

separate programs that deal with:

1. One-dimensional analysis. The relative flow angle at the outlet could be defined

2. One-dimensional parameter optimization in the following manner:

3. A direct design program.

4. Casting possibility program.

5. Quasi-three-dimensional flow analysis.

6. Stress analysis.

I. Vibration analysis.

8. Safety limits.

9. Output to N.C. Program.

An outline of the computer design procedure (in the The inducer to tip diameter ratio:

form of a flow chart) is shown in Fig. I. This paper

will describe the theory (in some detail) behind

programs numbered I, 2, 3. 5 and 6 and referred to in

this paper as core programs. However, information

about the remaining programs (i.e., 4, 7, 8 and 9) are

presented in detail and in a separate manner in The dimensionless mass flow parameter, based on the

Al-Zubaidy [4]. inlet flow conditions:

PRELIMINARY DESIGN-PROGRAM I

centrifugal compressor may be considered as a gener-

x[&+q

alized fluid handling system (Fig. 2 shows a cross-sec-

/$,f? ,: +li?c, ,, (4)

tion and the nomenclature of a compressor stage),

and the variables which will completely describe the 2

design and performance of this system may be di-

vided into three groups as follows:

hub diameter inlet total temperature pressure ratio

tip width fluid density, etc. efficiency, etc.

inducer diameter, etc.

A proposed design package for centrifugal impellers 349

; INPUT

0START

CESi’QEQUlREMENTS ;

I

ESTIMATE SLIP FACTOR, NUMBER

OF BLADES & IMPELLER EFFICIENCY

I

CALCULATE THE IMPELLER OVERALL

DIMENSIONS USING PRELIMINARY DESIGN

PROGRAM (EACH VALUE EACH VARIABLE )

I

RECALCULATE SLIP FACTOR AND EFFICIENCY

USING AN OPTIMIZATION ALGORITHM.

PROGRAM. 2

I

SELECT VALUE OF IMPELLER LENGTH ALONG

ITS AXIS OF ROTATION.

PROGRAM. I,

EVALUATION

PROGRAM .S

PROGRAM. 6

AND AERODYNAMIC DENDING STRESSES.

I

BLADE VIBRATION ANALYSIS PROGRAM. 7

I 3

ANOTHER DESIGN

350 S. N. Al-Zubaidy

VOLUTE CASING

VANELESS DIFFUSE

ments will narrow the area of search for the overall

dimensions (Le., establish the practical range of geo-

metrical and flow parameter variation) and hence will

enable the designer to establish a preliminary design

chart. Figure 3 shows an overall plot of tip width to

tip diameter ratio and inducer tip blade angle versus

the inducer to tip diameter ratio for several values of

diffusion ratio tanging from 0.65 to 0.85. The press-

ure ratio (total-to-total) and inducer tip Mach num-

ber are held constant for all diffusion values. It is

noteworthy that at each value of the diffusion ratio,

there is a maximum value of the tip width to tip

Fig. 2. Cross-section of a compressor stage. diameter ratio which occurs at an inducer angle of

approximately 30’. It should be mentioned here that

the choice of inducer tip angle is normally dictated by

The dimensionless mass flow parameter based on the

three considerations:

exit flow conditions:

(i) Machining requirements.

(ii) In order to increase the natural frequency of

the plate, it may be necessary to increase route

A W,/W, = 0.65,

b w2/w, = 0.75,

0 w2/wt = 0.069

I I I

0.1675 0.375 0.5625 0 I5

INDUCER TO TIP DIAMETER RATIO

A proposed design package for centrifugal impellers 351

thickness. The resulting blockage can be offset only c,,, = 0.6 - 0.9 (i 2 0)

by increasing &.

(iii) Specified mass flow. =0.6- 1.2 (i < 0).

It should be pointed out here that based on the stated

design constraints, it is not always possible to choose The blading loss as reported by the above mentioned

the optimum value of the inducer tip blade angle. At reference could be written as:

the end of this stage, the practical area of variation

of the geometrical and flow parameters could be

established. (lOa)

Recently, considerable progress has been made in

the application of optimization techniques to prob-

lems involving a large number of variables and many

sophisticated optimization algorithms are now in

existence. In the present context however, the term

optimization is limited to those situations where the

measure of achievement can be quantified and can be In the above equation the following values may be

calculated, and where alternative courses of action selected:

can be represented by assigning different values of a

set of parameters X,, X,, , A’,,. It is therefore n = I; A = 0.46 (laminar)

necessary to have an objective function F(R) where ft

denotes the vector with elements X,, X,, , A’,,, and n = 6; A = 0.076 (turbulent)

the object is to determine the value of x which will

find the optimum value of F. The description of the

H= 1.18 - 1.3 (lOc)

algorithm is beyond the intended scope of this paper

but details may be found in Biggs [5, 61. In the present

paper, the optimization problem is given in such a

way that any non-linear programming algorithm r2 - rlrms h

could be used to achieve a numerical solution with CT= ; (104

2x +2x

such an approach, the time for preparing and solving 2- (r2 - Ylrmr

1 y (r2 + rlrma)

the problem is much shorter. However if the system 2 2

is too large and decomposition to smaller sub-systems

the Reynolds number (in eqn (lob)) is based on the

is necessary, other methods might be more appropri-

impeller tip conditions.

ate. The present optimization problem could be

The friction loss was calculated using the formula

stated by an objective function given by:

for the loss in smooth pipes, the friction factor

however was adjusted for impeller loss calculation

Max F(R) = )?lmpeller (6) with the following form:

given by: for R,>3 x IO’. (II)

Disk friction loss as suggested by Dallenbach et al. [8]

h,(R)>0 J=n+l,n+2..‘m. is given by:

(7)

Aq,, = (12a)

(Q/W - (Aq,,+ AqaL+ &,,I

F(%= speller =

(AqluS)+ Aq,,+ AYDF

where C, in the above expression could be defined as:

(8)

C, = 0.0622R$‘z (l2b)

The incidence loss is calculated using the formula

reported by Boyce [7] and could be written as:

and the recirculation loss proposed by the same

reference is given by:

(9)

By,, = 0.02 tan I? A, (l3a)

352 S. N. Al-Zubaidy

0.75 Aq were obtained (within the specified set of constraints):

*=I_;+

’ !5[5(, _$)+22]. (13b) Tip diameter = 152 mm

loss models (which are available in the published

literature) can be easily adapted and then be used to Hub diameter = 27.5 mm

give an estimate of various losses in the impeller.

The independent design variables in this paper

Inducer tip diameter = 88 mm

were chosen to be:

f%

l-1

Figure 4 follows the history of the optimization of the

rl objective function which is given by eqn (8). It can be

= b, (14) seen that the algorithm required only five iterations

L to obtain an optimum value of the objective func-

tions; the greatest increase in the value of the function

c2 was obtained in the first and second iteration, by the

W,V third iteration an optimum value was nearly found.

Having established the impeller overall dimensions,

subject to a set of equality constraints given by eqns the next step is to evaluate its detailed geometry.

(lH5).

In addition to the equality constraints, a set of

DIRECT DESIGN PROGRAM-PROGRAM 3

inequality constraints (mainly positivity constraints)

is also imposed, these constraints are imposed on the The detailed shape of the impeller flow channels

design to ensure a practical solution. (and hence the impeller geometry) may be obtained

For stated design requirements of: by using one of the following two approaches.

namely:

Mass flow rate = 1.0 kg/s

(i) The indirect design approach.

Pressure ratio = 6 : 1 (ii) The direct design approach.

0.6(

0 1 2 3 4

--I 5

ITERATION NUMBER.

A proposed design package for centrifugal impellers 353

6mm

EK TIP THICKNESS

KIN

(u

0

FLOW INLET STATION

IMPELLER AXIAL LENGTIi

2.

Fig. 5. Views of the designed impeller.

In the case of the indirect approach, a preliminary For a prescribed relative velocity distribution along

shape is produced on the basis of past experience. The the impeller axial length and with a knowledge of the

flow within the channels would be analysed by using spatial description of the mean-stream-line, then eqn

three-dimensional or quasi-three-dimensional flow (16) could be solved for the blade loading (i.e.

analysis. The velocity profile so obtained would be aP/aO x APjA0). The theoretical pressure rise along

examined for any irregularities, and the channel the flow path was calculated using the following

would be modified successively to arrive at acceptable eauation:

1

dP=;dZ+$dr+;dB

ous, time consuming and expensive in terms of com-

putational costs, the successful application of the

indirect approach depends largely on the experience

-gdZ +& +gdfX (18)

and engineering judgement of the designer.

The direct approach (which is used in this pack-

age), assumes that the acceptable velocity profile is Further details may be found in Al-Zubaidy [9]. The

known as a starting point. Hence, the aim would be geometrical output data from this program will be in

to arrive at a channel shape which would produce the the form of discrete points and therefore should be

specified velocity profile. fitted by a suitable curve fitting technique (e.g. cubic

The direct design approach used here is based on spline) in order to automate the design process. The

the solution of the equations of motion relative to the meridional view (r-Z plane), the front view and blade

rotating impeller using the assumption that all blade angle distribution of the designed impeller are shown

body forces are negligible and the flow is axisymmet- in Fig. 5. This figure has been drawn as a result of the

ric. The general forms of these equations in the Y, 0 output data from program 3. The impeller axial

and Z coordinates are: length was systematically optimized using the pro-

cedure proposed by Al-Zubaidy [IO].

dwr f+‘S 1 aP

02r -2wW,,= --7 (15)

dt r- P or FLOW ANALYSIS-PROGRAM 5

(16)

have been developed in order to model the flow in

turbomachines and blade passages. These calculation

dW, lc?P procedures can be classified in quasi-three-dimen-

-= ---. (17)

dt P8Z sional and fully three-dimensional methods. The

354 S. N. Al-Zubaidy

% MERIDIONAL COORDINATE

quasi-three-dimensional method (Katsanis [ 11, 121, example, assumes a predominant direction of flow

Hirsch and Warzee [13]) consists essentially of an and little influence of the down stream pressure field

iterative solution or two-dimensional flows on blade- on upstream flow conditions. Since effects spread

to-blade and through flow stream surfaces. They are only in the down stream direction, the equations can

based on inviscid calculations with superimposed loss be solved with a marching method even though the

models and eventually two-dimensional boundary flow is three-dimensional and the full equations are

layer calculations. Most of these methods are based elliptic. The partially parabolic methods also assume

on axisymmetric blade-to-blade stream surfaces. a predominant flow direction in which there is negli-

Hence, secondary flow effects and circumferential gible reverse flow. The cross stream pressure vari-

non-uniformities can not be handled properly. ations are not negligible and therefore downstream

The fully three-dimensional calculation on the effects are transmitted upstream via pressure.

other hand can be viscous and inviscid (Dodge [14], Taking into consideration computer time and the

Moore and Moore [15]). Recently several viscous required level of accuracy it was decided in this

approaches have been developed, besides the longer paper to use the quasi-three-dimensional program of

computer times they require, they are all based on Katsanis [ll, 121. The relative velocity and pressure

approximations limiting the class of flows that can be distribution of the design example are shown in Figs

calculated. The parabolic method developed by 6 and 7. It can be observed that both distributions are

Patank and Spalding [16] and Caretto et ul. [17]. for free of high localized gradients and the important

% MERIDIONAL COORDINATE

A proposed design package for centrifugal impellers 355

1.2 r-

1.1

A RADIAL STRESS

1.0

A HOOP OR TANGENTIAL STRESS

g 0.0

:

‘s 0.7

8 0.6

I

f 0.5

z

4 04

3; 0.3

E

IX 0.2

0.1

0

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.3 1I .c

RADIUS/ OUTLET RADIUS

control of secondary flow is achieved by designing the the profile of the back face or by introducing the hub

radial-axial shape in such a way that the radial or both.

pressure gradients in the main flow will tend to

naturalize centrifugal pressure. Upon comparison CONCLUSIONS

with existing designs, the two distributions do fall in

The proposed CAD package has been used to

line with existing compressors that are known to have

generate the three-dimensional geometry of an

highly efficient impellers.

example design capable of handling 1 kg/set of air at

6: 1 pressure ratio; the isometric view of the design

STRESS ANALYSIS-PROGRAM 6 example is shown in Fig. 9. It can be observed that

the wall contours, blade shape and flow passages

The program used for the stress analysis of the

exhibit smooth and gradual variation throughout.

impeller was based on the work of Swanson [IQ

which is similar to the work of Schilhamsh [19] where

we replaced the finite difference equations with the

basic differential equations obtaining a solution using

a Runge-Kutta integration formula. The main as-

sumptions of the method are the following:

parallel to the axis re.nains straight after defor-

mation.

(ii) Shear and axial stresses are considered.

(iii) Shear and strain conditions at any point of the

disc are assumed independent of the angular position.

(iv) Displacement is assumed to be very small.

The above program was written in Fortran and then

used to predict stress levels of the design example.

The program is also suitable for running on an IBM

PC (AT) or compatibles. The output of this program

in the form of the distribution of the tangential and

radial stresses on the faces of the disc are shown in

Fig. 8. It should be mentioned that the values of the

stresses can be altered significantly either by changing Fig. 9. Isometric view of the example design.

356 S. N. Al-Zubaidy

From the results obtained it might be concluded that WADC Tech. Report 55-257. ASTIA Document No.

AD II0467 (1956).

use of the proposed procedure will sharply reduce the 9,

S. N. Al-Zubaidy, Advanced direct-design procedure

development time for the design and manufacture of for centrifugal impellers. AIAA J. Propuls. Power 9(l)

radial impellers. Work is currently underway to try to (Jan. -Feb., 1993).

manufacture the designed unit so that a comparative IO. S. N. Al-Zubaidy, Axial length influence on perform-

assessment test and eventual comparison can be ance of radial impellers. AIAA J. Prop&. Power 8(6)

(Nov. Dec.. 1992).

made.

II. T. Katsanis, Use of arbitrary quasi-orthogonals for

REFERENCES calculatrng flow distribution in the meridional plane of

a turbomachine. NASA TN. D-2546 (1962).

1. R. S. Benson and U. Fischer, A proposed scheme for 12. T. Katsanis. Use of arbitrary quasi-orthogonals for

computer aided design and manufacture of radial tur- calculating flow distribution on a blade-to-blade surface

bine rotors. ASME paper No. 78-GT-156 (1978). in a turbomachine. NASA TN D-2809 (1965).

2. N. C. Baines, F. J. Wallace and A. Whitfield, A 13. Ch. Hirsch and G. Warzee, Quasi 3D finite element

computer aided design of mixed flow turbines for computation of flow in centrifugal compressors. ASME

turbochargers. J. Engng Power 101, 440449 (July. Symposium, 22nd Annual Gas Turbine Conf., New

1979). Orleans. pp. 69 75 (March, 1981).

3. P. M. Came, The development, application and exper- 14. P. R. Dodge. A numerical method for 2D and 3D

imental evaluation of a design procedure for centrifugal viscous Hews. AIAA paper No. 76-425 (1976).

compressors. I. Mech. E. Procoa. 192 (5) (1978). 15. J. Moore and J. G. Moore, A calculation procedure for

4. S. G. Al-Zubaidy, Computer Ii&g of programs which 3D viscous compressible duct How, Parts I and II.

can be used in a CAD procedure of centrifugal impellers J. Fluid Engng 101, 415428 (1979).

plus a user guide. ATA Tech. Report, No. 23A/91 16. S. V. Patanker and D. B. Spalding, A calculation

(1991). procedure for heat, mass and momentum transfer in 3D

5. M. C. Biggs, In Numerical Melhod. for Non-Linear parabolic flows. hr. J. Heat Mass TramJer 15, 1787

Optimization (Edited by F. A. Lootsa), Chap. 29. (1972).

pp. 411-428. Academic Press, London (1972). 17. L. S. Caretto. R. M. Curr and D. B. Spalding, Two

6. M. C. Biggs, In Towards Global Opfimization (Edited by numerrcal methods for 3D boundary layers. Comp.

L. C. W. Dixon and G. P. Szego), Chap. 20, pp. Me/h uppl. Mech. Engng 1, 39 (1973).

341-349. North Holland, Amsterdam (1975). 18. N. S. Swanson, The stress analysis of a radial How

7. M. P. Boyce, New development in compressors. Pro<,. Impeller. Australian Defence Scientific Service Note,

Texas A&M University (1972). ARL’ME 259 (1963).

8. Dallenbach, Coppege et al., Study of supersonic radial 19. M. J. Schilhamsh. Stress analysis of radial How rates.

compressors for refrigeration and pressurisation. 7run.r. .4SME Series A 84(l) (1962).

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