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Abstract

Title : Harvesting Solar Power Through the Uncommon


Property of Light Emitting Diodes

Researchers : Bernardo T. Del Pilar


Mark Angelo R. Jimenez
Keer C. Lim
Alvin M. Rivera
Ralph Lloyd M. Sison

Degree : Bachelor of Science in Electronics and


Communications Engineering

School : Polytechnic University of the Philippines

Date of Defense : December 2010

Adviser : Engr. Geoffrey T. Salvador

This study focused on the study of Light-Emitting Diode and its

uncommon property to convert light luminescence into electricity and

acquiring an alternative source of power from the radiation of the sun using

more economical component.

“Most PN junction semiconductor materials are photovoltaic”. This

statement made this study to consider one of the most common and cheap

electronic component, the Light Emitting Diode. The light emitting diode has

been tested as a solar panel by using different kinds of connections like

making a series and parallel connections of LED. An experiment of different

colors of LED was done to know the color of LED that produces the highest

output voltage and current. In capturing energy from the sun, the converted

light source has a significant potential difference but low output current. The
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low output current that was harvested from the panel was the reason for the

study to state that the application of the device was limited.

Different colors of LED produced different output voltage and current.

Yellow LED produced the highest voltage and current. The experiment proved

that in series connection of LEDs the individual output voltage of the LED

adds, the connection producing higher voltage as the number of LEDs

connected in series increases, while the current remains in constant value. In

parallel connection, the voltage output and current output is opposite the

result that of a series connection. A series-parallel connection was made to

have a better output voltage and current.


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CHAPTER 1

The Problem and Its Background

Introduction

The issue about diminution of the primary resources of energy is one of

the most predominant problems that humans are facing today. The

population of the world had depended much on its primary source of energy,

which was the fossil fuel. Modernization had caused serious problems on the

environment because of the bi-products of energy sources that when burnt

will produce greenhouse gases that were the primary cause of global

warming.

Many concepts have been introduced to seek for alternative ways to

acquire energy sources that will not contribute harmful effects. The radiation

from the sun is the most abundant and primary source of light and heat

energy on Earth thus, it is the ideal form to use in obtaining clean energy

source. Different technologies, like the Solar cells, has been established in

using sun’s radiation for power sources but innovation is continuous because

of the efficiency on the performance and the cost of materials and

components needed in converting sunlight to electricity. One of these

components is the light-emitting diode (LED).


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This study pondered on how to acquire clean energy by converting the

sunlight to electricity through the use of the uncommon property of LED.

Background of the Study


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The use of the sun’s emission of electromagnetic energy in acquiring

source of power by converting it to electricity has been the great interest for

the researchers because of it is free, inexhaustible, and pollution-free. The

leading technology on acquiring solar power is the use of solar cell.

Solar power refers to the generation of electricity using the energy

brought by sunlight. It could be generated by the principle of photovoltaic

effect or be concentrated as heat source for a conventional power plant.

Commonly the photovoltaic effect approach, which is more widespread,

involves using collections of cells that convert the photons in sunlight into

direct current .

A solar cell is a device that converts energy of the sunlight directly to

electricity by the photovoltaic effect. Photovoltaic effect is the phenomenon

in a material to generate voltage when exposed to light. A solar cell is

generally a PN junction semiconductor with a large surface area. PN junction

is made by two different materials known as P-type and N-type

semiconductors, which are held in close contact. A P-type semiconductor

material has electron holes as positive charge carriers. It is obtained through

a process known as doping where additional atoms of a different element are

added to the parent semiconductor element to increase the number of

electron holes. The doping atom accepts the outer electrons from the

semiconductor and creates an abundance of electron holes. An N-type

semiconductor conversely has negative charge carriers and a large


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quantity of electrons. It is acquired by doping a semiconductor material

with atoms that can give away electrons. The generation of electric

current occurs inside the depletion area of the PN junction. When a photon,

light energy, is absorbed by one of the atoms in the N-type material, it will

remove an electron, resulting in a free electron and a hole. The free electron

and a hole has sufficient energy to jump out of the depletion area and if a

wire is connected from the N- to P-type material, electrons will flow through

the wire as electron is attracted to positive charge of the P-type material.

This principle is the same when using LED.

A light-emitting diode (LED) is a semiconductor device that emits

visible light when an electric current passes through it. A LED consists of two

elements of processed material called P-type semiconductors and N-type

semiconductors. These two elements are set in direct contact, forming a

region called the P-N junction.

In this respect, the LED resembles most other diode types, but there

are important differences. The LED has a transparent package, allowing

visible energy to pass through. Also, the LED has a large PN-junction area

whose shape is customized to the application. Light emitting diodes are used

as indicator light in many devices and equipments, and are gradually used for

lighting.
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The fact that was not commonly known was that most P-N junctions

were photovoltaic. This concept led the researchers to consider that LED can

have photovoltaic effect like the solar cell but with smaller surface area. The

use of LED fascinates them because it is one of the most common and cheap

component nowadays, in addition, it has advantages that include longer

lifetime, smaller size, and greater durability.

This study focused on the study of Light-Emitting Diode and its

uncommon property to convert light luminescence into electricity and

acquiring an alternative source of power from the radiation of the sun using

more economical component.

Statement of the Problem


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This study was an attempt to ascertain how to acquire new and

cheaper way on harvesting solar power using LED.

Specifically this study aims to determine:

1. Does the LED exhibits the photovoltaic effect when being exposed to

sunlight?

2. What are the different output voltages and currents for different colors of

LEDs?

3. How much is the difference of the output when using the big LEDs compare

to the small ones?

4. What is the proper circuit connection required to attain the best output?

5. Is the output enough to charge a cell phone?


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Theoretical framework

The technology about solar energy has harnessed by humans since

ancient times. Solar radiations, along with the other secondary sources of

power that exist today are very important to the current situation of the

amount of energy that our primary sources can not generate nowadays. Solar

power generation relies on heat engines and photovoltaic.

Photovoltaic is a method of generating power by converting solar light

photons to electricity by the use of semiconductors that exhibit the

photovoltaic effect. The study found out that light emitting diodes exhibits

photovoltaic effects. Since most PN junction semiconductors are photovoltaic,

it can be concluded that an LED is photovoltaic.

For using photovoltaic materials, there must be things that must be

considered for designing a photovoltaic power system. There are four factors

that significantly affect solar array performance:

1. Operating temperature

2. Solar intensity

3. Sun angle

4. I-V operating point (load matching for maximum power)


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Conceptual Framework

PROCESS

OUTPUT
INPUT LED selection

Affordable solar
Photovoltaic Circuit designing
panel
power systems
Generation of
Alternative
Different LEDs electricity
device for
Current boosters
generating power

Figure 1: Concept Flow Diagram

The concept of this study comprised of the necessary inputs that was

needed for the formulation of the desired output. Different light emitting

diodes have different rate of generated voltage and current. Factors that

must be considered in designing the products were dictated by the

photovoltaic power system factors. The process in selecting diodes that must
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be use also affects the circuit’s devices specifications. The output would be

an affordable device that can charge batteries of specific electronic devices.

Significance of the Study

Since the primary source of energy is continued to lessen, world

energy crisis has becoming more and more visible for the planet Earth. The

issue of global warming also comes in our way in terms of acquiring energy.

The need to ascertain ways on yielding clean and cheap energy has come.

Factors may arise when this phenomena happens, that is why the

researchers focused on finding other ways to generate power to somehow

provide power source for some electronic device that need less power.

Alternative power is very convenient to use instead of the primary existing

power sources. Solar energy is a very common alternative power source but

most solar panel is very expensive that is why it is not attainable for other

consumers.

The significance of this study was to contribute an idea of generating

power by means of some light emitting diodes acting as a photovoltaic cell

panel. The primary concept was creating a panel of light emitting diodes to
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capture solar radiation that the sun emits and convert it to electrical current.

Since light emitting diodes was preferably cheap, making the device was

much favorable economically than other solar panels.

This study also contributes of attaining power in more convenient and

clean way in resolving insufficient supply of power.


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Scope and Limitations

The scope of this study was about the local LEDs that was used for

common applications. LEDs were easily being bought in any electronic shops.

The study to be conducted was focused to use LED as the main solar panel of

our device to be used as a charger for gadgets.

The device was limited only for low current consuming gadgets. It

cannot supply gadgets that consume high current. Another limitation of the

device was its capability to produce current during the absence of sunlight

especially when the sunlight is obstructed by a huge formation of clouds.


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Definition of Terms

Diode is a two-terminal electronic component that

conducts electric current in only one direction.

Light Emitting Diode is a semiconductor light source. LEDs are used as

indicator lamps in many devices, and are

increasingly used for lighting. Early LEDs emitted

low-intensity red light, but modern versions are

available across the visible, ultraviolet and infrared

wavelengths, with very high brightness.

N-type semiconductor is the type of extrinsic semiconductor where the

dopant atoms are capable of providing extra

conduction electrons to the host material (e.g.

phosphorus in silicon). This creates an excess of

negative (n-type) electron charge carriers.

P-type semiconductor is obtained by carrying out a process of doping,

that is adding a certain type of atoms to the

semiconductor in order to increase the number of

free charge carriers (in this case positive).


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Photon is an elementary particle, the quantum of the

electromagnetic interaction and the basic unit of

light and all other forms of electromagnetic

radiation.

Photovoltaic Effect is the basic physical process through which a solar

cell converts sunlight into electricity.

Photovoltaic Cell is a specialized semiconductor diode that converts

visible light into direct current (DC). Some PV cells

can also convert infrared (IR) or ultraviolet (UV)

radiation into DC electricity. Photovoltaic cells are

an integral part of solar-electric energy systems,

which are becoming increasingly important as

alternative sources of utility power.

Solar Panel is a packaged interconnected assembly of solar

cells, also known as photovoltaic cells. The solar

panel can be used as a component of a larger

photovoltaic system to generate and supply

electricity in commercial and residential

applications.
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CHAPTER 2

Review of Related Literature and Studies

The entire chapter presents the researchers’ general review from the

different websites and sources concerning about solar cell, its compositions

and how it generates electric current. Studies and researchers found were

about the principle of photovoltaic effect and PN junction materials.

Related Literature

Photovoltaic Cells

A solar cell is a PN junction with a large surface area. The N-type

material is keep thin to allow light to pass through to the PN junction.


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Figure 2: Electric current is generated in the depletion zone of a PN

junction

Light travels in packets of energy called photons. The generation of

electric current happens inside the depletion zone of the PN junction. The

depletion region with the diode is the area around the PN junction where the

electrons from the N-type silicon, have diffused into the holes of the P-type

material. When a photon of light is absorbed by one of these atoms in the N-

Type silicon it will dislodge an electron, creating a free electron and a hole. If

a wire is connected from the cathode (N-type silicon) to the anode (P-type

silicon) electrons will flow through the wire. The electron is attracted to the

positive charge of the P-type material and travels through the external load

(meter) creating a flow of electric current. The hole created by the dislodged

electron is attracted to the negative charge of N-type material and migrates

to the back electrical contact.

Light Emitting Diode

A Light Emitting diode (LED) is very similar to the standard diode.

LED’s are made to emit light at the PN junction. When forward-biased the

excited electrons from the N-type silicon combine with the holes in the P-

Type silicone emit photons of light. Typically LED’s only emit one color of

light. The manufacturer can adjust the frequency of the emitted light from an

LED from infrared to ultraviolet.


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Figure 3: Operation of an LED.

Using a bank of parallel LED's to generate electric power from light.

Figure 4: Bank of LED in parallel.

Most PN junctions are photovoltaic. While solar cells are made with a

large area PN junction, a LED has only a small surface area in comparison.

The photovoltaic effect could be shown by wiring 10 LED’s in parallel. When

exposed to sunlight, the LED’s will clearly generate electric current. The ten

LED’s will not generate as much electric power as a solar cell, but it does

demonstrate the photovoltaic property of the PN junction.

The main components of a solar cell are PN junction materials. LED

was a PN junction material which means that it can store light and can
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transform it into electricity. Since LED has only a small surface area, a small

amount of electricity can be produced.

The Photovoltaic Effect

Photovoltaic is the direct conversion of light into electricity at the

atomic level. Some materials exhibit a property known as the photoelectric

effect that causes them to absorb photons of light and release electrons.

When these free electrons were captured, electric current results that can be

used as electricity.

The photoelectric effect was first by a French physicist, Edmund

Bequerel, in 1839, who found that certain materials would produce small

amounts of electric current when exposed to light. In 1905, Albert Einstein

described the nature of light and the photoelectric effect on which

photovoltaic technology is based, for which he later won a Nobel prize in

physics. The first photovoltaic module was built by Bell Laboratories in 1954.

It was billed as a solar battery and was mostly just a curiosity as it was too

expensive to gain widespread use. In the 1960s, the space industry began to

make the first serious use of the technology to provide power aboard

spacecraft. Through the space programs, the technology advanced, its

reliability was established, and the cost began to decline. During the energy

crisis in the 1970s, photovoltaic technology gained recognition as a source of

power for non-space applications.


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Figure 5: Operation of a photovoltaic cell.

The diagram illustrates the operation of a basic photovoltaic cell, also

called a solar cell. Solar cells are made of the same kinds of semiconductor

materials, such as silicon, used in the microelectronics industry. For solar

cells, a thin semiconductor wafer is specially treated to form an electric field,

positive on one side and negative on the other. When light energy strikes the

solar cell, electrons are knocked loose from the atoms in the semiconductor

material. If electrical conductors are attached to the positive and negative

sides, forming an electrical circuit, the electrons can be captured in the form

of an electric current that is, electricity. This electricity can then be used to

power a load, such as a light or a tool.

A number of solar cells electrically connected to each other and

mounted in a support structure or frame is called a photovoltaic module.

Modules are designed to supply electricity at a certain voltage, such as a

common 12 volts system.


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The current produced is directly dependent on how much light strikes

the module.

Figure 6: Multiple modules of cell forming an array.

Multiple modules can be wired together to form an array. In general,

the larger the area of a module or array, the more electricity that will be

produced. Photovoltaic modules and arrays produce direct-current (dc)

electricity. They can be connected in both series and parallel electrical

arrangements to produce any required voltage and current combination.

Today's most common PV devices use a single junction, or interface, to

create an electric field within a semiconductor such as a PV cell. In a single-

junction PV cell, only photons whose energy is equal to or greater than the

band gap of the cell material can free an electron for an electric circuit.

In other words, the photovoltaic response of single-junction cells is

limited to the portion of the sun's spectrum whose energy is above the band

gap of the absorbing material, and lower-energy photons are not used.
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One way to get around this limitation is to use two (or more) different

cells, with more than one band gap and more than one junction, to generate

a voltage. These are referred to as "multijunction" cells (also called "cascade"

or "tandem" cells). Multijunction devices can achieve a higher total

conversion efficiency because they can convert more of the energy spectrum

of light to electricity.

Figure 7: A multijunction device showing a stack of individual single- junction

cells in descending order of band gap.

As shown in figure 7, a multijunction device is a stack of individual

single-junction cells in descending order of band gap (Eg). The top cell

captures the high-energy photons and passes the rest of the photons on to

be absorbed by lower-band-gap cells.

Much of today's research in multijunction cells focuses on gallium

arsenide as one (or all) of the component cells. Such cells have reached

efficiencies of around 35% under concentrated sunlight. Other materials

studied for multijunction devices have been amorphous silicon and copper

indium diselenide.
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As an example, the multijunction device in Figure 7 uses a top cell of

gallium indium phosphide, "a tunnel junction," to aid the flow of electrons

between the cells, and a bottom cell of gallium arsenide.

Photovoltaic Cells

Photovoltaic cells or solar cells generate a voltage when radiant energy

falls on the boundary between dissimilar substances. A solar panel, also

called a photovoltaic panel, is a group of photovoltaic cells that are enclosed

to keep the cells safe and so that the voltage obtained from each cell can be

combined.

Photovoltaic cells are semiconductor devices that have a large-area

photo cell diode that is capable of generating electric energy from sunlight.

This conversion is called the photovoltaic effect. Photovoltaic cells are made

from a semiconducting material, generally silicon crystal.

When sunlight hits the photovoltaic panel, the light is absorbed by the

silicon crystal. This absorption loosens the electrons from their atoms,

causing the electrons to flow through the silicon crystal and generate

electricity.
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There are three basic types of photovoltaic cells: mono-crystalline

cells, polycrystalline cells, and amorphous cells. A mono-crystalline cell is the

most efficient, but also the most costly photovoltaic cell. A polycrystalline cell

is more common and less expensive, but also less efficient. An amorphous

cell is relatively inexpensive, but produces much less power. As such, the

solar panels made from these photovoltaic cells must be larger to produce

the same amount of energy. A UV sensitive photo cell converts UV radiation

to electrical energy.

A photovoltaic system contains individual solar panels that can convert

the solar energy into usable direct current (DC) electricity that can then be

distributed through an inverter to the electric grid or the utility panels at

industrial sites or even in houses. Photovoltaic cells are generally connected

to form solar panels. Solar panels can also be combined to produce currents

that can be used in a variety of applications.

Photovoltaic power is reliable, creates no pollution, and can be quickly

installed. A photovoltaic cell manufacturer or a solar cells manufacturer can

produce photovoltaic cells for many applications, ranging from calculators to

satellites to telephones and vehicles.


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The expected lifetime for photovoltaic cells can be up to 40 years. The

time to recoup the cost of a solar panel averages five years, but can range

between one to thirty years depending on the type of solar panel and its

larger photovoltaic system.

Photovoltaic (PV) cells are made of semiconducting materials that can

convert incident radiation in the solar spectrum to electric currents. PV cells

are most commonly made of silicon, and come in two varieties, crystalline

and thin-film type, as detailed in

Table 1.Table 1 - Crystalline (Wafer-Based) and Thin-Film Photovoltaic Cells

When a photon is absorbed by a semiconducting material, it increases

the energy of a valence band electron, thrusting it into the conduction band.

This occurs when the energy of incident photons is higher than the band gap

energy. The conducting band electron then produces a current that moves

through the semiconducting material.


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Figure 8: Cross-Section of a PV Cell.

The amount of current generated by photon excitation in a PV cell at a

given temperature is affected by incident light in two ways:

1. By the intensity of the incident light.

2. By the wavelength of the incident rays.

The materials used in PV cells have different spectral responses to

incident light, and exhibit a varying sensitivity with respect to the absorption

of photons at given wavelengths. Each semiconductor material will have an

incident radiation threshold frequency, below which no electrons will be

subjected to the photovoltaic effect.

Above the threshold frequency, the kinetic energy of the emitted

photoelectron varies according to the wavelength of the incident radiation,

but has no relation to the light intensity. Increasing light intensity will

proportionally increase the rate of photoelectron emission in the photovoltaic

material. In actual applications, the light absorbed by a solar cell will be a


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combination of direct solar radiation, as well as diffuse light bounced off of

surrounding surfaces. Solar cells are usually coated with anti-reflective

material so that they absorb the maximum amount of radiation possible.

PV cells can be arranged in a series configuration to form a module,

and modules can then be connected in parallel-series configurations to form

arrays. When connecting cells or modules in series, they must have the

same current rating to produce an additive voltage output, and similarly,

modules must have the same voltage rating when connected in parallel to

produce larger currents.

Figure 9: Solar Panel Configurations

Conversion of light into electricity is the main function of photovoltaic

materials. The property of absorbing photons of light and release it in the

form of electricity is exhibited by some materials.

Silicons are the main components of a solar cell. The wafer in the

material is treated to form a charge electric field, positive on one side and

negative on the other. When light is absorbed, the electrons are knocked

from the material. When the positive and negative sides are connected to an
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electrical conductor, it forms an electrical circuit and can be used to capture

electricity.

Photovoltaic cells are environment friendly and are a reliable power

source and can be quickly to be installed. Many electronic applications relies

their source on the photovoltaic material such as calculators and satellites.

The lifetime of a photovoltaic cells is efficient averaging for almost 40 years.

Related Studies

“Installing photovoltaic solar panels on your roof will cost you more than you
save on electricity bills before the panels have to be replaced. But solar panels will
reduce your carbon footprint and save energy.
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According to Giacomo Bizzarri of the University of Ferrara and Gianluca Morini


of the University of Bologna, the amount of electricity that can be saved over the
lifetime of a domestic PV panel is about 2000 kWh per square metre for thin film
modules, with an expected life of 20 years, single-crystalline silicon devices with an
anticipated lifespan of 25 years fare better producing 4400 kWh per square metre.
However, the initial costs are about 2.5 times the value of the electricity produced, the
researchers say.

Their analysis also shows that the manufacture and use of PV panels produces
less pollution than fossil fuel based electricity generation.”

As the Studies and Analyses of the http://www.innovations-report.com

said the above statements, it shows a study of using a solar panel by using

photovoltaic devices. The above statements provide the positive and

negative outlook about using a solar panel as an alternative source of energy,

the cost to be used for installation of PV panels and the energy to be

conserved if PV cell will replace our source of energy. In our study, we were

trying to use the not well-known photovoltaic characteristic of LED to make a

cheaper solar panel using a cheaper photovoltaic device.

“The manufacturing process to make a PV cell is breathtakingly


expensive and requires toxic materials you will not have access to. You need tens of
millions of dollars of equipment to form the P-N junctions that are at the heart of
operation of any PV cell.

PV cells are a very inconvenient source of power. Much more


troublesome, is the output voltage also falls dramatically as increasing current being
delivered. The more current is drawn from the cell, the lower its output voltage falls.

In order to be useful, many PV cells are usually connected in series to


increase the output voltage, and many of these series "stacks" are connected in
parallel to increase the output current. Without this additional power conversion
provided by the inverter, the output of a PV cell array is practically useless.”
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These statements of Bob Wilson are clips on one of his forums. Bob

Wilson talks about how difficult and how expensive were the production of PV

cell was. He also discussed the inconvenience of PV cells as a power source

and gave some remedies to make the PV cells convenient. In our study, we

were planning the same thing on LED and will work on different experiments

to produce a better output. We make combinations of series and parallel

connections of LED. As we have done the experiments on different situation

on LED, our expectations were right about it when we connect the LEDs in

series and in parallel connection.


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CHAPTER 3

Research Methodology

The preceding chapters presented the background of the study,

defined the research problems, annotated the findings of relevant literature

related to factors which described the photovoltaic effect of semiconductor

materials including the LED and presented the theoretical underpinning for

this study.

In the first section of this chapter, the research design is described.

Research locale was also presented which stated where the place or setting

of the study was intended to be done. Then, the chapter presented the

research instruments used by the proponents in testing the study, and stated

its description.
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Research Design

The research study about having an alternative power source by using

the uncommon property of an LED gives the researchers the reason to have

an experimental design. The research mode that they will be using is a true

experimental design. The results of the experiment can then be used and

analyzed statistically.

As of the study, the researchers had a series of random testing of the

LED. The researchers had some testing during different times of the day and

finding of the right combinations, colors and types of LED to be used for

having the desired output. By comparing the results of the output power the

testing element can give from the light of the sun and how high or low the

output power the sunlight can give us and converting it to electrical energy

for its application for charging.


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Research Locale

The study depends on some factors such as the light of the sun and

the temperature. The setting of the study affected the experiments that were

conducted by the researchers. So the study was conducted on a place where

there is a direct contact of the device from the light of the sun, specifically at

the roof top of the canteen at the back of College of Engineering and

Architecture building.

Other testing and experiments were taken in the setting where there

were sufficient light from the sun. One of our proponent’s house was selected

because their rooftop means a better exposure to sunlight and is free against

light obstruction, therefore a more productive experiment for the group.

The prototype making was done in one of the proponent’s house in West

Rembo, Makati City. The address was chosen because they have complete

and appropriate equipments in constructing the prototype. The packaging of

the prototype was made in the CE- MINDS office in the ground floor since the

area is always available and provides accommodation to the reasearchers.


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Research Instruments

To scientifically observe the results of the experiments, the


researchers developed guidelines on the proper materials to be used and
proper procedure and steps to be made.

The researchers also used experiment papers and tables for


them to easily check, interpret and conclude the results of the series of
experiments made to test the photovoltaic effect of LED and to test if it can
be a material to make a portable alternative source of solar power.

EXPERIMENT 1

Measuring the Ability of the LED to have a Photo-voltaic Effect

Objective:

To be able to find out what that LED do have a photovoltaic effect and

can generate open circuit voltage and current.

Materials:

LED (10mm, red), Digital Multi-meter, Breadboard, Alligator clips

Procedure:

1. Set up ten 10mm red LED in the breadboard in parallel connection.

2. Expose the LEDs in the sunlight.


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3. Measure the power that the LEDs produced by tapping one alligator

clip from one negative terminal of any LED and one to positive terminal

of any LED while the other ends of the two alligator clips were

connected to the negative and positive prods of the DMM respectively.

4. Record the readings.

This experiment will measure the LED’s ability to generate voltage and

current when being exposed to sunlight.

Table 2: Measuring the Ability of the LED to have a Photo-voltaic Effect

No. of Red LED Time Voltage(V) Current(I)

10
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Observations:

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

____________________________

Conclusion:

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

____________________________
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EXPERIMENT 2

Measuring the Performance of Different LED According to Colors

Objectives:

To determine the color of LED that would yield the best performance in

harvesting solar power.

Materials:

Different colors of LED (10 ea), Digital Multi-meter, Alligator clips

Procedure:

1. Set the LEDs in the breadboard in parallel connection with the same

color with 10 pieces adding one by one.

2. Attach alligator clips on any negative and positive terminal

respectively and tap to the prods of the DMM to get the readings.

3. Record the measurements for the different sets of colors of LED.

All the LED set ups must be conducted at the same time to compare

the performance of each color type of LED.

Set up1:
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Measure both voltage and current output of the red LED

Table 3: Measuring the Performance of Red LED

No. of Red LED Time Voltage(V) Current(I)

10

Set up 2:
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Measure both voltage and current output of the green LED

Table 4: Measuring the Performance of Green LED

No. of Red LED Time Voltage(V) Current(I)

10

Set up 3:

Measure both voltage and current output of the yellow LED


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Table 5: Measuring the Performance of Yellow LED

No. of Red LED Time Voltage(V) Current(I)

10

Set up 4:

Measure both voltage and current output of the blue LED

Table 6: Measuring the Performance of Blue LED


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No. of Red LED Time Voltage(V) Current(I)

10

Observations:

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________
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______________________________________________________________________________

____________________________

Conclusion:

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

____________________________
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EXPERIMENT 3

Measuring the Performance of LED on Harvesting Solar Power Using

Different Connections (Color Yellow Preferred)

Objective:

To be able to find out what size of LED would yield the best output in

harvesting solar power.

Materials:

Big yellow LED (16mm), Small yellow LED (10mm), Breadboard,

Alligator clips, Digital Multi-meter

Procedure:

Different setups of LED will be using as solar power harvesting

materials.

1. Set the LEDs in the breadboard in one in parallel connection, one in series

connection, and one in series-parallel with the same color with 20 pieces

each breadboard.

2. Attach alligator clips on any negative and positive terminal respectively and

tap to the prods of the DMM.

3. Record the output readings of all setups.

All the LED set ups were conducted at the same time to compare the

performance of each color type of LED.


44

Table 7: Measuring the Performance of LED on Harvesting Solar Power Using

Different Connections

Connection Voltage(V) Current(I)

Parallel Connection

Series Connection

Series-Parallel
Connection

Observations:
45

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

____________________________

Conclusion:

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

____________________________

EXPERIMENT 4
46

Measuring the Performance of LEDs According to Sizes

Objective:

To be able to find out what size of LED would yield the best output in

harvesting solar power.

Materials:

Big yellow LED (16mm), Small yellow LED (10mm), Breadboard,

Alligator clips, Digital Multi-meter

Procedure:

Different setups of LED will be using as solar power harvesting

materials.

1. Set the LEDs in the breadboard in one in parallel connection and one in series

connection with the same color with 10 pieces each.

2. Attach alligator clips on any negative and positive terminal respectively.

3. Record the voltage and current measurement of both set ups.

All the LED must be conducted at the same time to compare the

performance of each color type of LED.

Setup 1:
47

Measure both voltage and current output of small yellow LEDs.

Table 8: Measurement of output performance of small yellow LEDs.

No. of LEDs Voltage (V) Current (mA)

10

12

14

16

18

20
48

Setup 2:

Measure both voltage and current output of big yellow LEDs.

Table 9: Measurement of output performance of big yellow LEDs.

No. of LEDs Voltage (V) Current (mA)

10

12

14

16

18

20
49

Observations:

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

____________________________

Conclusion:

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

____________________________
50

EXPERIMENT 5

Measuring the Performance of the Final Connection and Number of

LED as Solar Panel

Objective:

To be able to measure the output of the Solar Panel using banks of LED

connected in series parallel.

Materials:

Small yellow LEDs set up in the a Printed Circuit Board connected in

series parallel, Digital Multi-meter, Alligator clips

Procedure:

1. Set up the LEDs in series-parallel connection with proper etching and

soldering.

2. Position the panel with direct angle from the sun to yield the maximum

voltage and current output.

3. Attach the alligator clips to the positive and negative terminal of the

PCB and tap the other pair to the test prods of the DMM.

4. Record the voltage and current readings.


51

Table 10: Measuring the Performance of LED on Harvesting Solar Power Using

Different Connections

Time Voltage(V) Current(I)

8am

9am

10am

11am

12pm

1pm

2pm

3pm

4pm

5pm
52

Observations:

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

____________________________

Conclusion:

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

____________________________
53

Description of the Instrument

The researchers used tables to represent the results of the series of


experiments. These tables were used to differentiate different factors that
affect the photovoltaic effect of LED. The factors include the size, the color,
the number, the time of the day, and the type of connection of LED.

The instrument helped the researchers to determine the preferable


settings for harvesting solar power through the use of LEDs.
54

CHAPTER 4

Presentation, Analysis and Interpretation of Data

The data presented in this chapter were based on the outcome of the

experimentations conducted to conceptualize the solar panel made up of

light emitting diodes (LED). Proving that light emitting diodes were can be

used as light absorbing materials or components and finding what type of

LED we can use to harvest the solar power the most.

The researchers conducted series of test and experiments with

different conditions in order to find out the efficiency and effectiveness of the

material. Different setups were considered, concerning with the effect of

different colors and sizes of LED.

The results of the tests and experiments were tabulated for easy

substantiation and interpretation of data.


55

Measuring the Ability of the LED to have a Photo-voltaic Effect

The Experiment 1 was conducted to prove that it was possible to

generate electricity using the photovoltaic property of LEDs.

Table 11: Testing of Bank of LEDs

No. of Red LED Voltage(V) Current(I)

1 1.2V .01mA

2 1.2V .01mA

3 1.2V .03mA

4 1.2V .06mA

5 1.2V .09mA

6 1.2V .12mA

7 1.2V .13mA

8 1.2V .16mA

9 1.2V .18mA

10 1.2V .2mA

The experiment was conducted at noon time to acquire the most

sunlight intensity of the day. This first experiment proved that the LED does

have photovoltaic effect. This experiment inspired the researchers to conduct

series of experiments to acquire usable voltage and current output.

Measuring the Performance of Different LED According to Colors


56

Experiment 2 was conducted to determine the best color of LED that

would generate the voltage and current output. Different set ups were

conducted at noon time between 11:45am to 12:30pm.

Table 12: The output current and voltage readings using red LEDs

No. of Red LED Voltage(V) Current(I)

1 1.2V .01mA

2 1.2V .01mA

3 1.2V .03mA

4 1.2V .06mA

5 1.2V .09mA

6 1.2V .12mA

7 1.2V .13mA

8 1.2V .16mA

9 1.2V .18mA

10 1.2V .2mA

Table 13: The output current and voltage readings using green LEDs
57

No. of Green LED Voltage(V) Current(I)

1 1.101 V .01mA

2 1.101 V .01mA

3 1.101 V .02mA

4 1.101 V .04mA

5 1.101 V .06mA

6 1.101 V .08mA

7 1.101 V .09mA

8 1.101 V .11mA

9 1.101 V .13mA

10 1.101 V .15mA
58

Table 14: The output current and voltage readings using yellow LEDs

No. of Yellow LED Voltage(V) Current(I)

1 1.5 V .16mA

2 1.5 V .19mA

3 1.5 V .22mA

4 1.5 V .25mA

5 1.5 V .28mA

6 1.5 V .31mA

7 1.5 V .34mA

8 1.5 V .37mA

9 1.5 V .40mA

10 1.5 V .43mA
59

Table 15: The output current and voltage readings using yellow LEDs

No. of Blue LED Voltage(V) Current(I)

1 0.5 V .01

2 0.5 V .01

3 0.5 V .03

4 0.5 V .05

5 0.5 V .07

6 0.5 V .09

7 0.5 V .11

8 0.5 V .13

9 0.5 V .15

10 0.5 V .17

The series of experiments were conducted at the same time to

compare the yields of the different LED colors in terms of their output voltage

and current. After all the experiments about the color of the LEDs, the

researchers found out that it is best to use the yellow LEDs in generating

voltage and current because it does produce the highest output voltage and

current readings compare to the other colors of LED.


60

Measuring the Performance of LED on Harvesting Solar Power Using


Different Connections

The Experiment 3 was conducted to find out what should be the proper

connection of the banks of LED to yield the most acceptable output in

harvesting Solar Power.

Table 16: The output Voltage and Current of banks of LED in Different Open
circuit connections

Connection Voltage(V) Current(I)

Parallel Connection 3.5 V .15 mA

Series Connection 8V .4 mA

Series-Parallel 12 V .9 mA
Connection

The experiment was conducted in different set up but in same time to

easily compare the difference of the output of the various connections. The

researchers found out that the Series-Parallel Connection was the best

among the three by having the most voltage and current readings.
61

Comparing the measurement of output performance between small


and big LEDs

The Experiment 4 was conducted to find out what should be the better
size of the LED to be used in harvesting solar power using the color Yellow
LEDs.

Table 17: The Output of Small LEDs connected in series

No. of LEDs Voltage (V) Current (mA)

2 2.1 .04

4 4.3 .2

6 6.5 .36

8 8.7 .5

10 10.9 .65

12 13.1 .79

14 15.3 .93

16 17.5 1.12

18 19.6 1.31

20 21.7 1.32
62

Table 18: The Output of Big LEDs connected in series

No. of LEDs Voltage (V) Current (mA)

1 1.56 .01

2 3.23 .05

3 4.86 .14

4 6.92 .22

5 8.05 .31

6 9.10 .39

7 11.25 .48

8 12.83 .57

9 14.33 .64

10 15.82 .72

The experiment was conducted to determine the size of LED to be

used. The size of LED belongs to many factors like the spacing and size of the

panel, the cost, and the surface area of the semiconductor. The researchers

decided to use the small yellow LEDs because the output of the big and small

has small difference but the big LEDs are more expensive than the 10mm

ones.
63

Measuring the Performance of the Final Connection and

Number of LED as Solar Panel

The Experiment 5 was performed to find out the most yielded output

current and voltages of LEDs according to the circuit connections. This

experiment was for the final set up of the solar panel that will harvest the

most appreciable power.

Table 19: The Solar Panel using LEDs

Time Voltage(V) Current(I)

8am 27 V 1.5 mA

9am 31 V 1.9 mA

10am 35 V 2.2 mA

11am 36.1 V 2.3 mA

12pm 36.3 V 2.5 mA

1pm 35.4 V 2.2mA

2pm 35 V 2.01 mA

3pm 31 V 2 mA

4pm 27 V 1.9 mA

5pm 23 V 1.7 mA

The measurements of the Solar Panel made up of LEDs shows different

readings in different time of the day defending on the intensity of sunlight.

The panel should be positioned into the direct ray of the sun to yield the most

voltage and current output.


64

The principle that most P-N junction semiconductor materials do

exhibit photovoltaic effect was proven using the LEDs which is one of the

cheapest and common components of electronics.

The researchers analyzed the tables of experiments and conclude that

the best Solar Panel that uses LED was the solar panels that utilized the

yellow 10mm LEDs connected in series-parallel. The panel continues to

function and shows stable output voltage and current and generate power

even the sunlight was not present compared to other variable used.
65

CHAPTER 5

Summary of Findings, Conclusion and


Recommendation

The proponents’ findings, conclusion and recommendations were

gathered in this chapter after they have finished the study about the

photovoltaic effect exhibit by the Light Emitting Diode. The data presented

were based on the actual results of the experiments and test on different

LEDs including their different circuit characteristics.

The information developed throughout the chapter were in relation

with the general objective of the study which is to developed an alternative

source of power through the photovoltaic effect of the Light Emitting Diode.
66

CHAPTER 5

Summary of Findings, Conclusion and


Recommendation

The proponents’ findings, conclusion and recommendations were

gathered in this chapter after they have finished the study about the

photovoltaic effect exhibit by the Light Emitting Diode. The data presented

were based on the actual results of the experiments and test on different

LEDs including their different circuit characteristics.

The information developed throughout the chapter were in relation

with the general objective of the study which is to developed an alternative

source of power through the photovoltaic effect of the Light Emitting Diode.
67

Summary of Findings

With all the information established on the previous chapters, and all
the tests and experimentations, the following findings were hereby
summarized:

1. The experiment 1 was conducted to prove the photovoltaic effect exhibit

by the LEDs and the occurred noon time of the day to achieve the most the

direct intensity of the sun.

2. The experiment 2 was conducted to measure the performance of LEDs

according to the color and resulted that the color yellow LED was the most

preferable color with respect to the output voltage and current as well as to

its cost.

3. The experiment 3 was conducted to find out what should be the proper

connection of the banks of Led to yield the most acceptable output in

harvesting Solar Power and resulted that the parallel connection of banks of

series of LED gain the most output voltage and current.

4. The experiment 4 was conducted to find out what should be the better size

of the LED to be used in harvesting solar power using the color Yellow LEDs

and resulted to use the small ones because the difference of the output of
68

the two sizes was small but the cost of the big LEDs were much expensive

than those of the small ones.

5. The experiment 5 was for the final set up of the solar panel that will

harvest the most appreciable power and resulted that best Solar Panel that

uses LED was the solar panels that utilized the yellow 10mm LEDs connected

in series-parallel.

Conclusion
69

Based on the findings and observation of the researchers, the following

conclusions were formed. Each of which were necessary to present the final

output of the whole research. Specifically the researcher concluded that;

1. Light Emitting Diode has the photovoltaic property that it can generate

electricity when exposed to sunlight. The intensity of the sunlight is directly

proportional to the output power of LEDs.

2. Parallel connection of groups of LED connected in series can generate a

better output current.

3. Yellow LEDs produce greater voltage and current than the other color of LED.

4. Big LEDs have small advantage with smaller LED’s on the voltage and current

that it produced, but big LEDs were more expensive than small LEDs.
70

5. The output of the device is sufficient to charge different electronic gadgets,

specifically cellphone. Since a small amount of current is generated from the

device, the time it will take to fully charged a cellphone battery is long

compared to ordinary cellphone chargers.

Therefore, the researchers concluded that proper connection of the banks

of yellow LEDs can yield peak amount of voltage and current that it can

generate. The used of small LEDs is a better option than using big LEDs when

it comes to the ratio of the output voltage and current and its cost.
71

Recommendations

Based on the summary of findings and conclusions, the following

recommendations are hereby offered to further develop the study.

1. For further studies, it is recommended to spend more time exposing the

panel to the sunlight. Lesser time duration were used by the researchers to

determine the photovoltaic effect of LEDs.

2. After a thorough analysis of the gathered data, the researchers suggest

certain improvements. Since it is used much often, a stable and continuous

supply is a major concern. Additional circuit such as current collector would

solve the problem of instability thus improving its efficiency.

3. In order for the output device to gain more applications, adjustments must

be performed. If it will be used as a supply in high current devices,

modifications are needed for the output device to amplify the output current

and output voltage is needed.

4. A more thorough and more refined research and experiments should be

executed to produce a more reliable and more efficient supply of power. A

single improvement of the device has a great impact for its effectivity.
72

Bibliography

How Photovoltaic Cells Generate Electricity. (n.d.). Images Scientific


Instruments - Science Projects, Electronic Kits, Robotic Kits and
73

Accessories, Microcontroller Compilers and Programmers, Parts.


Retrieved October 15, 2010, from
http://www.imagesco.com/articles/photovoltaic/photovoltaic-
pg4.html
Knier, G. (n.d.). How do Photovoltaics Work? - NASA Science. NASA
Science. Retrieved October 15, 2010, from
http://science.nasa.gov/science-news/science-at-
nasa/2002/solarcells/
Solar Panel Payback Time. (n.d.). Science, Industry and Business: the
innovations-report. Retrieved October 15, 2010, from
http://www.innovations-report.com/html/reports/studies/report-
83108.html
Vanguard - Researchers study eco-roof and solar panel combinations.
(n.d.). Vanguard. Retrieved October 15, 2010, from
http://www.dailyvanguard.com/researchers-study-eco-roof-and-
solar-panel-combinations-1.2282531
74

Working Plan

Project title: HARVESTING SOLAR POWER THROUGH THE UNCOMMON


PROPERTY OF LIGHT EMITTING DIODE

Course: B.S.E.C.E.

Instructor: Engr. Geoffrey T. Salvador

Tasks

Brainstorming

Gathering of information
75

Preparation of materials

Experimentation

Research of additional information

Distribution of assignments

Working on the assigned task

Merging of the paper documents

Financial Plan/Budgetary Outlay

Activity Price(peso)

Computer research(estimated of 5 150


combined hours)

LED 250

Circuit components and casing 210

Transportation 70

Total 680