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“In the name of Allah, The Most Beneficent, The Most Merciful”

BMM 3531 Engineering Thermodynamics Lab

Lab Instructors

Idris Bin Mat Sahat

Prof. Dr. K. V. Sharma

Amir Bin Abdul Razak

Mohd Razali Bin Hanipah

Lab Location

Thermodynamics Laboratory, FKM

Lab Outcomes

2. Distinguish between free and forced convective mechanisms and the non-

dimensional numbers/parameters representing them.

3. Identify equations applicable for the estimation of free/force convective heat

transfer coefficient for different geometries and flow conditions (laminar and

turbulent).

4. Apply the concept and theoretical analysis of fins (for rectangular cross-section)

5. Distinguish between the mechanism of heat flow from a single fin and a fin

array

6. Evaluate the heat transfer coefficients for different fin arrays under free and

forced convection.

Group Members Student ID Section

100

Due Date: Delivered Date:

1.0 Introduction to Convection

Convection is a mode of heat transfer which takes place between a surface and a fluid.

Convective process is accomplished by the transfer of heat from a solid (at a higher

temperature) to a fluid (at a lower temperature) adjacent to the surface. The energy

transfer by convection due to temperature difference can be due to random molecular motion

(diffusion) and macroscopic or bulk motion of fluid. Bulk flow of fluid occurs when the flow is

due to external means, such as by a fan, a pump or atmospheric winds and called as Forced

convection. The flow induced by buoyancy forces which arise from density differences caused

by temperature variations in a fluid is natural or free convection. The quantity of heat flow

by convection is evaluated using the Newton's law of cooling given by

Q hAs T1 T2

where the proportionality constant h is the heat transfer coefficient. The theoretical

estimation of convective heat transfer coefficient is obtained by solving the equations of

continuity, momentum and energy with the concept of boundary layer. Hence the properties

of the fluid such as thermal conductivity and viscosity play an important role in the transfer

of energy by convection.

Legend

A = Fan

B = Air duct

C, D , H = Temperature points (H = T1, D = T2, C = T3)

E = Anemometer point

F = Finned plate heater

G = Flat plate heater

Q = Cylindrical plate heater

I = Power regulator

J = Digital power meter

K = ON/OFF switch

L = Fan speed regulator

M = Fan ON/OFF switch

N = Digital handheld temperature probe and meter

O = Digital handheld anemometer Figure 1: Picture of the apparatus

P = Plate heater placement

3.0 Theory

Student need to address the following points with figs wherever necessary.

2. Distinguish between free and forced convective mechanisms and the non-dimensional

numbers/parameters representing them.

3. Identify equations applicable for the estimation of free/force convective heat transfer

coefficient for different geometries and flow conditions (laminar and turbulent).

4. Apply the concept and theoretical analysis of fins (for rectangular cross-section)

5. Distinguish between the mechanism of heat flow from a single fin and a fin array

6. Evaluate the heat transfer coefficients for different fin arrays under free and forced

convection.

Students may also explain any other term or equation relevant to convective phenomenon

1. Place the LS-17004-FFC Free and forced convection apparatus on a level table. Adjust the

adjustable levelling foot is necessary.

2. Plug the 3 pin plug to the 240VAC main power supply. Turn ON the power supply.

3. Switch ON the power supply unit (K) in front of the control panel.

4. Select the desired test specimen (i.e F, G, Q). Take the dimensions of the test specimen

from the operation manual.

5. Place the test specimen to the plate heater placement (P). Lock it with the wing nuts

provided.

6. Connect the test specimen heater cable to the heater socket which is located at the back

of the control panel.

7. Take the digital handheld temperature probe and meter, measure the initial temperature

(Ti) in the air duct by putting the temperature probe into temperature point E. (Ensure

the fan is OFF).

8. After read the temperature at point E, place the temperature probe to point D.

For free convection

9. Regulate the power supplied to 50W by turning the power regulator (I). Keep an eye on

the digital power meter (J).

10. For every five minute elapsed, measure the temperature (Ts,2) at point D and record it

into a table.

11. Continue the experiment until steady state achieved (where the temperature reading at

point D became constant).

12. Repeat the experiment at other values of input power and test specimen.

9. Switch ON the fan switche (M). Place the anemometer to the point E. Set the fan speed to

0.2m/s.

10. Regulate the power supplied to 100W by turning the power regulator (I). Keep an eye on

the digital power meter (J).

11. For every one minute elapsed, measure the temperature (Ts,2) at point D and record it

into a table.

12. Continue the experiment until steady state achieved (where the temperature reading at

point D became constant).

13. Repeat the experiment at other values of input power and test specimen.

14. Repeat the experiment with different type of test specimen. (Ensure the previous heat

plate is properly cooled before removing it).

Safety / Precaution

1. Do not touch the heat plate or air duct when conducting the experiment.

2. Do not touch the fan when conducting the experiment.

3. Ensure the heat plate is cooled down before remove away from the air duct.

4. Be careful when using the handheld digital anemometer. Keep it away once the air

velocity is measured.

5. Be careful when connecting the heat socket to the power source.

6. Do not attempt to change the setting of the digital power meter.

7. Ensure the fan is switched OFF when conducting the free convection experiment.

Pre-experiment procedure

1. Read the safety instruction given before conducting the experiment.

2. Read and understand the theory for free convection before lab session.

3. Prepare the accessories needed for the experiment.

Accessories

1. LS-17004-FFC Free and Forced Convection Apparatus

2. Handheld temperature probe and meter

3. Vertical plate heater

4. Cylindrical plate heater

5. Finned plate heater

5.0 Observations

List the results in the form of statements and numerical values. Show details of the

analysis and numerical calculation involved. Appropriate graph might be used for

results demonstration and elaboration.

7.0 Conclusions

8.0 Questions

1. Briefly state and explain the error that might be occurs in the experiment?

2. Give 3 examples and briefly explain of the heat convection application including

but not limit to industrial and environment.

9.0 References

Acknowledgement

Thanks to the following staffs for their contributions in preparing the laboratory sheet:

i. K.V.Sharma - kvsharma@ump.edu.my

ii. Mohd Yusof Taib - myusof@ump.edu.my

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