Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 9

INTRODUCTION TO PEDAGOGY

Pedagogy (pèd-e-go´jê) literally means the art and science of educating children
and often is used as a synonym for teaching. More accurately, pedagogy embodies
teacher-focused education.

In the pedagogic model, teachers assume responsibility for making decisions about
what will be learned, how it will be learned, and when it will be learned. Teachers direct
learning.

The great teachers of ancient times, from Confucius to Plato, didn't pursue such
authoritarian techniques. Major differences exist between what we know of the great
teachers' styles, yet they all saw learning as a process of active inquiry, not passive
reception. Considering this, it is surprising that teacher-focused learning later came to
dominate formal education.

One explanation for the teacher-focused approach goes back to the Calvinists who
believed wisdom was evil. They espoused that adults direct, control, and ultimately limit
children's learning to keep them innocent.

Another theory maintains that seventh century schools, organized to prepare young
boys for the priesthood, found indoctrination an effective approach to instill beliefs, faith,
and ritual. Many centuries later, organized schools adopted a similar approach although
the outcome was supposed to be neither innocence nor a cloistered life.

John Dewey believed formal schooling was falling short of its potential. Dewey
emphasized learning through various activities rather than traditional teacher-focused
curriculum. He believed children learned more from guided experience than
authoritarian instruction. He ascribed to a learner-focused education philosophy. He
held that learning is life not just preparation for life.

Adult education, too, fell victim to teacher-centered models. In 1926, the American
Association for Adult Education began and quickly started researching better ways to
educate adults. Influenced by Dewey, Eduard C. Lindeman wrote in The Meaning of
Adult Education:

Our academic system has grown in reverse order. Subjects and teachers constitute
the starting point, [learners] are secondary. In conventional education the [learner] is
required to adjust himself to an established curriculum....Too much of learning consists
of vicarious substitution of someone else's experience and knowledge. Psychology
teaches us that we learn what we do....Experience is the adult learner's living textbook.

Unfortunately, only some of Dewey's and Lindeman's theories seeped into modern
classrooms for children or adults. A century after Dewey proposed learner-focused
education, most formal education still focuses on the teacher.

As a result, many learners leave school having lost interest in learning. Even good-
intentioned educators can squelch naturally inquisitive instincts by controlling the
learning environment. By adulthood, some people view learning as a chore and a
burden.
In an attempt to formulate a comprehensive adult learning theory, Malcolm Knowles,
in 1973, published the book The Adult Learner: A Neglected Species. Building on the
earlier work of Lindeman, Knowles asserted that adults require certain conditions to
learn. He borrowed the term andragogy (and-rè-go´jê) to define and explain the
conditions.

It is the supreme art of the teacher to awaken joy in creative expression and
knowledge. --- Albert Einstein

Glossary

A
adjust

:
ayarlamak - modify; adapt; tune; fit, install; arrange; settle

adolescent

:
ergen, ergenlik çağında olan (genç) - of puberty, pertaining to the age between childhood and
adulthood

aggregate

:
toplanma , bir araya gelme, toplamak, bir araya getirmek, toplam, yekün - collective, total, taking
all units as a whole, accumulate, hoard; bring together

andragogy

:
From the Greek words "anere", for adult and "agogus", the art and science of helping students
learn. Widely used by adult educators to describe the theory of adult learning. The term offers an
alternative to pedagogy. The andragogic model asks that five issues be considered and addressed
in formal learning:
Letting learners know why something is important to learn - The need to know.
Showing learners how to direct themselves through information - The need to be self directing.
Relating the topic to the learner's experiences - Greater volume and quality of experience.
People will not learn until ready and motivated to learn - Readiness to learn.
A need to have a life centered, task centered, or problem centered orientation - Often this
requires helping them overcome inhibitions, behaviors, and beliefs about learning.

approach

:
yaklaşım, yaklaşım tarzı - A methodical set of actions, preferably a process, to be taken to
achieve a prescribed result
arbitrary

:
gelisiguzel, dilemsel - wanton, reckless; uncontrolled, unrestricted; unreasonable, unsupported

artefact

:
artefakt, insan eliyle yapılan şey - tool, object, man made object (often referring to primitive
tools)

ascribe

:
atfetmek, vermek, yüklemek, isnat etmek - attribute something to (a cause, person, or period,
regard a quality as belonging to

assert

:
ispat ve iddia ile beyan etmek, üzerinde durmak, demek, öne sürmek - state a fact or belief
confidently and forcefully

associate with

:
ile ilişkili / ilişkilendirilmiş - connect to, ally with, join or unite with

assumption

:
varsayim - supposition, hypothesis; seizure, act of taking

authoritarian

:
serbestlige imkan vermeden yöneten - despotic, dictatorial, disciplinarian
Keyword(s):

B
bourgeoisie
:
burjuva sınıfı, orta sınıf -

In socioeconomic theory, the social order that is dominated by the so-called middle class. The
term arose in medieval France, where it referred to the inhabitants of walled towns. These
townspeople practiced arts and crafts and occupied an intermediate position in the economic and
social scale between the rural landlords and peasantry.

burden

:
yük, ağırlık, sorumluluk, mesuliyet - load, weight, capacity, volume

C
chore

:
küçük bir iş, ufak gündelik isler - routine job, unpleasant task

coined

:
(sözcük/söz) türetmek - If you coin a word or a phrase, you are the first person to say it.

colonialism

:
sömürgecilik - Political domination of one nation over another that is institutionalized in direct
political administration by the colonial power, control of all economic relationships and a
systematic attempt to transform the culture of the subject nation.

comprehensive

:
çok amaçlı,kapsamlı,etraflı - extensive, including much, large in scope; having a thorough
understanding of a subject or subjects

constitute

:
teşkil etmek; meydana getirmek , kurmak, tesis etmek, terkip etmek; tayin etmek, atamak -
comprise, form, make up; establish, found; appoint a person to a a particular position

conventional
:
olagan, geleneksel - customary, routine; formal

correspond to

:
uymak, uygun gelmek, tekabül etmek - fit to, match, suit; mark, point out

curriculum

:
dersler,müfredat programı - study program and courses offered by a school

D
dünyadan uzak

:
dünyadan uzak - shut off from world

E
emancipatory

:
serbest bırakan - set free, especially from legal, social, or political restrictions

embody

:
kapsamak, belirtmek - to include or represent
Keyword(s):

embrace

:
kapsamak, kabul etmek - accept, include, surround

emerge

:
çıkmak, meydana çıkmak - appear, come out, be revealed

endeavor
:
çaba, gayret - attempt, try hard, make an effort to achieve a goal

entail

:
gerektirmek - intail, involve, cause; require; demand

espouse

:
benimsemek, desteklemek, kabullenmek - To take to one's self with a view to maintain; to make
one's own; to take up the cause of; to adopt; to embrace

exclusive

:
umuma açık olmayan, bir kimse veya zümreye ait, tek, eşi olmayan, hariç tutan - excluding or
not admitting other things,not including

I
inclusive

:
kapsayan, şümulü olan, ihtiva eden, dahil - including, containing, taking in

indoctrination

:
öğretme, doktrinleştirme - teaching, instruction, instruction in a particular doctrine or set of
beliefs

inhibition

:
kısıtlma, engelleme, tutma - holding back, restraint; repression of a psychological process;
stopping or checking of the function of a bodily organ;

initiative

:
girişim, teşebbüs, ilk adim, baslangiç, inisiyatif - enterprise, drive, ambition, beginning,
introductory, initial
inquiry

:
araştırma, sorma/soru - The act of inquiring; a seeking for information by asking questions;
interrogation; a question or questioning

inquisitive

:
meraklı, çok soru soran - questioning, eager for knowledge, curious;

insight

:
anlayış, bir şeyin iç yüzünü kavrama - perception, discernment, understanding, astuteness,
intuition

instill

:
yavaş yavaş öğretmek veya aşılamak; instilla'tion (i.) fikir aşılama - introduce gradually, infuse;
insert slowly in small amounts (also instil)

M
manipulation

:
kullanma, hareket ettirme, çalıştırma, işletme, manipulasyon - act of manipulating; act of
handling or operating with the hands; act of managing or controlling; act of adapting or changing
to suit one's purpose

maxim

:
kural, düstur; vecize, mesel - expression of general truth; code of behavior, rule of conduct,
precept; saying, proverb

N
neglected

:
ihmal edilen - abandoned, forsaken; forgotten; uncared for; undone (of a duty)

nourishment
:
besin, gıda, besleme, beslenme - the food necessary for growth and health, nutrition

O
obscure

:
anlaşılmaz, bilinmeyen, belirsiz - not clearly understood or expressed

P
paternalistic

:
Ataerkil, patriaxat - pertaining to a government system that sincerely cares about its constituents
but is overly intrusive (similar to a father with his children)

pluralistic

:
çoğulcu - condition or system in which two or more states, groups, principles, etc. coexist

priesthood

:
papazlık, papazlar - office of a priest, position of a clergyman

R
reception

:
alma, alınma, kabul - the action or process of receiving someone or something.

reverse

:
aksi, arka, ters, tersine dönmüş - opposite, contrary, back side, rear, setback,

S
seep

:
sızmak, sızıntı yapmak - leak gradually, trickle; permeate, penetrate

shackles
:
kelepçe - metal rings used to bind the hands or ankles

squelch

:
susturmak, bastırmak, tesirsiz hale getirmek - forcefully silence or suppress

substitution

:
başka bir şeyin yerine kullanma, bir başkasının yerine koyma, bir başkasının yerini alma - the
action or an instance of substituting someone or something.

T
thorn in the flesh

:
It is an expression for something that is painful and long-lasting.

U
ultimately

:
eninde sonunda - in the end, eventually; in an ultimate manner

V
vicarious

:
başkasının yerine yapılmış, vekaleten yapılan - indirect, through another, performed for or
experienced by one person in place of another