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STATE INSTITUTE FOR ART STUDIES

ART OF THE BYZANTINE WORLD

INDIVIDUALITY
IN ARTISTIC CREATIVITY

A Collection of Essays
in Honour of Olga Popova
ГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫЙ ИНСТИТУТ ИСКУССТВОЗНАНИЯ

ИСКУССТВО ВИЗАНТИЙСКОГО МИРА

ИНДИВИДУАЛЬНОСТЬ
В ХУДОЖЕСТВЕННОМ ТВОРЧЕСТВЕ

Сборник статей
в честь Ольги Сигизмундовны Поповой

МОСКВА

УДК .
ББК .
И

Печатается по решению
Ученого совета
Государственного института искусствознания

Рецензенты:
Ирина Анатольевна Стерлигова, кандидат искусствоведения
Надежда Викторовна Герасименко, кандидат искусствоведения

И Искусство византийского мира. Индивидуальность в художественном творчестве. Сборник статей в честь
Ольги Сигизмундовны Поповой / Ред.-сост. А.В. Захарова, О.В. Овчарова, И.А. Орецкая – М.: Государственный
институт искусствознания,  –  с., ил.
ISBN ----

В сборник вошли статьи по материалам конференции «Искусство византийского мира. Индивидуальность


в художественном творчестве», состоявшейся – ноября  года и посвященной выдающемуся ученому Ольге
Сигизмундовне Поповой (–). Работы российских и зарубежных специалистов по искусству Византии
и соседних стран освещают круг проблем, связанных с понятием индивидуальности: роль художника и заказчика,
творчество в рамках традиции, соотношение столичных и региональных тенденций. Издание предназначено
для специалистов и широкого круга читателей, интересующихся византийской культурой.

Art of the Byzantine World. Individuality in Artistic Creativity. A Collection of Essays in Honour of Olga Popova /
Ed. by A. Zakharova, O. Ovcharova, I. Oretskaia – Moscow, State Institute for Art Studies,  –  p.

The collection includes papers from the conference ‘Art of the Byzantine World. Individuality in Artistic Creativity’, which
took place on – November  and was dedicated to the prominent scholar Olga Popova (–). Essays
by Russian and foreign specialists on the art of Byzantium and its neighbours investigate a range of problems connected
with individuality: the roles of artists and donors, creativity and tradition, metropolitan and regional tendencies. This
publication is intended for specialists and readers interested in various aspects of Byzantine culture.

На переплете:
Ангел из «Вознесения»
Фреска Святой Софии в Охриде. –
Фотография М.Д. Долтмурзиевой

ISBN 978-5-98287-163-3 © Коллектив авторов, текст, 


© Государственный институт искусствознания, 
© Е.Д. Петрова, оформление, 
СОДЕ Р ЖАНИЕ
CONTE NTS

Об Ольгe Сигизмундовне Поповой


А.В. Захарова, О.В. Овчарова, И.А. Орецкая
About Olga Popova
A. Zakharova, O. Ovcharova, I. Oretskaia


О.С. Попова
Почему я византинист
Olga Popova
Why I am a Byzantologist


Список работ О.С. Поповой


List of works by Olga Popova


М.Н. Бутырский
Портретное творчество в византийской нумизматике (конец VII – начало VIII века):
традиции и новаторство
Mikhail Butyrski
Portrait Imagery in Byzantine Numismatic Art (Late th – Early th Century):
Traditions and Innovations


А.Ю. Виноградов
Столичные мастера в Юго-Западной Анатолии начала Х века (Маставра и Исламкёй)?
Andrey Vinogradov
Constantinopolitan builders in the early th-Century South-West Anatolia
(Mastaura and Islamköy)



Е.А. Виноградова
О самых ранних палеологовских росписях Константинополя
Elena Vinogradova
On the Earliest Palaiologan Frescoes of Constantinople


Г.П. Геров
О фресках XII и XIV веков в Бачковской церкви-костнице
Georgi P. Gerov
On the  -and  -Century frescoes in the Bachkovo Church-Ossuary
th th



Л.М. Евсеева
Мозаики Монреале: заказчики и художники
Liliya Evseeva
The Mosaics of Monreale: Donors and Artists


А.В. Захарова
Проблема индивидуальности византийского художника на примере миниатюр XI века
Anna Zakharova
The Problem of Byzantine Painters’ Individuality in th-Century Miniatures


А.Ю. Казарян
О творческом начале в средневековом зодчестве.
Храм Гагкашен в Ани – копирование или интерпретация?
Armen Kazaryan
Regarding Creativity in Medieval Architecture.
Gagkashen Church in Ani: Copying or Interpretation?



Jean-Pierre Caillet
The Contribution of ‘Greek’ Rome (th–mid-th Century)
to the Formation of Post-Iconoclastic Iconography
Ж.-П. Кайе
Вклад «греческого» Рима (VII– середина IX века)
в формирование постиконоборческой иконографии


Sophia Kalopissi-Verti
Donors in the Palaiologan Сhurches of the Mani in the Southern Peloponnese: Individualities,
Collectivity and Social Identities
С. Калописси-Верти
Ктиторы в палеологовских храмах Мани на Юге Пелопоннеса:
индивидуальное, коллективное и социальная идентичность


М.А. Лидова
«Что значит имя?»:
подписи византийских мастеров как проявление авторской индивидуальности
Maria Lidova
‘What’s in a Name?’:
Signatures of Byzantine Artists as Manifestations of Authorship and Individuality


Л.И. Лифшиц
Об этапах развития стиля русской живописи в первой трети XIII века
Предварительные заметки
Lev Lifshits
On the Stages of Stylistic Evolution of Russian Painting
in the First Third of the th Century. Preliminary Notes



С.В. Мальцева
Особенности храма Пророка Илии в Салониках
и проблема региональных направлений в поздневизантийской архитектуре
Svetlana Maltseva
The Special Features of the Church of the Prophet Elijah in Thessaloniki:
The Problem of Regional Traits in Late Byzantine Architecture


С.С. Манукян
Киликийская миниатюра и традиции византийского искусства XI века:
образец или импульс к творчеству
Seyranush Manukyan
The Cilician Miniature and Byzantine Traditions of the th Century:
A Model or an Impulse for Creativity


Т.Ю. Облицова
Фресковый образ Богоматери из собора в Россано
в рамках отношений традиций Византии и Запада
Tatiana Oblitsova
A Fresco Image of the Madonna in the Cathedral in Rossano
in the Context of the Relationship between the Byzantine and Western Traditions


О.В. Овчарова
К вопросу об изучении стиля византийской живописи XII века
Olga Ovcharova
On Studying the Style of th-Century Byzantine Painting



И.А. Орецкая
Второй слой фресок в церкви Сан Пьетро в Отранто
Заметки на полях
Irina Oretskaya
The Second Layer of Frescoes in the Church of San Pietro at Otranto:
Notes in the Margins


Е.Я. Осташенко
Рельефы резной кости из Музеев Ватикана и их место в византийском и русском искусстве
второй четверти XV века
Elena Ostashenko
Ivory Reliefs from the Vatican Museums in the Context of Byzantine and Russian Art of the
Second Quarter of the th Century


Maria Panayotidi-Kesisoglou
Donors’ Personalities in the Komnenian Period
as Seen Through Iconographic Programs.
The Question of the Daphni Monastery Donor
М. Панайотиди-Кесисоглу
Отражение личностей ктиторов в иконографических
программах комниновского периода
Вопрос о ктиторе монастыря Дафни


Valentino Pace
‘By the Hand of the Painter Theophylaktos…’ (µǻǿǹȋǼǿȇȅȈĬǼȅĭȊȁǹȀȉȅȊǽȍīȇǹĭȅȊ¶):
The ‘Crypt of St. Christine’ in Carpignano Salentino and its Painters
В. Паче
«Рукою мастера Феофилакта» («ǻǿǹȋǼǿȇȅȈĬǼȅĭȊȁǹȀȉȅȊǽȍīȇǹĭȅȊ»):
крипта Святой Кристины в Карпиньяно Салентино и ее художники



Silvia Pedone
The Byzantine Sculptor: Identity and Status Between Originality and Rules
С. Педоне
Скульптор в Византии: индивидуальность и статус между оригинальностью и рутиной


Г.В. Попов
Житийная икона святителя Николая Мирликийского в Зарайске
Gennady Popov
The Vita Icon ‘St Nicholas of Myra in Lycia’ from Zaraisk


А.С. Преображенский
Надписи с именами русских иконописцев XIII–XV веков
Alexander Preobrazhensky
Inscriptions with Names of Russian Icon Painters of the th–th Centuries


Е.М. Саенкова
«Святитель Николай Мирликийский, с житием» – новооткрытый памятник ростовской
живописи конца XIV – начала XV века
Elena Saenkova
‘St Nicholas of Myra, with Scenes from His Life’
A Newly Discovered Monument of Rostov Painting of the Late th – Early th Century


А.Л. Саминский
Чеканный оклад грузинской константинопольской рукописи  года
Alexander Saminsky
The Chased Book Cover of a Georgian Manuscript Written in Constantinople in 



С.В. Свердлова, Д.С. Першин
Икона «Спас Нерукотворный.
Поклонение Кресту» последней четверти XII века
из Государственной Третьяковской Галереи – два этапа создания памятника
Sofya Sverdlova, Dmitry Pershin
The Icon ‘Mandylion.
Adoration of the Cross’ of the Last Quarter of the th Century
from the State Tretyakov Gallery.
Two Stages of Creating a Work


Д.А. Скобцова
К вопросу о времени создания мозаичных икон святого Георгия и святого Димитрия
из монастыря Ксенофонта на Афоне
Darya Skobtsova
Dating of the Mosaic Icons of St George and St Demetrios
from Xenophontos Monastery on Mount Athos


Э.С. Смирнова
Художники-миниатюристы в Новгороде во второй четверти XIV столетия
Engelina Smirnova
Miniature Painters in Novgorod in the Second Quarter of the th Century


Nebojša Stankoviü
Tradition, Innovation, and Individual Creation in Monastic Architecture:
The Case of St Athanasius the Athonite and the Katholikon of His Great Lavra
Н. Станкович
Традиции, новации и индивидуальное творчество в монастырской архитектуре:
святой Афанасий Афонский и кафоликон его Великой Лавры



В.Е. Сусленков
Неклассические / антиклассические приемы в искусстве
римского портрета III века и логика развития императорского культа
Vitaliy Suslenkov
Non-Classical/Anti-Classical Methods in the Roman Portrait of the rd Century
and the Logic of the Development of the Imperial Cult


Н. Хелу
Фрескa с изображением донатора в церкви Святого Фоки в Амьюне
Nada Hélou
A Fresco with the Image of a Donor in the Church of St Phocas in Amiun


Л.Б. Чугасзян
«Страшный суд» в некоторых армянских миниатюрах XIII–XIV веков
Levon Chookaszian
The Last Judgment in Certain Armenian Miniatures of the th and th Centuries


Anis Chaaya
The Continuity of Byzantine Architecture and Art in the Levant
under the Umayyad Caliphate
А. Шаайа
Преемственность развития византийской архитектуры и искусства в Леванте
при Омейядском халифате


И.А. Шалина
Переплетение византийских и западных художественных традиций
в новгородской иконописи конца XIII – первой трети XIV века
Irina Shalina
Western and Byzantine Traditions in Late th – st Quarter of th Century
Novgorod Icon Painting



Л.А. Щенникова
Своеобразие иконографии византийской иконы
«Богоматерь Умиление Владимирская» и ее списков
Liudmila Shchennikova
Peculiarities of the Iconography of the Byzantine ‘Eleousa of Vladimir’ and Its Copies


Приложения

Silvia Pedone
Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei

THE BYZANTINE SCULPTOR:


IDENTITY AND STATUS
BETWEEN ORIGINALITY AND RULES

Before dealing with the topic of the present paper the famous masterpiece.3 We know the names of these
I would like to recall briefly an episode that happened copyists, but their identity, their artistic identity, re-
a few years ago.1 In 2011 I had the good fortune to visit mains elusive or anonymous, all the more because a copy
Professor Popova in her house, where I was struck at is nothing but a ‘slavish’ repetition of a normative mod-
first sight by an unexpected coincidence: hanging on el. However, faithfulness notwithstanding, even the in-
the wall there was a faithful and good quality copy tentional repetition of a prototype implies voluntary or
of a famous painting of Esteban Murillo, the Madonna involuntary variations, and therefore betrays idiomatic
with Child – also known as Gypsy Madonna – which features, if not a true identity.
is now housed in the Corsini Gallery in Rome, where And this brings us back to the subject of our confer-
I worked for many years.2 I recognised immediately the ence, and to the context of Byzantine sculpture, where
image as a Murillo copy because I spent much time con- the problem of identity is further complicated, not only
templating the original. The painting enjoyed great pop- by the absence of authors’ names but also, and above all,
ularity in the nineteenth century, and I myself dealt with by the very meaning of the terms ‘sculpture’ and ‘sculptor’.
it later, studying the registers that recorded the activities As we know, the eclipse, if not the substantial disap-
of the many copyists who came to Corsini daily to reproduce pearance, of true classical all-round statuary in the Byz-
antine art world does not imply the disappearance
of the sculptural techniques4 (ill. 1), which are frequently
Ill. 2. Byzantine sculptures
Archaeological Museum, lapidarium, Istanbul applied with no less virtuosity to different objects, often
Photo by the author aniconic and sometimes serial, like the architectural

1
I would like to express my sincere gratitude to the organisers of the conference and to the editors of this volume for giving me
a very welcome opportunity to pay tribute to Professor Olga Popova.
2
Bartolom é Esteban Murillo (Seville, 1618–Cadiz, 1682), Madonna del latte, c. 1675, oil on canvas, 164 x 108 cm, Gallerie Nazionali
d’Arte Antica di Palazzo Corsini, inv. 464.
3
S. Pedone, “Sguardi e copie. I capolavori della Corsini visti dai pittori dell’Ottocento” in A. Cosma and S. Pedone (eds.), Storie di
Palazzo Corsini. Protagonisti e vicende nell’Ottocento (Rome: Campisano Editore, 2016), pp. 73–83; appendix pp. 236–249.
4
On the iconography of marble workshops in Late Antique reliefs, see: P. Jockey, “Les repr ésentations d’artisans de la pierre dans
le monde gr éco-romain et leur éventuelle exploitation par l’historien”, Topoi. Orient-Occident, vol. 8/2, 1998, pp. 625–652 (with
previous bibliography). For the relief in ill. 1, see: G. Mendel, Catalogue des Sculptures grecques, romaines et byzantines (Constan-
tinople: Les Mus ées imp ériaux ottomans, 1912), vol. I, pp. 78–80, n. 13 (775).

391
Ill. 1. Relief with a marble officina (workshop). 2nd–3rd century century AD
Fragment of sarcophagus from Ephesus
Proconnesian marble
Archaeological Museum, Istanbul
Photo by the author

decorations (bases, columns, capitals, frames, slabs) To all this we should add the fact that the ‘entity’ to
(ill. 2) or the liturgical structures (ambos, altars, cibo- which we usually ascribe the production of such ma-
ria, etc.). In the common perception all these materials terials is the workshop rather than the single individ-
are considered less ‘expressive’ of an artistic personality, ual artist, and the consequences this involves both
and although at leastsince the times of Alois Riegl even from a psychological and a socio-cultural point of view.5
aniconic decoration and ornamentation have gained Therefore, when we speak of the Byzantine sculptor
their own aesthetic dignity, the Kunstwollen that would and his identity we should first speak in the plural, be-
be embodied in them remains a generally collective or cause here is at stake not only the strictly biographical
over-personal category, which could correspond to that identity – that even later, as we have seen, can say very
of an entire people, a civilisation or a race. little in artistic terms – but also the collective identity

5
See A.P. Kazhdan and A. Cutler, s.v. “Artisan” in A.P. Kazhdan et al. (eds.). The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium. New York:
Oxford University Press, 1991, vol. I, p. 196; and A. Cutler, s.v. “Artists” in ibid., pp. 196–201; J.-P. Sodini, “Marble and Stonework-
ing in Byzantium, Seventh – Fifteenth Centuries” in A.E. Laiou et al. (eds.), The Economic History of Byzantium. From the Seventh
Through the Fifteenth Century. Washington DC: Dumbarton Oaks Trustees for Harvard University, 2002, pp. 125–146. For a gen-
eral approach to the issue of authoriality in the Western Middle Ages, see X. Barral i Altet et al. (eds.), Artistes, artisans et
production artistique au Moyen Age. Colloque international (Centre National de la Recherches Scientifique, Universit é e nel
mondo cristiano-orientale (Pisa: Edizioni della Normale, 2007) (Seminari e Convegni, 12).

392
of an entire group, however small the workshop, and the to the evolution of the language and the different geo-
stylistic identity, which is an even wider and more com- graphical contexts, leaves different interpretations open
plex category, but, in spite of this complexity, is often about the possible tasks of each category and the role of
the most evident6. Needless to say, as the case of copies professional skills in the material organisation of work.8
clearly shows, the style can have its own perfectly dis- Nevertheless, even leaving aside the question of the
tinct individuality that does not however match with effects of personal talent, real differences certainly had
the biographical one, nor should be confused with the to exist between the specialised craftsmen, the simple
‘ethnic’ or ‘epochal’ one. marble workers, the stone cutters working in the quar-
This is why archaeological research and philological ries and the entrepreneurs who economically managed
investigation have concentrated, despite the scarcity of the exploitation and sale of marble.9 A reflection of these
direct sources, on the functions and technical skills that distinctions can be partly inferred indirectly from the
the ‘job’ of the Byzantine stonecutter required. Unfor- different terms used to describe the activity of the stone-
tunately, as scholars have pointed out in their most re- cutters.10 Among the most common denominations to
cent research, the recurrent professional appellations we indicate the stonemasons, we find words like lithoxooi,
find in epigraphic sources, in anecdotal literature and marmorarios (marmaras/marmararis /marmaris). The
in ekphrastic or hagiographic texts do not tell us much expression latomoi, or latypoi, is used to identify those
about the specific professional attitudes of the individual who extracted the marble from the quarries.11 The latter
sculptors. The information available gives us few clues to workers almost certainly came from the poorer classes
clarify the working practices and the ‘typical day’ of the of society, considering the risk and the harsh working
stonemason, or to shed light on his particular training conditions to which they were subjected. In fact, it was
practices, his career possibilities or the potential mobility probably not uncommon to use unskilled manpower for
of his social position7. Furthermore, the semantic varia- these strenuous activities, such as prisoners of war.12
bility of the terms used in the sources, naturally due also To describe more properly the activity of the carver or

6
S. Pedone, Bisanzio a colori. La policromia nella scultura bizantina (Rome: forthcoming).
7
For more detailed essays, see: S. Pedone and F. Vanni, “Carving Marble and Stucco: Workers’ Identity through the Written Sources
and the Material Evidence” in Skint. Peasants and Poverty in Byzantium (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, forthcoming).
8
J.-P. Sodini, “L’artisanat urbain à l’ époque pal éochr étienne (IVe–VIIe s.)”, Ktema, vol. 4, 1979, pp. 71–119; R. Ousterhout, Master
Builders of Byzantium (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1999), pp. 39–57.
9
J.-P. Sodini, “Marble and Stoneworking…” passim; J.-P. Sodini, “L’artisanat…”, pp. 71–119.
10
J.-P. Rey-Coquais, “Noms de m étiers dans les inscriptions de la Syrie antique”, Cahiers du Centre Gustave Glotz, vol. 13, 2002,
pp. 247–264; E. Borgia, “Attestazioni epigrafiche di maestri legati alla costruzione nell’Asia Minore romana e proto-bizantina:
specializzazioni e ruolo sociale” in S. Camporeale, H. Dessales and A.Puzzo(eds.), Arqueolog ía de la construcci ón III. Los procesos
constructivos en el mundo romano: la economia de las obras (Anejos de Archivo Espa ñol de Arqueolog ía, 64) (Madrid/Mérida:
Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, 2012), pp. 53–68.
11
C. Barsanti, “L’esportazione di marmi dal Proconneso nelle regioni pontiche durante il IV–VI secolo”, Rivista dell’Istituto Nazi-
onale d’Archeologia e Storia dell’Arte, 3 Ser., vol. 12, 1989, pp. 91–220; N. Asgari, “Objets de marbre finis, semi-finis et inachev és du
Proconn èse“ in M. Waelkens (ed.), Pierre éternelle du Nil au Rhin. Carri ères et pr éfabrication (Brussels: Cr édit communal, 1990);
R. Ousterhout, Master Builders.., passim. For the different nomenclatures see also the census of the 456 inscriptions from the ne-
cropolis of Korykos: F.R. Trombley, "Korykos in Cilicia Trachis: the Economy of a small coastal city in Late Antiquity (saec. V–VI).
A Pr écis", in Ancient History Bulletin, 1, 1987, pp. 16-23.
12
C.J. Fant, “The Roman Emperors in the Marble Business: Capitalists, Middlemen or Philanthropists?” in N. Herz and M. Waelkens,
Classical Marble: Geochemistry, Technology and Trade (NATO ASI series E: Applied Sciences 153) (Dordrecht: Springer, 1988),
pp. 147–158, in part. p. 153; J.-P. Sodini, “Marble and Stoneworking…”, p. 133.

393
Ill. 3. Capital with mason marks, 6th century
St Sophia, Istanbul
Photo by the author

the engraver of stone and wood, the terms leukourgos or on the work are quite rare. Much more often, however,
leukoslithos were used, but also the expressions glyptes it is possible to find mason marks, which must however
and glypheus (that is the Latin sculptor).13 be distinguished according to their functions.14 In fact,
As for personal identities and signatures, the cases in there are signs that indicated the quarries of extraction,
which the single craftsman has carved his name directly others that, on the contrary, designated the destination

13
Within the census of 456 inscriptions from the necropolis of Korykos it is possible to find several names of marble workers.
See: F.R. Trombley, "Korykos in Cilicia Trachis: the Economy of a small coastal city in Late Antiquity (saec. V–VI). A Pr écis",
in Ancient History Bulletin, vol. 1, 1987, pp. 16-23.
14
C. Morss, “Byzantine Letters in Stone”, Byzantion, vol. 73, no. 2, 2003, pp. 488–509; A. Paribeni, “The Artist’s Signature: Marble
Masons’ Marks” in C. Barsanti and A. Guiglia (eds.), The Sculptures of the Ayasofya M üzesi in Istanbul: A Short Guide (Istanbul:
Ege Yayinlari, 2010), pp. 113–118; A. Paribeni, “Il lungo viaggio verso la capitale: estrazione, lavorazione e distribuzione del
marmo in et à bizantina” in C. Barsanti, A. Guiglia and A. Paribeni, “Le officine dell’imperatore: marmora byzantine”
in A.C. Quintavalle (ed.), Medioevo: le officine. Atti del convegno internazionale di studi (Parma, 22–27 settembre 2009) (Milan:
Mondadori Electa, 2010), pp. 118–125; A. Paribeni, “Modalit à di assemblaggio e messa in opera delle membrature architetton-
iche nei cantieri romani e bizantini (I–VI sec. d.C.): stato della questione e nuovi contribute” in P. Pensabene, M. Milella and
F. Caprioli (eds.), Decor. Decorazione architettonica nel mondo romano. Atti del Convegno Internazionale (Roma, 21–24 maggio
2014) (Rome: Edizioni Quasar, 2017), pp. 743–752. See also: G. Marsili, Archeologia del cantiere protobizantino. Cave, maestranze
e committenti attraverso i marchi dei marmorari (Bologna: Bononia University Press, 2019).

394
of the material, and those that provided reference
marks for the assembly operations.15 Then there are the ab-
breviations identifying the workshops working on the site
(ergasteria), which can be indicated by the name of the ma-
nager, and finally, in some cases, the name of the single
sculptor, which sometimes is associated with invocations
or prayers that are formulaic but surely personal16 (ill. 3).
As for the records of the mason marks, the richest
and most surprising ‘deposit’ is certainly the Justini-
an building of St Sofia, in which thousands of marks
carved on many marble surfaces have been recorded.17
On the basis of this important survey scholars tried to
reconstruct the organisation of the workshops work-
ing on the construction site, but also to study the prov-
enance of the materials from the export sites, so trying
to analyse the complex phenomenon of itinerant work-
shops and the artistic exchanges between them. Much
less has been done to establish the individual ‘identities’
or professional hierarchies among the various carvers,
although the studies carried out in this direction have
been very useful.18 In some cases, thanks to a series of com-
parisons, it was also possible to monitor the continuous

Ill. 4. Plan of St Sophia with the indication


of the names of Andreas and Theodoros marmorai incised
on the marble cornice
After L.E. Butler

15
A. Paribeni, “Modalit à di assemblaggio…”; C. Barsanti and A. Paribeni, “La scultura in funzione architettonica a Costantinopoli
tra V e VI secolo: aspetti tecnici, tipologici e stilistici”, Acta ad Archaeologiam et Artium Historiam Pertinentia, vol. 30 (n.s. 16),
2018, pp. 45–60, 71–72.
16
O. Karagiorgou, “An Early Byzantine Stonemason and his Workshop: New Evidence from Amorium” in Δασκάλα. Απόδοση τιμής
στην καθηγήτρια Μαίρη Παναγιωτίδη-Κεσίσογλου (Athens: Πανεπιστήμιο Αθηνων ‒ Σαριπόλειο Ίδρυμα, 2015), pp. 177–199;
G. Marsili, “La committenza architettonica attraverso i marchi dei marmorari: il caso del Palazzo di Antioco a Costantinopoli”
in P. Pensabene and C. Sfameni (eds.), La Villa restaurata e i nuovi studi sull’edilizia residenziale tardoantica. Atti del Convegno
internazionale del Centro Interuniversitario di Studi sull’Edilizia abitativa tardoantica nel Mediterraneo (Piazza Armerina, 7–10
novembre 2012) (Bari: Edipuglia, 2014), pp. 181–189; Ead., Archeologia del cantiere protobizantino…
17
E.M. Ἀντωνιάδης, Ἔκφρασις τῆς Ἁγίας Σοφίας (Ἀθῆναι: Σακελλαρίου, 1907–1909). T. 1, pp. 97–103; F.W. Deichmann, Ravenna.
Hauptstadt des sp ätantiken Abendlandes, Kommentar, II,2 (Wiesbaden: F. Steiner, 1976), pp. 206–230; A. Paribeni, “Le sigle dei mar-
morari e l’organizzazione del cantiere” in A. Guiglia Guidobaldi and C. Barsanti, Santa Sofia di Costantinopoli. L’arredo marmoreo
della Grande Chiesa giustinianea (Studi di Antichit à Cristiana pubblicati a cura del Pontificio Istituto di Archeologia Cristiana, LX)
(Vatican City: PIAC, 2004), pp. 649–734. Many other signs (greek letters) and marks were found on the huge capitals of St Sophia.
See: E. Russo, “Sulla lavorazione dei capitelli di S. Sofia di Costantinopoli”, in Bizantinistica, S. II, 18, 2017, pp. 45–113.
18
L.E. Butler, The nave cornices of Hagia Sophia in Istanbul. PhD diss. (University of Pennsylvania, 1989).

395
Marble reliefs with traces of blue polychromy, 6th century
Naos of St Sophia, Istanbul
Photo by the author

presence of particular workshops or individual workers But we must not forget another aspect, which con-
during their activity. Just in St Sofia, we can cite the ‘sig- cerns both the problem of the stylistic uniformity of
natures’ of Andreas and Theodoros, which Butler reports the work in its entirety and the distinction between
having seen on two fragments of marble frames that dec- the skills of the artists and therefore the peculiarities of
orate the interior of the building19 (ill. 4). their agenda. It is the question of colour.20 On the presence

19
L.E. Butler, The nave cornices of Hagia Sophia in Istanbul. A debated case about the identity of one of the stonemasons
of St Sophia is that of the “author” of the slab in the northern gallery (GN 16). The slab is not signed, but is stylistically akin to
the very similar one in the southern gallery (GS 15), signed with the acronym "KOZ" and by hand of the same stoneworker.
For a detailed description see: A. Paribeni, "Le sigle dei marmorari ...", pp. 705-706. Acronyms of other stonecutters were also
found on the water pipes preserved in the St Sophia lapidary, see: A. Paribeni, "Marble Elements from the Byzantine Water
Supply", in C. Barsanti and A. Guiglia (eds.), The Sculptures of the Ayasofya..., pp. 49-55.
20
S. Pedone, “Bisanzio (ri)colorata: tecniche, effetti e problemi aperti” in P.A. Andreuccetti and D. Bindani (eds.), Il Colore nel Medioevo.
Arte, Simbolo, Tecnica. Tra materiali costruttivi e colori aggiunti: mosaici, intarsi e plastica lapidea. Atti delle Giornate di Studi
(Lucca, 24–26 ottobre 2013). Studi in memoria di Romano Silva (Collana di studi sul colore, 5) (Lucca: Istituto Storico Lucchese,
2016), pp. 87–101; Barsanti С., "Scultura dipinta a Bisanzio", in: ibid., pp. 61–85.

396
of an original poikilia and a rich polychrome decoration that of a great gear in which several elements moved si-
(ill. 5), especially in a church like St Sophia, the sources multaneously, even if not always in perfect synchrony.
provide us with reports that are perhaps generic but en- When we simply attribute a sculpture work to the gener-
thusiastic in tone, even taking into account the rhetori- ic ‘stonemason’, in reality we overlook a more complex
cal character of the ever-quoted descriptions of excep- and multilayered work organisation. The roles within
tional witnesses as Procopius of Caesarea and Paulus the workshops certainly had to provide different levels
Silentiarius.21 But what interests us here is above all the of professionalism, and even the economic treatments
problem of the division of labour and the professional should not be the same for the sculptors or the stonema-
identity of the Byzantine sculptor, particularly in com- sons in charge of the decoration (glyptes/ glypheus, but
parison with the workers active in the West. One can ask, also lithoxoos) and the marble quarrymen, perhaps even
in fact, who was entrusted with a work such as the poly- in accordance with a certain social gap.
chrome decoration of the sculptures and reliefs. Unlike So far, we have talked about the identity of the Byz-
the Western contexts, where the figure of the ‘painter antine sculptor from a professional, technical and social
decorator’22 of marbles is indirectly documented, in By- point of view, but what about his individuality as it is
zantium we have neither material evidence demon- embodied and expressed in the work itself? The question
strating the use of two distinct types of artists working is rather difficult, because even if we take for granted
on the same object, nor do we have documentation that the equation evoked by the famous remark of the count
proves the separation of tasks between the actual sculp- of Buffon (according to which ‘le style c’est l’homme
tor and the painter decorator. m ême’), we should remember that the work of the
After all, the development of certain technical pro- Byzantine sculptor is subject to formal and material con-
cedures could not be the sole competence of a single straints which are quite different from those that apply
category: both the sculptor and the painter always had to the modern artist. This is not to say, however, that it
to take into account the polymorphic character of the is not possible to identify, even in such a context, a dia-
techniques and the effects they aimed at producing.23 lectic relationship between inherited norm and original,
It therefore seems reasonable to suppose that certain and perhaps conscious, innovation.
technical practices took place within the same construc- In this regard, an interesting case study, I think, is
tion site where the sculptors could dispose of materials represented by a small group of materials found in the
shared with the painters, the stucco workers, the glass archaeological excavation of the complex of the Basilica
craftsmen, the carpenters, and so on. The image here is of St Philip in Hierapolis during the campaigns of 2011–

21
C. Mango, The Art of the Byzantine Empire 312–1453: Sources and Documents (Englewood Cliff: Prentice Hall, 1972), pp. 72–78;
80–96.
22
E. Billi, “Rivestire la pietra con la pittura: materiali, tecniche, brevi note sulle maestranze” in Medioevo: le officine, Atti del XII Con-
vegno Internazionale di Studi dell’AISAME (Parma, 22–27 settembre 2009) (Parma: Mondadori Electa, 2010), pp. 427–433.
23
Sodini focused on some cross-cutting formal models which can be adopted in different artistic media, even if not always through a
direct contact. See his paper: J.-P. Sodini, “La sculpture m édio-byzantine: le marbre en ersatz et tel qu’en lui-m ême” in C. Mango and
G. Dagron (eds.), Constantinople and its Hinterland. Papers from the Twenty-seventh Spring Symposium of Byzantine Studies (Oxford,
April 1993) (Aldershot: Variorum, 1995), pp. 289–311. His insight has been deepened and systematically developed by C. Barsanti
in her studies. See, for example: C. Barsanti, “Una nota sulla diffusione della scultura a incrostazione nelle regioni adriatiche del
meridione d’Italia tra XI e XIII secolo” in C. Pennas and C. Vanderheyde (eds.). La sculpture byzantine, VIIe–XIIe si ècles. Actes du
colloque international organis é par la 2e Éphorie des antiquit és byzantines et l’École fran çaise d’Ath ènes, 6–8 septembre 2000 (BCH
Suppl ément 49) (Athens: École fran çaise d’Ath ènes, 2008), pp. 515–557 and C. Barsanti and S. Pedone, “Scultura adriatica: alcune
riflessioni sulla diffusione della tecnica en champlev é tra Grecia e Italia” in Bisanzio sulle due sponde del Canale d’Otranto. Atti del
Congresso Nazionale di Studi Bizantini (Lecce, 25–27 ottobre 2012) (Spoleto: CISAM, forthcoming).

397
Ill. 6. Marble parapet with crosses, second half of the 6th century Ill. 7. Marble parapet with crosses, second half of the 6th century
Church of St Philip, Hierapolis (Pammukale, Turkey) Detail of the cross and the decorative circles
Photo by the author Photo by the author

2012.24 All these materials (slabs, pillars, sarcophagi, etc.) tened’ relief. Maybe, it is not so daring to suppose that
share a particular ornamental motif. That is an icono- such a cross could be something like a stylistic trade-
graphic feature constituted by a type of Latin cross with mark identifying a single workshop active in that region
flaring arms ending in small roughly triangular finials, of Asia.25
sometimes placed on steps (ill. 6). The cross is obviously The intentional deviation from a dominant model or
one of the most common features in the repertoire of stylistic rule – a widespread model which does not de-
Christian forms and symbols during the late antique and serve further discussion – becomes a visually emergent
Byzantine age, and surely the most frequently represent- element, in comparison with its normative prototype,
ed on the decorative elements of the St Philip complex. that is the Latin cross with flaring arms typical of the Jus-
Nonetheless, among the different shapes of the crosses tinian age, as in the well-known cases shown on the photo.
sculpted on the marbles of St Philip, the most original Furthermore, such a characteristic – we may call it a con-
one is the Latin cross with flaring arms decorated with strained creative swerve – which expresses itself also
small triangular finials (ill. 7). The type is defined also in the ductus of the material execution, allows us to re-think,
by stylised two-dimensional forms and a markedly ‘flat- at least partially, the dynamic processes of production

24
S. Pedone, “Una singolare bottega di lapicidi bizantini attiva a Hierapolis, Efeso e Sardi”, Acta ad Archaeologiam et Artium Historiam
Pertinentia, vol. 30, n.s. 16, 2018, pp. 217–236. On the marbles from St Philip church see also: M. De Giorgi, “Materials, Forms and
Models at St Philip Church in Hierapolis: Byzantine Architectural Elements” in G. Scardozzi and T. Ismaelli (eds.), Ancient Quarries
and Building Sites in Asia Minor. Research on Hierapolis in Phrygia and Other Cities in South-Western Anatolia: Archaeology, Archaeom-
etry, Conservation. Proceedings of the Symposium, Rome, 2–4 December 2015 (Bibliotheca Archaeologica, 45) (Bari: Edipuglia, 2016),
pp. 489–500; M. De Giorgi and S. Pedone, “La scultura della chiesa di San Filippo a Hierapolis. Nuovi dati e il progetto Marmora
Phrygiae” in S. Cosentino, M.E. Pomero and G. Vespignani (eds.), Dialoghi con Bisanzio. Spazi di discussione, percorsi di ricerca.
Atti dell’ VIII Congresso dell’Associazione Italiana di Studi Bizantini, Ravenna, 22–25 settembre 2015 (Spoleto: CISAM, 2019), vol.
I, pp. 267–287; S. Pedone, “New Evidence for Byzantine Sculptures from the Basilica of St Philip at Hierapolis” in D. Moreau et al.
(eds.). Archaeology of a World of Changes. Late Roman and Early Byzantine Architecture, Sculpture and Landscapes. In memoriam
Claudiae Barsanti (Oxford: BAR, 2020), pp. 231–242.
25
For a detailed discussion of this workshop, see: S. Pedone, “Una singolare bottega di lapicidi...”, passim.

398
Ill. 8. Fragment slab from the Citadel of Ephesus (Sel çuk, Turkey)
Photo by C. Barsanti

and exportation of the marbles as well as the relation- the private gesture of a worshipper leaving his mark.
ships between centres and peripheries during the Perhaps, such crosses might document a more complex
6th century, a less homogeneous phenomenon than we form of worshipping, so that the pilgrims could entrust
usually tend to think, in particular, in this geographical their names and their prayers to the sculptor or to an
area. In fact, apart from the site of Hierapolis, the only équipe of stonecutters who had created an original inter-
other known occurrences, geographically not far away, pretation of a very traditional style, a local version of it,
are the cross found on a parapet of an ambo from the city maybe more suitable for the local cult and so identifying
of Sardis,26 now housed in the Istanbul Archaeological a geographically connotated worshipping ‘style’.
Museum, the very striking crosses carved on the col- This is, at most, a minimal case of variation and sty-
umns of St John in Ephesus27 and also the crosses sculpt- listic identity, but it is also true, as the philosopher Max
ed on a slab found in the Citadel of Ephesus (ill. 8). Black once wrote, that ‘there can be no rules for crea-
The Ephesian crosses, even if in some cases worn out, tively violating rules’.28 There are certainly more strik-
repeat the scheme of the cross on a globe placed on steps, ing and eloquent cases, but even among the widespread
but with a smaller cross inserted inside the globe. From a anonymous production that forms a large part of Byz-
purely visual and functional point of view, such engrav- antine sculpture we can glimpse the difficult workings
ings might be a hint that the Ephesian workshop could of identity. After all, even for Byzantine art we can re-
also provide something like a customised apotropaic peat what has been said of Greek history: ‘L’artisan est
‘service’, as it were. In fact, these are surely not personal [...] le héros de l’histoire grecque, mais c’est un h éros
signs casually left by the pilgrims visiting the holy place, secret’.29

26
S. Pedone, “Una singolare bottega di lapicidi…”, p. 231, fig. 10.
27
Ibid., p. 233, fig. 16.
28
M. Black, “More about Metaphor”, Dialectis, vol. 31, 1971, pp. 431–457.
29
M. Austin and P. Vidal-Naquet, Economies et soci ét és en Gr èce ancienne (Paris : Arman Colin, 1972), p. 23.

399
Название: Austin, M. and Vidal-Naquet, P. Economies et soci ét és en Gr èce
Скульптор в Византии: индивидуальность ancienne. Paris: Arman Colin, 1972.
и статус между оригинальностью и рутиной Bacci, M. (ed.). L’artista a Bisanzio e nel mondo cristiano-orientale
(Seminari e Convegni, 12). Pisa: Edizioni della Normale, 2007.
Автор: Barral i Altet, X. et al. (eds.). Artistes, artisans et production
Сильвия Педоне – Ph.D. artistique au Moyen Age. Colloque international
Национальная академия Деи Линчеи. (Centre National de la Recherches Scientifique, Universit é
Рим, Виа делла Лунгара 10, Рим 00165, Италия de Rennes II – Haute-Bretagne, 2–6 mai 1983), I–III.
E-mail: silvia.pedone@lincei.it Paris: Picard, 1990.
Barsanti, C. “L’esportazione di marmi dal Proconneso nelle
Аннотация regioni pontiche durante il IV–VI secolo”, Rivista dell’Istituto
Изучение роли и статуса «авторов» в области византийской Nazionale d’Archeologia e Storia dell’Arte, 3 Ser., vol. 12, 1989,
скульптуры – непростая задача хотя бы потому, pp. 91–220.
что анонимность резчиков и каменотесов, как кажется, Barsanti, C. “Una nota sulla diffusione della scultura
была одной из основных особенностей организации a incrostazione nelle regioni adriatiche del meridione
византийских мастерских. Они представляли коллективы, d’Italia tra XI e XIII secolo” in Pennas, C. and Vanderheyde, C.
и это радикально отличается от древних представлений (eds.). La sculpture byzantine, VIIe–XIIe si ècles. Actes du colloque
об индивидуальности скульптора. В статье рассматривается, international organis é par la 2e Éphorie des antiquit és
с одной стороны, проблема подписей в византийской byzantines et l’École fran çaise d’Ath ènes, 6–8 septembre 2000
скульптуре, а с другой стороны, анализируются некоторые (BCH Suppl ément 49). Athens: École fran çaise d’Ath ènes,
случаи, когда отступление от «нормы» – от принятых или 2008, pp. 515–557.
традиционных художественных методов – может помочь Barsanti, C. “Scultura dipinta a Bisanzio” in Andreuccetti, P.A.
выявить некоторые сведения о создателях резьбы по мрамору. and Bondani, D. (eds.). Il Colore nel Medioevo. Arte, Simbolo,
Tecnica. Tra materiali costruttivi e colori aggiunti: mosaici, intarsi
Ключевые слова: византийская скульптура, резчик, e plastica lapidea. Atti delle Giornate di Studi, Lucca 24–26 ottobre
метки каменотесов, Малая Азия, мраморные каменоломни, 2013. Studi in memoria di Romano Silva (Collana di studi sul
Святая София, раскрашенная резьба, авторство. colore, 5). Lucca: Istituto Storico Lucchese, 2016, pp. 61–85.
Barsanti, C. and Paribeni, A. “La scultura in funzione
Title: architettonica a Costantinopoli tra V e VI secolo: aspetti
The Byzantine Sculptor: Identity tecnici, tipologici e stilistici”, Acta ad Archaeologiam et Artium
and Status Between Originality and Rules Historiam Pertinentia, vol. 30 (n.s. 16), 2018, pp. 23–72.
Barsanti, C. and Pedone, S. “Scultura adriatica: alcune riflessioni
Author: sulla diffusione della tecnica en champlev é tra Grecia e Italia”
Silvia Pedone, Ph.D., Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei, in Bisanzio sulle due sponde del Canale d’Otranto.
via della Lungara, 10, 00165 Rome, Italy. Atti del Congresso Nazionale di Studi Bizantini, Lecce,
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Abstract brevi note sulle maestranze” in Medioevo: le officine.
Exploring the role and the status of ‘authors’ in the field Atti del XII Convegno Internazionale di Studi dell’AISAME, Parma,
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