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STM-0 SOH & HO-POH STM-1 SOH & HO-POH STM-4 SOH & HO-POH STM-16 SOH &

& HO-POH STM-4 SOH & HO-POH STM-16 SOH & HO-POH STM-64 SOH & HO-POH Lower order
3 columns (bytes)
9 columns (bytes) 36 columns (bytes) 144 columns (bytes) 576 columns (bytes) VC-n POH
1 2 3 1 4 7
1234567 1 13 25
1234567890123456789012 1 49 97 12345678901234
12345678901234 1 193 12345678901234
385
VC-3 POH 1234567 VC-4 POH 1234567890123456789012 VC-4 POH 12345678901234 VC-4 POH 12345678901234 VC-4 POH VC-11 VC-12 VC-2
1 A1 A2 J0 A1 A1 A1 A2 A2 A2 J0 1234567
1234567 Z0*Z0*Z0*1234567890123456789012
Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
1234567890123456789012
A1 A1 A1 A1 A1 A1 A1 A1 A1 A1 A1 A1 A2 A2 A2 A2 A2 A2 A2 A2 A2 A2 A2 A2 J0 123456789012345678901234567890 Z0*Z0*Z0*Z0*Z0* 12345678901234
Q Q Q Q Q
12345678901234
A1 A1 A1 A1 A1 A1 A1 A1 A1 A1 A1 A1 A2 A2 A2 A2 A2 A2 A2 A2 A2 A2 A2 A2 J0123456789012345678901234567890 Z0*Z0*Z0*Z0*Z0* 12345678901234
Q Q Q Q Q
12345678901234
A1 A1 A1 A1 A1 A1 A1 A1 A1 A1 A1 A1 A2 A2 A2 A2 A2 A2 A2 A2 A2 A2 A2 A2 J0123456789012345678901234567890 V5 V5 V5 STM-0 51.84 Mb/s
1234567 123456789012345678901234567890 123456789012345678901234567890 123456789012345678901234567890
2 B1 E1 F1 J1 B1 E1 F1 1234567
1234567 B1 E1 123456789012345678901234567890
F1 123456789012345678901234567890 J1 B1 E1 123456789012345678901234567890
F1 123456789012345678901234567890 J1 B1 E1
123456789012345678901234567890
F1123456789012345678901234567890 J1
Number of bytes
J1 25 34 106 of data separating STM-1 155.52 Mb/s
D1 D2 D3 fields.
3 D1 D2 D3 B3 D1 D2 D3 B3 D1 D2 D3 B3 D1 D2 D3 B3
B3 J2 J2 J2 STM-4 622.08 Mb/s
4 H1 H2 H3 C2 H1 H1 H1 H2 H2 H2 H3 H3 H3 H1 H1 H1 H1 H1 H1 H1 H1 H1 H1 H1 H1 H2 H2 H2 H2 H2 H2 H2 H2 H2 H2 H2 H2 H3 H3 H3 H3 H3 H3 H3 H3 H3 H3 H3 H3 C2 H1 H1 H1 H1 H1 H1 H1 H1 H1 H1 H1 H1 H2 H2 H2 H2 H2 H2 H2 H2 H2 H2 H2 H2 H3 H3 H3 H3 H3 H3 H3 H3 H3 H3 H3 H3 C2 H1 H1 H1 H1 H1 H1 H1 H1 H1 H1 H1 H1 H2 H2 H2 H2 H2 H2 H2 H2 H2 H2 H2 H2 H3 H3 H3 H3 H3 H3 H3 H3 H3 H3 H3 H3 C2
1 frame

C2 STM-16 2488.32 Mb/s


9 rows

25 34 106
5 B2 K1 K2 G1 B2 B2 B2 K1 K2 B2 B2 B2 B2 B2 B2 B2 B2 B2 B2 B2 B2 K1 K2 G1 B2 B2 B2 B2 B2 B2 B2 B2 B2 B2 B2 B2 K1 K2 G1 B2 B2 B2 B2 B2 B2 B2 B2 B2 B2 B2 B2 K1 K2 G1
G1 STM-64 9953.28 Mb/s
6 D4 D5 D6 D4 D5 D6 N2 N2 N2
F2 F2 D4 D5 D6 F2 D4 D5 D6 F2 D4 D5 D6 F2 1234
1234
Key
D7 D8 D9 25 34 106 1234 Bytes reserved for national use.
7 D7 D8 D9 H4 H4 D7 D8 D9 H4 D7 D8 D9 H4 D7 D8 D9 H4 1234
8 D10 D11 D12 F3 D10 D11 D12 1234567
1234567 F3 D10 D11 D121234567890123456789012345678901 F3 D10 D11 D12123456789012345678901234567890
123456789012345678901234567890 F3 D10 D11 D12123456789012345678901234567890
123456789012345678901234567890 F3 K4 K4 K4
Q Unscrambled bytes, therefore care
M1 E2 1234567 1234567890123456789012345678901 123456789012345678901234567890 123456789012345678901234567890 should be taken with their contents.
9 S1 M1 E2 S1 1234567 S1 M1 E2 1234567890123456789012345678901 E2123456789012345678901234567890 E2123456789012345678901234567890 25 34 106
K3 1234567 K3 1234567890123456789012345678901 K3 S1 M1 123456789012345678901234567890 K3 S1 M1 123456789012345678901234567890 K3 Media dependent bytes
N1 N1 N1 N1 N1

STM-1 frame
Regenerator
Section
LOS
Multiplex
Section
Higher
Order
Path
Lower
Order
Path
(to ITU-T G.707) RSOH MSOH HO-POH LO-POH
Lower order path overhead
LOF 270 columns (bytes)
Regenerator section overhead Multiplex section overhead Higher order path overhead
A1/A2 (for VC-11, VC-12 or VC-2)
RS-TIM 261 columns (bytes)
J0 AIS
1 9 270 A1,A2 Provides a frame alignment pattern (A1=F6 H, A2=28 H). The frame alignment word B2 Provides multiplex section error monitoring. The BIP-N x 24, of an STM-N frame, provides J1 The first byte in the Virtual Container. Its location is indicated by the AU pointer V5 Provides BIP-2 error checking, signal label and path status information.
RS-BIP
B1 of an STM-N frame is 3 x N A1 bytes followed by 3 x N A2 bytes. end-to-end error performance monitoring across an individual multiplex section and is (H1H2 bytes). Provides a higher order trail trace. identifier (64-byte free format string
1 Regenerator BIP-2 REI RFI Signal label RDI
K2
MS-AIS Section J0 Regenerator section trace. (16-byte frame including CRC7). Supports continuity calculated over all bits of the previous STM-N frame except for the or 16-byte frame including CRC7). Supports end-to-end monitoring of a higher order path.
b1 b2 b3 b4 b5 b6 b7 b8
MS-BIP Overhead testing between transmitting and receiving device on each regenerator section. first three rows of SOH. Computed value is placed in B2 byte before scrambling. B3 Provides higher order path error monitoring. The BIP-8 is calculated over all bits
B2
3 RSOH
E MS-REI AIS Z0 Spare. Reserved for future international standardization. K1,K2 Two bytes allocated for APS signaling for multiplex section protection. of previous VC-n. Computed value is placed in B3 byte before scrambling.
M1
K2 (b6–b8) contains MS-RDI and MS-AIS status information.
9 rows

A MS-RDI 4 AU pointer J1 B1 Provides regenerator section monitoring. The regenerator section BIP-8 provides end- C2 Higher order path signal label. Indicates composition or the maintenance status
K2
of the associated container.
V5 (b5–b7) signal label
AU-AIS 5 B3 to-end error performance monitoring across an individual regenerator section and is Linear APS messages Ring APS messages
Multiplex calculated over all bits of the previous STM-N frame after scrambling. Computed b5–b7 Meaning
AU-LOP AIS C2
Section
value is placed in B1 byte before scrambling. ITU-T G.783 protection switching protocol ITU-T G.841 protection switching protocol C2 byte mapping
Overhead G1 000 Unequipped or supervisory-unequipped
HP-UNEQ
C2 MSOH C-4 E1 Provides local orderwire channel for voice communications between regenerators, K1 byte Condition K1 byte Condition b1–b4 b5–b8 Hex code Interpretation
F2 VC-4 001 Equipped – non-specific
HP-TIM 9 (data payload)
J1 hubs and remote terminal locations. b1–b4 b1–b4
HP-BIP H4 0000 0000 00 Unequipped or supervisory-unequipped 010 Asynchronous
B3 F1 Allocated for user’s purposes (eg, temporary data/voice channel connection for 1111 Lockout of protection 1111 Lockout of protection (span)
AIS
HP-REI F3 or signal fail (protection) 0000 0001 01 Equipped - non-specific 011 Bit synchronous
E special maintenance applications). 1110 Forced switch 1110 Forced switch (span)
G1 K3 0000 0010 02 TUG-structure 100 Byte synchronous
A HP-RDI 1101 Signal fail high priority 1101 Forced switch (ring)
G1 D1–D3 192 kb/s message-based data communications channel providing administration,
N1 1100 Signal fail low priority 1100 Signal fail (span) 0000 0011 03 Locked TU 101 Reserved for future use
TU-AIS monitor, alarm and maintenance functions between regenerator section termination 1011 Signal degrade high priority 1011 Signal fail (ring)
260 columns (bytes) equipment. 1010 Signal degrade low priority 1010 Signal degrade (protection) 0000 0100 04 Asynchronous mapping of 34368 kb/s or 110 O.181 test signal (TSS4)
TU-LOP VC-4 44736 kb/s into the Container-3 (C-3)
1001 Unused 1001 Signal degrade (span) 111 VC-AIS
AIS POH 1000 Manual switch 1000 Signal degrade (ring)
TU-LOM 0001 0010 12 Asynchronous mapping of 139264 kb/s
H4 0111 Unused 0111 Manual switch (span)
into the Container-4 (C-4) J2 Lower order trail trace identifier (16-byte frame including CRC7).
HP-PLM 0110 Wait-to-restore 0110 Manual switch (ring)
C2 0101 Unused 0101 Wait-to-restore 0001 0011 13 ATM mapping
LP-UNEQ Supports end-to-end monitoring of a lower order path.
V5 0100 Exercise 0100 Exerciser (span)
0011 Unused 0011 Exerciser (ring) 0001 0100 14 MAN (DQDB) mapping N2 Lower order tandem connection monitoring. Contains BIP-2 error checking,
LP-TIM
J2 0010 Reverse request 0010 Reverse request (span) 0001 0101 15 FDDI mapping AIS, tandem connection REI (TC-REI), outgoing error indication (OEI) and a
LP-BIP 0001 Do not revert 0001 Reverse request (ring)
V5 AIS 0000 No request 0000 No request 1111 1110 FE O.181 test signal (TSS1 to TSS3) mapping 76-byte multiframe containing a tandem connection access point identifier
E LP-REI
1111 1111 FF VC-AIS (TC-APId).
V5
A LP-RDI Multiplex Multiplex b5–b8 Selects channel used by APS b 5–b8 Destination node ID
V5
section section messages N2 byte structure
LP-PLM G1 Higher order path status. Sends status and performance monitoring information from
V5 K2 byte Condition K2 byte Condition BIP-2 “1” Incoming TC-REI OEI TC-APId, TC-RDI,
AIS
receiving path terminating equipment to originating equipment. Allows status and AIS ODI, reserved
Regenerator Regenerator Regenerator b1–b4 Selects bridged channel used b1–b4 Source node ID performance of two-way path to be monitored at either end.
section section section b1 b2 b3 b4 b5 b6 b7 b8
b5 Determines automatic protection b5 Path code: 0 = short path;
switch architecture 1 = long path REI RDI Spare
Events b1 b2 b3 b4 b5 b6 b7 b8
b6–b8 0 0 0 = Reserved for future use b6–b8 0 0 0 = Idle N2 (b7–b8) multiframe structure
Physical/regenerator section Multiplex section 0 0 1 = Reserved for future use 0 0 1 = Bridged
LOS Loss of signal B2 Multiplex section BIP error 0 1 0 = Reserved for future use 0 1 0 = Bridged and switched Frame
OOF Out of frame MS-AIS Multiplex section AIS 0 1 1 = Reserved for future use 0 1 1 = Reserved for future use
G1 (b5–b7) coding and interpretation
number b7 and b8 definition
LOF Loss of frame MS-RDI Multiplex section remote 1 0 0 = Reserved for future use 1 0 0 = Reserved for future use
B1 Regenerator section BIP error defect indication 1 0 1 = Reserved for future use 1 0 1 = Reserved for future use b5–b7 Meaning Triggers
RS-TIM Regenerator section trace MS-REI Multiplex section remote 1–8 Frame alignment signal: 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0
1 1 0 = MS-RDI 1 1 0 = MS-RDI
identifier mismatch error indication 1 1 1 = MS-AIS 1 1 1 = MS-AIS 000 No remote defect No remote defect 9–12 TC-APId byte # 1 [1 C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 C6 C7]

Higher order path Lower order path 001 No remote defect No remote defect 13–16 TC-APId byte # 2 [0 X X X X X X X]
D4–D12 Provide 576 kb/s data communication channel between multiplex section termination
AU-LOP Loss of AU pointer TU-LOP Loss of TU pointer equipment. Used to carry network administration and maintenance information. 010 Remote payload defect LCD 17–20 TC-APId byte # 3 [0 X X X X X X X]
AU-NDF AU pointer – New data flag TU-NDF TU pointer – New data flag
AU-AIS AU alarm indication signal TU-AIS TU alarm indication signal 011 No remote defect No remote defect : :
S1 Synchronization status messages. S1 (b5–b8) indicates which of the four levels of
B3 HP BIP errors TU-LOM TU loss of multiframe alignment synchronization is being used at the transmit end of a multiplex section. 100 Remote defect AIS, LOP, TIM, UNEQ 65–68 TC-APId byte # 15 [0 X X X X X X X]
HP-UNEQ HP unequipped BIP-2/B3 LP BIP errors (or PLM, LCD)
HP-RDI HP remote defect indication LP-UNEQ LP unequipped 69–72 TC-APId byte # 16 [0 X X X X X X X]
HP-REI HP remote error indication LP-RDI LP remote defect indication Path S1 byte
b5–b8 SDH synchronization quality level description 101 Remote server defect AIS, LOP 73–76 TC-RDI, ODI and reserved (see table below)
HP-TIM HP trace identifier mismatch LP-REI LP remote error indication 0000 Quality unknown (existing sync network) 110 Remote connectivity defect TIM, UNEQ
HP-PLM HP payload label mismatch LP-RFI LP remote failure indication
LP-TIM LP trace identifier mismatch 0001 Reserved 111 Remote defect AIS, LOP, TIM, UNEQ Frame N2 N2
LP-PLM LP payload label mismatch (or PLM, LCD) number b7 definition b8 definition
0010 G.811
0011 Reserved 73 Reserved (default = “0”) TC-RDI
F2 Higher order path user channel. Allocated for network operator communications between
0100 G.812 transit path terminations. 74 ODI Reserved (default = “0”)
0101 Reserved 75 Reserved (default = “0”) Reserved (default = “0”)
H4 Position indicator. Multiframe phase indication for TU structured payloads.
0110 Reserved 76 Reserved (default = “0”) Reserved (default = “0”)
F3 Higher order path user channel. Allocated for network operator communications between
0111 Reserved
path terminations.
1000 G.812 local K4 Lower order path automatic protection switching (b1–b4) and en-
K3 Higher order path automatic protection switching (b1–b4). The rest of the bits hanced remote defect indication (b5–b7).
1001 Reserved
(b5–b8) are allocated for future use.
1010 Reserved
N1 Higher order tandem connection monitoring. There are two possible implementations K4 (b5–b7) coding and interpretation
1011 Synchronous equipment timing source (SETS) described in Annex C and Annex D of ITU-T G.707. In Annex C, the N1 byte provides a
1100 Reserved tandem connection Incoming Error Count (IEC) and the remaining four bits provide an b5–b7 Meaning Triggers
1101 Reserved end-to-end data link. The Annex D option contains an incoming error count (IEC), 000
1110 Reserved tandem connection REI (TC-REI), outgoing error indication (OEI) and a 76-byte multiframe 001 No remote defect No remote defect
containing a tandem connection access point identifier (TC-APId). 010 Remote payload defect LCD, PLM
1111 Do not use for synchronization
N1 byte structure 011
M1 Multiplex section remote error indication (MS REI). Conveys the number of B2 errors
detected by downstream equipment. 100
IEC TC-REI OEI TC-APId, TC-RDI,
ODI, reserved 101 Remote server defect AIS, LOP
E2 Provides express orderwire channel for voice communications between multiplex section
terminating equipment. b1 b2 b3 b4 b5 b6 b7 b8 110 Remote connectivity defect TIM, UNEQ
111
H1–H3 AU pointer bytes are associated with, but not part of, the MSOH. The pointer contained
in H1 and H2 points to the location where the VC-n begins. The last ten bits (b7–b16) of N1 (b7–b8) multiframe structure
H1H2 carry the pointer value (0 to 782). The H3 bytes are “pointer action” bytes and
carry “live” information, from a VC-4, during the STM-N frame in which a negative Frame
pointer adjustment occurs. number b7 and b8 definition

1–8 Frame alignment signal: 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0


9–12 TC-APId byte # 1 [1 C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 C6 C7]
Concatenation -
13–16 TC-APId byte # 2 [0 X X X X X X X]
The linking together of various data structures, for example two channels joined to form

Need a test solution? a single channel. in SDH, a number (M) of TUs can be linked together to produce a
concatenated container, M times the size of the TU. An example of this is the
concatenation of five TU-2s to carry a 32 Mbit/s video signal, known as VC-2-5c.
17–20
:
TC-APId byte # 3 [0 X X X X X X X]
:
65–68 TC-APId byte # 15 [0 X X X X X X X]

® Once assembled, any concatenated VC structure is multiplexed, switched, and

Turn to Agilent .
69–72 TC-APId byte # 16 [0 X X X X X X X]
transported through the network as a single entity.
73–76 TC-RDI, ODI and reserved (see table below)

Frame N1 N1
number b7 definition b8 definition
Data are based on information, diagrams and figures taken from ITU-T Recommendations with Tandem Connection Monitoring -
73 Reserved (default = “0”) TC-RDI
the kind permission of the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) as copyright holder. A Tandem Connection is a bi-directional connection between two TCTEs (Tandem
Connection Terminating Elements) along an SDH path, which is managed as a separate 74 ODI Reserved (default = “0”)
Where appropriate, please consult the full text of the relevant ITU Recommendations for the
entity. the tandem path is formed from an SDH Virtual Container (VC) with special 75 Reserved (default = “0”) Reserved (default = “0”)
authoritative version. These may be obtained from the ITU Sales Section, Place des Nations,
maintenance signals carried in the path overhead (POH) bytes. These bytes enable 76 Reserved (default = “0”) Reserved (default = “0”)
CH-1211 Geneva 20, Switzerland; Tel.: +41.22.730.51.11, Fax: +41.22.730.51.94, E-mail: monitoring of tandem paths, performance analysis and fault location - the ability to
sales@itu.int. ‘finger point’.

Printed in the UK Publication Number : 5980-2503EN


©Agilent Technologies UK Ltd. (2000).