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PRE-INTERMEDIATE

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ЩШМИ
шог|Л5
ПЕРВЫЙ ЭТАП ОБУЧЕНИЯ
2~е издание

Д о п у щ ен о М и н и стерством о б р а зо в а н и я
Р осси й ск ой Ф едер аци и в качестве учебника
для студен тов высших учебны х зав еден и й ,
о буч аю щ и хся но сп ец и ал ьн ости
« 0 3 3 2 0 0 И ност ранны й язы к»

ИГ
«Ф ен и к с+ »
Дубна
УДК 811
ЬБК 81.2 Англ-923
II 69
Ре ц е н з е нт ы :
Кафедра английской филологии
Московского городского педагогического университета
(зав. кафедрой, д-р филол. наук, проф. О. В Афанасьева,
доц., канд. филол. наук, проф. Ю. Е. Ваулина)
доц. И. М. Богданова
(Московский государственный лингвистический университет)
доц., канд. филол. наук В. В. Алимов
(Кафедра лингвистики и межкультурной коммуникации
Московского открытого социального университета)

Савватеева А. В., Тихонова И. С., Ковалева Л. I».,


Михеева И. В., Ионова В. В., Соколова М. А., Шишкова И. А.

II 69 П РАКТИ ЧЕСКИ Й КУРС АНГЛИЙСКОГО ЯЗЫКА: Первый


этап обучения. Учеб. 2-еи здан ие.-Д убн а:Ф ен и кс+ , 2002 592с.

ISBN 5-9279-0037-2
Учебник рассчитан на студентов, имеющих хорошую подготов­
ку в объеме средней школы, и состоит из трех разделов: 1. Основ­
ного курса (повторение грамматического материала, тексты, лекси­
ка, упражнения), 2. Дополни тельных упражнений на отработку произ­
ношения, интонации и техники чтения и 3. Фонетического курса на
английском языке (теория и задания).
Учебник написан на основе методических принципов обучения
иностранным языкам, которые в течение многих лег разрабатыва­
лись теоретически и отражались в практике преподавания и напи­
сания учебных пособий в Московском педагогическом государст­
венном университете под руководством известного лингвиста и ме­
тодиста проф. В.Д. Аракина. В отличие от предыдущих изданий «Прак­
тического курса» под редакцией В.Д. Аракина, фонетические мате­
риалы даются на английском языке, как они и преподаются в условиях
возросшего уровня знаний поступающих в педагогические вузы.
1-е издание вышло пол названием «Новый практический курс анг­
лийского языка для студентов педагогических вузов. Первый этап
М.: Высш. шк., Дубна: Феникс+, 2000».

УДК 811
ББК 81.2 Англ-923
ISBN 5-9279-0037-2
Web-сайт ООО «Феникс+»:
www. d u b n a . r u / ~ p h o e n i x +
© Авторский коллектив. 2000, 2002
© Оформление, оригинал-макет,
ООО «Феникс+», 2000. 2002
ПРЕДИСЛОВИЕ
Данный учебник предназначен для начального этапа обучения на
факультетах иностранных языков педагогических университетов и инсти­
тутов. Он адресован учащимся, достаточно хорошо усвоившим основные
грамматические структуры английского языка в объеме средней школы,
но имеющим ограниченный словарный запас и не изучавшим системати­
ческий курс английской фонетики.
Книга состоит из трех частей: 1. Основного курса (авторы И В. Ми
хеева, В. В Попова, А В. Савватеева), 2. Приложения к основному курсу
и 3. Фонетического курса на английском языке (авторы J1. Б. Ковалева,
М. А. Соколова, И. С. Тихонова, И. А. Шишкова)
Основной (лексический) курс состоит из восьми уроков, каждый из
которых посвящен одной из следующих тем: “People Around You” («Лю­
ди вокруг вас»), “House and Home" («Дом и домашний очаг»), “Dining
In and Out” («Еда дома и не дома»), “Let’s Go Shopping” («Пойдемте за
покупками»), “Seasons and Weather” («Времена года и погода»), "English
Towns" («Английские города»), “Learning Can Be Enjoyable” («Учиться
можно с удовольствием»), “People's Leisure" («Как люди проводят свой
досуг»).
Каждый урок основного курса составлен по единой схеме:
1. Грамматические упражнения.
2. Вокабуляр по теме, за которым следуют упражнения, помогающие
усвоить его.
3. Базовый текст по теме с набором упражнений, способствующих
его детальному усвоению. .
4. Раздел речевой практики, имеющий пелыо дальнейшее развитие
навыков устной речи, как диалогической, так и монологической, с помо­
щью самых разнообразных упражнений и дополнительных текстов.
Грамматические упражнения, с которых начинается каждый урок,
весьма немногочисленны. Они призваны только освежить в памяти сту­
дентов ту или иную грамматическую модель или то или иное явление
грамматики
Второй раздел начинается со списков слов и выражений по теме
урока, за которыми следуют упражнения. Предполагается, что сначала
студенты под руководством преподавателя должны ознакомиться с вока-
буляром по изучаемой теме. Авторы сочли обязательным дать перевод
слов и словосочетаний па русский язык, чтобы при необходимости сту­
дент мог работать с ними. Упражнения, данные после вокабуляра, на­
правлены на его активизацию.
В третьем разделе урока дается текст по изучаемой теме. Перед тек­
стом вынесены самые трудные для произношения- слова. Они даны и в
написании, и в транскрипции, чтобы сразу подготовить студента к их
правильному чтению. Набор упражнений, следующих за текстом, состав­
лен таким образом, чтобы обеспечить его максимальное запоминание для
последующего пересказа близко к тексту, а затем беседы по теме. Авторы
убеждены, что изучение любой темы должно опираться на тематический
текст.
Раздел, посвященный речевой практике, содержит различные диалоги
по изучаемой теме и упражнения тренировочного и речевого характера. В
книгу включены упражнения на перевод с русского языка на английский
4 Предисловие

и наоборот. Учебник также предлагает упражнения, которые помогут


преподавателю организовать со студентами дискуссии на разные темы
Количество упражнений (и среднем около 70 в каждом разделе) позволяет
преподавателю выбрать те из них, которые наиболее полно отвечают
целям и задачам, стоящим перед студентами.
Каждый урок рассчитан примерно на I месяц изучения (24-30 ауди­
торных часов). Предполагается, что, работая с учебником, студенты будут
широко пользоваться английским толковым словарем.
Фонетический раздел учебника состоит из двух частей: фонетическо­
го приложения к основному лексическому курсу и систематического курса
фонетики.
Целью фонетического приложения к основному лексическому курсу
является закрепление полученных произносительных навыков, их автома­
тизация, а также расширение и углубление знаний студентов для активи­
зации их в различных речевых ситуациях. Каждый урок приложения со-
стоиг из двух частей. В первой части даны упражнения, базирующиеся на
уроках основного курса: произношение трудных слов, расстановка ударе­
ний в многосложных словах, произнесение звуков в потоке речи (ассими­
ляция, редукция и т.д.), а также отработка интонации озвученных тек­
стов. Вторая часть каждого урока посвящена работе над функционально
дифференцированным использованием звуков и интонации, т. е. фоности­
листическими различиями звучащей речи.
Фонетический курс имеет целью постановку звуков английского язы­
ка (британский стандарт) и создание произносительной основы для даль­
нейшего развития правильной английской речи. Звуки вводятся и трени­
руются одновременно с простейшими интонационными моделями. Струк­
турно курс построен по следующему принципу: в центре каждого урока
стоит гласный звук. Переход к следующему звуку проходит плавно бла­
годаря сходству артикуляций. Например, передние звуки в первых уроках
вводятся в такой последовательности: |i| —> |е) —> |ei) —> [ia| и т. д. Порядок
введения согласных объясняется необходимостью того или иного звука
для начала работы над соответствующим лексическим и грамматическим
материалом.
Следует отметить, что принципиально новым является коммуника­
тивный подход к введению и отработке материала, осуществляемый бла­
годаря тому, что звуки тренируются в простейших диалогах, пословицах,
поговорках, стихотворениях, чтении и пересказах. Одновременно со зву­
ками вводятся интонационные структуры, при этом большое внимание
уделяется правильному ритмическому рисунку. По мере усложнения фоне­
тического материала вводятся некоторые понятия из области кинесики
(мимика и жесты). Объяснение фонетических явлений основано в первую
очередь на сравнении с русским языком.
Успех работы над курсом обеспечивает строгое соблюдение предла­
гаемого порядка работы над вводимым и закрепляемым материалом
Авторы выражают искреннюю благодарность редактору службы Би-
Би-Си Мониторинг Вики Эйбл за внимательное прочтение основного кур­
са и ценные замечания, которые были учтены в работе над рукописью
P a r ti

E JJE N T IA L
CO U R/E
U N I T I

A man never discloses his


own character so clearly as
when he describes another’s.
./ Г I Richter
(German writer 1763-1825)

P E O P L E AROUND YOU
G R A M M A R EXERCISES
Before you start doing the exercises m ake sure that yo u remember
how to handle:

• th e p o s s e s s iv e case o f n o u n s,
eg Ann's biother is only eleven.
My parents’ room is upstairs
The Browns’ house is for sale
Mr. Brown's house is new.
Her children’s toys are on the floor
We appreciate Dickens’s novels

• th e verb to be in th e P resen t I n d e fin ite T e n se ,


eg I am twenty Am I twenty?
I am not twenty
J am twenty, am t not7
or. Ijn twenty, aren’t I7
I am not twenty yet, am I?
We are students o f the university
His granddaughter is a shop-assistant
Is she a shop-assistant7
She isn’t a shop-assistant.

• th e verb to h a v e in the P r e se n t I n d e fin ite T e n se ,


eg Ihave got three hundred English books at home
I haven’t got any French books in the house
Have you got. any French books in the house7

How many sisters have you?


or How many sisters have you got?
or: How many sisters do you have? (esp Am erican)
8 Essential Course

She has blue eyes and a turned-up nose.


We usually have dinner at home.
Do we usually have dinner at home9
We don’t usually have dinner at home.

0 Use the possessive case instead of the “«/-phrase”:


the sister o f my father the hat o f Mrs Smith
the car o f her parents the cottage o f the Smiths
the garage o f the Browns the cousin o f her mother
the toy o f the child the coat o f my uncle
the bag o f my mother-in-law the beds o f her children
the flowers o f the girl the pencil o f the teacher
the books o f the student the life o f a bachelor
the room o f the doctor the room o f Denis
the glasses o f my grandmother

Translate into English using the possessive case:


)
с'* папины очки дедушкины газеты
рука Джеймса жена Дениса
коттедж Браунов тетрадь нашей учительницы
пальто его дяди игрушка Боба
глаза Джейн дядин велосипед
книжки ребенка тетино пальто
мамина новая шляпа портфели студентов
бабушкины цветы Анина контрольная работа
жизнь холостяка дом моего свекра

2 Open the brackets using the verb to be in the Present Indefinite Tense:
I He (to be) a very good teacher
2. I (not to be) a first-year student.
3. We (to be) Mr. Sm ith’s children.
4 She (to be) a nice girl, she (to be) never naughty.
5. You (not to be) busy, you (to be) free, I hope.
6 They (to be) fond o f flowers?
7 We (to be) friends, we (to be) always together
8. What (to be) your name?
9. What (to be) your address?
10 My name (to be) Lily, what (to be) yours?
11 He (to be) older than his sister
12. She (to be) five years younger than her brother
13 She (to be) eager to become a teacher o f English
14. You (to be) in a hurry, I (to be) afraid.
15. She (to be) always glad to see her grandmother.
16. They (to be) married, they (not to be)l
17. He (not to be) married
Unit I 9

18. You (to be) married?


19. I (to be) a doctor, I (not to be)?
20. I (not to be) late?

P] Fill in the blanks using the verbs to be or to have in the Present


Indefinite Tense:
1. Me ... twenty-two years old
2 I ... got a new coat.
3 She ... busy today
4. We ... a lot o f books in our library
5. I ... a first-year student, ...n’t I7
6. My mother ... a school teacher, she ... an interesting job.
7. What ... your name? - My name ... John Smith.
8. They ... got new ideas about teaching English.
9. What ... his address? - Mis address ... 43, High Street
10. ... you got a colour TV? Y es, I ...
11. She ... married to an engineer.
12. You ... got some spare time, 1 hope
13. She ... usually busy from morning till night.
14. We ... sorry to hear bad news like that
15. She ... got so much luggage to take to the station.
16. ... you four or five classes on Monday?
17. It ... Saturday afternoon. Dr. Black ... in his study.
18. Jt ... eight in the morning, it .. time to go to school
19. M y mother ... older than yours, .n’t she?
20. Her husband ... a brother. He ... five years older than her husband.
21. Who ... your cousin married to? - He ... married to Lucy Crown.

£3 Complete these sentences making them disjunctive questions:


1. Lucy is a nice girl, ... ?
2. I am an English teacher, ... 7
3. We are not ready for the class,... ?
4. Y ou’ve got a new bag, ... 7
5. She isn’t married, ... ?
6. He is married to a doctor, ... ?
7. You haven’t got any spare time, ... ?
8. I am not older than you, .. ?
9. They have got a small car, ... ?
10. This is a grammar exercise, ...?
11. It isn’t a historical novel, ... ?
12. You aren’t married, .. ?
13. He is a good sportsman, ...?
14. I am late, ... ?
15. She has three brothers and one sister, ?
10 Essential Course

VOCABULARY
Read the vocabulary list and get ready to do the exercises that follow it.
What questions are you lik ely to ask a person you've just met?

What’s your name? Как вас зовут?


Where do you come from? Откуда вы?
How old are you? - Сколько вам лет?
Are you married or single? Вы замужем / женаты или нет?
What’s your job? - Кем вы работаете?
What are your interests? - Чем вы интересуетесь?
What do you do for a living? - Чем вы зарабатываете на жизнь?
What does he do for a living? Чем он зарабатывает на жизнь?
W hat’s their job? - Кем они работают?
I’m a computer specialist. Я специалист по компьютерам.
Не is an accountant. - Он бухгалтер
They are surgeons. - Они хирурги.

H ere are the names o f som e jobs:

accountant - бухгалтер engineer инж енер


actor - актер farmer - фермер
actress - актриса fashion-designer - м одельер
architect - архи тек тор hairdresser парикм ахер
baker - пекарь journalist - ж урнали ст
broker - брок ер law yer - ю рист
bus-driver - водитель а в тобуса locksm ith слесарь
businessman - би зн есм ен m anager менедж ер
chemist - химик; аптекарь m echanic механик
clerk - служащ ий m usician музы кант
composer - к о м п о зи то р nurse няня; м едсестра
computer specialist - специалист officer оф ицер
по компью терам painter худож ни к ; маляр
conductor - ди ри ж ер physicist - физик-
dentist зу б н о й врач pilot - летчик
designer - д и зай н ер playw right драм атург
doctor - врач poet п оэт
dressmaker - портниха research worker научны й р а ­
driver ш оф ер, водитель б отн и к
editor - редак тор sailor - моряк
editor-in-chief главный р е д а к ­ salesm an (-w om an) п родавец
тор (п р о д а в щ и ц а)
electrician - тлектрик sculptor скульптор
engine-driver - маш инист secretary - секретарь
Unit /

sh op -assistan t п родавец teacher - учитель


(п р одавщ и ца) turner - ток арь
soldier - сол дат typist - м аш инистка
surgeon - хирург w orker - р абоч и й
taxi-driver - ш офер такси w riter - писатель

The closest people around you are members o f your fam ily,
vour relations.

R elutions by birth - Кровные родственники:


parents родители grandparents дедушка с бабушкой
father - отец grandfather дедушка
mother - мать grandmother - бабушка
child - ребенок grandchildren внуки
children - дети grandson - внук
son - сын granddaughter - внучка
daughter - дочь great-grandfather - прадедушка
sister сестра great-grandmother - прабабушка
brother - брат great-grandchildren правнуки
uncle - дядя nephew - племянник
aunt - тетя niece племянница
cousin - двоюродный бра г (сестра)
Relations by marriage - Родственники по м уж у ими ж ене
husband муж half-sister - сестра по одному из
w ife -- жена родителей
in-laws - родня со стороны му- half-brother - брат по одному из
жа или жены роди гелей
mother-in-law теща; свекровь stepmother мачеха
father-in-law тесть; свекор stepfather - отчим
son-in-law зять stepchildren пасынок и падче-
daughter-in-law невестка; сноха рица
sister-in-law - невестка (жена step-sister сводная сестра
брата); золовка, свояченица step-brother - сводный брат
brother-in-law зять (муж сест­ step-daughter падчерица
ры); шурин, деверь, свояк stepson пасынок

One o f the first things we want to know about people is their age:

How old is she? What is her age? S h e is over six teen . She is
- Сколько ей лет? more than sixteen . - Пи
She is under sixteen. She isn’t бол ьш е 16
sixteen yet. Ей нет 16 She is a teenager (from thir­
She is sixteen (years old). - Ей teen to nineteen). - Она
16 лет. п о д р о ст о к (о т 13 до 19).
12 Essential Course

She is still in her teens. She is тол ь к о что стала со в ер ­


not twenty yet. - Ей еще нет ш еннолетней.
20. Не is in his early thirties. He is a
She is in her early teens. She Ls little over thirty. Ему немно­
thirteen or fourteen. Ей лег го за 30.
13 14. lie is in his mid forties. He is be­
She is in her mid-teens. She is tween forty and fifty. - Ему
fifteen or sixteen. Ей лет лет 45.
15-16. She is middle-aged. She is an eld­
She is in her late teens. She is sev­ erly woman. - Она - женщи­
enteen or eighteen or nineteen. на средних лет.
Ей лет 17-19. Не is middle-aged. Он среднего
She is just out of her teens. She возраста.
is just twenty. - Ей только Не is in his late fifties. He is al­
что исполнилось 20. most sixty. - Ему под 60
She is not of age yet. She is not They are my age. They and 1 are
eighteen {or twenty-one) yet. the same age. - Они моего
Она еще несовершеннолетняя возраста.
I’ve just com e o f age. I am They are twins. They were born
already eighteen (o r tw enty- together of the same mother. -
one in Great B ritain). - Я Они близнецы.

W hat do they look like?


W e often have to describe people's appearance.

F IG U R E - Ф И ГУ РА :
athletic - атлетическая slim - тон к ая, стройная
broad-shouldered - ш и р ок о­ stoop in g - сутулая
плечая straight - прямая
fat - толстая tall - вы сокая
graceful - грац иозная thin - тонкая
m iddle-sized - средняя w ell-built - хор о ш о сложенная
plump - пухлая w ell-proportioned - п р о п о р ц и о ­
short - невысокая нальная
slender - стройная
A R M S and L E G S Р У К И и Н ОГИ
big - больш ие short - к ор отк и е
long - длинны е sk in ny - тощ ие
shapely - красивые sm all — маленькие
H A IR - ВОЛОСЫ :
a bun - пучок a plait - коса
a fringe - челка a pony tail - «хвост»
a pigtail - косичка lock s - локоны
\ Unit I 3

curly - кудрявы е, пьющиеся red - рыжие


(lark - темны е short - к оротк и е
fair - светлые thick - густы е
golden - зо л о ты е thin - ж идк и е, редкие
chestnut - каш тановы е wavy - волнисты е
long - длинны е
FACE - ЛИЦО:
attractive - привлекательное plump - п ухл ое
beautiful к расивое (обы чно pretty - хор ош ен ь к ое
о ж енщ инах) round - круглое
bony - ск ул астое sunburnt - за г о р ел о е
freckled - веснуш чатое ugly б е зо б р а з н о е
good -look in g - красивое; ми­ w eather-beaten - обв ет р ен н ое
л ов и дн ое with hollow cheeks - со впа­
handsom e - к расивое лыми щ еками
oval овальн ое w rinkled - м орщ и н и стое
plain - некрасивое
C O M P L E X IO N ЦВЕТ ЛИЦА:
dark - смуглый pale - бледны й
fair - светлый rosy - р озов ы й
fresh - свежий
E Y E S - ГЛ А ЗА :
blue' - голубы е grev серы е
bright - блестящ ие hazel - светл ок ари е
brown карие sla n t-ey ed - с раскосы м и гла­
close-set - бли зк о посаж енны е зами
deep-set - гл убок о п осаж ен - wide apart ш ироко р асстав ­
н ые ленны е
EYEBROW S БРОВИ:
arched - дугой straight - прямые
bushy - кустисты е thick - густы е
pencilled - тон ен ьк ие
EY ELA SH ES РЕ С Н И Ц Ы :
curving загн уты е straight прямые
long - длинны е thick - густы е
short - к ор отк и е
F O R E H E A D - ЛОБ:
broad - ш ирокий narrow - узкий
high - вы сокий retreatin g - покаты й
low - низкий
14 Essential Course

N O SE HOC:
aquiline - орлины й Rom an - римский
button - пуговкой snub курносы й
G recian греческий straight - прямой
hooked - крю чковаты й turned-up - вздернуты й
M O U T H - POT:
beautifully cut - красиво sm all маленький
очерченны й tiny - крош ечный
large - больш ой wide ш ирокий
I.IP S ГУБЫ:
full полны е thin тонкие
thick толсты е w ell-shaped красивой формы

W hat are people like?


W'e often have to speak about people’s character.

absent-minded рассеянный loyal верный; надежный


bad-tempered - раздражительный patient - терпеливый
capable способный quarrelsom e сварливый
confident - уверенный quick проворный, быстрый
considerate - внимательный quick-m inded сообразительный
creative - творческий reliable надежный
difficult - трудный reserved - сдержанный
easy-going - легкий, веселый rude - грубый
efficient - деятельный; умелый sensible разумный
energetic - энергичный sly - хитрый
friendly дружелюбный sociable общительный
generous - щедрый sullen - угрюмый, мрачный
good-natured - добродушный tactful тактичный
hard-working - трудолюбивый unfriendly - недружелюбный
idle праздный, ленивый unintelligent - неумный
impatient - нетерпеливый unreliable - ненадежный
im polite - невежливый unsociable необщительный
intelligent умный versatile - разносторонний
lazv - ленивый w itty остроумный
M ore useful phrases:

a slimming diet - диета с целью to lose/put on weight худеть/


похудения полнеть
to be on a (slim m ing) diet to keep fit - быть здоровым
быть на диете to wear a beard/a m oustache/
to follow a diet - соблюдать w hiskers носить бороду/усы/
диету бакенбарды
Unit I 15

to have one’s hair cut I curled to look elegant/sm art иметь


подстричь/завить волосы элегантный вид
to have one’s hair/beard/m ous- to look one’s age/younger/older
tache trimmed подровнять than one’s age выглядеть на
волосы/бороду/усы свой возраст/моложе/старше
to be well-dressed - быть хоро­ своих лет
шо одетым to wear o n e’s hair loose/short/
to look nice/attractive/tired/ill long/in a bun носить рас­
выглядеть хорош о, привле­ пущенные/коротки е/дл инн ыс
кательно, устало, больным полосы / носи ть пучок

EXERCI SES
2 Answer all the questions given at the beginning of the Vocabulary
Section.

Q Pairwork. Imagine that you've just met, make up a conversation with


your partner.
Begin with: Finish with
(I'm) pleased to meet you. It’s been nice seeing you
(I’m) glad to meet you. or:
.It’s nice to meet you. I enjoyed seeing you.
_I'vc heard so much about you.

ц a) Complete the sentences using names of professions:


1. A person who directs an orchestra is a ....
2. A person who has studied law and can advise people on legal
matters is a ... .
3. One who designs buildings is an ... .
4 A person in a position o f command in the armed forces is an . .
5. A doctor who performs operations is a ....
6. A person who designs machines, bridges, railways is an ... .
7. One who makes, installs or repairs locks is a ....
8. A person who drives a motor vehicle is a ... .
9. One whose job is to look after people’s health is a ...p
10. A man who serves in the army, especially an enlisted man, is a ...
11. A person who writes for newspapers or magazines is a ... .
12. One who specializes in the treatment o f the teeth is a ... .
13. A person whose occupation is sailing or navigating boats orships
is a ... .
14. A woman who keeps house is a ... .
16 Essential Course

b) Read and correct the following false statements:


1. A person who makes sculptures is a playwright.
2. One who does research work is an accountant.
3. A person who plays a musical instrument is a clerk.
4 One who does business is a film actor.
5. A man who flies an aeroplane is a chemist.
6. A person who studies chemistry is a physicist.
7. One who keeps accounts is a salesman.
8. A person who buys and sells shares is a typist.
9. A person who takes care o f sick people is a worker.
10 One whose job is to design things by drawing them is a com ­
puter specialist.

c) Describe what these people do:


fashion-designer writer hairdresser teacher baker
shop-assistant painter taxi-driver farmer nurse

2 Spell and transcribe the following nouns:


инженер хирург журналист физик-
секретарь юрист композитор поэт
бухгалтер электрик архитектор актер

EE Translate into English:


1
Она актриса.
2.
Он зубной врач, а она - медсестра.
3.
Вы слесарь, правда? - Her, я шофер.
4.
Она физик или химик?
5.
Я так много о них слышал, они научные работники.
6.
Она модельер, не гак ли? Нет, парикмахер.
7.
Вы ведь офицер? - Да.
8.
Эта девушка машинистка, а этот молодой человек - служа­
щий.
9. Я знаю, вы не композитор, вы шофер автобуса.
10. Он молодой скульптор

ш Answer these questions:


1. What is your surname?
2. Have you got a small or a large family?
3. How many people are there in your family?
4. How old are your parents?
5. What does your father do for a living?
6. Is your mother a housewife or does she work?
7. Are there small children in your family?
Unit I 17

8. Have you got any sisters or brothers?


9. How old is your sister/brother?
10. Is your sister/brother a pupil or a student?
11. Your mother is a demist, isn’t she?
12. Have you got any aunts or uncles? Where do they live?
13. Y ou’ve got a lot o f cousins, haven’t you? What do they do?
Where do they live?
14 How old are you?
15. Arc you married or single?

EE Say a few words about your relations’ jobs.

EE Spell and transcribe these words:


родители двоюродный брат муж тетя
отец племянник внук дядя
внучка племянница мать ребенок
мачеха свекровь дед дочь

ш Read the definition and make up definitions of your own of the given words.
e.g. My nephew is my sister’s or my brother’sson.

my in-laws my grandfather
my mother-in-law my grandson
my sister-in-law my uncle
'my stepbrother my cousin
your stepdaughter my niece

EE Translate into English using the possessive case of the nouns:


шляпа его дяди карандаш их внука
пальто моей жены рубашка вашего племянника
ботинки нашего сына стихи моего прадеда
сумка ее свекрови книги вашей мачехи
комната моих родителей платье ее тети
телефон его отчима костюм моего мужа

ЕЕ Answer these questions:


1. W hat’s your best friend’s age?
2. Are you and your best friend the same age?
3. How old is your grandmother?
4. How old is your grandfather?
5. Who is a teenager?
6. Are first-year students mostly teenagers? H ow old are they?
7. How old were Romeo and Juliet?
8. When can a girl or a boy get married by law in Russia?
18 Essential Course

9 When do young people in Russia get then passports?


10. When do women retire in this country?
11 When do men retire in Russia?
12. What people are called tnins'l

EE Paraphrase the sentences using a different construction.


e.g. He isn’t seventeen yet. - He is under s e v e n te e n
1. She is not twenty yet 7. The girl is eighteen or nine­
2. He is a little over thirty. teen
3. My cousin and I are the 8. The woman is between forty
same age. and fifty.
4. She is over fifty 9. She is not eighteen yet
5. The boy is fifteen or sixteen 10 He is already eighteen.
6 He is almost seventy.

EE Translate into English:


i Он подросток, не гак ли? - 8. Ему только что исполни­
Д а, ему лет шестнадцать. лось двадцать.
2 Она только что стала со­ 9 Он мой брат-близнец.
вершеннолетней. 10 Ей далеко за сорок.
3 Ей иод шестьдесят 11 Вы близнецы? Да.
4. Ему больше двадцати. 12. Она моего возраста.
5 Мальчик еще несовершенно­ 13 Ты уже совершеннолетняя
летний. 14 Ей далеко за семьдесят.
6 Сколько лет старику? - Под 15 Сколько вам лет? Почти
девяносто. тридцать.
7. Сколько ей лет? - Она
средних лет

ЕЕ Make up a short talk with a partner about members of your family,


about their age.

EE Spell and transcribe the following words:


широкоплечий волнистый римский прямой
морщинистый орлиный греческий сутулый
веснушчатый каштановый красивый овальный
курносый розовый вздернутый свежий

ЕЕ Read the words and spell them without looking into the textbook or
a dictionary. Then check the spelling using a dictionary.
['Jeipli] |a:tjtl 1'дэо1й(эп)] IseG'letikl
I'wedabhtn] ['pensld] Iplaet]
['slantuj] [hokt] I'booni]
Unit I 19

СП Translate into English:


полные губы атлетическая фигура высокий лоб
свежии цвет лица золотистые локоны впалые щеки
тонкие брови красиво очерченный рот пухлое лицо
некрасивое лицо длинные ресницы густые брови
носик пуговкой глубоко посаженные глаза раскосые глаза

ЕЕ a) Read the following extracts and explain the difference between the
adjectives attractive, pretty, pood-looking, beautiful, hund\ome in Eng­
lish:
1 She was not beautiful but she was undeniably attractive. And the
cause o f that attraction lay in her abounding vitality.
2 “She is a pretty girl, isn’t she?” “Rather more than pretty.”
“Exactly. A s a matter o f fact, she’s uncommonly good-looking "
3. There was no doubt that Michael Garfield was a very beautiful
young man. Women could be beautiful, but Ilercule Poirot was
not at all sure that he liked beauty in men. He would not have
liked to be a beautiful young man himself. There was only one
thing about his own appearance which really pleased Hercule Poi­
rot, and that was the profusion o f his moustaches. They were
magnificent. He had never been handsome or good-looking.
4 For some peculiar reason Henry found himself trying to decide
that he was not good-looking. But the more he examined ■the
man’s features, the more he saw how uncommonly handsome he
really was.

b) Translate into English:


симпатичная девушка красивый мужчина
привлекательное лицо прекрасная фигура
привлекательные черты лица красивая женщина

ЕЕ Match the words in the left-hand column with their definitions in the
right-hand column:
1) efficient a) able to perform duties well
2) confident b) clever at deceiving people
3) generous c) able, clever at smth needing practical skill
4) loyal d) certain, sure
5) patient e) showing readiness to give money, help, kindness
6) considerate f) good-natured, taking life easily
7) sly g) cleverly amusing
8) easy-going h) true to one’s friends, country
9) capable i) thoughtful o f the rights or feelings of others
10) witty j) having the ability to wait for smth calmly
for a long time
Essential Course

EE Read and spell the words without looking in the textbook or a dic­
tionary. Then check them with a dictionary:
['konfidontl I'kwDrolsom] I'peijantl
l'd3enDi3s] ['s/Jon] [k ri'e itiv ]
[in'telid3 ont] f'aidl] ii'fijont]
[ri'laiDbl] [An'saofbl]

EE Translate into Russian:


a) creative person impatient gestures
quarrelsome woman rude w'ords
capable student sly old man
unreliable people efficient secretary
sullen face temperamental character
sensible ideas bad-tempered man

b) 1. lie is a very capable boy, isn't he?


2. We are confident of success
3. His chief says he is very efficient.
4. I’d like to have a loyal friend
5. I hope you are quite sensible.
6 The child is rather difficult.
7. He is difficult to get on with
8. We find her rather aloof.
9. He is a sly dog.
10. His remark is tactful, you shouldn’t be hurt
11. This news comes from a reliable source.
12. The girl is always considerate o f others.

m Describe these people using the active vocabulary of the unit:

a) b)
Unit 1 21

d)

EE Give full answers to these questions:


1. What do you do to keep fit9
2. What do people usually do to lose weight?
3 What do we do not to put on weight?
4. Are you on a slimming diet?
5. Who usually follows a slimming diet?
6. Which do you prefer: to wear your hair loose or to wear it in a
bun? Why?
7. Who usually wears a beard and a moustache?
8. Where do you have your hair cut or curled?
9 W hat do women do to look attractive?
10. W'hen do people usually look tired?
22 Essential Course

m Read the story as many times as you need and retell it in detail:

T YV I N S
Once there were two brothers who were identical twins. They
looked exactly alike. They both had the same curly dark brown hair,
blue eyes, and beautiful teeth. They were both exactly five feet ten
inches tall and both weighed exactly one hundred and fifty pounds
They not only looked alike but also sounded alike on the phone.
Not even their family could tell the difference They dressed alike,
listened to the same music, and read the same books. They even
laughed at the same jokes.
When they were twenty-three they both got married and a year
later both had sons. The years went by and they began to grow old,
they both wore glasses and eventually they both became bald
Then one day, one o f the brothers got sick and died. A few
days later a man stopped the other twin on the street.
“Excuse me for asking,” he said, “but was it you or your
brother who died9”

kTu Fill in the articles where necessary:


1 My father was ... painter - rather ... well-known painter Some
people say he was ... great painter.
2. Then there's Michael Weyman - he’s ... architect, quite young
and good-looking.
3. She is ... very rich woman, as I expect you know
4. He looked sharply a t ... wrinkled shrewd face o f Mr. Alfred Edmunds
5. She was rosy from the cold and looked, he thought, like glo­
rious eighteen-year-old girl.
6. He said you were ... very good ski teacher.
7. I had ... friend when I was ... young man, friend o f my own
age, ... magnificent skier.
8. “I’m going to ... bed. I’ve had ... long day ” He wasn't all that
tired. He just didn’t want to be in ... same room with Rudolph
9. It was ... modern little house, nicely built. It was on hill top,
and ... hill top was planted with ... few sparse pines
10. “D o I look like ... grandmother?” M aggy asked Darcy suddenly
“Y ou can never look like ... grandmother,” Darcy replied

EE Fill in the right words from the box.


a teacher o f physics, a weight-lifter, a director, a chemist (2 ), a composer, I
a writer (2), a manufacturer, a film actor, aw'eaver, a physicist, a doctor

1 Borodin became famous not as ... but as ... .


2. Einstein, a w'orld-known ..., is the author o f the Theory o f Relativity.
Unit I 23

3 Solzhenitsyn, a famous Russian used to be ...


4 Bulgakov, the author o f The W hile Guard, was ..., he had a
medical degree.
5. Before Stanislavsky became ... he was ...
6. The first woman astronaut Tereshkova began her career as ... in
the town o f Ivanovo
7. Yuri Vlasov used to be ... famous all over the world. N ow he is
a professional ... .
8. Ronald Reagan, the thirty-ninth President o f the USA, was ...
9. Margaret Thatcher, the former Prime Minister o f Great Britain,
is ... by profession.

TEXT-BASED ACTIVITIES
Before reading ihe te x t below be sure that yo u can pronounce the
follow ing words correctly:

acquaintances [o'kwemtonsiz] event li'vent]


adventure lod'ventja] expression iik'sprejn]
career [кэ'пэ] ironing I'aiomol
climbing 1'klaimirj] local i'bokolj
college ['коЫз] outing I'autnj]
complexion [kam'plekjn] polishing 1'pol.J.fjl
comprehensive i,kompn'hensiv] reporting |n'pa:ti[j]
detective fdi'tektiv | to graduate I'graedjueitj

FAMILY LIFE
John Parker is a b o u t fo rty , rather tall and w ell-b u ilt. H is
hair is light b ro w n , he has a h ealth y c o m p le x io n , and when
you look at him you are m et w ith a very kind exp ression He
is an E nglish teach er at th e local c o m p reh en siv e sc h o o l. H e has
a co u p le o f clo se friends and a lot o f a cq u a in ta n ces. H e plays
ten n is and g o lf every w eek en d , he likes read in g d etective and
ad ven tu re stories.
Joh n has a w ife and tw o teen a g e so n s. H is w ife’s nam e is
L ynn. She is slig h tly y o u n g er th an he a n d q u ite attractive.
L ynn is a h o u sew ife. She sp en d s a lot o f her day d o in g tasks
ab ou t th e house: the iron in g and th e w a sh in g , p o lish in g the
flo o r, w atering th e flo w ers, c o o k in g an d sh o p p in g . She is very
prou d o f her w on d erfu l c o lle c tio n o f p o tte d p lants.
24 Essential Course

J o h n ’s and L y n n ’s so n s are b oth at sc h o o l. T h ey are tw ins


and so alike that p e o p le fin d it d ifficu lt to tell o n e from the
other. T h e y are very n o isy , as all b o y s are. T h ey are fo n d o f
fo o tb a ll, clim b in g , fig h tin g an d p la y in g w ith their d o g , the
fam ily pet. N o w o n d er the h o u se is m uch q u ieter w hen they
arc at sc h o o l than w hen th ey are at h o m e. But o f cou rse the
p arents still lo v e their b o y s very m uch and h o p e they will have
en ou gh m o n ey to send b oth o f them to co lleg e.
J o h n ’s y o u n g er b roth er is called M ik e. H e is tw en ty-five,
taller than his elder b roth er, b r o a d -sh o u ld e r e d , g o o d -lo o k in g and
alw ays ready to have a g o o d lau gh. H e g rad u ated from univer­
sity last year. M ik e en jo y s rep ortin g an d h op es to m ake a ca ­
reer ou t o f jo u rn a lism . H e is still a b a c h e lo r and o ften stays
w ith his b ro th er’s fam ily at the w eek en d . H e is a very g o o d
tennis player.
D u rin g the h o lid a y s the fam ily likes to g o on o u tin g s. T his
u sually m ean s g o in g to th e th eatre, w a tch in g a local sp ortin g
event or a trip to the seasid e.

EE Find in the text English equivalents for the following:


послать учиться в колледж близкие друзья
отличить одного от другого гостить у
она гордится своей коллекцией на выходные
выбираться куда-нибудь из дома чуть моложе его
стать профессиональным журналистом много знакомых
детективные и приключенческие рассказы учиться в школе
тратит большую часть дня на домашние единая средняя школа
дела окончить университет
играть в гольф здоровый цвет лица

ЕЕ Answer these questions:


I Is John Parker about thirty or forty?
2. Is his hair dark or light brown?
3 What is the usual expression on his face'?
4. Is John Parker a teacher or a student?
5. Has John got many friends?
6. What does John like to do?
7. Is John married or single?
8. H ow does Lynn spend her day1?
9. What is she proud of?
10. Are their sons at school or at college?
Unit 1 25

11. Why aren’t their sons at college yet?


12. Why can’t people tell one o f their sons from the other?
13. Is there a dog in the Parkers’ house?
14 Who is Mike?
15. Mike is very serious, isn’t he?
16. What does Mike hope to do?
17. Is Mike married or single?
18. Is Mike good at tennis or at golf?
19. What do the Parkers usually do during the holidays?

EE Say if the phrases below are true or false.


If they arc false If they are true
correct them using the following: agree with them using the following:
• N o , you aren’t right. • Yes, it’s really so.
• I entirely disagree. • It’s true, 1 believe
• I don’t agree at all • I think you are right
• I’m afraid you’re mistaken. • I agree with you.
• It can’t possibly be true. • I can’t agree more.
1. John Parker is a stooping man o f sixty.
2. He is an English teacher at one o f the London colleges
3. John is keen on golf and tennis. -
4 Lynn doesn’t work.
5. Lynn has got a collection o f stamps which she is proud of.
6. John’s and Lynn’s sons are schoolboys.
7. The boys are quite active and energetic.
8. There is a cat in the Parkers’ house.
9. The parents want to send their boys to college.
10. Mike, John’s younger brother,isveryserious.
11. Mike hopes to make a career out o f painting.
12. Mike is still unmarried.
13. Mike is good at tennis.
14. The Parkers prefer to stay at home at weekends.

EE Paraphrase using the words and phrases from the text:


at the end o f every week they are almost the same in ap-
he looks at you with kind eyes pearance
plants growing in pots to be a little younger than .
she has a high opinion o f her to be a school pupil
collection to be less than forty
a man who has never been mar- to become a journalist/reporter
ried to distinguish between them
som e intimate friends to go on short pleasure trips
26 Essential Course

to get happiness from writing for to obtain a degree at a univer-


newspapers sit у
to make the floor shine to pour water on flowers

EE Look at the picture and ask questions about the family relations of
the Parkers.
eg W ho is John Parker married to? When were the twins bom?

f
f
j Jam es Parker
b. 1927 I
\ m. 1950 7

I f (nee Brown)
X b 1925
Unit I 27

EE Find words and phrases in the text that describe: a)people's appear­
ance, b) character, c) fainilx relations, d) occupation, e)interests,
hobbies. Write them out in your workbook.

EE Search the text for the arguments in favour of the following state­
ments:
1. The Parkers are a close family.
2. I.ynn is a good housewife.
3 The twin brothers are very noisy as all boys are.
4 Mike often stays with his brother’s family.
5. They go on as many outings together as possible.

EE One of you is Mr. Parker. Ask him questions about his family.

a) Look at the table and remember:


tennis, golf, football, volleyball, basketball, baseball
badminton, cards, lotto, dom inoes, chess, etc.

hide-and-seek, tag, forfeits, blind-m an’s-buff


TO PLAY
with a ball, with a doll, with a dog, with a cat

the piano, the violin, the guitar, the accordion, the


trumpet, the flute, the drum, etc

b) Tell the class what games you liked to plaj when you were a child,
what games you prefer now, what games you’d like to learn to play.

c) What musical instruments do you like? Which instruments can you


play? Which would you like to learn to play?

ED Retell the text “Family I.ife" in the person of a) Mr. Parker, b) Mrs. Par­
ker, c) Mike, d) one of the twins.

m Speak about your own family illustrating your story with photos of
the members of your family.

EE Fill in prepositions where necessary.


1. My sister-in-law is a music teacher ... the local school
2. John likes to go ... the local bar ... a pint ... beer.
3. “Time o f f ’ is the time ... work and ... weekends.
4 Lots ... British people go . organized outings ... popular resorts
like Brighton or Blackpool.
5. Coaches full ... pensioners or ... factory workers drive the
coast a day out
28 Essential Course

6 N ot everybody ... Britain is interested ... sport or ... outings.


7. Very often John took Mary ... little trips, sometimes ... an after­
noon, sometimes ... a day or even ... a whole weekend.
8. She thinks that it’s not absolutely necessary... every man to go ...
college and become a lawyer
9. Holiday-makers bring a picnic lunch ... them, and they can buy
ice-cream ... the ice-cream van, tea ... the refreshment kiosk and
drinks ... the pub.
10. The doctor was proud ... his son whose picture ... uniform ... a
medal ... his chest had been published ... the local paper

EE Change the sentences as in the model.


Model: It is difficult for people to tell one brother from the other
People find it difficult to tell one brother from the other

1 John thinks it is nice to have a lot o f acquaintances.


2. He says that it is useless to teach his teenage sons music
3. Lynn says it is hard to do all the work about the house.
4. Dick says it is interesting to play hide-and-seek.
5. Tom thinks it is boring to play the violin
6. Mike says it is possible to make a career out o f journalism.
7. John says it is difficult to teach English at school
8. Lynn thinks it is interesting to collect potted plants
9. Mike says it is early for him to get married.
10. The Parkers say it is pleasant to go on an outing at the weekend.

EE Choose the right word. Use either couple or pair.


Remember • A set o f two things like stockings is a pair.
• Anything made in two parts like scissors or spectacles is
also a pair.
• A husband and wife are spoken o f as a couple.
• Any two things o f the same kind can be spoken o f as
a couple', a couple o f dogs, but pair means a closer
joining: a pair o f criminals have been working together, a
pair o f houses are joined together.
(From: The Longman Dictionary o f Contemporary English)

1 I’ve got a ... o f questions to ask.


2. This ... o f gloves will be a nice birthday presentfor Sylvia.
3. The married ... looks rather sympathetic.
4. “Stand in ...,” said the instructor.
5. lie promised to come in a ... o f minutes.
6. In the plain white box was a ... o f lovely earrings.
Unit I 29

7. After the wedding most ... go away for a short holiday - the
honeymoon.
8. There were plenty o f snowshoes hung from nails in the equip­
ment shed, and Jack found a ... to fit each o f them, although
Danny’s ... was quite a bit outsized.
9. Any newly married ... could settle in the N ew Town.
10. I’ve found a ... o f socks, but they don ’t make a ... .

EE Make up sentences as in the model, using the given phrases. Pay


special attention to the place of enough in the sentences.
Model: They don’t have enough money to send their children to college
to play golf to collect potted plants
to work about thehouse to go on an outing
to play hide-and-seek to read adventure stories
to go to the theatre to go on a seaside trip
to make a career to polish the floor
to water the flowers

m Make up sentences as in the model using the given adjectives. Pay


special attention to the place of enough in the sentences.
M odel Mike is capable enough to make a career out o f journalism.
attractive hard-working creative sly
efficient good-natured easy-going witty
energetic generous tactful tall
considerate confident friendly

EE Fill in articles where necessary:


I I want to marry you, Tracy. Y o u ’ll make ... wonderful wife.
2. Y ou ’re ... artist. You must be proud o f yourself; you can't help
being.
3. Excuse me speaking to you. I’m ... professional sculptor, and to
put it frankly, your head is just what I have been looking for.
4 She'll make ... wonderful grandmother.
5 Me thought o f becoming ... lawyer, and he was briefly ... student
at ... Warsaw University, but was soon involved in ... politics.
6. But he was ... competent scientist and his interests were wide.
7. I had to look up ... name o f consultant surgeon who -w as
giving evidence for ... defence
8. Everyone I’ve spoken to respected Dr Lorrimer as . forensic bio­
logist. But what was he like as ... man?
9. It’s ... dirty lie about Pandora’s father being ... milkman. He is
... accountant at .. dairy.
30 Essential Course

10. Jordache had ... appearance o f ... sick man.


11. Pandora lias ... hair ... colour o f treacle, and it’s long like
girls’ hair should be. She has quite ... good figure
12. ... lawyer was ... old man, but straight and as impressive as his
surroundings.

m Translate into English:


1 Он достаточно умен, чтобы понять поведение своего отчима.
2. У нее достаточно времени, чтобы постирать и погладить
3 Он женат? Нет, он старый холостяк
4. Мальчик очень гордится своим отцом-летчиком
5. Вы любите детективные истории? Очень, но у меня не хва­
тает времени их читать.
6. Они так похожи, что даже их родители с трудом отличают
их друг от друга.
7. Я бы хотела купить пару перчаток.
8. У нас достаточно денег, чтобы послать нашего старшего сына
в университет. Он способный юноша.
9. Этот человек очень остроумен и всегда готов пошутить.
10. В субботу и воскресенье я часто гощу в семье своей старшей
сестры,
11 Она предпочитает вечерами выбираться из дома
12. Принесите мне пару бутербродов и стакан молока.
13. Хотя ей уже 14-15 лет, она все еще играет в куклы.
14 Я умею играть на скрипке и надеюсь сделать карьерумузыканта.
15. Давайте играть в фанты. Нет, давайте поиграем в жмурки
Перестаньте, мы не дети. Сыграем в лото или в карты.

ЕЕ а) Read and memorize the following phrases with do and make:


to do
(the) shopping to make a copy
to do(the) washing to make a fortune
to do
(the) washing up to make a mess o f smth
to do
a job to make a mistake
to do
an exercise to make a will
to do
an examination, a test to make friends (with smb)
to do
good to make money
to do
harm, evil, bad to make progress
to do
lessons to make sense
to do
one’s best to make sure
to do
one’s duty to make fun o f smb
to one’s hair
do to make trouble
to work (homework,
do to make a dress (a cake, cof­
housework, e t c ) fee, etc )
to do a translation (or to make it)
Unit I 31

b) Match the phrases in the left-hand column with their definitions in


the right-hand column:
to make a fortune to tidy a bed that has just been slept in
to make a mess (ol to earn money
to make fun o f sm to worry smb, to cause anxiety to smb
to make a noise to become wealthy
to make money to find out for certain
to make trouble to produce an unpleasant sound
to make sure to laugh rather unkindly at smb
to make a bed to spoil

c) Make up and write down your own sentences with the phrases from
the left column.

EE a) Rewrite the following sentences using phrases with make or Jo,


instead of the italicized phrases:
I lie has gone fo rw a rd in his French during the last few weeks
2. I have forgotten to write m y homework.
3 You are laughing at m e!
4 lie has got m any wrong words in this exercise.
5. Can you prepare good coffeel

b) Fill in the right terb (to make or to Jo):


1. She is a teacher, so she has preparation and correction to ...
2. lie spends a lot o f his time o ff on ...-it-yourself jobs.
3. At night mother had some dress-, mg to ... .
4. Ellen, where is Mike? H e’s . ing the washing up, it’shis turn
today.
5. Nowadays the child is given freedom to his own decisions in life

c) Translate into English using the phrases with to make and to Jo:
1. Кто занимается покупками у вас в семье?
2. Мой с ы н тратит большую часть дня на приготовление уроков
3 Сделай копию с этого текста, он тебе пригодится.
4. Его единственное желание - разбогатеть
5 От этого человека всегда одни неприятности и беспокойство
6. Мой племянник хочет поехать к морю, чтобы хорошо отдохнуть
7. Эта фраза бессмысленна
8 Каждое утро он сам готовит себе кофе
9. Этот студент изо всех сил старается добиться успехов в грам-
матике.
32 Essential Course

10. Дедушка хочет составить завещание? - Я думаю , он его уже


составил.
11. Мальчик исполняет свои обязанности аккуратно и охотно
12. Причешись, иначе все будут смеяться над тобой.
13. Не делайте зла никому, а то наживете врагов.
14 Она любит готовить, стирать и гладить.
15. Я очень не люблю мыть посуду.

Fill in prepositions where necessary:


1. You know, Lydia, the old man is very fond you.
2. They’re usually young people, my tenants, and I like to sec them
enjoy ... life.
3. What was her age now? I wondered. She must be . her late
thirties. She was one .. the millions ... women who were devoted
... their parents ... the prime ... their life and then ... the end
were left lonely.
4. He had come .. Whitby because his captain had graduated ... the
school and recommended ... him ... the Dean o f Admission
5. N one ... the teachers ... school have noticed that I am an intel­
lectual. They will be sorry w'hen I am famous. There is a new
girl ... our class. She sits next ... me ... Geography. She is all
right. Her name is Pandora, but she likes being called ‘ B ox”.
D o n ’t ask me why. I might fall ... love ... her It’s time I fell ...
love, as all I am more than thirteen years old.
6. This school w'as a pleasant institution ... which I was sent
fourteen ... my father
7. I washed and ironed my school uniform ready ... school tomor­
row. I am getting quite good ... housework.
8. Daniel was always ... the head ... his class ... school. He wanted
his mother to be proud ... him.
9. She found it difficult to be fond ... the two children They had
both taken .,. their father ... looks.
10. Emily Arundell looked ... her com panion .. mingled affection and
contempt.
11. I am going to stay ... my English relations.
12 Quietly, ... saying anything, his wife, Hilda, watched ... him.

EE Read the advertisement from a British newspaper. Do you find this


idea of earning money attractive? Why? Would you like to take up
this kind of job? Why?
Unit I 33

AGED 1 3 -9 3 ?
WANT TO EARN EXTRA MONEY?
By w orking 1-2 hours per week you can earn extra
money by delivering our papers and leaflets in your
local area.
This jo b is very suitable for teenagers, students,
m others, senior citizens, etc. In fact anyone with
time to spare.
Simply telephone our Distribution Hotline or write to:
THE AREA CONTROLLER,
115 k e n t o n l a n e . T elephone: 2859404 or
Ne w c a s t l e M iddlesbrough 232204

Nam e ..

Address

Tel.
34 Essential Course

SP EAKIN G PRACTICE
Before reading the dialogue below m ake sure that y o u can pronounce
the follow ing words correctly:
average ['aevoridsl medium I'mkdiam] height [hait]
checked [tfekt] cowboy ['kauboil weight |weit]
length [lerjG] plaid [plaed]

AT THE POLICE STATION


( Ame r i c a n po l i c e ma n at wor k)

P o lic em a n Y o u say h e w as a rou n d a v era g e height


V ictim . Y e s, th a t’s right. A r o u n d fiv e nine, five ten.
P o licem a n : W eight?
V ictim I’m not sure. M ed iu m , I su p p o se M a y b e a little
o n the h ea v y side.
P o licem a n : A n y m arks on his face?
V ic tim : N o , 1 d o n ’t think so.
P o lice m a n G lasses?
V ic tim N o.
P o lic e m a n : W hat a b o u t h is hair?
V ictim Black or dark brow n.
P o licem a n L o n g or short? Straight? Curly?
V ictim Straight, 1 th in k , and ab ou t average length
P o licem a n B o y , this sure d o e s n ’t h elp us very m uch 11
co u ld be a n y th in g . I low' a b o u t his clothes? W hat
w as he w earing?
V ictim . W ell, he had a ch eck ed or plaid shirt - you
k n o w , th e kind that lum berjack s w ear
P o licem a n : O .K . N o w w e ’re g ettin g so m ew h ere. Pants?
V ictim . D a rk , m ayb e dark b lu e, m a y b e black I’m not
sure.
P o lice m a n W hat kind o f shoes?
V ictim B o o ts.
P o licem a n C ow 'boy b o o ts?
V ictim : N o , hikin g b o o ts - b row n o n es.
P o licem a n A ll right, that narrow s it dourn a little. N o w I
w ant y o u to look at so m e pictures.
(From: Person to Person by Jack С Richards and David Bycina)
Unit I 35

EE Kind the English equivalents for the following:


во что on был одет лакая, какую обычно носят ле­
ну, это уже кое-что сорубы
примерно 5 футов 9 дюймов чуть полноватый
примерно средней длины это немного сужает круг подоз­
рубашка в крупную клетку реваемых
рубашка в мелкую клетку

ш Read the text “At the Police Station” and (ill in the identification
form without looking at the text.

Date
Name of witness
Address Tel. No
Crime
Articles stolen

Details o f suspect
Sev male female
Age under IS 20-25 26-55 36-50 over 50
Height under 150 cms 150-160 cms 161-170 cms
ISO-190 cms 191 cms - 2 metres over 2 metres
Build fat well-built medium-built slim thin
Hair black dark fair blond grey any other colour
Hairstyle long short curly wavy straight bald

Eyes blue grey brown any other colour


Description
of clothes
Any other de­
tails (beard.
moustache,
glasses)
36 Essential Course

m Describe the criminal’s appearance using the identification form you’ve


filled in.

m You are (he victim. Tell your friends what happened to you and how
you gave evidence at thepolice station

m The victim has come home and is talking to his wife about what
happened to him. Here are some sympathetic remarks to be used by
the wife:
- Oh, John, that’s awful! - Oh, how dreadful/awful/ghastly!
- I am ever so sorry. - Poor old you!
- Oh no! Oh dear! Hard luck! / - What a shame!

EB Pairwork. Make up a conversation between a policeman and a victim


who was attacked in the street. The rest of the students should fill
in the identification form.

m Translate into English.


1. Мне кажется, он среднего роста. - Ты не прав, он довольно
высокий, немного полноват.
2. Она носит очки? - Нет.
3 Волосы у него светлые, а цвет лица довольно смуглый.
4. У нее прямые или кудрявые волосы? Кажется, прямые,
средней длины.
5. Во что был одет мужчина? - На нем были черные брюки,
рубашка в крупную клетку, ковбойские ботинки.
6. Рост преступника более двух метров. Он хорош о сложен, ши­
рокоплеч. У него темно-голубые глаза, черные волнистые во­
лосы. Когда вы смотрите на него, вы встречаете добрый
взгляд. Не могу поверить, что он преступник.
7. Я хочу, чтобы вы взглянули на эту фотографию. - Боже мой!
Это она! Вы видите эти глубоко посаженные маленькие глаз­
ки? Эти поджатые губы? Она очень хитрая, я ее боюсь
8. Я помню, на нем были очки. - Э то, к сожалению, нам не
очень помогает. Сотни людей носят очки. - Он был с длин­
ной седой бородой. - Ну, это уже кое-что. У него были усы?
- Простите, я не помню.
9. Если вы полицейский, вы должны быть терпеливы и внима­
тельны к людям.
10. Он покладистый, вы с ним подружитесь.
Unit I 37

ЕЯ The following task deals with similes. A simile is the reference to a


thing or person with a specific comparison to something else,
eg Their house is as big as a castle,
or His hair is as white as snow.
There arc a lot of similes which have become cliches. Can you match
the pairs from both columns?
As dead as —. a sandboy
As blind as \ a whistle
As sober as \ a pancake
As ugly as \ a hatter
As pretty as a bat
As safe as \ a mule
As good as \ a mouse
As stubborn as \. a judge
As mad as *■ a dodo
As quiet as a picture
As clean as a lord
As straight as a kite
As old as an arrow
As pleased as the ace o f spades
As happy as two short planks
As drunk as houses
As easy as sin
As dull as gold
As thick as Punch
As high as pie
As flat as the hills
A s black as ditchwater

m Fill in the blanks using the words from the box:

humour, cautious, self-confident, brave, friendly, patient, sociable,


self-confidence, patience, polite, honest, obedient, kind, generous

1. Bill is willing to suffer pain and danger if it helps someone. He


is a ... person
2. Jane always thinks about things carefully before she does any­
thing. She is ... .
3. Jack tries to be pleasant and helpful to people He is a ...p erso n .
4. John is alw'ays willing to give money and presents to other peo­
ple. He is ...
5. Susan helps people and wants to make them happy. She is a ... girl.
6. Tom doesn't steal and doesn’t tell lies. He is ... .
7. Mary always does what her teacher tells her to do. She is ... .
38 Essential Course

8. Margaret is willing to do things which take a long time, or wait


for things without getting angry. She is ... .
9. Carol always says “please” and “thank you”. She is ... .
10. Fred is sure he can do the things he tries to do, and thinks he
is right. He is ... .
11. Rill likes to be with other people and talk to other people. He is
a ... person.
12. Judy likes jokes and can make people laugh. She has a sense
o f ... .
13. Jim has plenty o f ... . He is very ... .
14. He has a lot o f ... . He is very ... .

m What sort of abilities and characteristics do you think the following


people should have:
farmer politician soldier pilot secretary
mother shop-assistant student teacher

m Fin in prepositions where necessary:


1. He was a tall, grey-haired man ... his early forties.
2. When Teddy was twenty-two, he graduated ... Oxford ...a degree ...
chemistry.
3. She says I could stay ... her house ... the holidays.
4. Nigel has asked me to go ... a disco ... the youth club ... tomor­
row night.
5. So many ... these good secretaries arc ... love ... their boss.
6. She went on: “Extraordinary how they can't tell their left their
right.”
7. But I am keen ... my profession.
8. I’ve never been good ... doing things.
9. Meals ... her house always had the charm ... picnics.
10. Tiny and curly-haired, Casey, ... twenty-five, was older than
Fauve ... several years.

m Fill in articles where necessary:


1. It was dark by ... time they got out o f ... building.
2. Upstairs, Mary was waiting for ... coffee to boil.
3. There were ... sounds from ... kitchen now and she went into ...
Billy’s room to wake him.
4. He took ... quick step towards her.
5. H asn’t it ever occurred to you that I like doctoring - that it’s ...
pleasure, not ... sacrifice!
6. John doesn’t want to get ... divorce from his wife.
7. I had ... long talk with Mr. Dock I explained thatI was ...
one-parent-family child with ... unemployed, bad-tempered father.
Unit I 39

8. Someone had just brought ... large bowl o f ...apples into ... room.
9. He looked like ... young boy from ... nice Middle Western col­
lege, with ... crew-cut hair, ... straight nose, ... blue eyes and ..
easy laugh.
10 We’ve been living ail this afternoon in ... past ... past is some­
times ... very good place to live.

Щ Read and translate the sentences paying special attention to the


phrases to be married, to get married, to marry:
1. She was going to H ollyw ood, and she loved John, and John
must m arry her and come too.
2. He had asked his second cousin, Linda Smith, three times to
marry him.
3. I admit that I deliberately influenced her to accept him If it had
turned out badly it would have been my fault for urging her to
marry a man so many years older than herself.
4. I in married. I’ve got children. - I 'm m arried myself at the moment.
5 “ I got m arried three months ago,” Michael said, feeling that was
enough reason for any absence.
6. I was engaged to be married. They said we must wait that we
couldn’t be m arried until I was twenty-one.
7. She Ivor married to Philipe Dalm as and living in Paris.

m a) Choose ten most important qualities of parents from those listed


"below. You can complete the list. Then choose five least important
-qualities. Explain your choice.
What Makes a Good Parent?
A Good som eone who gives you freedom
Parent som eone who doesn’t have favourites
Should som eone who is always there
Be som eone who is supportive
som eone who speaks to you as an equal
som eone who is responsible
someone who is affectionate
som eone who is truthful
som eone who is understanding
som eone who has similar political views
som eone prepared to make sacrifices
som eone tolerant
som eone who maintains order
som eone who is broad-minded
som eone not interfering
som eone you can talk to
som eone considerate
40 Essential Course

som eone who doesn’t hide bad things


som eone who respects you
som eone patient
som eone who can talk to you, not at you
som eone who takes your side
som eone not over-protective
som eone kind
som eone reliable
som eone helpful
som eone who sets standards
som eone not too strict
som eone loving
som eone who listens to your problems
som eone with a sense o f humour
someone safety-conscious
som eone who tries to give you a balanced view o f life
b) Make up a list of qualities making I) a good child. 2) a good friend
c) Write a paragraph about your parcnt(s).
d) Speak about your friend. Use the phrases given above.

m Translate into English:


1. Некоторые дети думают, что их родители слишком строгие, а
другие считают, что их матери и отцы недостаточно строги.
2. Она очень самоуверенна, а ее сестра недостаточно уверена в себе
3. Учителю необходимо иметь чувство юмора, это помогает в
трудных ситуациях
4 Девочка упряма как мул.
5. Он вполне разумный человек, не так ли?
6. С вами трудно ужиться.
7 Мой секретарь исполнительна, с высоким чувством ответ­
ственности.
8. Мужчины не любят сварливых женщин.
9 Ваше замечание невежливо и бестактно.
10. Ваш приятель остроумен, но слишком импульсивен, я устаю
от него.
11 Боб хочет иметь верного друга, но не умеет его найти
12. Она трудный ребенок, учителя ее не очень любят
13. В этом классе много ленивых ребят, а девочки довольно тру-
долюбивыс.
14 Он обычно наживает врагов из-за своего недружелюбного ха­
рактера.
15. Творческие люди обыкновенно щедры, добродуш ны , иногда
нетерпеливы, часто рассеянны.
Unit 1 41

ш a) Read (he dialogue with a partner.


Mr Grey: Haven’t we met before somewhere9
Mrs. Johnson: Have we?
Mr. Grey: I used to live in K ingston, in Summer Road The
house on the corner.
Mrs. Johnson: I used to live there. But that was 50 years ago
Mr Grey: You haven’t changed much f knew it was you.
Mrs. Johnson: Wait a minute! You gave me som e flowers one day
Mr Grey: But you already had a boyfriend.
Mrs. Johnson: We got married in 1934 But I’m a widow now. O f
course, I’ve got two sons and a daughter, all mar­
ried And six grandchildren.
Mr Grey: Ethel Brown! After all these years!
Mrs. Johnson. Years aren’t important W e’re as young as we want
to be I enjoy life. D o you go to any classes? It’s
always a good idea to start som ething new
Mr. Grey: That’s right.

b) Act out the dialogue.


c) Present the dialogue as a story “After 50 Years”. Use indirect
speech. Begin your story with:
“Two elderly people meet accidentally. The man whose name is
Mr. Grey wonders/asks/wants to know if they have met before. Ethel
Johnson (nee Brown) is surprised to hear it, because she can’t re­
member Mr. Grey ...”.
Write down your story.

d) Make up and write down sentences of your own with the phrases:
to get married, to marry smb; to be married to smb; to be un­
married; to be married with (three) children; to be engaged to be
married

EE a) Read and translate the text:


Children aren't happy with
nothing to ignore
And that’s what parents
were created for
Ogden Nash (1902-1971)
Relationships within the family are different now. Parents treat
their children more as equals than they used to, and children have
more freedom to make their own decisions. The father is more in­
volved with bringing up children, often because the mother goes out
to work. Increased leisure facilities and more money mean that there
42 Essential Course

arc greater opportunities for the individual to take part in activities


outside the home. Although the family holiday is still an important
part o f family life (usually taken in August, and often abroad) many
children have holidays away from their parents, often with a school
party or other organized group
(From: Spotlight on Britain by Susan Sheerin, Jonathan Seath. Gillian White)

h) Work in groups and decide if the problems of relationships within the


British family are the same as in this country. Choose one person in
each group to present your collective opinion. Compare the opinions.

c) The hook “Spotlight on Britain” says:


“People say that children today grow up more quickly. The law
sometimes makes this possible. Look at the information below how
is the law different in your country?”

So look at the table reprinted from that book and answer the ques­
tions above:

YOUNG PEO PLE A N D THE LAW

A g e 13 - m ay be em ployed part-tim e
A g e 14 - allowed in bars but not to drink alcohol
A g e 15 - legally 'a young person' and not ‘a child'
A g e 16 - school leaving age, can leave home, drive a
moped, m arry with paren ts' consent (not
needed in Scotland), buy beer with a meal
A ge 17 - can drive a car or m otorbike
A ge 18 - age o f m ajority - can vote, get married
without p a ren ts' consent, own properly, get
tattooed, drink in pubs
UNIT II

My home is my castle.
(English proverb)

HOUSE AND H O ME
G R A M M A R EXERCISES
Before you start doing the exercises m ake sure that yo u remember
how to handle:

• th e c o n s tr u c tio n th e r e is /a r e ,
e g . There is a street in M oscow which has only one house
T here are a lot o f many-storeyed buildings in the centre o f
M oscow.
There is a table and three stools in the kitchen, isn’t there9
There are three stools and a table in the kitchen, aren’t
there?
Is there any sofa in the drawing-room?
Aren’t there any English books in the library?
There arc no books in the study, arc there?
t here aren't any desks in the classroom.
There isn’t a baby’s room in the flat

• the P resen t I n d e fin ite T ense,


eg I live at 28, Adams Street
The British Prime Minister lives at 10, D ow ning Street
She usually gets up at seven o ’clock, doesn’t she?
He doesn’t usually g el up early, docs he?
Water freezes at zero.
Water doesn’t freeze at 20° above zero.
D o they ever go to the theatre?
Does the earth turn round the sun?

• th e P r e se n t C o n tin u o u s T en se,
e.g. I’m studying Unit IF in the textbook.
You are buying a house, aren’t you?
44 Essential Course

You aren’t watching TV now, are you?


What is he doing?
He is cleaning the carpet in the bedroom
We arc arranging the furniture in the kitchen at the moment.
Arc you learning English?
Is he having a class now?
They are going to buy a new flat.
Look at the clouds. It’s going to rain.

• the F u tu re I n d e fin ite T e n s e ,


e.g. I shall/will describe my house to you.
You will sec the cottage in the distance.
Will you go to the seaside next year?
He will do his homework tomorrow morning, w on’t he?
They w on’t have any visitors on Saturday, wjl] they?

Q Use the constructions there is, there are instead of the blanks:
1. There ... a lot o f new blocks o f flats on the outskirts o f Moscow.
2. There ... no teacher o f French in the school at the moment.
3. ... there boys in their family? - N o , there ... only girls.
4. There ... a great deal o f noise in the next room. There ... chil­
dren there.
5. There ... some milk in the cup. Drink it up.
6. There ... a little bread on the plate, cat it up if you like.
7. There ... a lot o f first-year students in the lecture room
8. There ... little salt in the soup, add som e more.
9. There ... few chairs in the classroom, bring a few more from the
next room.
10. ... there any sugar in the coffee? - N o , there ... not. 1 like my
coffee without sugar.
11. ... there any new cottages in this area? Y es, there ... .
12. ... there a garage in your yard? - Y es, there ..., but there ... no
car there.
13. There ... a few mistakes in your test.
14. There ... little information on this town in the guide-book
15. There ... few' mistakes in your dictation this time, I’m glad for
you.
16. There ... no news about the missing bag yet.
17. There ... a little ice-cream left in the fridge. Have some if you
like.
18. There ... som e tents on the lawn. There ... no people in them.
19. There ... a big house on the corner o f this street, you ’ll see it at
once.
20. There ... a few fruit trees in their old garden.
Unit II 45

2 a) Make up and write down some questions. Follow the model.

M odel: My sister Jane usually gets up at 6 o ’clock.


Does she get up at 6 o ’clock on Sunday?
Does she go to work early?
Why does she get up at 6 o ’clock?

1. Michael plays the piano. {How well . ? H ow often ...? Where . .?


... enjoy playing the piano?)
2. Lily’s parents often go to Africa. {How often ..? Do ... summer?
What part o f A frica ... go to? Do ... A m erica7)
3. Nelly sells som e nice pictures. {W hat k in d o f pictures ...? . other
things'?)
4. Her students write two tests a month. {W hy ...? What kind o f
tests ...?)
5. I speak three languages. {W hat ..? How well ...?)
6. Mary goes to evening classes. {IIow often ...? W hy ...?)

b) Let your fellow students answer the questions in (a).

0 Open the brackets using the Present Indefinite or the Present Con­
tinuous Tense:
1. I {to live) at 12, Oxford Street. Where you {to live)?
2. Her house {to he) situated in a side street.
3. -What you {to do) at the moment? - We {to move) to a new flat.
4. How often you {to go) to evening classes?
5. Where her cottage (to be) situated? - On the bank o f the M osk­
va River.
6. My mother always (to clean) the flat in the morning.
7. What they (to do) now? - They (to arrange) the furniture in then
new flat.
8. It (to be) seven o ’clock in the morning. Mary (to m ake) herbed.
9. She (to buy) a car next week.
10. They (to work) from early morning till late at night every day,
they (to want) to finish o ff the task as soon as possible.
11. Who usually (to do) the cooking in your family? - My mother
(to do). But today I (to go) to do it, mother (not to feel) well
12. You often (to go) to the country? - N o , we (not to go). Only
when we (to have) time.
13. She (to gel married) tomorrow.
14. What (to be) there behind the house? - There (to be) a big gar­
den there.
15. Who (to like) to play the piano?
16. The boy (to have) breakfast now? - N o , he (to do) his home­
work .
46 Essential Course

Д Read (he following text. It will help you use the verbs shall and will
in the right way.

Y OU CAN R ELAX
Once upon a time a good deal o f fuss was made about whcthet
to use shall or will. It was even necessary to anticipate the reply and
ask, “Shall you be at the theatre tonight?" because the expected an­
swer would be, “ I shall (or shall not)”.
Today will is the verb permissible in all cases except when a
threat, warning or prohibition is expressed. For example, “The dem­
onstration SHALI. not take place on the Capitol steps” means that
the protesters are warned against using the Capitol steps for then
demonstration. (WILL in this sentence would mean that the demon­
strators do not plan to use the Capitol steps.) N ote that most o f the
Commandments begin with “Thou shalt not”. “Thou shalt not kill” is a
prohibition. “Thou wilt not kill” is an expression o f faith and hope
You can relax even more with should and would. The use o f ‘ I
should like” or “I should prefer” is rarely heard N ot one person in
a hundred knows what the difference between should or would is and
not one in a thousand cares.

2 Say what you are going to do at the weekend using go inf; to.

Q How do you think life will change in the twenty-first century?

VOCABULARY
Read the vocabulary list and get ready to do the exercises that follow it

Where is your house situated? - Где расположен ваш дом?


What is it like? - Какой он?

T hese words will help you describe your house:

address - адрес on the top floor - на верхнем


on the ground floor - на первом этаже
этаже off the main road в стороне от
in the suburbs и пригороде главной магистрали
on the first floor - на втором stairs - лестница
этаже not far from - недалеко от .
on the main road на главной upstairs/downstairs вверху/внизу
магистрали a long way from - далеко от
Unit II 47

landing - лестничная площадка orchard - фруктовый сад


in a side strccl - на боковой vegetable garden - огород
улице kitchen garden - огород (выращи­
balcony - балкон вание овощей для своей кухни)
on the outskirts o f на окраине market garden - огород (выращи­
terrace - терраса вание овощей для продаж и на
storey - этаж рынке)
roof - крыша lawn газон
two-storey(ed) house - двухэтаж­ gate(s) - калитка, ворота
ный дом wall стена
attic - чердак fence - забор
cellar - подвал hedge - живая изгородь
yard - двор wire netting - проволочная сетка
garden - сад garage гараж

W hat rooms are there in your flat?

thrce-room(ed) flat - трехкомнат­ sitting-room - гостиная


ная квартира living-rcю т /drawing-room гости на я
bedroom - спальня hall/entrance hall холл
bed-sitting-room/bed-sitter - жилая (прихожая)
комната (спальня и гостиная bathroom - ванная
вместе) study - кабинет
kitchen - кухня toilet туалет
dining-room - столовая nursery, baby’s room - детская

b e t’s furnish your flat.


W hat pieces o f furniture do you need?

table (round, square, oval) - стол dressing-table - туалетный столик


(круглый, квадратный, оваль­ с зеркалом
ный) coffee-table низкий столик (е
high-back chair - стул с высокой гостиной)
спинкой bed кровать
kitchen table - кухонный стол divan-bed диван-кровать
stool - табурет single/double bed - односпальная/
dressing-stool - пуфик у туалет­ двуспальная кровать
ного столика writing-table - письменный стол
dining-room table обеденный стол chair - стул
sofa - диван armchair кресло
cupboard - шкаф, буфет wardrobe платяной шкаф
48 Essential Course

built-in cupboard - встроенный (wall) unit(s) - стенка (мебельная)


шкаф a suite/set of furniture мебель­
easy chair мягкое кресло ный гарнитур
rocking-chair - кресло-качалка bookcase - книжный шкаф
high chair высокий детский bookshelf/shelves - книжная пол-
стульчик ка/полки
sideboard - сервант; буфет chest o f drawers - комод

In what way will you arrange furniture in your flat?

011 the left/right - слева/справа opposite smth - напротив чего-л.


in the left/right hand corner - в in front o f smth - перед чем-л.
левом/правом углу next to smth - рядом с чем-л.
to the left/right of smth - налево/ behind smth - позади чего-л.
направо от ... against smth - у; рядом с чем-л.
in the middle of smth - в середи­ at smth - около; у
не чего-л. by smth - рядом, возле

These words will help you describe your room in detail:

curtain(s) - занавеска, -ки wallpaper обои


carpet - ковер bed-cover покрывало (на кровать)
table-cloth - скатерть wall bracket/lamp - бра
mirror - зеркало fireplace камин
standard lamp - торшер cushion - подушка (диванная)
rug - коврик chandelier люстра
wipe-clean tablecloth - клеенка mantelpiece - каминная полка

M odern conveniences and household goods


people can have in their houses.

running (cold and hot) water electric fire электрокамин


водопровод gas - газ
rubbish chute мусоропровод vacuum-cleaner (vac) пылесос
colour IT-set - цветной телевизор cassette-recorder - кассетный
hi-fi system - стереосистема магнитофон
central heating - центральное electricity - электричество
отопление toaster - тостер
refrigerator (fridge) - холодильник electric mixer - электрический
radio-set - радиоприемник миксер
Unit 11 49

washing-machine - стиральная dishwasher - посудомоечная ма­


машина шина
video - видеомагнитофон lift - лифт
telephone - телефон CD player - проигрыватель
sewing-machine - швейная машина компакт-дисков
gas/electric cooker газовая/эле­ microwave oven микроволновая
ктрическая плита печь
vidco-player - видеоплеер

EXERCISES
Q Ask your partner to give his/her address.
Model: A. W hat’s your address? (Where do you live?)
В. I live at 45, Adams Street. (My address is Flat I, 36,
Green Street.)
A Is it in the centre or on the outskirts?
B. On the outskirts.

2 Answer the following questions:


1. D o you live a long way from the centre? Y ou don’t live along
way from the centre, do you?
2. Ig your house on the main road or o ff the main road?
3. Your house is in a side street, isn’t it?
4. Are there many new houses on the outskirts o f Moscow?
5. How many storeys arc there in your house?
6. D o you live on the ground floor or on the top floor?
7. D o you prefer living on the ground floor or on anupper floor?
8. How many flats are there on your landing?
9. Is there a balcony in your flat?
10. Have you got a cottage in the country? Where is it situated?
11. In what part o f the house is theattic situated?
12. In what part o f the house is thecellar situated?
13. Which is better, to have a vegetable garden or an orchard? Ex­
plain your choice.
14. Is there a fence or a hedge round your cottage?
15. Are there garages in your yard? Is your car in one o f the garages7

Q Describe your house in live or six sentences.


M odel: My house is situated in a side street It’s a ten-storeyed
building with balconies. I live on the ninth floor. There are
two flowerbeds in front o f the house There is a big yard
behind it.
50 Essential Course

EE Translate and transcribe these words:


фруктовый сад газон балкон внизу
живая изгородь пригород подвал чердак
гараж окраины вверху стена
двухэтажный дом терраса

ш a) Here arc the definitions of some rooms. Read them carefully:


1) A bed-sitter is a single room used for both living and sleeping in.
2) A living-room (also a sitting-room ) is the main room in a house
where people can do things together (often a general purpose
room).
3) A hall is the passage inside the entrance o f a house, from which
the rooms open.

b) Now try to define these words: a dining-room, a bedroom, a kitchen,


a study, a nursery, a bathroom.

c) Write down your definitions.

EE Say how many rooms you have in your flat and say a few words
about each room.

EE Read the words, spell them without looking in the textbook or a


dictionary:
['kAbod] ['wodraob] ['vaekjuam,kli.no] ['miro]
['f3:nitJo] [stud] I'saoirjmaJrn] ['sirjgfbedl
[tjco] ['tJestavdro:z] ['laendtr)]
l'knfi,teibl] [ri'frid^oreito] ['tu:'sto:ridl

EE Say which pieces of furniture you find necessary and which you could
do without.
M odel: I find a chair necessary, but I could do without a rocking-
chair.

EE Say what pieces of furniture you need for your sitting-room, bedroom,
kitchen, study.

EE a) Look at the picture, read the sentences under it, pay special at­
tention to the prepositions used in the sentences:
1. The radiator is under the window.
2. The wall unit is against the wall.
3. The desk is in the corner.
4. The table is in the middle o f the room.
5. The sofa is to the right o f the table.
Unit II 51

6. One o f the chairs is between the sofa and the desk


7. The picture is over/above the wall unit.
8. The wall unit is below/tinder the picture.
9. The table-cloth is on the table.
10. The lace curtain is at the window.
11 There are some flowers in the vase.

b) Fill in prepositions where necessary:


1. It was nearly six months later that Iris made her discovery ... the
attic.
2. the right ... Anthony sat Michael, his son-in-law
3. There’s a heavy picture hanging ... my bed. It fell ... the night
4. Her guide led her ... a dark hall and opened a door ... the right
5. Miss Marple was sitting ... a big chair ... the fire.
6. Last night I pulled my bed ........ the middle ... the room.
7. We were sitting ... the terrace ... front ... the hotel.
8. Looking ... a portrait hanging ... the mantelpiece, he said: “Is
that your grandmother?”
9. She waited ... she heard his footsteps ... the stairs.
10. The guest-rooms upstairs were ... an even worse state ... repair.
One was used ... lumber; ... boxes piled ... the wall
11. Aunt Patience came ......... the chicken-run ... the house ... some
new-laid eggs ... her apron.
12. Those walls and windows, that roof, the bell that struck seven as
I approached, the whole living entity ... the house was mine; and
mine alone. The grass ... my feet, the trees surrounding me, the
hills ... me, were all part ... my inheritance
52 Essential Course

m Read the words, spell them without looking into the textbook or a
dictionary. Then check them.
Ljaenda'lia] [Tnidll ['tetblkln©] ('k3.tn| ['staendodjaemp]
I'wojpeipa] I'npazit] ['ka:pit] ['kufn] ['svvi:tDv'f3:nitJaJ

EE Read and translate the following word combinations:


a new floor lamp a heavy wall bracket a blue bcd-covcr
a crystal chandelier a big square mirror an oval mirror
a white table-cloth dark green wallpaper lace curtains
beautiful curtains anew wipe-clean table-cloth

EE Say in English:
круглое зеркало над пианино старая клеенка
новая полевая занавеска новое бра
большой желтый ковер темно-красные обои
маленький синий коврик укровати очень дорогая люстра
белоснежная скатерть старый торшер

EJJ Translate and transcribe the following words:


телефон холодильник стиральная машина видеоплеер
пылесос мусоропровод электричество телевизор
удобства радиоприемник кассетный магнитофон

ЕЯ Answer these questions:


1.What conveniences are necessary in modern houses?
2. Which o f these conveniences arc there in your flat?
3. There is no central heating in your house, is there?
4. Is there a rubbish chute in your house? What is it used for?
5. Where is your refrigerator? What do you keep in it?
6. What do you use a vacuum-cleaner for?
7. Have you got a TV-set? Is it a colour one?
8. Is there a video in your house? How often do you watch it?
9. What is the difference between a tape recorder and a player?
10. Have you got a washing-machine? How often do you use it?
11. Is there a dishwasher in your kitchen? Would you like to have one?
12. Which is more important to have in the house: an electric fire or
an electric mixer? Explain your choice
13. Is there a gas or electric stove in your flat? Which o f them do
you prefer? Why?
14. Have you got a telephone? W hat’s your telephone number?
15. How often do you watch TV and listen to the radio?

ЕБ Name the modern conveniences you can’t do without.


M odel: I can’t do without electricity.
Unit II 53

ЕЕ Translate these sentences into ICnglish:


1. Где вы живете? - Парковая улица, 15. - Э то в центре или на
окраине? Недалеко от центра.
2. Его дом находится в стороне от главной дороги, там очень тихо.
3. У нас большая кухня, но маленькая прихожая.
4. В дом е нет ванны, к сожалению
5. Мне нужен письменный стол, но я мог бы обойтись без этого
мягкого кресла.
6. Где ваш телевизор? У нас нет телевизора.
7. Давай купим новый гарнитур для нашей гостиной.
8. Посредине детской находится большой ковер, справа от двери
- кровать ребенка, на окнах красивые занавески.
9. Видите эту картину над камином? Ее нарисовал мой свекор.
10. Напротив дивана стоит книжный шкаф, полный английских книг.

Р TEXT-BASED ACTIVITIES
Before reading the text below m ake sure that you can pronounce the
follow ing words correctly:

•electricity [ljek'trisitil wire [waiol


heating ['hi tirj] peculiarity [pi,kju:h'aeritij
facade [fa'scrd] furnished ['f3:mft]
villa ['vihl downstairs [,daun'str.3z]
upstairs [,Ap'stEOz] sparsely ['spcrsli)
bamboo [bam'bu:] seaward l'si:wad]

MY HOUSE
I will now describe the house. It is called Shruff End It is
damp and the situation is isolated. There is running water but
no electricity and no heating system. Cooking is by gas. The
facade of the house looks onto the road. The house is a brick-
built villa; the bricks are dark red.
I live on the seaward side of the house, upstairs in my
bedroom and in my drawing-room, and downstairs in the
kitchen and a small den next to it which I call “the little red
54 Essential Course

room”. Here there is a good fireplace and also a bamboo table


and bamboo chair.
There is an old-fashioned mechanical front doorbell with a
brass handle and a long wire. It rings in the kitchen
The chief peculiarity of the house is that on the ground
floor and on the first floor there is an inner room. It means
that there is, between the front room and the back room, a
room which has no external window, it has an internal window
giving onto the seaward room (the drawing-room upstairs, the
kitchen downstairs). These two inner rooms are dark and
empty, except for a large sagging sofa in the downstairs one,
and a small table in the upstairs one.
The whole house is indeed sparsely furnished
(From: The Sea, the Sea by I Murdoch Abridged)

EE Find in the text English equivalents for the following:


скудно меблированный он называется
выходить фасадом на дорогу главная особенность
сторона, обращенная к морю эго означает, что...

ш Find in the text “My House" the words and word combinations cor­
responding to the following definitions:
the front o f the building an inside window
going towards the sea not crowded with furniture
a window on the outside having little furniture

EE Answer these questions:


I What is the house called?
2. Is it dry or damp?
3. Its situation is not isolated, is it?
4. Is there electricity, running water and a heating system in the house7
5. Is cooking by gas or by electricity?
6. Where does the facade o f the house look onto?
7. What is the villa made of?
8. On what side o f the house docs the man live?
9. What rooms docs he occupy?
10. What is there in the little red room?
11. What docs the front doorbell look like?Where does it ring?
12. What is the chief peculiarity o f the house?
13. Which room has no external window?
14. Where does the internal window give onto?
15. Where is the large sagging sofa?
Unit II 55

ш Express your agreement basing on the information from the text “My
House”.
Model'. The house is damp, isn’t it? Yes, it is.
There is no electric bell in the house, is there? No, there isn’t.

1. The house is situated in an isolated place, isn’t it?


2. There is running water in the house, isn’t there?
3. There is no electricity in the house, is there?
4. There is no heating system in the house, is there?
5. Cooking is by gas, isn’t it?
6. The house is a brick-built villa, isn’t it?
7. The bricks arc dark red, aren’t they?
8. There is an inner room in the house, isn’t there?
9. There is a large sagging sofa in the downstairs room, isn’t there?

ED Express your disagreement basing on the information from the text


“My House”.
Model: The house isn’t damp, is it? - But it is.
There is electricity in the house, isn’t there? Butthere isn’t

1. The house is situated in a crowded street, isn’t it?


2. There is no running water in the house, isthere? ,
3. There is a heating system in the house,isn’t there?
4. G ooking isn't by gas, is it?
5. The house is a straw-built hut, isn’t it?
6. My bedroom isn’t upstairs, is it?
7. The kitchen is upstairs, isn’t it?
8. There is a new electric doorbell in the house, isn’t there?
9 There is no inner room in the house, is there?
10. The house isn’t at all furnished, is it?

EE Say if the phrases below are true or false. If they are falsecorrect
them using one of the following phrases to start your answer:
• I don’t agree. • I think it’s just nonsense.
• I don’t think it is right. • N ot at all.
• N o, it’s wrong. • On the contrary.

If they are true, repeat them.


1 The house is situated not far from the centre o f the town
2. There are all modern conveniences in the house.
3. Gas is used for cooking.
4. It is a wooden house.
5. The man lives in that part o f the house which gives onto the
sea.
56 Essential Course

6. There is no fireplace in the villa.


7. The front doorbell isquite modern.
8. The chief peculiarity o f the house is that it has a large balcony.
9. There is nothing but a large sofa and a small table in the inner
room.
10. The whole house is richly furnished.

ГП Complete the sentences remembering the text:


1. The house is called ...
2. There is no ...
3 The facade o f the house ...
4. The bedroom is ...
5. The kitchen and the little red room are ...
6. The chief peculiarity o f the house is ...
7. The inner room has ...
8. The whole house is ...

EE Paraphrase the sentences remembering the text “My House”:


1. f will now make a description o f the house.
2. The house is situated in an isolated place.
3. I use gas for cooking.
4. The front o f the house faces the road
5. The house is made o f dark red brick.
6. I live on the side looking on the sea.
7. The main special feature o f the house is that it has an inner
room.
8. There is a room which has no window giving onto the street.

EE Imagine that you are in the house described in the text. Say what
you like and what you dislike about the house. Why? Use the
phrases from the box:
The thing I like is ... I don ’t much like ...
In my opinion ... I can’t stand ...
The house looks nice, but ... I very much (dis)like

FF1 Retell the text “My House” in detail.

FT! Fill in articles where necessary:


1. My paternal grandfather was ... market gardener in ...Lincolnshire.
He lived in ... house called Shaxton. I thought it was very distin­
guished to have ... house with ... name. I do not know what my
maternal grandfather did, he died when I was ... small child.
Unit II 57

2. I went from ... drawing-room to give orders for ... room to be


prepared - there was ... large bare one on ... west side o f ...
house that would do him well.
3 This was her room , for her trunk lay on ... floor. ... walls
were rough and unpapered, and ... floorboards bare. ... box
turned upside down served as ... dressing-table, with ... cracked
looking-glass on ... top.
4. It was ... dark, rambling place, with ... long passages and ...
unexpected room s. There was ... separate entrance to ... bar, at
... side o f ... house.
5. She crept out into ... passage, and came to ... stairs. By now
she knew that ... third step from ... top creaked, and so did ...
last.
6. She knew nothing o f ... inhabitants o f ... cottage.
7. I noticed that each one o f us had ... sm all package beside his
plate, ... packages were addressed in ... R achel’s handwriting.
8. I sat at ... head o f ... table, where A m brose had always sat,
and my cousin Rachel at ... further end.
9. Everybody was assembled in ... dining-room . Under ... circum­
stances, we were naturally not ... cheerful party
10. On ... chest o f ... drawers there was ... tray with ... spirit lamp
and ... small saucepan on it.
11. In ... few minutes I was knocking at ... door o f ... Leastways
Cottage.
12. house which ... Belgians occupied in ... village was quite
close to ... park gates.
13. I have been cleaning and tidying up house. What ... ex­
traordinary satisfaction there is in ... cleaning things! I swept ...
hall and ... stairs. I also washed ... big ugly vase on ... landing
and polished ... battered rosew ood table.
14. I paused ... moment and then, on ... sudden, walked round
... back o f ... house and past ... kitchens, and so to
west front, and looked up at ... window o f ... R einaldi’s
room.
15. I remember ... house waking to ... sunlight, and seeing ...
round ball o f it appear over ... trees that fringed ... lawn.

EE Translate into English in writing:


Интересно, когда наступит весна? Я живу в небольшом кот­
тедже, где нет отопления. К онечно, в моей берлоге есть камин,
но я предпочитаю теплую погоду. Самая удобная комната в
коттедже - это кухня. В ней мало мебели: просиженный диван,
квадратный стол, четыре табуретки, встроенный буфет и газовая
плита. Зато есть машина для мойки посуды
58 Essential Course

EE a) W rite the number o f each d raw in g n ex t to th e c o rre c t w ord.

П bungalow П semi-detached house


u tent u windmill
П detached house П cottage
□ block o f flats □ palace
П castle □ country house/mansion
□ hotel П terraced houses
Unit И 59

b) Find the R ussian eq u iv alen ts o f the w ords in (a ) from the box below:

коттедж многоквартирный дом


бунгало отдельно стоящий дом
замок деревя! 1н ый д о м/п о местъе
дворец дом , имеющий общую стенку с
палатка соседним домом
гостиница ряд стандартных домиков
ветряная мельница

m a) G o th rough the follow ing sen ten ces p ay in g sp ecial a tte n tio n to the
italicized phrases:

1 The dining-room windows give onto the garden, leading down to


the river
2. My windows look out into a busy street
3. His window looks onto a big lake.
4 The windows open on a splendid view o f the sea.

b) S a y w here y o u r classro o m w indow s look o u t. Do you like the view?


G ive your reaso n s.

c) M ak e up 3-4 senten ces o f y o u r ow n, w rite them dow n and rea d out


in class.

EE T ra n sc rib e the follow ing w ords:


bungalow terraced house palace hotel
detached house block o f flats cottage castle
mansion

EE Fill in prep o sitio n s o r ad v erb s w here n ecessary :

1. A detached house is a house which is not connected ... any way


... another house.
2 A semi-detached house or semi is a house which is one . two
built together
3. A cottage is a small house, especially ... the country.
4. A castle is a large strongly-built building made ... former times
to be defended ... attack
5 A block ... flats is a large building divided . . separate flats
6 A palace is a large grand house ... w'hich a king or queen offi­
cially lives.
7. A bungalow is a type ... house which is all ... one floor.
8 A terraced house is one house which is part ... a line .. joined
houses.

m M atch the definition s above w ith th e p ic tu re s in F.x. 36.


60 Essential Course

Ш Fill in articles where necessary:


1. They go camping every summer in ... family-sized tent.
2. They have ... country house. There is ... large garden behind it
3. She lives in ... block o f flats in Chelsea.
4. ... castle has four towers.
5. He is going to buy ... caravan.
6 There is ... old castle near ... town.
7. I’ve never been to ... Edinburgh Castle.
8. Look at ... semi, it is quite nice.
9. ... Buckingham Palace is ... residence o f ... Queen o f England

EE a) Read the example below and pay attention to the difference be­
tween the nouns house and home-.
e.g. His home is in that semi-detached house.
H om e is the place in which a person lives, residence.
H ouse is a building in which people live.

b) Insert house or home instead of the blanks:


1 “You live in a nice clean ... ,” Uncle Tom said.
2. This woman has the art o f making a ... into a ..., giving it an
atmosphere o f restfulness and quiet harmony.
3. You have a good ..., a good roof over your head.
4. That’s a nice little ... .
5. Australia is the ... o f the kangaroo.
6. They are building some new ... in the village
7. This boy is from a broken ..., his parents are divorced.
8. Siberia has been his ... for ten years now.
9 Л villa is a country ... with a large garden.
10 London is her ... town.

EE Complete the conversations with the appropriate question oranswer.


Model. - What do you think o f the chair?
- It’s not very comfortable.

1 ,- ........................? 5. - ..........................?
- It’s too expensive. - They are a little old-fashion­
ed.
2. Should we get this sofa?
6. - ?
- Our bed is old It’s time we
3..........................? throw it away.
- No, we have only one size.
7. - Look at the rug. Isn’t it
4. - How does the armchair feel? lovely?
Unit II 61

ш Describe a garden you’d like to have. You may find the following
words useful:
a wooden fence an orchard a lawn bushes
an asphalt yard wire netting a swing a wall
a few fruit trees flowerbeds a hedge
a kitchen garden a green house a garage

EE Translate the following sentences into English in writing:


1. Она живет в отдельном доме в пригороде Лондона.
2. У вас есть коттедж за городом? Д а, у нас двухэтажный дом
недалеко от Йорка.
3. Я помню этот 12-этажный дом . Он расположен в стороне от
главной дороги.
4. Есть ли замок в этом городе? - Д а, есть.
5. Букингемский дворец резиденция английской королевы
6. В здании есть балконы? - Нет.
7. Позади нашего домика - огород, перед домиком - двор.
8. Где вы живете? - В центре города, недалеко от главной улицы.
9. На нашей улице нет дома с голубой крышей.
10. Есть живая изгородь вокруг этого особняка? - Нет, есть де­
ревянный забор.
11. Наверху четыре комнаты, внизу две комнаты, кухня и ванная.
12. Посмотри! Красный дом с зеленой крышей. Сэранно, правда7
13. Где ваш гараж? - За коттеджем.
14. Я не люблю деревянных заборов и проволочных сеток, мне
нравятся живые изгороди.
15. Что находится наверхнем этаже? - Па верхнем этаже четыре
квартиры. Оттуда можно попасть на чердак.

a) Find these verbs in a dictionary, write down their four forms,


transcribe them, remember the meanings of the verbs:
to move, to arrange, to rearrange, to put, to choose, to match
b) Read these examples to get the meanings of the verbs:
1.
She wants to move the gas stove closer to the window to be able
to put the new kitchen table between the sink and the stove.
2. N ow that you’ve got this Hat you may arrange the furniture.
3. Women usually like to rearrange furniture, it seems to them that
their flat becomes new.
4. Let’s choose some beautiful curtains to m atch the carpet.

c) Translate the following phrases into English using the verbs:


Двигать мебель подходить по тону к туфлям
обставить комнату подходить по цвету к пальто
переставим, мебель подходить по цвету к мебели
62 Essential Course

поставить цветы в вазу переезжать на новую квартиру


выбирать красивое платье перекладывать книги на полках
выбирать яблоко в корзине подходить по цвечу к занавескам
подходить по тону к шляпе поставить стол посредине комнаты
разложить книги по полкам поставить письменный стол у окна

d) Make up a short dialogue using the verbs in (c).

m a) Describe your flat. These adjectives will make your description


more vivid:
spacious - very large, with lots o f space (room hall)
tiny = very small (bedroom, chair kitchen)
enormous = very large (wardrobe armchair)
comfortable - giving comfort (bed, chair)
convenient - suitable, practical (writing-table, furniture)
lipht = not dark (curtains, furniture)
light = not heavy (curtains, furniture)
solid = o f good quality, well-made (furniture, house)
massive - very large (cupboard, wardrobe)
so ft = not hard (carpet, rug)

b) 'Translate into F.nglish using the adjectives in (a):


светлый ковер мягкий коврик у дивана крошечная спальня
крепкая мебель просторная прихожая массивное здание
легкий торшер массивный дубовый стул маленькая детская
удобная мебель огромный письменный стол светлая клеенка

c) Make a short description of a room using as many adjectives as you can.

m a) Fill in the blanks with suitable words from the bo\:


an oak working-table, table, wall, blanket, bed, pencils,
___________ a high-back chair, mug, biio pens___________

A single ..., neatly covered with a red and brown ..., stood
against the opposite ... In front o f the window stood ... with
On the ... was a blotter and a brown and blue pottery ... stacked
with ... and ... .

b) Fill in prepositions:
The room s I occupied were ... the ground floor. The parlour
was papered . an old marbled paper and ... the walls were water­
colours ... romantic scenes; there were large ferns ... pots, and the
armchairs were covered ... faded leather. The curtains were ... a
heavy red rep
Unit II 63

ш Translate into English in writing:


j. Я люблю переставлять мебель. - Правда? А я нет. - Я помогу тебе
2. Налево стоит стул с высокой спинкой, на стуле лежит анг­
лийская книга.
3. Что стоит справа и слева от журнального столика? - Два
мягких кресла.
4. Я хочу купить хороший гарнитур для гостиной.
5. Посреди комнаты стоит дубовый круглый стол и шесть стульев
6. Им нужна двуспальная кровать, два платяных шкафа, туалет­
ный столик и несколько стульев.
7. У стены стоит высокий книжный шкаф В нем много англий­
ских и французских книг.
8. Мне бы хотелось иметь кресло-качалку Где я могу его купить?
9. Ей нравится наша кухня, не так ли? - Да.
10. Ему нужен холодильник, но он мог бы обойтись без пылесоса
11. Слева от шкафа для посуды стоит кухонный стол
12. Я могла бы обойтись без встроенных шкафов
13. Она только что переехала в новую квартиру Она еще не ку­
пила мебель
14 Что стоит рядом с ди ван ом ?-Н оч ной столик, а на нем телефон

SPEAKIN G PRACTICE
Before reading the dialogue below m ake sure that you can pronounce
the follow ing words correctly:

cheque [tfek] advance [ad'va.ns] key |ki:j pull [pol] include [in’klu:dj

LOOKING FOR A ROOM


Mrs. Green: Of course, I shall need a week or so to clear the
room out and to do it up.
M ike: That’s all right, MrsGreen, my friend is putting
me up at the moment. But I’dlike to take the
room on now. Perhaps I ’ll make a cheque out for
four weeks’ rent in advance.
Mrs. Green: Well, before I hand the key over, I hope you
don’t get in too late at night.
M ike: If I do, I’ll remember to pull the front door to,
take my shoes off and put the lights out before
going upstairs.
64 Essential Course

Mrs. Green. A fter elev en -th irty y o u ’ll h a v e to let y o u r se lf in,


and rem em ber to m a k e y o u r bed in the m orning.
Y o u can use th e te le p h o n e and ring y o u r friends
up from here. B aths are in clu d ed in the rent.
M ike: G o o d . I’ll tak e a bath in th e m o rn in g or in the
even ing. C an I h ave m y friend s up?
Mrs. Green: I d o n ’t m in d , but y o u ’ll have to turn them out by
evenin g. A n d I’m glad th at I can fix y o u up.
M ike: T h a t’s fine by m e, M rs. G reen. I’m glad w e’ve
been ab le to talk th in g s over.

EE Find in the dialogue F.nglish equivalents for the following:


прибираться в комнате гасить свет
приводить комнату в порядок заранее
я остановился у друга (друг приютил меня) приходить
квартирная плата выпроваживать
самому открывать дверь снимать башмаки
я могу вас приютить обговорить
зто меня очень устраивает звонить друзьям
закрывать парадную дверь передавать ключ

ее Answer these questions:


1. Is M ike’s room ready? What does Mrs. Green want to do?
2. Where is Mike staying at the moment?
3. Is Mike going to take the room on now or is he readyto wait
until the room is cleared out and done up?
4 What must Mike remember before Mrs Green hands the key over9
5. When will Mike have to let himself in?
6. Who will make M ike’s bed in the morning?
7 Can Mike take baths?
8. Is there a telephone in M ike’s room?
9. D oes Mrs. Green mind M ike’s inviting guests to hisroom?
10. Both Mrs. Green and M ike are pleased, aren’t they? Why are
they pleased?

m Paraphrase these sentences using the word comhinations from the talk
between Mrs. Green and Mike:
1.
I shall need a week or so to tidy the room
2 D o n ’t trouble, I 'in staying at m y frie n d 's at the moment.
3 Before I give yo u the k e y , I hope you d o n ’t arrive too late at
night.
4. I’ll remember to close the door, remove m y shoes and turn o ff the
lights before going upstairs.
Unit II 65

5. You can telephone your friends from here.


6. Baths are part o f the rent.
7. Y ou’ll have to m ake your frien d s leave the house by eleven
8. I’m glad I can give yo u a place to stay.
9. I’m glad w e’ve been able to discuss things.

m Match the left-hand and right-hand columns:


1) a sum o f money paid regularly a) to put out the lights
for the use o f a room \ b) to put smb up
2) to close the front door \ t() n smb
3) to make smth stop burning I
4) before (in time) 1 d> 10 do a house llP
5) to provide smb with smth \ e) to pull the front door to
6) to repair a house or decorate it f) rent
7) to telephone smb g) t0 fixsmb up
8) to tidy and clean the room , . ■ , , ___
' , h) in advance
9) to allow smb to stay at your
place for some t.me «> to clear0llt a room

EE Say if the phrases below arc true or false. If they are not true, correct
them. Don’t forget to start your answer with one of these phrases:
• Oh, no, it isn’t so. • N o , it’s just wrong.
• I don’t think it is right • N ot at all

If they are true, repeat them.


1. Mike is putting up at the hotel atthe moment.
2. M ike’s room is quite readyfor him to move in.
3. Mike wants to take the room on immediately, he is ready to pay
the rent in advance.
4. It is all the same to Mrs. Green if Mike returns home late at night
5. Mike assures Mrs. Green that he will never get in too late at night
6. The landlady tells Mike that she lets him telephone his friends
and use the bathroom.
7. Mrs. Green says that M ike’s friends may stay the night in his
room.
8. Mrs. Green and Mike are displeased with each other.

m Retell the dialogue “ Looking for a Room’’ usingindirect speech. Try


to vary the reporting verbs (to say, to tell, to assure, to agree, to
rei.iurk, to wonder, to suppose, to add).
e.g. Mrs. Green rem arks that she will need a week or so to clear
the room out.

m R etell the d ialogue in the p erson of: a) M rs. G re e n , h) M ike.


66 Essential Course

m You arc Mrs. Green. You want lo let one of your rooms. You tell
your husband about the terms you offered your future tenant. Use
the phrases:
to get in to turn smb out to do up the room
to ring smb up to be included in to hand the key over
to let oneself in to make one’s bed to pull the front door to

EE Translate into English in writing:


I Мне понадобится месяц, чтобы отремонтировать мою трех­
комнатную квартиру.
2. Пожалуйста, прибери в шкафу для посуды, мы давно этого не
делали.
3. Он говорит, что его приютил сейчас один из его старых друзей.
4 Я могу вас приютить на некоторое время, не волнуйтесь У
меня все уехали на юг.
5. Не забудь закрыть парадную дверь.
6 Ты закрыла дверь черного хода?
7. Я хочу заплатить за квартиру вперед.
8. Вы еще не уплатили за квартиру, не так ли? Очень жаль
9. Она говорит, что плата за телефон не входит в плату за
квартиру.
10. Я могу вас уверить, что пользование ванной входит в плазу
за квартиру.
11. Кто убирает твою постель утром? Мама Правда9 Какой
стыд! Тебе уже семь лет
12. Позвони мне вечером, если хочешь
13. Давайте обговорим все сейчас.
14. Тебе придется самому открыть дверь, бабушка уйдет в магазин

ЕЕ a) Remember that there are a lot of phrasal verbs in English. They


consist of a verb and adverb, or a verb and preposition. Students of
English have difficulties with phrasal verbs because they often fail to
understand their meaning and do not know how to use them. There are
many phrasal verbs in the text “ Looking for a Room”. Remember them
and fill in the blanks with the right adverbs or prepositions:
1. I’ll ring and say I’m ill
2. Felicity took . herhat and threw it inthe direction o f the hall table
3 Could you put us ... for the night?
4 Now get . there and make sure you see your uncle and nobody else
5. It’s time you cleared .. the kitchen cupboards, there are a lot o f
unnecessary things in them.
6. Let’s do ... our old cottage
7. Thom as put ... the light, he lay face down on the bed
8. Hand your plates . to your granny, sh e’ll give you more pie
Unit I I 67

9. There is too much sunlight in the room, pull the curtains. , please
10. I want to go home and talk it ... with my father
11. She says she prefers to take ... asmall house in the country for
the summer
12. I’d like to stay at your place till I get fixed ... .
13 And once he almost turned them ... o f the house.

b) Make up a short dialogue starting it with one of the sentences given


in (a).

GE Fill in the blanks with suitable words given in the box and translate
the sentences into Russian:
wall-to-wall carpet, wallpaper, rugs, standard lamp, spotlight, curtains

1. ... is a lamp with a directable narrow beam


2. There are nice ... at the window in our kitchen.
3 ... is ornamental paper to cover the walls o f the room.
4 The floor o f their sitting-room is covered with
5 Animal skins are often used as ... .
6 A lamp with a tall base which stands on the floor o f a room
is ...

m Fill in p rep o sitio n s w here n ecessary :


1 |Ie says his house is ... a side street not far . thecentre
2. Their large farmhouse consists ... eight rooms
3. There is a comfortable rocking-chair ... one the windows.
4. I usually meet her ... the landing when I go ........ my flat.
5. There is a bookshop ... the ground floor this building
6. 'I'herc is a table and a few chairs ... the balcony.
7 If you live ... the suburb you probably go to work . train
8. There is a TV-set . the right-hand corner
9. ... the left you can see a built-in cupboard
10. ... the right ... the bed there is a bedside table
11. The drcssing-stool stands front ... the dressing-table
12. There is a vegetable garden the cottage.
13. There is usually one storey ... a bungalow
14 Fetch the high chair It is ... the middle . the nursery
15. Their semi-detached house is surrounded a wooden fence

m a ) R ead these sentences:


1. As the lift arrived and the autom atic door opened 1 heard a soft
footstep
2. By the way, the rubbish chute is jammed again
3. He lived in a cottage adjacent to the big stableyard
68 Essential Course

4. The room al the end o f the house to his right, which adjoined
the library, was the best guest-room. There was a light on in this
room. The curtains were tightly drawn.
5. She remembered how long it always took her to dust everything
Although she was not afraid o f hard work, she hated dusting
and this room in particular.

b) Now that you have read the sentences you maygive the English
equivalents of the following phrases:
занавески были плотно задернуты вытирать пыль
примыкающий к, смежный подошел лифт
мусоропровод опять засорен примыкать к ...
быть смежной

c) Translate into English:


1. Моя комната смежная с кухней (give two variants).
2. Это смежные комнаты?
3. Некоторые женщины очень не любят вытирать пыль с мебели.
4. Я прошу тебя вытереть пыль и подмести пол.
5. Не открывайте дверь, пока не убедитесь, что лифт подъехал.
6. Я не люблю мусоропроводов, они часто засоряются
7. Уже темно, задерни занавески.
8. Я ничего не вижу, занавески слишком плотно задернуты.

СЕ a) Read the dialogue silently. Then re-enact it with a fellow student.


Mr. Irmes: Ellen, where’s Mike?
Ellen: He’s doing the washing-up, it’s his turn today. I only
hope he doesn’t make a mess. W hy, do you want him?
Mr. Innes: Well, I thought we might talk things over, now that
your mother’s gone to have a chat with Mrs Parkins.
Ellen: Oh, you mean about her birthday?
M r Innes: Yes, you see, it’s in ten days, there isn’t much time left.
Ellen: Y ou’re right, D addy, it’s time we talked things over.
Mr. Innes Would you mind helping Mike, I’m afraid he isn’t
very good at housekeeping.
Ellen: Well, it’s time he learned, but I don’t mind helping
him for once.

When Ellen comes into the kitchen M ike is lying on the flo o r with
his head under the kitchen sink.

Ellen For goodness’ sake, M ike, w hat’s up?


M ike Oh, I’m sick and tired o f this washing-up.
Ellen: But what on earth are you doing on the floor?
Unit II 69

M ike: I’ve dropped a fork under the sink and I can’t find it.
Oh, here it is at last.
Ellen: Mind your head What a mess!

b) Make up and write down as many special questions about the dia­
logue as possible. Let your fellow students answer them.

c) Remember the phrases referring to housekeeping:


to do (the) washing-up to water (the) flowers
to do (the) cooking to dust (the) furniture
to do (the) shopping to sweep the floor
to do (the) ironing to clean the room
to do (the) washing

Ask your partner questions using the phrases above. Begin your ques­
tions with How often.
eg Mow often do you do the cooking in your family?

d) Make up sentences beginning with I t ’s time,


e.g. It’s time you did the washing-up.

c) Make up sentences beginning with ( I ’m ) sick and tired of.


e g I’m sick and tired o f cooking.
H e’s sick and tired o f quarrelling.

f) Make up sentences with the phrase to be good at smth.


e.g. I’m good at painting.
Y ou’re good at housekeeping

g) Act out the dialogue.

m a) In the dialogue between Mr. Inncs and Ellen the word mind is
used several times. This word is usually used in many colloquial ex­
pressions in English. Can you match each of the expressions in the
first list to its correct meaning in the second list?
1. Mind o u t ! ----------------- a) She is mad
2. I don ’t mind. > b) Be careful.
3. I’ve made up my mind. c) I’ve decided.
4. Would you mind ...? d) On the other hand
5 He and I are o f the same mind. e) I think I might
6. She is out o f her mind f) We agree.
7. I’ve got half a mind to ... g) Please.
8. Mind you ... h) It doesn’t matter to me.

b) Make up a short story with the phrases from the left-hand column.
Make your story amusing.
70 Essential Course

m Fill in prepositions where necessary:


1. I opened the hall door and went ... the house.
2. A fire was burning . the library, but the room was empty,
the dining-room a place was laid ... one.
3 I went ... upstairs and knocked ... the door the little boudoir
4 He went ... the sideboard and poured him self a glass ... water.
5. “ ... the villa,” she said, “when it was very hot, w'e usually sat ...
... a little court there, ... a fountain.”
6. When I had dined I went ........ my room and looked about me,
and then ........ the library.
7. I went indoors and stood ... the library, my back ... the open
fireplace, my hands ... my pockets. The dogs came ... and lay ...
... my feet.
8. She was sitting ... the stool ... the fire.
9. She w'as saving ... to buy a flat
10. She liked moving the furniture ... .

m a) Read the extracts which describe rooms and houses:


1) The living-room furniture was minimal, consisting mainly o f a
leather armchair with a reading light beside it, and three book­
cases, crammed with scientific volumes. (A Hailey)
2) Dark green metal bookshelves covered four walls. On the third
wall there was, above a shiny modern sideboard, a print o f War­
saw. (I Murdoch)
3) The cottage, a low building o f brick with a white wood-cladded
front and with the rounded top and sails o f thewindmill visible
behind, w'as separated from the road by a wide ditch
(P 1) James)
4) The villa which Mors rented every year near Swanage was
equipped w'ith two telephones, one in the drawing-room and one
in the main bedroom. ( / Murdoch)

b) Translate the extracts into Russian in writing.

c) Make a written description of a house or a room.

m Suppose you want to move to a new flat. Which of the following


points will you take into consideration? Why?
1. The time it takes to get to work, school or university.
2. Means o f public transport.
3. Opportunities for entertainment and cultural activities.
4. A quiet and clean environment
5. The conveniences o f living, i.e. shopping, services, etc
6 Sports facilities.
Unit II 71

m a) Read the following text:

BEAIJTIF U L НОМ E
(Advertisement)
They say your home reflects your personality and there’s little
doubt that your surroundings affect your m oods, so treat yourself to
the beautiful home you deserve.
Perhaps you ’d like your home to be bigger and brighter - have
you thought o f using mirrors to give the impression o f not only more
space but added light?
Л coat o f paintcan transform any room at very little cost, but
it’s surprisingly easy to achieve original results with different tech­
niques. Y ou can brighten up dark hallways, enlarge small rooms and
achieve lots o f amazing effects - try it - you ’ll be delighted!

b) Make a list of 5-10 items stating what techniques can help you make
your home more beautiful. Speak about what you’re planning to do.

c) Work in pairs. Give advice to one another about improvements neces­


sary in his/her home.

m Koleplay the following conversations:


1) A newly married couple is arguing about how to arrange the
furniture in their new flat.
2) Two friends are talking about the advantages and disadvantages
o f living in the centre o f the town and in the suburbs. They
have opposite opinions on the problem.
3) Л hotel manager is talking to an important guest. His objective
is to advertise the hotel and its facilities and advantages.

EE Translate into English:


Вам нравится наша гостиная, не правда ли? Это большая,
светлая комната. Она очень просторная, потому что в ней мало
мебели. Когда вы входите в гостиную, вы видите большое квад­
ратное окно. На окне светлые занавески. Окно выходит в сад.
Занавески гармонирую! с зеленым ковром на полу
В гостиной диван, четыре мягких кресла, торшер, журнальный
столик. В правом углу телевизор. На потолке хрустальная люстра
Рядом с диваном стенка, полная фарфоровых безделушек (china
bric-a-brac). Вся мебель новая, мои родители не любят старых ве­
щей. Что касается меня, я обож аю свой просиженный диван и
старинный письменный стол.
72 Essential Course

EZ3 Read this article from a Newcastle newspaper and arrange a conference
between kitchen designers and housewives about “ the kitchen revolution”.
Make use of the words and word combinations from the article.

THE KITCHEN REVOLUTION CONTINUES


KITCHENS have received a great deal o f design attention in the
past ten years. In the Iasi 25, they have changed almost beyond rec­
ognition.
What used to be a functional, utilitarian, cheerless room has
changed into a fully-fitted, furnished and equipped attractive, warm
and welcoming room, fast becoming the heart o f the home and the
focus o f the family.
Kitchens today are sm oothly fitted with (lush-fitting units,
stretching from floor to ceiling.
They incorporate work surface, fridges, freezers, cookers, washers
and anything else the user might wish to include.
So good are today’s kitchen, it is difficult to imagine how any­
one could make an improvement.
Progress marches irresistibly onwards however, any improvements
and changes will surely appear within the next ten years.
They will make the kitchen o f tomorrow as different from that
o f today as today’s is different from that o f yesteryear
So where will the changes come?
For a start, the development o f the utility room will go on to
the point w'here the washing machine, tumble dryer, and all the para-
phcnalia o f ironing, will be banished from a room that will, hence­
forth, be devoted to the production o f food and all that that entails.
The kitchen o f tomorrow will be ‘green’ o f course, so fridges and
freezers w-ill be cooled by environmentally friendly coolants.
Extractor fans will be com m onplace, but in order not to pollute
the atmosphere more than necessary, special (liters will be incorpo­
rated to remove all noxious substances.
By the same token, o f course, incoming air will also be filtered
to ensure that only really clean air ever approaches the vicinity of
our food.
People generally will develop a different attitude to the use o f re­
frigeration.
Up to the present day, the fridge has become just a food-storing
glory hole. Everything goes in, from raw' to cooked meat, tins, pack­
ets, bottles and bowls o f left-overs.
All this should change. With the growing awareness for hygiene
in the kitchen, several fridges will be used, one for raw food, one for
cooked, one perhaps for bottles and other packs and possibly a
chilling cabinet for fruit, salads and fresh vegetables
(From: N EW C ASTLE HERALD & ROST, January 31, 1990 17)
Unit I I 73

ЕЕ Read the extract from A. Christie’s autobiography. Look the unfamiliar


words up in a dictionary. Translate the text into Russian in writing.
Say whether you like the house described by A. Christie. Why?

Archie and I found our cottage in the country - though it


w asn’t a cottage. Sunningdale, as I had feared, was an excessively
expensive place to live. It was full o f luxurious modern houses built
round the g o lf course, there weren’t any country cottages at all
But we found a large Victorian house, Scotsw ood, situated in a big
garden, which was being divided into four flats. Two o f these were
already taken - the two on the ground floor - but there were two
flats upstairs in the course o f being adapted, and we looked over
them. Each contained three room s on the first floor and two on
the floor above, and a kitchen and bathroom , o f course. One flat
was more attractive than the other - having better-shaped rooms
and a better outlook - but the other had a small extra room and
was also cheaper, so we settled on the cheaper one. Tenants had
the use o f the garden, and constant hot water was supplied. We
signed a lease and prepared to move in.
We came down constantly to see how the decorators and
painters were getting on - which was alw ays much less than they
had promised Every time we did so we found that som ething had
beert done wrong. Wallpapers were the most fo o lp ro o f You cannot
do anything too awful to a wallpaper, unless you put the wrong
one on altogether - but you can put every shade o f wrong paint
on, and we weren’t on the spot to see what was happening. H ow ­
ever, all was settled in time. We had a big sitting room , with new
cretonne curtains o f lilac - made by me. In the small dining room
we had som e rather expensive curtains with buttercups and daisies.
On the floor above, Archie had a dressing room and emergency
spare room very virulently coloured - scarlet poppies and blue
cornflowers - and in our bedroom I chose curtains o f bluebells,
which was not really a good choice, because since this particular
room faced north the sun seldom shone through. The only tune
they were pretty was when one lay in bed in mid-morning and saw
the light shining through them, pulled back on either side o f the
window , 0 1 seen at night, the blue rather faded out. In fact it was
like bluebells in nature. A s soon as you bring them into the house
they turn grey and dispirited and refuse to hold up their heads A
bluebell is a flower that refuses to be captured and is only gay
when it is in the w oods.
(From: An Autobiography by A Christie)
74 Essential Course

EE C rossw ord p u z /lc . W rite the an sw ers to the clu es and find a word
for “ a place to live".

1) American English for a home on one floor o f a building.


2) A small house in the country.
3) A wooden house in the mountains or in a holiday camp.
4) A large building where you can rent a room to stay the night.
5) The place where you were born or normally live.
6) Division o f a house or a building.
7) A house with no stairs.
8) One room for living and sleeping (abbreviation).
9) A very grand home for a king or queen.
10) A tiny wooden building.
11) A long sofa.
12) A large, grand house, usually belonging to a wealthy person.
13) A temporary ‘hom e’ on a campsite.

7
12

6 9
1 5 8 10 13
4 11
2 3
UNIT III

He whimpered,
“Could call me
A fussy man;
I only want
A little bit
Of butter for
My bread!”
Л. Л. Milne. The
K ing’s B reakfast

DINING IN AND OUT


G R A M M A R EXERCISES

Before you start doing the exercises m ake sure that you remember
how to handle:

• th e p ro n o u n s s o m e , any,
- e.g. - Have som e porridge.
- Thanks, I don’t want any porridge. I’d like som e bacon
and eggs.
Would you like som e coffee?
- With pleasure.

• e x c la m a to r y s e n te n c e s ,
e.g. What a tasty apple!
What crisp toast!
What bitter cucumbers!
How tasty the apple is!
How crisp the toast is!
How bitter the cucumbers are!

• th e P a s s iv e V o ic e c o n s t r u c t io n s ,
e.g. A salt-cellar is used for keeping salt in.
Tom atoes are usually eaten raw.
The pears have just been brought
Has the letter been sent?
The dinner was nicely cooked.
76 Essential Course

• the P r e s e n t P e r fe c t T en se,
e g. He has just eaten a big dinner.
We haven’t had lunch yet.
Have you ever tasted kiwi-fruit?
I haven’t eaten cherries since last summer.

• th e P a s t I n d e fin ite T en se,


e.g. In the 14th century supper was at four o ’clock in the af­
ternoon in Britain.
They lived in their cottage last summer.
She didn’t have any breakfast yesterday, did she?
Did you make a pie on Sunday?

Q a ) M a k e the follow ing sen ten ces in te rro g a tiv e and negative:

1. There are some nice detached and semi-detached houses in this


street.
2. She is rearranging the furniture in the kitchen now.
3. There is a good fridge in their house.
4. They have got some old furniture in the attic.
5. There is a bicycle in the cellar.
6. We are moving to a modern Hat.
7. There are some three-legged stools in thehall.
8. She is doing the ironing at the moment.
9. I have got a big garden surrounded by a wooden fence.
10. There is a heating system in their cottage
11. My mother is making tea on the terrace.
12. There are some English books on the shelves.
13. His house is a long way from his office.
14. There is a swing in the garden for their small children
15. There are a lot o f fruit-trees in her grandfather’s orchard.
16. Our elder sister is doing the flat now.
17. There are some garages on the outskirts o f town.
18. You have got beautiful wallpaper in the sitting-room.
19. There is electricity in that bungalow.
20. Her study is to the left o f the bathroom.

b) U se any p h rase from those given above as a s ta rtin g point for a


sh o rt d ialogue with y o u r p a rtn e r.

В a) M a k e up sentences as in the m odel.

Model: What nice furniture!


IIow nice the furniture is!
Unit /// 77

T h e word co m b in atio n s to be used:

a little stool a spacious room a massive wardrobe


a tiny kitchen a large armchair a beautiful chandelier
heavy curtains a heavy oak table a cheap rocking-chair
nice wallpaper a comfortable sofa an expensive cupboard
a tall bookcase a wonderful carpet an old wipe-clean cloth

b) Write a short description of a room using one of the exclamatory


sentences you have just made up as the beginning of your story.

0 Fill in the b lan k s with the p ro n o u n s a n y , so m e , a n yth in g , so m eth in g ,


a nyone, n o b o d y, n o th in g :
1. May I have ... more o f these excellent cherries please, White?
2. She never answered ... .
3. There is ... left in the freezer, ... in the pantry and only bread
in the bread bin.
4. ... cooked ... dinner. So the boy was hungry.
5. I do not remember ... quarrels, Mrs. Christow was quite devoted
to her husband.
6. “I heard ... about a missing girl,” I said.
7. lie answered ..., at a loss for words.
8. There couldn’t be ... life left in the apple-tree.
9. lie was away ... time.
10. .There was ... else in his manner that she did not quite understand
11. “We ought to be able to think o f ...,” said Bill. “W ho’s got ...
brains?”
12. ... had ... answer ready.
13. Could we have ... o f those grapes for dessert tonight?
14. I’m sorry I ever said ... about it.
15. I wanted to tell you ... else - but I’m so sleepy I can’t keep my
eyes open.

Q S pell and tra n sc rib e the four fo rm s o f the follow ing verbs:

to arrange to be to do to save to say


to have to match to watch to stand to park
to move to sit to rent to set to cook
to stay to dine to buy to see to make

В O pen the b ra c k e ts using th e verbs in th e P re se n t P erfec t T en se or in


th e P a st In d efin ite T ense:
1. I (to rent) a flat and he is com ing to live with me
2. It (to be) a nursery many years ago. It (to have) this pretty paper
o f corn-flowers and poppies. Children remember their nursery walls
very well. I always (to remember) the irises on my nursery walls
78 Essen 11a I Course

3. He (to sit down) on one o f the stools and (to watch) her as she
(to move) from picture to picture.
4. The telephone (to stand) on a small bam boo table beside the
front door.
5. I already (to see) a good deal o f life, Ruth. I (to do) almost eve­
rything. I (to be) an actor, a waiter, an odd job man, a luggage
porter and a property man in a circus!
6. That night she (to set) her alarm for five o ’clock.
7. He (to park) the car and (to take) the stairs two at a time.
8. It’s ages since we (to have) a quiet moment together without our
children.
9. There (to be) a small pause before she (to go on), “You (not to
tell) me very much about your aunt, except that she’s your fa­
ther’s sister and that she’s a w idow .’’
10. “We have to leave Berlin. We have to get out o f Germany ”
“Yes, I know ,” he (to say). “I (to know) it for a long time,
really, but 1 (not to want) to face it.”
11. It (to be) very cold and w'indy out here these last few days, and
we (to have) a lot o f rain.
12. She (to open) the paper carelessly on the table and (to turn)
away towards the refrigerator.
13. Why he (not to write)? Well, because he simply never writes a letter
14. She (can) sec it so clearly, too, the yellow house with white shut­
ters which (to fa ce) the sea.
15. “How are all your friends? You (to see) Camilla again?” “N o ,”
he (to say). “I (not to see) Camilla again.”
16. I (to eat) and (to drink) slowly as one should and without dis­
tractions such as conversation or reading.
17. 1 (to get up) and (to go) to the window.
18. “Have another sandwich,” (to say) Hartley. “Oh, you (not to eat)
that one.”
19. Ben (to open) the sitting-room door and (to slip) out.
20. I (to step) backward; then (to turn) and (to walk) to the gate.
21. “You (to see) the news about Jon, o f course,” she (to say) care­
lessly before he (can) (to speak). “T od ay’s evening paper.” “Jon7”
“You (not to see) the paper? H e’s back in L ondon.”

E Inform your p a rtn e r o f w hat you d id n ’t do y e ste rd a y . Let him tell


you w hat he/she h a sn 't done to d a y y et. C o n c e n tra te on the c o rrec t
use o f the P a st In d efin ite T en se and th e P re se n t P e rfe c t T ense.

Q O pen the b ra c k e ts p u ttin g the verbs in the c o rre c t tenses:


She (to do) the Sunday N ew York Times crossword puzzle faster
than he (to do). Her handwriting (to be) without frills, like a man’s.
She (to like) new painters whose work Rudolph (cannot) appreciate or
Unit /// 79

understand. "(T o keep) looking,” she (to say), "and Ihcn one day, a
door (to open), you suddenly (to cross) the barrier.”
She never (to go) to church. She never (to cry) at sad movies
She never (to introduce) him to any o f her friends. She (to be) unim­
pressed by Johnny Heath. She (not to mind) getting her hair wet in
the rain. She never (to complain) about the weather or traffic jams.
She never (to say), “1 (to love) you .”
(From: Rich Man, Poor Man by I Shaw)

2 Change the sentences using the passive voice construction as in the model.

Model: I did the work yesterday.


The work was done yesterday.
1. The maid served breakfast in the dining-room.
2. My mother cooked soup for dinner that day.
3. Her cousin made tea for all o f us.
4. His grandmother always made his bed in the morning.
5. The landlady asked them for the rent.
6. He moved his car into the garage.
7. They built a new cottage in a suburb o f M oscow.
8. Their cook usually served supper atseven o ’clock in the evening.
9. He turned the attic into a nurseryfor his children.
10. The girls rearranged the furniture in their bedroom.
11. Our mother always washed the dishes after breakfast
12. Their aunt usually did the ironing.
13. His grandfather did the shopping yesterday.
14. The boy drank up the milk.
15. The girl ate up the porridge.

2 a) Answer the questions using the passive voice construction as in the model

M odel What is a rubbish chute used for?


A rubbish chute is used fo r carrying rubbish down.
1. What is a dishwasher used for?
2. What is a vacuum-cleaner used for?
3. What isa refrigerator used for?
4. What isa mixer used for?
5. What isa TV-set used for?
6. What isa washing-machine used for?
7. What is an iron used for?
8. What is a kitchen used for?
9. What is a gas cooker used for?
10. What is an electric fire used for?

b) W rite down y o u r an sw ers.


80 Essen tial Course

VOCABULARY
R ead the vocabulary list and gel ready to do the exercises that fo l­
low it.

N am es o f m eals - Н азвания тр апез

breakfast - завтрак high tea - ранний плотный ужин


lunch - ленч, второй завтрак с чаем
dinner - обед, ужин supper - ужин
tea - чай

Be sure that you know the nam es o f plates, dishes and cutlery
which we use when we lay the table or cook a m eal.

plate (dinner plate) тарелка teapot - чайник для заварки


breadplate - хлебница sauce boat - соусник
fork - вилка sugar bowl сахарница
spoon - ложка salt-cellar - солонка
tablespoon - столовая ложка pepper-pot - перечница
teaspoon - чайная ложка pan/saucepan - кастрюля
knife (knives) - нож (ножи) frying-pan - сковородка
ladle - половник coffee pot - кофейник
cup - чашка cake tin - форма для выпечки
glass - стакан торта
wine glass - рюмка table-cloth - скатерть
saucer - блюдце napkin - салфетка
kettle - чайник

N am es o f primary products - Н азвания основны х п родук тов

bread (white, brown) хлеб (бе­ eggs (a dozen eggs) - яйца (дю ­
лый, черный) жина яиц)
meat (beef, pork, lamb, veal) cheese - сыр
мясо (говядина, свинина, ба­ cottage cheese творог
ранина, телятина) sugar сахар
fish, herring - рыба, сельдь honey - мед
butter - масло (животное) sausage - колбаса
sour cream - сметана

Nam es o f dishes - Н азвания б л ю д

soup - суп cabbage soup - щи


clear soup - бульон pea soup гороховый суп
Unit 111 81

chops - отбивные fish and chips рыба с картофе­


beefsteak - бифштекс лем, жаренным соломкой
chicken - курица salad, mixed salad салат, винегрет
macaroni, spaghetti - макароны mashed potatoes - картофельное
fried potatoes - картофель жареный пюре

N am es o f dishes the English people like to have for breakfast:

bacon and eggs бекон с яични- toast and marmalade (marmalade


цей is usually made from oranges
porridge - (овсяная) каша or other citrus fruits) - гренки
jam - варенье, джем с мармеладом (мармелад
muesli (a mixture o f raw grains, обычно делается из апельси­
dried fruit and nuts) - мюсли нов или других цитрусовых)
(смесь злаков, сухих фруктов cornflakes - кукурузные хлопья
и орехов) (ам ер )

A continental breakfast is a light breakfast


that usually consists o f bread, butter, jam and a hot drink,
without any cooked food.

An English breakfast is a breakfast


which consists o f cooked food, such as bacon and eggs,
toast and marmalade and tea or coffee.

N am es o f sw eet things:

pudding - пудинг stewed fruit - компот, консерви­


cake - торт, кекс рованные фрукты
pie - пирог sweets - конфеты
ice-cream - мороженое chocolate - шоколад
jelly - желе

H ere are the names o f things


that make our food more tasty and piquant:

mustard - горчица olive oil - оливковое масло


vinegar - уксус sauce, tomato sauce coyc,
horse-radish - хрен томатный соус
mayonnaise - майонез
82 Essential Course

Learn the names o f som e drinks:

soft drinks (non-alcoholic) без ал­ hard drinks (alcoholic) - крепкие


когольные напитки напитки
tea - чай wine (red, white) - вино (красное,
coffee - кофе белое)
cocoa - какао beer - пиво
milk - молоко champagne шампанское
juice - сок brandy - бренди
squash - фруктовый сок (с гази­ gin джин
рованной водой) rum ром
water - вода vodka водка
soda water - содовая вода whisky - виски
mineral water минеральная вода vintage (wine) a fine wine made
lemonade - лимонад in a particular year - мароч­
coca-cola - кока-кола ное вино

H ere are the nam es o f vegetables you should remember:

potato(es) - картофель vegetable marrow - кабачок


carrot - морковь aubergine (U S egg plant) - баклажан
onion - лук green/red pepper - зеленый/крас­
beetroot - свекла ный перец
garlic - чеснок pea(s) горох
leek - лук-порей green peas зеленый горошек
celery - сельдерей cucumber - огурец
cabbage - капусга bean - б об
cauliflower - цветная капуста pumpkin - тыква
lettuce - салат-латук radish редис
tomato(es) - помидор(ы) turnip - peria

Let’s learn the nam es o f som e berries and fruits:


blackberries - ежевика oranges апельсины
cherries - вишни bananas - бананы
plums - сливы tangerines мандарины
gooseberries - крыжовник cranberries клюква
dates - финики apples - яблоки
peaches - персики quince - айва
(black, red, white) currants - см оро­ strawberries клубника
дина (черная, красная, белая) pears - груши
figs - инжир pomegranate - гранат
apricots - абрикосы raspberries - малина
grapes - виноград melon - дыня
Unit 111 83

water-melon арбуз pineapple ананас


lemon - лимон

Remember the adjectives which people usually use


when they speak about dishes, drinks, fruit, berries:

tasty - вкусный sweet - сладкий


ripe - спелый refreshing - освежающий
tasteless - безвкусный sour - кислый
overripe - переспелый juicy - сочный
delicious - очень вкусный bitter - горький
unripe - недозрелый

Im portant phrases that can com e in handy


when speaking about meals:

to be hungry - хотеть есть, to clear the table - убирать со


to be thirsty хотеть пить стола
to lay the table {laid, laid, laying) to take away the dirty dishes -
накрывать на стол уносить грязную посуду
to sit down to table - садиться к Help yourself to smth/to some
столу food. - Угощайтесь.
to have supper - ужинать Have some more (salad) - Возь­
to sit at table сидеть за столом мите еще (салата).
to be having breakfast - завтракать No more, thank you. - Спасибо,
dinner is ready - о бед готов больше не надо.

EXERCISES
ЕЕ a) S tu d y the given p hrases paying special a tten tio n to the articles: their
absence in the left-hand colum n and th eir usage in the right-hand column:
have breakfast the breakfast was good
before lunch he enjoyed the lunch
at tea prepare/cook (the) dinner
after dinner the dinner was well cooked
stay for supper
breakfast is ready
dinner will be served soon

b) Ask each o th er qu estio n s using the p h rases from bo th colum ns.


Model. When do you usually have dinner?
84 Essential Course

Ш T ra n s la te into E nglish:

1. Я хочу это сделать до завтрака.


2. Когда вы обычно ужинаете? - Я не ужинаю совсем, я стараюсь
похудеть.
3. О бед готов, садитесь к столу.
4. Останьтесь к ужину, пожалуйста. - С удовольствием.
5. Спасибо, мне очень понравился обед.
6. После ужина мы обычно смотрим телевизор.
7. Кто в вашей семье готовит еду? Мама.
8. Завтрак был хорош о приготовлен, и дети наслаждались едой.
9. Давай поговорим о б этом за чаем.
10. Ужин будет скоро подан.

ЕЕ T ra n s la te and tra n sc rib e th e follow ing w ords:

блюдце пудинг десерт половник мармелад


шоколад нож сельдь соус соль
горчица сахар каша колбаса апельсин

ЕЕ H ead the w ords, spell them w ithout loo k in g c ith e r in the te x tb o o k or


in a d ictio n ary :
[spa'getil [Jaem'pein] ['эоЬэзгп] IskwoJ']
['ho:s,raedij) [.meia'neizl ['ra:zbanz] ['beikn]
[sd:s ] ['knhflaoa] [di'lijbs] ['letis]

T hen check th eir spelling using a d ic tio n a ry .

EE A nsw er these questions:


1. H ow many meals a day do you usually have?
2. When do you usually have breakfast (lunch, dinner,tea, sup­
per)?
3. W ho docs the cooking in your family?
4. W ho usually lays the table for breakfast?
5. Which do you prefer, to lay the table or to cook a meal?
6. What things should be put on the table for dinner (tea)?
7. What is your favourite dish? Can you cook it?
8. What products can’t we do without?
9. What do you like for the first course (the second course)?
10. What do you usually have for dessert?
11. What is your favourite drink?
12. What vegetables can you have in winter? Insummer?
13. What berries are your favourite?
14. W ho takes away the dirty dishes after a meal in your family?
15. What should be done with dishes after a meal?
U nit 111 85

Match the beginnings and the ends of the definitions:


1) Breakfast is a) the meat from a sheep that we use as food.
2) Veal is b) a meal that you eat in the evening.
3) Lunch is — c) something you drink or wash yourself in.
4) Water is \ d) the meat o f a cow or bull.
5) Mutton is I e) a meal that you eat in the morning.
6) Supper is \ f) the meat o f a calf used as food.
7) Beef is g) a meal that you eat in the middle o f the day.

Ш Ask your partner what he/she would like to have for the first course.
Use the words from the list:
fish soup tom ato soup mushroom soup
potato soup cabbage soup a plate o f pea soup
noodle soup a glass o f juice

M odel: - What would you like (to have) for the first course?
- I’d like (to have) (some) clear soup.

EB Say what you’d like for dessert. Take the names of the things you
would like from the box:

a banana som e raspberries a cup o f warm milk


an ice-cream a bar o f chocolate a glass o f tomato juice
something tasty a slice o f pineapple a plate o f fresh apricots
a piece o f cake a piece o f apple pie an orange or a tangerine

Model'. I’d like a cake for dessert.

№ Compose sentences of your own matching a phrase from the left-hand


column with the words from the right-hand column:
1. I’d like to have butter
2. I’d like to have some sugar
3. Let me have some a pear
bread
4. Give me some
lunch
5. Let us have
lemonade
6. Give her some cheese
7. Would you like to have ham
8. Will you have some an egg
86 Essential Course

EE Correct the false statements. Don’t forget to begin your sentences


with one of these phrases:
• Not at all. • I don’t think you’re right.
• I don’t agree. • I’m afraid you’re mistaken
1. A sugar-bowl is used for keeping salt in.
2. When you clear the table you bring dishes from the kitchen.
3. Soup is served for dessert.
4. Honey is usually bitter.
5. Sugar is usually salty.
6. Coca-cola is a hard drink.
7. Cauliflower is a very beautiful flower.
8. Cucumbers are red or rosy.
9. Vinegar is used to make food salty.
10. Onion is never put in soup.
11. Pineapples should be eaten when they are unripe.
12. Porridge shouldn’t be given to children.
13. English people never have toast and marmalade.
14. Pudding is a traditional Russian dish.
15. When people arc hungry they drink water.
16. When people arc thirsty they eat bread.
17. Eggs are never fried.
18 A pumpkin is a very small vegetable.
19. Children never have soft drinks.
20. You can grow bananas in Russia.

m a) R ead the senten ces and tra n s la te them in to R ussian:

1. There are two vegetables on the table, an onion and a garlic.


2 We grow many vegetables: potatoes, onions, beans.
3. I don’t like green pepper in my salad.
4. There is too much garlic in the salad
5. Please cut two tom atoes into slices.
6. I prefer beetroot to carrots.
7. Are there many marrows in your vegetable garden this year?
8. I like cauliflower very much. D o you?
9. Let’s make tom ato and cucumber salad with onion.
10. Go to the greengrocer’s and buy a head o f cabbage. I'm going
to cook cabbage soup,
b) M ake up and write ten sentences o f your own using nam es o f vegetables.

ED Read the following definitions and guess w hat vegetables a re described:

1. A very large dark yellow roundish vegetable that grows on the


ground.
2. A soft fleshy juicy red fruit eaten raw or cooked as a vegetable
Unit / / / 87

3. A vegetable with a green skin, flesh and seeds used for giving
a particular hot taste to food.
4. A plant rather like an onion which is used in cooking to give
a strong taste to food.
5. The large green leaves o f any o f several plants, forming a
round, oval or long head, eaten mainly as a raw vegetable in
salads.
6. A vegetable with a fairly long orange-red pointed root.
7. A type o f garden vegetable with green leaves around a large
white head o f undeveloped flowers.
8. A type o f plant with a large purple fruit that is eaten as a
vegetable, usually cooked.
9. A type o f roundish root vegetable with a thin brown or yel­
lowish skin that is cooked and served in many different ways.

£2 T ra n s la te into English:

1. Съешь еще морковку.


2. Х отите еще свеклы?
3. Вы лю бите цветную капусту?
4. Д айте мне еще один помидор. Я их очень люблю.
5. Баклажаны в этом году очень крупные, правда?
6. Х отите еще картошки?
7. Принеси луковицу, я варю капустный суп.
8. Огурец горький?
9. Тыква очень сладкая.
10. Лук-порей, чеснок, сельдерей надо класть в пищу, чтобы она
была вкуснее.
П. Вы выращиваете огурцы? - Нет, мы выращиваем кабачки,
баклажаны, тыкву.
12. Возьми две головки лука и одну чеснока.
13. Что вкуснее: огурцы или кабачки? - Я предпочитаю огурцы.
14. Не трогай тыкву, она еще не созрела.
15. Возьмите несколько листьев салата и положите на хлеб.

S3 a) S a y w hat b erries an d fru it a re yo u r fa v o u rite .

Model. My favourite berries arc cranberries.


My favourite fruit is a pear.

b) S a y which fru its or b erries you p refer.

Model. Personally I prefer peaches to apricots.


or. I like pears more than apples.
8В Essential Course

c) R ead and tra n sla te th ese w ord co m b in atio n s:

dates orange squash overripe bananas


dry figs raspberry jelly black currant jam
sweet pears pineapple juice green gooseberries
quince juice a small apricot a bunch o f grapes
ripe peaches a bowl o f fruit a big pomegranate
overripe figs sour cranberries a piece o f watermelon
an apple pie sweet tangerines strawberries with cream
tasty cherries a plate o f dates a basket o f blackberries
unripe plums a slice o f lemon a handful o f red currants

d) S a y it in English:
кусок дыни спелая ежевика гроздь винограда
пять бананов вкусный инжир груши в белом вине
спелый арбуз сладкая малина клубника со сливками
горсть вишен гранатовый сок корзина с абрикосами
сливовый сок яблочный пирог перезрелый крыжовник
айвовый джем клюквенное желе ананасы в шампанском
чай с лимоном коробка фиников джем из красной см оро­
дины

е) T ra n s la te into E nglish:
1. Бананы очень спелые, правда?
2. Мне бы хотелось клубники со сливками на десерт.
3. Я предпочитаю апельсиновый напиток яблочному соку.
4. Дайте ей немного клюквенного желе.
5. Какие вкусные персики! Дайте мне еще один.
6. Возьмите два апельсина и один большой лимон.
7. Гранаты очень дорогие. Я предпочитаю покупать виноград.
8. Моя сестра любит чай с лимоном, но без сахара.
9. Где вы обычно покупаете смородину и крыжовник? - Я их не
покупаю. У меня есть сад, я выращиваю там разные ягоды.
10. В доме нет никаких фруктов, кроме яблок. Сделаем яблочный
пирог.
11. Какая спелая малина! Д ай мне еще немного.
12. Возьми вон ту корзину и положи в нее 10 абрикосов, 3 гра­
ната, одну айву, 5 персиков и гроздь винограда

ЕЕ G uess w hat it is:


1. Л small red sour-tasting berry used for making a jelly.
2. Л sweet juicy fruit, narrow at the stem end and wide at the othe
3. Л hard round fruit with white juicy flesh and a red, green or yel­
low skin.
Unit III 89

4. A long curved tropical fruit, shaped like a thick finger, with a


yellow skin and a soft sweet inside.
5. A fruit like an orange but with a light yellow skin and sour taste.

m a) M a k e up ex c la m a to ry sen ten ces beginning w ith w hat and how.

M odel: What a big apple! Mow big the apple is!


What big apples! Mow big the apples are!

b) M a k e up m ini-dialogues acco rd in g to the m odel.

Model'. A. What a big pear!


B. Is it? I’ve seen bigger pears.
or: A. What a sweet plum!
B. Is it? I’ve eaten sweeter plums.

TEXT-BASED ACTIVITIES
Before reading the text below m ake sure that yo u can pronounce the
follow ing words correctly:

mystery ['mis tan] random ['raendam] southern ['ялбп]


foreign ['fnrin] proportion [pra'pa:Jn] labourer ['Ieibara]
tendency ['tendansil confuse [kan'fju:z] population [,pt)pju'lei[n|

BRITISH MEALS
Understanding British meals is one of the great mysteries
to a foreign visitor. Over the centuries, the British have shown
a tendency to name and rename their meals, and to move
them about the day in a random fashion. Further to confuse
outsiders, they give different names to each meal depending on
their social class and part of the country they live in.
Breakfast, which was once taken at 5 o’clock in the
morning, can now be at any time before 11.30 It has thus
Overtaken dinner. In the 12th century, dinner was at 9 am, by
the 15th century, it had moved to 11 am, and today it can be
eaten at any time between noon and 2.30 in the afternoon and
is called lunch by a large proportion of the population espe­
cially the middle and upper classes and people from southern
Britain. Many farm labourers, however, who start work at sun­
90 Essen tiaI Course

rise and have their breakfast before they go to work, still stop
for a lunch break at about 9 o’clock
In the 14th century, supper was at 4 o ’clock - which is
now called teatime. But outside the south-east of England,
working families have tea or high tea at about 6 in the eve­
ning while the rest of their fellow countrymen have dinner,
which is often also called supper, at about 7.30 pm.
(From: Anglia, 1989, No 112)

Г73 Find in the text English equivalents for the following:


именовать и переименовывать южная Британия
начинать работу с рассветом работники ферм
завтракать в лю бое время идти на работу
одна из величайших тайн зависеть от
проявлять тенденцию в XII веке
смутить посторонних к XV веку
соотечественники веками

P7i A nsw er the (|uestions:

1. What is one o f the greatest mysteries to a foreign visitor in Britain7


2. What tendency have the British shown over the centuries?
3 What has been done further to confuse outsiders?
4. What does the name o f a meal depend on?
5. When was breakfast once taken?
6. When can breakfast be taken now?
7. When was dinner in Norman times?
8. When was it in the 15th century?
9. When can dinner be eaten today?
10. What is dinner called by a large proportion o f the population7
11. When do many farm labourers start work?
12. When do they have breakfast and lunch?
13. When was supper in the 14th century?
14. Whendo working families outside the south-east o f England have tea7
15. What meal do the rest o f the British have at 7.30 pm?

ГГ! S a y if the p h rase s below a re tru e o r false. I f th ey a re tru e , re p e a t


them . If they a re fa lse, c o rre c t them using the follow ing:

• That’s not right. • I can’t agree.


• That’s wrong surely. • Г’т afraid that’s not so.
• I don’t think that’s right. • On the contrary.

!. Foreign visitors understand British meals very well.


2. The British have never renamed their meals.
Unit 111 91

3. Names o f British meals depend on the part o f the country the


British live in.
4. Breakfast was once taken very early in the morning.
5. Breakfast now should be taken before 8 am.
6. By the 15th century, dinner had moved to 3 in the afternoon
7. Dinner is never called lunch.
8. People from southern Britain never have lunch.
9. Many clerks start work at sunrise.
10. 4 o ’clock is teatime in the south-east o f England.
11. Working families do not have tea at all.
12. Sometimes dinner is called supper

P a ra p h ra s e using th e w ords and p h ra se s from the te x t:

late tea, usually with meat or fish workers o f the farms


people o f one’s own country to mislead strangers
to catch up with dinner without any plan
when the sun’s rising many people

EE You have ju st arrived in B rita in . D iscu ss B ritish m eals with your


B ritish friend.

EH O pen the b ra c k e ts using th e c o rre c t fo rm s o f th e verbs:

1. The British usually (to h iv e ) three or four meals a day which


(to depend) on their social class and the part o f the country
they (to live) in.
2. Breakfast (not to be taken) at 5 o ’clock in the morning now It
(to be eaten) at any time before 11.30. Breakfast (to overtake) dinner
3. She just (to have) breakfast, she (not to be) hungry.
4. We (to have) supper very late yesterday, at 9 o ’clock in the evening.
5. They always (to start) work at sunrise, so they (to get up) still
earlier.
6. Jim already (to start) work, don’t make a noise.
7. I (not to understand) British meals It (to be) a mystery to me.
8. What you (to do) at the moment? - I (to have) dinner.
9. In the 12th century dinner (to be) very early
10. When you usually (to have) lunch?

EE R etell the te x t “ B ritish M e a ls” .

EE T ra n s la te into E nglish:
1. Веками британцы переименовывают свои трапезы, а ино­
странцы не могут этого понять.
2. Если вы посторонний, вы не поймете этих названий.
3. Эти слова трудные, они могут смутить новичка.
92 Essen tial Course

4. Завтракать теперь можно в лю бое время до 11.30.


5. Многие фермеры начинают свой день на рассвете и завтрака­
ют поэтому очень рано.
6. Давайте сделаем перерыв на обед, я очень устала и хочу есть.
7. Она никогда не завтракает перед уходом на работу, она зав­
тракает в 11 часов.
8. Это зависит от того, в какой части страны вы живете.
9. Ранний ужин с чаем («большой чай») распространен на севере
Англии и в Шотландии.
10. Не смущайтесь, садитесь к столу, вы ведь голодны.

ЕЕ Compare British and Russian meals.

EE a) Look at the phrases and remember them:


• to start work • to be at work
• to go to work • to come from work

b) Answer these questions:


1. When docs your mother (father) start work every day?
2. How docs she/he get to work, by metro or by bus?
3. How long does it take her/him to get to work?
4. How long is your mother (father) usually at work?
5. When does she/he normally come from work?

c) Make up a short story using the phrases given above.

EE Fill in prepositions where necessary:


1. My sister has just come ... work and is going to havesupper.
2. If you get ....... sunrise you have a very early breakfast.
3. Understanding Latin grammar is one ... the great mysteries ...
him.
4. She never has dinner ... one and the same time, she moves it ...
the day ... a random fashion.
5. The name ... the meal depends ... your social class and part ...
the country you live ... .
6. Jane says she never has supper late ... night.
7. You can eat dinner ... any time ... noon and 2.30 ... the after­
noon.
8. Let’s stop ... a lunch break, we’re hungry.
9. Be sure to eat something ... you go ... work.
10. The midday meal is called lunch ... many people ... southern
Britain.
11. ... the 15th century, dinner had moved ... 11 am.
12. ... the centuries they have named and renamed their meals.
Unit /// 93

13. The British are proud ... their customs and traditions.
14. It is nice to go ... an outing ... the weekend
15. She doesn’t find it boring to play ... the violin.
16. Mary is a housewife, she does all the work ... the house.
17. The boys are so much alike! I can’t tell one ... the other.
18. D o you find it difficult to make a career ........ business?
19. D o n ’t make fun ... him, he is a sick person.
20. Bring me a couple ... plates, I’m laying ... the table.

m a) Here is a puzzle for you. Look at it and find names of things


that you would find on the (able at mealtimes. The words may ap­
pear in any direction in the grid. One of them is done for you:
SPO O N . Can you find 10 others?

D P В D R E С U A S
A T s С К G N A L E
V L с N L N () E S S
G A I 0 1 A О I. S A
E S T К С U P E S I
E H p E A N s R A В
F A p L A T E G L F.
N О о V О G R A G L
F u R E P P F. P A T
P A T К N I F E R G

b) Now that you have found the names of these things, try to give their
definitions (e.g. A spoon is a tool fo r mixing, serving and eating
food, consisting o f a small howl with a handle). Compare your own
definitions with those from dictionaries.

m Read the text and retell it:

Tea
The English know how to make tea and what it does for you.
Seven cups o f it wake you up in the morning; nine cups will put you
to sleep at night.
If you are hot, tea will cool you off, and if you are cold, it will
Warm you up.
If you take it in the middle o f the morning, it will stimulate you
for further work; if you drink it in the afternoon, it will relax you
for further thought. Then, o f course, you should drink lots o f it in
off hours.
94 Essential Course

EE a) Make sentences with the help of the table:


cups o f coffee
napkins
a few teaspoons
eggs
bananas
salt
W e’d like a little mustard
honey
m ayonnaise
milk
coffee
a lot o f pie
cups o f tea
cakes

b) Mr. Brown went to a party yesterday. Say what food was served.
Use a few , и little, a lot o f in each sentence.

EE a) Fill in the blanks with a, some, any:


1. A. D o you want ... sandwich?
B. Yes, I’d like ... meat sandwich.
A Anything to drink?
В Just ... lemon juice, please.
2. A I’d like ... ice cream
B. ... chocolate one?
A. ... ice-cream will do.
B. Here is ... strawberry ice-cream.
3. A. There isn’t ... milk left I'm going to the shop to buy ... .
B. All right. Oh, we haven’t got ... cheese, either
A. Well, I’ll get ... .

b) Make up a short conversation using some, any, a.

ES a) Pairwork. Head the conversation with a fellow student:


M rs Pip\ Have a biscuit!
Jenny. I don’t want a biscuit.
Mrs. Pip\ Have an apple!
Jen n y: I don’t want an apple.
Mrs. Pip. Have som e tea!
Jenny: I don’t like tea.
Mrs. Pip: Well then, have some coffee.
Jenny: I don’t like coffee either
Unit III 95

M rs Pip. Try som e strawberries.


Jenny: 1 detest strawberries.
Mrs. Pip: Mow about some nuts ...
Jenny: I hate nuts.
M rs Pip: You don’t want a biscuit or anapple. You d o n ’t
like tea or coffee. You detest strawberries and nuts.
All right ... Starve!

b) Transform the dialogue into indirect speech.

c) Say what things you don’t want or don’t like.

Щ Put the verbs in the correct form:


1. You (lo b e ) hungry, (to sit down) to table Mum (to bring) the
soup.
2. Who usually (to clear) the table after supper?
3. Please (lo take away) the dirty dishes. I (to be) pressed for time
4. I’d like (to treat) you to this apple pie. I (to hope) it (to be)
very tasty.
5. Let’s (to have) som e more mashed potatoes. 1 (to be) still hungry.
6. What she (to do) now? She (to lay) the table.
7. Let’s (to treat) them to som e juice. I (to think) they (to be)
thirsty.
B. Supper (to be) ready, but she (to say) she (not to be) hungry.
9. He (to be) thirsty? - Yes, he (to be).
10. Let me (to take away) the dirty dishes. I (to see) you (to be)
tired
11. Where (to be) tea? Why (not to be) tea ready? Why (not to
bring) you tea in? It (to be) just ready, Mr Smith. I (to bring)
it now. 1 (to set) just the table ready.
12 W ho (to do) the cooking in your big family?Our grandmother
usually (to do). She (to like) it very much because she (to be) a
cook when she (to be) young.

EE Read the joke and retell it:


“When 1 serve dinner should 1 say, ‘Dinner is ready’ or Dinner
is served?'” the new cook asked her mistress.
“If you cook it the way you cooked it yesterday, just say,
‘Dinner is ruined,”’ said the lady o f the house.

EE Fill in prepositions where necessary:


L Mr. Lucas was ... the kitchen drinking coffee ... my mother. I'hc
room was full ... smoke. They were laughing but when I went ...,
they stopped.
96 Essential Course

2. We had Dom estic Science today. We did baked potatoes ... the
oven ... cheese filling. My potatoes were bigger than anyone clse's
so they weren’t properly cooked ... the time the lesson ended
3. I cooked a big dinner ... them tonight. lu'O poached eggs ...
beans, and tinned semolina pudding. It’s a good job. I wore the
green lurex apron because the poached eggs escaped ......... the
pan and got all ... me.
4. My mother has not done any proper housework ... days now. All
she docs is go ... work, comfort Mr. Lucas and read and smoke.
5. Lucy rose ... six ... the next morning. She did ... the house, pre­
pared vegetables, cooked and served ... breakfast.
6. My parents arc eating different things ... different times, so I
usually have six meals ... a day because 1 don’t want to hurt
anyone’s feelings.
7. A" few minutes later, covered ... chocolate sauce ... car ... ear, he
scraped his spoon furiously against the bottom ... the cup so that
not a drop should be wasted, and told her all ... his life ... his
French Lycee.
8. Cody and Ezra and Jenny went shopping ... a Christmas present
... their mother.
9. ... supper she helped ... the dishes, placing each clean plate and
glass ... open wooden shelves.
10. She rose and dressed, piled her hair ... the head the same as al­
ways, and cooked oatmeal ... the children's breakfast.

m Fill in articles where necessary:


I I went down to ... dinner that night feeling that ... whole o f
life had become suddenly unreal.
2. After ... dinner I was standing by ... drawing-room window
looking out into ... garden and thinking back to ... time when 1
had seen Cynthia Murdoch.
3. It was, I think, on ... following morning before ... lunch that ...
conversation took place which left me vaguely disquieted.
4. As ... matter o f fact, she added thoughtfully, I’ve never really
known ... difference between ... pumpkin and ... vegetable marrow.
5. Hcrculc Poirot put .. piece o f ... sausage into his mouth and fol­
lowed it up w'ith ... sip o f ... lea. ... tea was strong and to Poirot
singularly unpalatable. ... sausage, on ... other hand, was delicious
6. “ ... Young people w'ith ... healthy appetite,” said Mrs. Hubbard
“They get ... good breakfast and ... decent evening meal
plain food but nourishing."
7. After ... early dinner they all went o ff to His M ajesty’s Theatre.
8. ... deceased looked like ... hearty eater. If he had had ... big
breakfast, that would slow things up
Unit 111 97

9. “It’s not ... blackberry jelly, sir,” he said. “It’s ... marmalade."
10. Mary stood for ... moment in ... hall. ... large tray with cakes on
it was standing on one o f ... hall chests.

m Translate into English:


1. Папа только что пришел с работы и сейчас ужинает. Он ест
жареную картошку с рыбой и салат из помидоров.
2. Что вы обычно едите на десерт? - Пару яблок или груш,
иногда стакан компота.
3. Я не хочу есть этот суп, он невкусный.
4. Не смущайтесь, скажите, что вы хотели бы на второе. - Не­
много баранины с цветной капустой или картофельным пюре
5. Пожалуйста, купи мне плитку шоколада и порцию малиново­
го или бананового мороженого. - Х орош о.
6. Огурцы перезрелые, а помидоры недозрелые Будем делать са­
лат? - Непременно, я давно не ел никакого салата.
7. Давай выпьем кофе с молоком. - Л адно, но вообще я хочу
просто стакан апельсинового сока.
8. Ты уже позавтракал? Тогда убери и вымой посуду. Не будь
лентяем.
9. Ты знаешь, что приезжает тетя Энн9 - Д а, я уже накрыла
стол на пятерых.
10. Садись к столу, бабушка уже несет суп. Какой? - Горохо­
вый. - Я не очень люблю его. - Я тоже не люблю, но давай
не обижать бабушку.
11. Он может есть в лю бое время, он всегда голоден. В то же
время он худой как щепка.
12. Ты уже вымыла посуду? Молодец!
13. Нам бы хотелось купить корзину вишен и сварить варенье.
14. Если у вас есть сад, то вы, конечно, выращиваете черную
смородину, клубнику и крыжовник.
15. Хотите бутерброд с сыром? - С удовольствием А я могу вам
предложить бутерброд с ветчиной. - Нет, спасибо.
16. Когда ты обычно завтракаешь? - В двенадцать дня Почему
так поздно? - Потому что я встаю в половине двенадцатого
- Тогда переименуй завтрак в обед.
17- Добавь майонеза в салат, он будет вкуснее.
18. Стакан обыкновенного безалкогольного напитка содержит
около пяти столовых ложек сахара.
19. Ешьте больше несоленых орехов и сухих фруктов, если хотите
похудеть.
20. Старайтесь пить чай и кофе без сахара.
98 Essential Course

SPEAKIN G PRACTICE

Before reading the dialogue below m ake sure that yo u can pronounce
the follow ing words correctly

chief [tji.fj recommend [.reka'mend] Arthur l'a:0o]


hotel [hao'tel] menu 1'menju:] salmon I'saeman]
Anderson I'aendasari) trout [traot] Scotch [skntjl
Dover ['dauval Manchester ['maentjastaj

DIALOGUE
A rthur and his ch ie f engineer, Don Anderson, went to a sm all town
near M anchester last week. They went on business and they had to
sta y the night in a sm all hotel They h ad to eat in the hotel, too

Don: C a n ’t w e eat so m ew h ere else, A rthur? Very few h otels


like this serve g o o d fo o d .
A r th u r : I k n o w , but there isn ’t a n y w h ere else in this to w n B e­
sid es, th e w a iter’s c o in in g o v er for o u r order now .
W aiter: G o o d even in g. W o u ld y o u like to order now ? 1 can
recom m en d th e roast beef. It’s very g o od .
A rth u r: N o , I'm afraid I d o n ’t lik e roast beef. Let m e see ...
W hat else h a v e y o u g o t o n y o u r m enu? Y o u order first.
D on.
Don: A ll right. R o a st b e e f for m e, p lease. But I d o n ’t w ant
any p o ta to e s. I’m trying to lo se so m e w eight.
A rth u r: I think I’d lik e so m e fish. Y es, so m e S cotch sa lm o n ,
please.
W aiter: Hr ... I’m afraid w e h a v e n ’t got an y sa lm o n this ev e n ­
ing, sir. T h e roast b e e f s really very g o o d in d eed , sir.
A rth u r: N o . If I c a n ’t h ave any sa lm o n , I’d like so m e trout.
W aiter: I’m terribly sorry, sir, but I ’m afraid w e ... er ...
A rth u r: Y o u m ean y o u h a v en ’t g o t any tro u t, either!
W aiter: N o , sir. I’m afraid n o t, sir.
A rth u r: W ell ... hm m ... I su p p o se y o u have so m e D o v e r sole,
then?
W aiter: D o v e r sole? D id y o u say D o v e r so le, sir?
A rth u r: Y es, th a t’s right, I’d like so m e D o v er so le w ith som e ...
W aiter: T h ere’s very little g o o d D o v er so le on the m arket at this
tim e o f th e year, sir. O ur roast b e e f s m uch better!
Unit III 99

I’m sure it is, but I don’t like roast beef. I’d still like ...
A rth u r:
W aiter: Try the roast beef, sir.
Why? I don’t like roast beef! I never eat roast beef! In
A rth u r:
fact, I hate roast beef.
W aiter: Well ... I’m afraid we haven’t got anything else, sir.

Ш Find in the dialogue English equivalents for the following:


ты заказывай первым официант худеть
обслуживать, подавать в продаже форель
поехать в командировку заказывать камбала
остановиться на ночь в ма- быть в меню лососина
леньком отеле

ЕЕ Answer these questions:


1 Why did Arthur and his chief engineer go to a small town near
Manchester last week?
2. Where did they stay the night?
3. Where did they have to eat9
4. Were there many places in that town where good food was served?
5. What did the waiter recommend them?
6. Arthur asked roast beef, didn’t he?
7. What was Don Anderson going to take?
8. .Why couldn’t Arthur have Scotch salmon?
9. Why couldn’t the waiter bring Arthur trout?
10. How did the waiter explain the absence o f Dover sole on their
menu?
11. Was there anything on the menu besides the roast beef?

EE Say if the phrases below are true or false. If they are true, repeat
them. If they are false, correct them using the following:
• I don’t think it’s right. • On the contrary.
• N o , it’s wrong. • I’m afraid it isn’t so.
• N ot at all.

1. Arthur and D on Anderson went to a small town for enjoyment.


2. They had to stay the night at their friends’.
3. They didn’t have to eat in the hotel.
4. Don Anderson remarked that they usually didn’t serve good food
at hotels like that.
5. Arthur said there were a lot o f places where they could have a
meal in that town.
6. The waiter said there was good roast beef on the menu.
7. Arthur ordered the roast beef but Don Anderson refused to have it
100 Essential Course

8. Don Anderson was trying to put on som e weight


9. The waiter assured Arthur that he could have both Scotch
salmon arid trout.
10. Arthur liked Dover sole.
11. The waiter said he would bring Dover sole at once.
12. Arthur agreed to have roast beef in the end.

EE Paraphrase using the words and phrases from the text:


to be a guest at a hotel for a time to become thinner
a list o f dishes in a meal for sale
to ask for something to bebrought in this season
in return for payment to offer food for eating

Kill in the blanks with the pronouns some, any, anything, somewhere,
anywhere-.
1. We can’t eat ... else.
2. Can we cat ...?
3. They haven’t got ... salmon on the menu today.
4 He says he is trying to lose ... weight.
5. Are you trying to lose ... weight9
6 If I can't have ... peaches, I’d like ... apricots.
7. Have you got ... tasty on the menu9
8. Can’t you have a meal ... else? - I’m afraid there isn’t ... else in
this village.
9. Is there ... soup for dinner today?
10. I’d like ... mashed potatoes with .. meat to begin with. - Sorry,
we haven’t got ... except hot tea on the menu

EE Transform the dialogue into indirect speech. Vary the reporting verbs
(to ask, to wonder, to want to know, to remark, to greet, to agree, to ob­
ject, to murmur, to he in douht, to hesitate, to suppose, to tell, to say).
Model: D on wonders if they can eat somewhere else, as there are
very few small hotels that serve good food.

EE Retell the conversation in the person of: a) Arthur, b) Don Anderson,


c) the waiter.

Translate the word combinations into Knglish paying special attention


to the prepositions:
no делу за обедом с работы зависеть от
в отеле на первое па работе в это время года
в меню на работу на рассвете отправиться в боль­
на десерт за столом в продаже шой город
Unit 111 101

m Translate into English in writing:


1. Разве мынеможем поужинать в шесть часов?
2. Разве мынеможем пообедать пораньше?
3. Разве тынеможешь позавтракать вовремя?
4. Здесь очень хорош о кормят.
5. В этом кафе плохо кормят.
6. Официант уже идет к нашему столу.
7. Неужели официант не может подойти к нашему столу?
8. Мне бы хотелось заказать обед. Что вы можете порекомендо­
вать?
9. Что у вас в меню?
10. Я вижу, что у вас в меню есть ростбиф, но я предпочитаю
бифштекс.
11. Я не хочу картошки, дайте мне, пожалуйста, салат из моркови.
12. Хотите картошки? Боюсь, что у нас больше ничего нет.
13. Мне бы хотелось немного лососины. - У нас сегодня нет в
меню лососины. Возьмите форель, она очень свежая.
14. Что вы предпочитаете, форель или камбалу? - Форель, она
вкуснее.
15. В это время года в продаже мало рыбы.
16. В продаже много капусты в это время года?
17. Она никогда не ест мяса, она говорит, что предпочитает рыбу.
18. Дайте мне попробовать яблоко из вашего сада. Д а, ваши йб-
лрки гораздо лучше наших. Наши слегка горчат.
19. Пришло лето, ешьте больше овощей и ягод.
20. Давайте купим арбуз на десерт. Говорят, они в этом году
сочные и сладкие, слаще, чем в прошлом году.

a) Look at the table and make up questions:


have you got on the menu?
would you like to have for dessert?
What else is Ihere on the table?
can you recommend?
shall we order?
can do the job?
Who else did you see there?
is going to have supper with us?
can I have a meal?
Where else can we stay the night?
is it possible to buy fish9

b) Make up short conversations with your partner using the questions


beginning with What else, Who else, Where else.
102 Essential Course

m Fill in prepositions where necessary:


1. I had to hurry ... home ... Kensington so as not to be late
dinner.
2. ... a silver dish the Christmas pudding reposed ... its glory.
3. Gently, Hercule Poirot attacked ... his portion ... pudding He ate
a mouthful It was delicious! He ate another. Something tinkled
faintly ... his plate. He investigated ... a fork.
4. The laughter went ... . N obody noticed that Mr.Poirot carelessly
as though thinking ... som ething else, had dropped the red stone
... his pocket.
5 “G ood morning,” she said, as the two men took their seats ... a
corner table. “Y ou’re lucky today - turkey stuffed ... chestnuts
that’s your favourite, isn’t it7"
6. He sat down ... the same table which he had shared ...Bonning-
ton. The girl who served ... him was not M olly.
7. Scarlatti’s was the neighbourhood’s one formal elegant eating
place. It served only supper, mostly ... people ... better parts ...
the city.
8 Men ... dirty aprons were rushing ... the kitchen
9. “Maybe you could invite me ... your restaurant ... supper,” Jane
told ... Ezra.
10. ... the chilly light ... the window, the restaurant seemed empty.
One long table was covered ... white linen, set ... crystal and
china.
11. ... a late supper they had gone ... bed and slept ... it was time ...
breakfast ... nine o ’clock ... the morning
12. Teatime ... the kitchen was often a social reunion. Jane had in­
numerable friends and one or two ... them dropped . . nearly
every day. Trays ... hot cakes came ... ... the oven

m a) Read the dialogue with a fellow student paying special attention to


italicized words:

ЛT Л RESTAURANT
John How is your beef7
M r Smith: It’s fin e. Very tender. My meal is very well cooked I
must remember the name o f this place. H ow ’s your
lunch?
John It’s delicious. The vegetables are especially tasty, not
undercooked but still fir m and with a hue', you know?
But you are not eating any bread. N othing wrong with
it, is there?
Mr. S m ith : N o , no. It’s just as I like it - fresh and with a lovely
chewy texture. And the beer has a good rich flavour too.
Unit III 103

John: What about a pudding now, and a coffee to finish? I


love the old-fashioned English dishes they do here
Y ou know the sort o f thing, with lots o f thick, smooth
custard.
Mr. Smith: N o , I don’t think I will, thank you. I’ve had quite
enough o f this delightful fo o d to eat any more would
just be greedy.
(From Anglia, No. 86, 1983)

b) Answer the questions using the italicized words from the conversation:
1. What do you say if you are having beef and you like it?
2. How should vegetables be cooked to bedelicious?
3. What bread do you like?
4. What puddings do English people like?
5. What do you say if you like the food you are eating?

c) Here are the antonyms of the words which arc italicized in the dia­
logue “At a R estaurant”. Reread the conversation so that it sounds
highly critical of the meal:
awful; tough; badly cooked; disgusting; tasteless; overcooked; soft;
mushy; stale; with a texture like cotton wool; a poor, watery flavour;
thin, lumpy; appalling

d) .Translate the word combinations into Russian. Then use them in sen­
tences of your own:
a badly-cooked meal; tough mutton; disgusting lunch; tasteless
vegetables; overcooked carrots; soft and mushy beets;stale bread, wa­
tery milk; thin, lumpy custard; appalling food

e) imagine that you’ve come to a cafe or a restaurant. One of you


likes the food, the other doesn’t. Discuss your dinner using the words
from the dialogue “At a R estaurant”.

m a) Read the following conversation. Pick out as many useful expres­


sions about meals as you can:
- May I have some bread?
- O f course, you may.
- And som e butter.
- I don’t know if there’s any butter in the house. There may be
some in the kitchen.
- I adore bread and butter, don’t you?
- Rather. But we eat very simply here I hope you w on’t mind
- Oh, no, I like my food very plain. A s long as I can have
bread and butter and potatoes and cream I’m quite happy
104 Essential Course

It’s such a pity we can’t get cream here. Have a pear, please.
It is delicious. Then I’ll serve coffee.
- The pear isn’t sweet enough, pass me the bowl with powdered
sugar.
- You have a sweet tooth. D o n ’t you ever think o f your figure?
- The doctor says I must eat.
- D oes he say you must eat bread and butter and potatoes and
cream?
- Yes.
- Y ou’ll get simply enormous.
- N o, I shan’t. You see, nothing ever makes me fat.

b) Read the conversation again. Complete the sentences trying to re­


member the exact phrases from the conversation:
May I have .. I don’t know if there is I adore
We cat ... I like my food .
Have ... . It is ... .
I’ll serve... . Pass me ... .
Y ou ’ll get... N othing ever makes me

c) Act out the conversation with a partner.

m Look through the conversation below and continue it:


Mrs. Brown\ Lucy, John will be here tomorrow.
Lucy. Yes, mother, I’ll see the room is prepared.
M rs Brown: H e’ll arrive in the morning before lunch. I expect
he’ll be hungry.
Lucy. I bet he will. Roast beef, do you think? And per­
haps treacle tart?
Mrs. Brown. John is very fond o f treacle tart.
Lucy.
Mrs. Brown.

Fill in prepositions where necessary:


1 I am thirsty Put the kettle ..., please. 1 obey ... pleasure.
2. If you can’t cook open a tin ... soup.
3. I like to have a glass ... milk ... going ... bed
4. Switch ... the fire, it is very cold ... the room.
5. You can have what you like ... dinner.
6. I’m watching this programme because it happens to be ... .
7. Let me cook something ... you.
8. Lunch is a meal the English have ... the middle ... the day.
9. What would you like ... the second course?
10. I like the bread it’s fresh and ... a lovely chewy texture.
Unit Ш 105

11. He says he has had enough ... this delightful food


12. Pass ... me the bowl ... sugar, the strawberries are not sweet
enough.
13. The English are fond ... puddings.
14. Tell her to put the pan ... the oven.
15. The dish is ready, take it ....... the oven, please.

EE a) Read the dialogue thoroughly, copy out all the phrases that may
come in handy when discussing meals.
Mary: If you came in to help I’d rather you helped. Here -
turn all these potatoes over so that they brown on the
other side.
B ryan: I obey with pleasure.
Mary: N ow put the pan in the oven. Here, take the cloth.
Bryan: Oh!
Mary: Burned yourself?
Bryan: Just a bit. It doesn’t matter. What a dangerous game
cooking is!
M ary: I suppose you never do your own cooking.
Bryan: As a matter o f fact I do - quite often But not this sort
o f thing. I can boil an egg - if I d on ’t forget to look at
the clock. And I can do eggs and bacon. And I can put
a steak under the grill or open a tin o f soup.
b) ” Retell the dialogue in the person of Mary.
c) Say whether you ever do your own cooking.
d) Look through the list of dishes and say whichyou can cook:
fish and chips beefsteak roast turkey
whipped cream withstrawberries pancakes pudding
tomato and cucumber salad raspberry jam omelette
scrambled eggs noodle soup marmalade

c) Which of the dishes do the English prefer? Which of them do you like?

EE a) Look through the text, insert the necessary articles:


He went into ... kitchen and put on som e potatoes to boil. He
liked ... potatoes. He opened ... tin o f ... ham, and when ...potatoes
were almost ready, he made ... soup out o f ... packet. At ... table in
his sitting-room he drank ...soup out o f ... mug, ate ... ham and ...
potatoes and finished up with ... slice o f ... ginger cake He dran
little red wine mixed with ... water.

h) What do you think of the man having a meal like that? Is he mar­
ried or unmarried? Give your reasons.
106 Essential Course

EE a) Read this dialogue. The remarks of the speakers are mixed up.
You should think a little and write the dialoguedown correctly.
- Mushroom soup out o f a tin, I suppose?
- H alf a pound o f m ushroom s, chicken stock, milk, some but­
ter and flour, and lemon juice.
- I did.
- Out o f what?
Certainly not. I made it.
- W ho cooked the dinner?
- M ushroom soup. Chicken and rice.
- And what was it? In detail.

b) After you’ve written down the dialogue, think of a similar one of


your own.

EE Fill in the blanks with prepositions or adverbs:


1. W e’ll take her a bunch ... flowers and a box ... chocolates ...
soft centres.
2. He was not looking ... the letter, he was looking ... the toast-
rack.
3. ... dessert there was vanilla ice-cream that C lothilde had made
... that morning, and hot chocolate sauce.
4. Axel Jordache put the goose ........ the table ... satisfaction He
had spent all morning ... preparing ... the meal. He carved the
bird roughly, but com petently, and set ... huge portions ... all.
He had bought two bottles ... R iesling and he filled all their
glasses. He raised his glass ... a toast. “ ... my son R udolph, ...
his birthday,” he said.
5. ... dinner they talked ... the wedding.
6. Clothilde came ........ Thom as’s bacon and eggs. When he fin­
ished breakfast Thom as stood ... .
7. Perkins took ... the fish dishes and served som e chops and
baked potatoes.
8. ... eleven o ’clock they sat ......... strong tea and biscuits ... the
kitchen.
9. They had decided to live simply ... bread and cheese and salads
... olives and the plentiful fruit ... the season, figs and melons
and warm golden apricots.
10. We get awful meat ... school, all dried ... .
11. His breakfast consists ... a sandwich and a cup ... coffee ...
milk.
12. She sipped noisily ... her cocoa.
13. He said the turkey was a little fatty ... his taste.
Unit /// 107

ш a) Head and translate the following sentences, paying special attention


to the words and phrases referring to the topic “ Meals” :
1. Crystal got up and began to warm our supper and put it on
the table (scrambled eggs and baked beans, follow ed by stewed
apples and cream).
2. On Tuesdays supper was always the same. It consisted o f
tinned tongue with instant mashed potatoes and peas, followed
by biscuits and cheese and bananas.
3. lie sipped noisily at his coffee.
4. Rudolph ate the goose delicately. It was a little fatty to his
taste.
5. Mrs. Thom pson was rolling som e pastry when I went down­
stairs.
6. “Florence always made the most delicious tea cakes,” said Miss
Marple.
7. She sat down and began to peel m ushroom s.
8. In her bicycle basket there was m ilk, eggs, coffee, tom atoes,
cheese, olives, the day’s bread
9. There were tiny cucumber sandwiches and others filled with
egg, cream crackers spread with shrimp paste, hot buttered
scones, home-made cherry jam , delicious short-bread biscuits.
She had also made a huge pot o f tea Mrs. Fairley preferred.
10. A s for what he ate, it was the sam e as everybody else had
Soup, grilled sole, pheasant and chipped potatoes and chocolate
souffle.
11. I suppose she’s used the onions and carrots we had in the
vegetable rack. I thought I could smell carrots.
12. He said that they had eaten tinned beef, together with rice and
tinned peas.

b) Translate the following phrases into English in writing:


на мой вкус утка жирновата разогреть обед
печь самые вкусные торты печеный картофель
консервированная свинина грушевый компот
горячие ячменные лепешки чистить картошку
домашний джем из крыжовника растворимый кофе
чувствовать запах чеснока сухое печенье
печенье из песочного теста спелые бананы
картофель, жаренный тонкими потягивать лимонад
ломтиками

с) Make up and write down 10 sentences of your own with the phrases
from (b).
юн Essential Course

ш a) Read the short text, write out all the unknown words and trans­
late them:
There were hot buttered scones, thin slices o f bread and butter,
home-made strawberry jam , clotted cream, wafer-like sandwiches o f
cucumber, tom atoes, and smoked salm on, sweet biscuits, and a fruit
cake decorated on the top with almonds. It was a real old-fashioned
Yorkshire tea.

b) Answer these questions:


1. In what part o f Great Britain is Yorkshire situated?
2. What is real Russian tea? What dishes should be put on the tabled

m a) Translate the text into Russian with the help of a dictionary.

EATING OU T
Eating out? London offers som ething for everyone, rich and
poor. At the top end o f the scale are som e o f the finest and
grandest eating places in Europe, such as the Connaught ['knnatl
Hotel. There you will find a warmly panelled room, fastidious w ait­
ers and superb French and English cuisine. The C hef is famous and
the restaurant must be treated with respect - no open-necked shirts
or trouser-suits here. Y ou must also be rich enough not to worry
about the bill.
The working Londoner often thinks more o f his beer than his
food. Many cheap cafes offer the same m onotonous menus o f
“meat and two vegs”, “fish and chips”, “beans on toast”. But if
you search away from the busy main streets you can find all kinds
o f places that are highly popular, not only for their price or con ­
venience, but for their food
The traditional fish and chip cafe is hard to find now in cen­
tral London. It has been superseded by Am crican-style fried chicken
and hamburger bars But you can still find them. There is no decor
or table service. But the service is quick and the place clean.
In the city o f London are many lunch places. A fixed menu o f
three courses may cost less than a starter at one o f the grander es­
tablishments. There is a cheerful waitress calling “ love” 0 1 “dear"
to her regulars. The food can be unexcitingly English: steak-and-
kidney pie, spotted-dick, roly-poly pudding and custard. But at least
the service is quick and the bill modest.
(From: London Life by Sandra Alfry, 1978)

b) Write or speak about eating out in your native town.


Unit III 109

a) Read the recipe for southern-fried chicken:


flour for coating Season the flour with a little salt,
salt and pepper a generous amount o f pepper and
1 - \ 'h teaspoons grated the nutmeg Dip the chicken pieces
nutmeg into the milk, then coat thoroughly
4 chicken pieces with flour D ip into the milk again,
5 tablespoons milk then coat again with flour.
oil for shallow frying Pour oil into a deep frying pan
parsley sprig to garnish to a depth o f about 2.5 cm. Heat
the oil, then add the chicken pieces
and fry for 20 minutes, turning
once. Drain well. Garnish with
parsley and serve hot or cold with
a salad Serves 4

b) Suggest a recipe of your own, write it down.

EE Match the vegetables and fruit below with their common nicknames:
1. Kiwi fruit a. Chinese gooseberry
2. Tomato b Zucchini
3 Aubergine с Love apple
4. Courgette d Fgg plant
110 Essential Course

Ш Why not read a poem? Do read this one! You arc sure to enjoy it.
If you really like it, learn the poem by heart.

FRUIT SALAD
Sitting in a fruit bowl,
An apple and a plum
Decided to get married
And they had to tell her mum,

But when they plucked up courage,


Her mother had a fit,
Her father said, “She’s much too young;
I think you’d better split ’

The apple bought a ladder,


He wept and prayed and hoped,
And then one stormy evening,
The pair o f them eloped.

They caught a bus to Moora


And took a train from there,
Then flew across to Melbourne
To live with his Aunt Pear.

For weeks they were so happy;


They swam down at the beach.
But then their life was shattered;
He ran o ff with a peach.

And plum, though broken-hearted,


She didn’t sit and rot,
She boarded out the children,
And wed an apricot.

Answer to crossword puzzle on p. 74:

I apartment; 2 cottage, 3 chalet; 4 hotel, 5. home; 6 room, 7 bun­


galow; 8. bedsit, 9 palace; 10 hut; I! divan; 12 mansion, 13 tent
UNIT IV |

“The time has come,” the Walrus said,


“To talk of many things:
Of shoes - and ships and sealing wax
- Of cabbages and kings ... .”
L. Carroll Through
the Looking-Glass and
What Alice Found There

LET'S GO SHOPPING
£ G R A M M A R EXERCISES
Before yo u start doing the exercises m ake sure that you remember
how to handle

• th e d e g r e e s o f c o m p a r iso n o f a d je c tiv e s ,
e.g. You look five years younger in this dress.
It’s the best thing I’ve ever bought
The wind is severer today than yesterday,
- or: The wind is more severe.
Is he older than you?
But: He is my elder brother.

• the P a s t C o n tin u o u s T e n s e ,
eg The girl was trying on a new smart blue suit
When I entered the shop, the shop-assistant was showing
her a set o f handkerchiefs.
What were you doing at 11 o ’clock last night? - 1 was
knitting a new sweater.
Ann burnt her hand while she was ironing the linen

• th e P ast P e r fe c t T en se,
eg The salesman told the girl that someone had already
b ought those shoes.
He said he had done all the shopping for the weekend
When she looked into the fitting-room Mary had already
taken o ff the coat, she was putting on her old jacket
Essential Coarse

П a) Write the degrees of comparison of the adjectives as in the model:


Model: nice - nicer nicest
tiny - tinier - tiniest
zed - redder reddest
careful - more careful - most careful

big tidy cool heavy thin thick


narrow good bad difficult easy tall
cold hot funny beautiful cheap dirty
clean sweet far expensive blue fat

b) Transcribe all the above adjectives in the comparative and superlative


degrees.

0 Open the brackets using the adjectives in the comparative degree:


1. So now I know where Pandora lives. I had a good look at the
house. It is much (big) than ours.
2. D o you sec how the red o f the apple is touched by yellow? And
do you sec where the yellow becomes (bright), just at the side?
3. “W hat’s he like nowadays?” said Mrs. Oliver “A good deal (old)
than he was,” said Poirot. “N aturally,” said Mrs. Oliver, “what
else w'ould you expect? Is he (deaf) or (blind) or (fa t) or (thin)?"
4. His father had grown (grey) and (quiet) after his w ife’s death
5. Perhaps it would have been (wise) if she had kept him by her side.
6. She always chose the (old) men.
7. The sofa and chairs were covered in a floral chintz that had once
been vivid and colourful but had long ago faded into (soft) tones.
8. Sarah saw him bend his head slowly in agreement and knew that
he had agreed to stay against his (good) judgment.
9. “Funny,” said the mechanic again with a (deep) interest.
10. Look, let’s find a (good) place to sit down. It’s too dark here.
11. Marijohn was the child o f a deceased (young) brother o f his.
12. I don’t really think he is much (selfish) than he was, perhaps
rather (thoughtless) and inconsiderate.

0 Open the brackets using the adjectives in the superlative degree:


1. Jon flung himself down in the (near) armchair.
2. “Rudolph was the (bright) pupil I ever taught,” Miss Lenaut said
3. She rushed to Mrs. Oliver w'ho was the (near) person.
4. Perry and Meggy soon found themselves jammed into the narrow,
dark room that was perhaps the (noisy) place in Paris.
5. A ntoine was the (famous) hairdresser in the world. Twenty years
before he had invented bobbed hair.
6. “This porch is always the (cool, sweet) place,” said Harlan.
Unit IV 113

7. “Have a lovely wedding, w on’t you?” she said acidly in her (soft,
sweet) voice.
8. I thought it was the {good) way o f showing I was on your side.
9. The {bad) thing possible happened - Eve had heard I was back
from St. Ives.
10. Max started to expound the virtues o f his (late) car.
11. I am reading “Crime and Punishment”. It is the (true) book I
have ever read.
12. I’ll make you the {famous) correspondent in town.
13. It was the {dangerous) thing that could have happened
14. He pretended he hadn’t the {faint) idea what I was talking about.
15. Her {small) suitcase was on the floor o f the cupboard
16. If you leave Jon now it would be the {bad)thing you could pos­
sibly do.

2 Translate into English in writing:


1. On говорит, что это самое вкусное блю до, которое он когда-
либо пробовал.
2. Мне бы хотелось снять квартиру получше. Эта слишком тем­
ная и неуютная.
3. Это самый маленький коттедж, который я когда-либо видел.
4. Она считала, что у него самые голубые в мире глаза.
5. Иди в самый дальний угол сада и сорви самый крупный пер­
сик. Я знаю, что ты очень любишь персики.
6. Ты располнела. Ты ешь слишком много сладостей
7. О н более эгоистичен, чем его брат.
8. Возьмите вон тот стул, он более удобен, чем этот.
9. Вам следует быть внимательнее к людям.
10. Это самый большой дом на окраине нашего города. И самый
некрасивый, по-моему.
11. Покажите, пожалуйста, сумку подороже.
12. Мы только что купили пылесос. Он был самый дешевый в
магазине.
13. Он стал хуже видеть и слышать, мне его жаль.
14. Эта леди - самое хитрое существо, какое я когда-либо встречал.
15. У Эркюля Пуаро были /шинные усы, которыми он страшно
гордился.
16. Дай мне грушу поспелее.
17. Кто выше - вы или ваш отец? - Отец. Он самый высокий из
всех родственников.
18. Ваша квартира лучше моей.
19. Ее ответ гораздо хуже вашего.
20. Наш сын более робкий, чем их. Мы должны помочь ему
быть более общительным.
114 Essential Course

2 Add already, y e t, still or always as appropriate:


1. At 11 o ’clock this morning Torn was ... in bed
2. Although he is only four years old, he can read quite well ... .
3. Ann was ... working when Nick went to bed, but at seven
o ’clock she was ... up again.
4. She ... used to get up at five in the morning, and she ... does
5. I phoned her just now, but she isn’t back ...
6. You had breakfast only an hour ago. You can’t be hungry ...
7. Is John ... here? - N o , he’s ... gone to school.
8. I’ve had your book for two weeks ..., but I haven’t read it ...

Q Change the order of words to form 8 complete sentences. Write down


the sentences.
1) not o f enough got pair I buy shoes to have money a;
2) hardly had up when loudly phone rang the he got;
3) morning by school to bus in goes usually the he;
4) certainly well very play she piano the can;
5) Peter neither knows nor best station to way the John;
6) surely enough understand the old problems are to;
7) yet to we Oxford been not have new Street in shop the;
8) ordered policeman the car not man to the move his.

Q Open the brackets using the verbs in the correct tenses: the Past In­
definite Tense, the Past Continuous Tense or the Past Perfect Tense:
1. My suitcases (to be) in the hall where I (to leave) them yesterday
2. The house (to be) quiet and she supposed every one else still (to sleep).
3. I (to look) at my watch and (to fin d ) that in the composition of
the letter a long time (to pass).
4. When she (to awake) the sun (to shine) through the curtains.
5. I (to see) her to the front door and (to close) it immediately af-
ter her as soon as she (to step) outside it. I (to go) back into
the flat, into the sitting-room, and (to close) the door. The room
(to be) sweet with heavy dusty sun light. Her chair (to be) where
it (to be). She (to leave) her copy o f Hamlet behind on the table.
6. Charles still (to sit) in his study and (to think) o f the past when
there (to be) a soft knock on the door
7 Decima and Charles (to be married) well over two years before
an invitation came.
8. After he (to breakfast) the next morning, he (to go) into the open
lounge in the hotel lobby and (to sit) down witha newspaper to
wait for Justin to arrive. Pen o ’clock (to come). Then half past.
Perhaps he (to change) his mind and (to decide) not to come.
9. By the time I (to fin ish ) writing this letter I (to fin d ) that 1 (to
be) tired.
Unit IV 115

10. Charles Manncring (to sit) in his study which (to fa c e) east to
the mountains, and (to think) o f his wife. On his desk in front
o f him (to he) a portrait o f Decim a on her wedding-day, and af­
ter a while he (to take) the frame in his hands and (to stare) at
the picture for a long time. It (to he) hard to believe it (to be) a
mere two and a half years since he first (to see) her.
11. It (to he) eleven o ’clock when Justin (to arrive) back at Consett
Mews. His grandmother, who (to write) letters in the drawing­
room, (to look) up, startled by his abrupt entrance.
12. It (to he) dark on the road but fortunately the mechanic (to
have) a torch and (can) see what he (to do).

g Open the brackets using the verbs in the right tenses:


Boylan (to come) into the room. He (to carry) a little overnight
bag and a pair o f mahogany-coloured moccasins. “(To try on) these,
Rudolph,” he (to say).
The moccasins (to be) old but beautifully polished, with thick soles
and leather tassels. They (to fit) Rudolph perfectly. “A h ,” Boylan (to
say), “you (to have) narrow feet, to o .” One aristocrat to another.
“I (to bring) them back in a day or tw o,” Rudolph (to say), as
they (to start) out.
“(N ot to bother)," Boylan (to say). “They (to be) old as the hills I
never (to wear) them.”

VOCABULARY

Kinds o f clothes Виды одеж ды

dress - платье man’s single-breasted suit - муж­


summer dress - летнее платье ской однобортны й костюм
party dress - выходное платье trouser suit - брючный костюм
evening dress (long dress fo r wom­ track suit - тренировочный кос­
en, black clothes and black or тюм
white bow tie fo r men) - ве­ jump suit комбинезон
чернее платье (длинное для blouse - блузка
женщин, черный кост юм для shirt - рубашка
м уж чин с черным или белым T-shirt - майка
галстуком-бабочкой) skirt - юбка
suit (worn by men a nd women) - full skirt - широкая юбка
косном (носят муж чины и pleated skirt - юбка в складку
ж енщины) culottes - юбка-шганы
116 Essential Course

jacket - пиджак, жакет winter coat with fur-trimmed collar


blazer - блейзер and cuffs - зимнее пальто с
pullover - пуловер меховым воротником и ман­
jersey вязаный жакет; фуфайка жетами
cardigan - кардиган (дж емпер с trench coat - шерстяное или х/б
заст еж кой на пуговицах, без пальто с погончиками и ман­
воротника) жетами
trousers - брюки fur coat - шуба
jeans/denims - джинсы duvet coat - стеганое пальто
shorts - шорты double-breasted coat - двубортное
corduroys (cords) - вельветовые пальто
брюки anorac - анорак (теплая курт ка
night-gown - ночная рубашка на м олнии с капюшоном)
dressing gown - халат parka - парка (штормовая
pyjamas - пижама курт ка с капюшоном)
coat - пальто

N am es o f articles o f clothes - Н азвания предм етов одеж ды

socks носки vest - майка


gloves - перчатки kerchief - платок, косынка
knee-length socks - гольфы slip - комбинация
mittens - варежки, рукавицы handkerchief - носовой платок
stockings - чулки brassiere (bra) - бюстгальтер
tie - галстук hat - шляпа
tights - колготки briefs - прусы
bow tie - галстук-бабочка broad-brimmed hat - широкопо­
woollen tights - шерстяные кол­ лая шляпа
готки cap - кепка
underwear - белье beret берег
scarf - шарф

Footw ear - О бувь

boots - ботинки sports shoes - спортивные туфли


high boots - сапоги tie/laced shoes - туфли на шнур­
winter boots зимние ботинки ках
men’s/ladies’ boots - walking shoes - повседневные
мужские/женские ботинки туфли
Wellington b oots (wellingtons) - high-heeled shoes - туфли на вы­
1) высокие сапоги 2) резино­ соких каблуках
вые сапоги low-heeled shoes - туфли на низ­
shoes - туфли ких каблуках
Unit IV 117

stiletto shoes - туфли на «шпиль­ clogs - сабо


ках» sandals - босоножки
platform shoes - туфли на «плат­ court shoes/best shoes - выходные
форме» туфли
training shoes (trainers) - крос­ slippers - домашние тапочки
совки mules - домашние тапочки без
tennis shoes - теннисные туфли задников
moccasins - мокасины open-toe mules - домашние та­
rubber-soled - на каучуковой по­ почки без задников и с от­
дошве крытым пальцем

Parts o f clothes and shoes:

collar - воротник shoe buckle - пряжка на башмаке


frill - оборка puffed sleeve рукав-фонарик
stand-up collar - стоячий воротник lace trimming - кружевная отделка
pocket - карман batwing sleeve - рукав «летучая
patch pocket - накладной карман мышь»
turndown collar - отложной во­ decorative stitching - декоратив­
ротник ная строчка
hip pocket - боковой карман belt - пояс
sole - подошва button - пуговица
sleeve - рукав zip - застежка-молния

N am es o f m aterials cloth es and shoes are made of:

cotton - хлопчатобумажная ткань acrylic fabric - акриловое волокно


tweed - твид velvet - бархат
cotton print - набивной ситец leather кожа
flannel - фланель corduroy - вельвет
satin - атлас suede - замша
nylon - нейлон silk - шелк
cloth - сукно felt - фетр
polyester - полиэстер

T ex tiles may be:

checked - клетчатые spotty - пестрые


flowery or flowered - в цветочек striped - полосатые
polka-dot - в горошек plain {without any pattern) - глад-
with floral design - с рисунком в кие (без рисунка)
цветочек
118 Essential Course

'You can see these things in a jew ellery department:

ring - к о л ь ц о silver/gold chain - серебряная/зо­


wedding ring - обручальное лотая цепочка
кольцо brooch - брошь
diamond ring with pearls - брил­ cuff-links - запонки
л и а н т о в о е кольцо с жемчужи­ charm - брелок
нами pendant - подвеска
signet r in g - кольцо с печаткой a set of jewellery - набор юве­
earrings — серьги лирных украшений
studs — клипсы gem stones emerald, sapphire,
bracelet — браслет ruby, amethyst, jade - драго­
coral/ivo ry necklace - коралловое ценные камни: изумруд, сап­
ож ерелье/ож ерелье из слоно­ фир, рубин, аметист, нефрит
вой к о сти

B e s u r e that you know the nam es o f shops and departm ents m


a departm ent store.

shopping centre - торговый центр textiles hosiery/socks and stockings -


grocer’s — бакалея чулочно-носочные изделия
superm arket - супермаркет florist s - цветочный магазин
greengrocer’s - овощной магазин tobacconist’s - табачный магазин
ready-m ade clothes - готовая cosmetics косметика
одеж да chemist’s (shop) - аптека
butcher’s — мясной магазин second-hand shop - комиссионный
footw ear department - обувной магазин
отдел dairy - молочная
baker’s — булочная bookshop книжный магазин
m illinery/hat department - отдел jewellery - ювелирные изделия
шляп pet shop - зоомагазин
fishm onger’s - рыбный магазин stationer’s - писчебумажные то­
knitted goods/knit wear - трикотаж вары
leather g o o d s - кожаные изделия market - рынок
confection er’s - кондитерский ма­ household goods - хозяйственные
газин товары

W earing clothes:

to put smth on - надевать что-л. to suit smb - идт и (об одеж де),
to have smth on - быть одетым быть к лицу
во ч т о -л . to try smth on примерять что-л
to wear smth - носить что-л.; to become smb - идти (об одеж ­
бы ть одетым во чго-л. де), быть к лицу
to take smth off - снять что-л. to fit smb - быть впору, по раз­
fitting-room - примерочная меру
Unit IV 119

to be dressed in smth - быть оде- to be dressed in one’s best - быть


тым во что-л. одетым по-праздничному

T hese phrases will help you to talk on fashion:

in fashion — в моде the latest spring styles — самые


out o f fashion - не в моде модные весенние фасоны
fashionable - модный to be stylishly dressed - быть
okl-fashioncd - немодный, старо­ модно одетым
модный to dress in the latest fashion -
to come into fashion входить в моду одеваться по последней моде
to be the latest fashion быть to go out o f fashion - выйти из
самым модным моды
to be all the rage - быть послед­ fashion show - показ моделей
ним криком моды одежды

Spending money:

How much is the dress? - Сколь­ to pay by credit card - платить с


ко стоит платье? помощью кредитной карточки
How much arc the shoes? - to spend money on smth - тра­
Сколько стоят эти туфли? тить деньги на что-л.
What’s the price o f this suit? - to rise in price - подниматься,
Сколько стоит костюм? расти в цене
What 'does it cost? - Сколько это to raise prices поднимать цены
стоит? to lower prices - снижать цены
at reduced prices - по сниженным You got a good bargain there -
ценам Вы эго дешево купили
to pay for smth платить за что-л. You got a bad bargain there - Вы
to pay in cash - платить наличными здорово переплатили
to be in debt - быть в долгу to bargain - торговаться

Some other words that may be useful when speaking about shopping:

sbop window - витрина to shop around присматривать­


to window-shop - рассматривать ся к ценам, качеству товаров
витрины queue (Вг) - очередь
cash-desk - касса line (/4m) - очередь
cashier - кассир I joined the queue/line. - Я встал
change - сдача в очередь,
counter - прилавок to queue (up) for smth - стоять
^ 1еУ - тележка за чем-л. в очереди
top p in g basket - корзина для to qucue-jump - пройти без оче­
покупок реди
0 be on sale - быть в продаже
120 Essential Course

EXERCISES

2 Answer these questions:

1. What clothes do we wear in summer?


2. What clothes do we wear in winter?
3. What clothes can be worn both in summer and in winter?
4. N am e kinds o f clothes which are worn by women.
5. N am e kinds o f clothes worn by men.
6. When do people usually wear wellingtons?
7. D o you ever put on training shoes? When?
8. When do women wear court shoes?
9. Which shoes are in fashion now, low-heeled, high-heeled or sti­
letto shoes?
10. What do you wear on your feet when you are at home?
11. Which do you prefer, a dress or a blouse with a skirt?
12. W ho wears cardigans, men or women?
13. Are trouser suits for women in fashion now?
14. When do people normally wear track suits?
15. Which do you like to wear, gloves or mittens?

EE Ask your partner what size clothes he/she wears. You may begin with
/ wonder, Tell me, please.

Model'. What size dress do you wear? - I wear size 46


I wonder what size skirt you wear. - 48.
Tell me what size shirt you take. - I take size 36 in shirts
What size are you? - I am 44.

ЕБ Translate and transcribe the words:


свитер блузка носовой платок
воротник ботинки галстук-бабочка
пижама босоножки однобортны й костюм
чулки кардиган повседневные туфли
нижнее белье косынка вельветовые брюки

ЕЕ Read the words, spell them without looking into the textbook or a
dictionary. Then check them consulting a dictionary.

['d^Ampsjud] I'plaetfarmjuiz] [sti'lctaoJu:z] [kju:'lots]


['denimz] ['pli:tid'sk3:t] ['mokasinz] ['pofoova)
I'traoziz] [Vluivei.kootl
Unit IV 121

ш Match the words in the left column with their definitions in the right
column.

1) A cardigan is a) a jacket, often with a special sign or


badge on it o f a school or a club
2) Mules are / b) a piece o f clothing worn on top half o f
the body underneath a shirt
3) Culottes are c) a kind o f clothing in the form o f a top
and trousers in one piece
4) Denims are / d) shoes with no back but a piece o f ma­
terial across the toes
5) A blazer is e) short skirt-like trousers worn by women
0 trousers made o f a strong cotton cloth
6) A vest is g) woollen men’s or women’s short coat
with sleeves but without collar, fastened
7) A jump suit is
at the front with buttons

IE Correct the false statements beginning your answer with one of these
phrases:
• I don’t think it’s right. • On the contrary.
• N o , it isn’t so. • It is wrong.

1. Cardigans are worn only by women.


2. People wear sweaters when it is hot outside.
3. When you go to a party you put on walking shoes.
4. Belts are normally worn on the feet.
5. W om en’s dresses are usually made o f leather.
6. Men very often wear frills and lace.
7. Men's shirts are always made o f plain materials.
8. Shoes are never made o f suede.
9. Children never wear mittens in the street in winter.
10. People mustn’t have any handkerchiefs in their pockets
11. It is good manners to go shopping in pyjamas.
12. Wellingtons are always worn on the beach.
13. Hats are never made o f felt.
14. M en’s shirts are often made with puffed sleeves.
15. Girls never wear corduroys.

Ш Translate and transcribe these words:


a) кружевная отделка, отложной воротник, рукав-фонарик, деко­
ративная строчка, оборка, пуговица, накладной карман,
b) атлас, поплин, бархат, сатин, вельвет, ситец, кожа, фланель,
замша, нейлон, шерстяная ткань,
c) клетчатый, без рисунка, в цветочек, в горошек, полосатый, с
блестками.
122 Essential Course

EE Translate into English:


a) юбка с кружевной отделкой, ситец в цветочек, летнее платье с
рукавом-фонариком, полосатая пижама, блузка со стоячим во­
ротником, гладкий (без рисунка) сатин, кожаный пояс, поплин
в горошек, замшевые повседневные туфли, клетчатые брюки,
атласные выходные туфельки
b) 1 . Надень свою любимую блузку с оборками.
2. Сними эти кроссовки и надень вон те башмаки с пряжками.
3. Мне нравичея это хорошенькое платьице с отложным ворот­
ником и поясом.
4. Вам нравится вон та блузка с рукавом «летучая мышь»?
Очень, я хочу ее купить.
5. Эта шляпа фетровая, а та замшевая.
6 . Наденьте клетчатый пиджак и новые черные брюки.
7. Сними этот ужасный халат в цветочек и надень свой новый
халат в горошек.
8 . Давай купим тебе двубортное пальто.
9. Сними шубу и надень плащ. Разве ты невидишь, чтонаст
пила весна?
10. Эта косынка мне нравится гораздо больше, чем тот шарф.

ЕЕ a) Fill in the missing words:


1. Ihe ... she wore must have been worth close to a million {драго­
ценности).
2. Ann removed her ..., her ..., her ..., her ..., and her ..., placed
her jewels in the ... bag {серьги, кольца, браслет, брошь,
ожерелье, кожаный).
3. I gave her a little Austrian ...on a ............ that used to belong to
my mother and she’s going to ...it around her ... as a good-luck
charm {медальон, золотая цепочка, носить, шея).
4. Inside was an oval-shaped antique .......... circled with ... {золотые
часы, брш лиант ы).
5. The only ... o f ... he had ever seen her wear was a small
that she always carried on a ... chain ... her throat {драгоцен­
ность, золотой крест, тонкий, вокруг).
6. She wore the ... ear ... Neal and her mother had given her for
her twenty-first birthday (рубин, клипсы).

b) Say what pieces of jewellery you have got, when you wear then),
what pieces of jewellery you would like to have.

EE Answer these questions:


1. What clothes do you put on every day?
2. What clothes do you put on when you go to a party or to the
theatre?
Unit IV 123

3. What do you have on now?


4. What is your best friend in the group wearing today?
5. What do we usually say if we like the way a dress sits on some­
body?
6. What do we say if clothes are just our size?
7. What do we normally do before buying a coat, a jacket?
8. Where do we try on clothes at a department store?
9. D o you ever go to fashion shows?
10. What kind o f clothes are in fashion now?
11. What colours are the latest fashion at the moment?
12. D o you think teachers should be stylishly dressed? Why?
13. D o you like to spend money? H ow do you spend it?
14. Are you always in debt? Have you ever been in debt?
15. Which do you prefer, to pay in cash or by credit card?

EE Go to the blackboard with a partner. Look at each other attentively.


Then turn away from each other and tell the class what your partner
is wearing today. Don’t forget to mention the smallest details.

Q3 Correct the false statements. Don’t forget to begin your answer with
one of the introductory phrases:
• I’m afraid it’s wrong. I believe, it isn’t so.
• I don’t agree. May I make an objection?
• I don’t think it’s right I’d like to object.
• It’s all wrong.
1. People never pay money when they buy things.
2. When you want to buy a thing you never ask the price o f it.
3. People don’t like to buy anything at reduced prices.
4. When things rise in price they become cheaper.
5. When prices fall things become more expensive.
6. When someone makes a profitable purchase you say “Y ou got
bad bargain there!”
When som eone pays too much for a thing which isn’t worth
you say “You got a good bargain there!”
8 . Fashion-magazines show old-fashioned clothes.
9. When things come into fashion people stop wearing them
10. When things go out o f fashion everybody starts wearing them.

ED Translate and transcribe:


цветочный магазин бакалея рыбный магазин
обувной отдел универсам шляпный отдел
готовая одежда аптека кондитерская
молочный магазин косметика канцелярские товары
мясной магазин чулки-носки галантерея
овощной магазин
124 Essential Course

a) Complete these sentences as in the model.

M odel: They sell coats and dresses at the ready-to-wear clothes de­
partment.

1. They sell various boots and shoes at ... .


2. They sell hats and caps at
3. You may buy cardigans, jumpers and sweaters at ...
4. You may buy belts, bags and purses at ...
5. They sell stockings, socks, tights at ... .
6 They sell various lotions, sham poos, perfumes at ... .
7. Y ou may buy buttons, needles, threads, zips at ... .
8 . They sell all kinds o f goods at ... .

b) Answer these questions using as many words as you can:


I What can you buy at the grocer’s?
2. What vegetables do they sell at the greengrocer’s?
3. What kinds o f meat are on sale at the butcher’s?
4. What things do they sell at the baker’s 9
5. What dairy products are on sale at the dairy?
6. What is there at the tobacconist’s 9
7. What can you buy at the stationer’s? H ow often do you go
there?
8. What flowers are on sale at the florist’s9
9. What flowers can you buy at the market in summer 9
10. What pieces o f jewellery do they sell at the jeweller’s?
11. When do you go to the chem ist’s? Whatdo you buy there?
12. What do they sell at the confectionery department?

EE Say where you can buy:


a frying pan a bottle o f milk
a dozen eggs a pair o f scissors
a jar o f jam a pair o f mittens
a parrot a bunch o f roses
a pencil box a piece o f beef
a tin o f sprats a pair o f mules
a textbook a second-hand leather
a kilo o f beets a packet o f cigarettes
a pair o f tights a carton o f yoghurt
a box o f matches a bar o f chocolate
a loaf o f bread a set o f jewellery
a cake o f soap
Unit /V 125

Put each of the words or phrases from the b o \ in its correct place
in the passage:

supermarket, a few, join, change, trolley, run out of,


shopping basket, take, counters, check-out, queues, choose,
for sale

When you ...food you have to go to a ... . A s you enter the


shop you should take a ... or a ... for your shopping All super­
markets are large, there arealot o f things ... on the ... .
... anything you like. When y o u ’ve chosen all the things you need,
go to a ..., there are quite ... o f them in the shop. But there may
be long ... there. ... a queue, it w on ’t take you very long to pay
for everything you ’ve bought. D o n ’t forget to take the ...

EE Fill in prepositions or adverbs where necessary:

1. He passed ... a door, ... som e very steep stairs and ... a rather
dirty passage. He knocked ... the end door and a voice said,
“Com e ... .”
2. Victoria picked ... her notebook and pencil and sailed ... Mr
G reenholtz’s office. ;
3. SJie was surprised when she came ... the end ... the narrow
street and found herself actually ... the river bank
4. He fumbled briefly ... the side pocket ... his coat and took ...
a heavy iron key.
5. She stands ... the window ... a green sateen bathrobe, soiled
the collar and cuffs
6 . Anna paid ... her taxi and went ... the jeweller’s. She spent
som e time looking ... various pieces ... jewellery. ... the end she
selected a sapphire and diam ond ring She wrote a cheque ... it
... a London bank.
7. She entered ... a florist’s. She ordered three dozen ... long­
stemmed roses, a bowl full ... sweet big purple violets, a dozen
... sprays ... white lilac and a jar full .. mimosa. She gave an
address ... them to be sent. “That will be twelve pounds, eight­
een shillings, m adam .” Anna paid and went ... The young
woman who had just come ... asked ... the price ... a bunch ..
primroses but did not buy them.
8. Sitting ... front ... her dressing-table, she stared ... herself un-
seeingly ... the glass.
126 Essential Course

TEXT-BASED ACTIVITIES
Before reading the te x t below m ake sure that you ran pronouice the
follow ing words correctly:

opals I'aupolz] presume (pri'zjuxn] dubiously ['dju:brasli| jeweller ['ljusla]


dozen ['dAznl drawer I'dro] diamond I'daiamand]

AT THE JEWELLERS
Bart stopped in front of a small window. There wen only
a few things in the window, a tray of opals, some watch
chains and watches and half a dozen rings. He went it, and
the jeweller looked up from his work.
“Well?” His voice was tired, but he looked friendly.
“I w-ant to see a ring.”
“What sort of ring?”
“A diamond ring.”
The jeweller stretched into the small window' and ticked
up a small tray on which rested a pad containing six rings.
Bart looked at them feeling foolish and helpless.
“I presume it is for a young lady?”
“That’s right.”
“Oh well, we’re only young once. Perhaps your youn; lady
would like to come in and try some of these on for hcrstlf”
“She can’t. She doesn’t even know I’m taking her this. She
is in hospital.”
“I see. Then we must see she gets something specially nice.”
He opened a drawer under the counter and brought out three
rings in a small box. “This one.” He held it up for Bart о see.
“It’s marked thirty-five pounds. You can take a look it the
ticket yourself. It’s quite a nice stone, and a nice setting It’s a
nice little ring. Good taste. You can have it for thirty pomds.”
Bart picked it up dubiously. The single stone fashed
brightly under the light. He supposed it was in good tash, but
it looked too little for thirty pounds.
“I’ll take it.”
“If it doesn’t fit or if she doesn’t like it bring it bac< and
we’ll think about getting something to replace it.”
“Thanks,” Bart said and, pocketing the ring, went oit into
the street.
(From: Say No to Death by D Cusack Alridged)
Unit IV 127

ЕЕ Find in the text English equivalents for the following:


полдюжины колец полагать
особенно красивое примерить
иметь дружелюбный вид поднять
чувствовать себя глупым ибеспомощным ярлык
если оно не подойдет по размеру красивая оправа
положить в карман

т Answer these questions:


1 . Where did Bart stop?
2. Were there very many things inthewindow?
3 How many rings were there?
4 Why did the jeweller have to look upfrom his work?
5. How did the jeweller look?
6 . Where did he get six rings?
7. Did Bart know much about diamond rings?
8 . What did the jeweller suggest?
9. Why couldn’t the girl come and see the rings for herself?
10. Where did the jeweller take three more rings?
11. How much was the ring the jeweller showed Bart?
12 What did he say about the ring?
13 Why did Bart pick it up dubiously?
14 What did the jeweller say when he saw Bart hesitate?
15. Where did Bart put the ring in the end?

EE Paraphrase using the phrases from the text:


six rings a pad with six rings
to have a friendly look I suppose it is for a young lady?
what kind o f ring? took it feeling doubt
a ring with a diamond if it isn’t her size
a little tray put the ring into his pocket

EE Say whether these statements are true or false. If they arc true, re­
peat them. Correct them if they are false. Don’t forget to give one
of the introductory phrases:
• I don’t agree. • It’s quite wrong.
• I don’t think it is true. • It’s not right
• On the contrary.

1. There were so many things in the window that Bart felt at a


loss and did not go in
2. The jeweller was a little aggressive.
3. Bart didn’t know much about jewels, so he felt rather awkward.
128 Essential Course

4. The jeweller was very unsympathetic.


5. Bart said he would tell his girl to come and see the rings for
herself.
6 . The jeweller took three more rings from under the counter.
7. He showed Bart a big ring which cost a hundred pounds.
8 . The ring w'as in bad taste, Bart decided not to take it
9. The jeweller remarked that if the girl didn't like the ring or if it
didn’t fit her, he wouldn’t be able to do anything about it.
10. The jeweller put the ring into a little golden box and gave
Bart.

EE Retell the text on behalf of: a) Bart, b) the jeweller, c) the narrator.

EE Fill in prepositions or adverbs where necessary:


1. It was a fairly large Victorian mansion kept ... a good state ...
repair.
2. She found it ... top ... a wardrobe.
3. She put ... her nightgown and put ... the light and climbed ...
the cold bed.
4. She came back ... Reading ... the 4.50 bus. She arrived ........ the
cottage, let herself ........ the front door, and went ... the kitchen
and put the kettle ........ tea.
5. The cottage was overcrowded, less ... furniture than ... pictures.
The w'alls were covered ... pictures. “Mrs. Lansquenet used to
buy them ... sales," Miss Gilchrist explained.
6 . She looked ... suddenly as the door ... the end ... the hall opened
and Miss Bligh came ... it. She was holding ... a very heavy
metal vase. Suddenly the heavy vase fell ... the floor. Tuppence
stooped and picked it ... .
7. Mr and Mi's. Beresford were sitting ... the breakfast table. They
were an ordinary couple. Hundreds ... elderly couples just like
them were having breakfast all ... England ... that particular
moment It was an ordinary sort ... day too, the kind ... day
thatyou get five days ........... seven.
8 . She picked ... a large book lying ... the table and began to read.

EE Translate into English:


1 Я хочу купить дюжину чайных ложек.
2. В витрине было много интересных предметов,но он не знал,
как они называются.
3. У продавца был усталый голос, но выглядел он вполне дру­
желюбно.
4. Какие часы вы хотели бы купить? - Золотые, смассивной
цепочкой.
Unit IV 129

5. Она увидела маленькую красную подушечку, а на ней пару


серебряных серег.
6 . Возьми вон тот поднос и принеси его мне.
7. Примерь блузку, она очень элегантная.
8 . Мне бы хотелось самой пойти в этот магазин и примерить
пальто.
9. Девушка открыла коробку и вынула шесть обручальных колец.
10. М олодой человек не был уверен, что купит браслет. Он по­
нимал, что браслет сделан со вкусом, но он казался ему
слишком тоненьким.
11. Если платье не будет ребенку впору, приносите его обратно,
мы заменим.
12. Мне не очень нравится кольцо, в нем только один камень, да
и оправа не очень красивая. - Вы не совсем правы, кольцо
выглядит совсем неплохо.
13. Бриллиант ярко сверкнул при свете ламп, и Мери решила,
что купит его.
14. Продавец взял запонку и протянул ее мне.
15. Когда она видела так много драгоценностей, она чувствовала
себя беспомощ ной, потому что не знала, какую вещь выбрать.

ЕЕ a) Remember that there are several English phrases corresponding to


the Russian “быть одетым в ..., носить”. The) are:
• to wear smth (wore, worn, wearing) • to be dressed in smth
•* to have smth on

e.g. 1. “ Wear that little black hat with the red ribbon under your
chin, will you?”
2. Miss Marple wore black lace mittens.
3. Her small neat figure tra.v dressed in scarlet.
4. She is always fashionably dressed.
5. She had on a white dress that Michael guessed she had worn
at her graduation from high school the June before.

If people dress up, it means that they w an t to look still more attrac­
tive:
e.g. She was glad that she was all dressed up and had done her hair
that morning for R udolph’s party.

or: When Matt arrived at the inn, she noticed that he, too, had
dressed up for the occasion.

b) Tell your fellow students what you usually wear when dressed up for
some occasion.
130 Essential Coarse

EE Open the brackets referring all the sentences to the past:


1 She (to wear) a long black wig and heavy, darkmake-up.
2. He (to be dressed) in an expensively tailored grey suit and (to
wear) a red carnation in his lapel.
3. The jewellery she (to wear) must have been worth close to a mil­
lion.
4. She (to be dressed) in glittering green and looked a little like a
mermaid.
5 She (to be wearing) beach pyjamas o f a loose floppy pattern with
long sleeves and wide legs. They were made o f some green mate
rial with a yellow design
6 He (to be dressed), ready to play, and (to be wearing) awhite
sweater.
7. She (to wear) a short linen skirt
8. He (to wear) a (lowered dressing gown.
9. He was going to buy a second straw hat which he (to wear) in­
stead o f his present one.
10. He (to have on) a fur hat and a long woollen scarf.
11. He had been totally bald from the age o f fifteen and (to wear) a
black wig ever since.

EE a) Remember the verbs that are often used и hen you want to say
that the clothes people wear, look well on them:
to suit smb - идти, быть к лицу (is used most often in all situations),
to become smb, to be becoming to smb - быть к лицу, идти
(form al);
to go with smth подходить к чему-л.; гармонировать с чем-л ,
соответствовать чему-л.,
to match smth - соответствовать, гармонировать по тону, цвету:
to fit stnb - быть впору, подходить по размеру;
to fit like a glove, to fit to a T (р а зе) быть впору.

b) Read the following sentences, translate them into Russian paying spe­
cial attention to the italici/.cd words:
I The dress becomes you/is becoming to you
2. This hat suits you.
3. Her cardigan suits her very well.
4. The blue scarf goes well with your blouse
5. Mary says she is looking for a brown dress with hat and gloves
to match.
6 . 1 want something to m atch this cloth.
7. She was dressed in a yellow sari with a yellow ribbon to m atch
in her hair.
8 . 1 love you in this dress, it really su its you
Unit IV 131

9. The shoes and handbag don't m atch


10. The coat f i t s you
11. Your jacket f i t s you too tight
12. The trousers don't f i t , they are loose on him

c) Paraphrase the sentences using the verbs and phrases in Ex. 35 (a).
1. She looks good in blue clothes.
2. The trousers are just his size.
3. The girl’s skirt and shoes are the same colour.
4. The broad-brimmed straw hat suits your polka-dot summer dress.
5 I'he new checked coat fits her very well.
6. That black blouse really suits you.

EE Fib in the missing words:


1. She bought a short, dark green chiffon dress that ... her eyes, a
pair o f slender brown pumps and a ... purse (подходить по цве­
ту, подходящий no цвету).
2. We have much better stones than this in our shop, but my friend
wants one ... an emerald that his wife bought (подходить no
цвету).
3. The wig ... him badly (подходил по размеру)
4 Mrs Dolger left in a flurry o f little uncertain movements that did
not ... ... her new hairdo or the smart green tweed suit (соответ­
ствовали).
5 “And it would ... me too Г’т just her size I’d like to tear it off
her,” thought Victoria (подош ло бы по размеру).
6. What does a nice dress ... now? ( стоит )
7. N ow what day shall we say for the first ...? (примерка)
8 . She was in her kimono because she was going ......... her new
dress (примерять)
9. She wanted her own grey skirt altered and made more ... if that
was possible (модный)
10. He was a short man dressed in an ........ brown suit (плохо при­
гнанный)
11. It was a shabby-looking door, but it had one rather unexpected
quality: it ......... , with no crevices and no space at the bottom
(хорош о пригнана)
12. I was to ... ... Mrs. Spenlow’s new dress this afternoon (сделать
примерку).
13. Inside the parcel was Mrs. Spenlow ’s new green winter dress
ready for ... (примерка).
14 Gretchen ......... her coat and hugged Rudolph hard (сняла)
15. I like the way the blue carpet ........ the gold curtains (подходят
по стилю).
132 Essential Course

m a) Read the dialogue with a fellow student:

At the Ready-to-Wcar Clothes Department


N ick is looking f o r a new ja c k e t A salesman is helping him
s I think this one is your size.
N.: N o, it’s too loose. D o you have a smaller one?
S Try this one on.
N.: Yes, this fits me perfectly D o you think it goes with these
trousers?
S Yes, I do And it matches your shirt
N.. W hat’s it made of 7
S It’s a blend o f wool and cotton.
TV.. G ood. How much is it9
S: It’s on sale this week. It’s only £35
N.. Nice, I’ll take it
S Tine. Cash or credit card 9
N.: Cash.
b) Transform the dialogue intoindirect speech firstin the present, then
in the past tense. Don’t forget to vary the verbs. Here are some of
them to help you:
to say, to answer, to ask, to reply, to remark, to want to know,
to recommend, to insist, to assure, to exclaim, to add

c) Make up a similar dialogue.

EE Read the joke and retell it:


One Irishman was showing o ff his knowledge to another, so he
asked him if he knew what shape the world was
“ 1 don’t,” said the second “Give me a clue.”
“It’s the same shape as the buttons on my jacket,” said the first
“Square,” said the second
“That’s my Sunday jacket,” said the first “ I mean my weekday
jacket. N ow what shape is the world?”
“Square on Sundays, round on weekdays,” said the second
Irishman.

FT] Fill in articles where necessary:


1. She was wearing ... same greentweeds that she had worn on
day o f ... tragedy
2. Many o f them were very young or very old, and most of
former wore .. bathing suits.
3 I noticed for first time that ... back o f ... handsome suit was
sun-faded
Unit IV 133

4 ... sad-looking girl in ... dirty apron was shuffling about with
basket o f ... knives and ... forks with which she was laying
table.
5 Midge, in ... severe black dress, opened ... door for her
6 She was dressed to attract ... attention in ... black-and-white
striped linen dress with ... plunging neckline and ... very close
waist.
7. His long legs were tightly encased in . pair o f ... faded levis, his
heavy shoulders bulged in ... flowered Hawaiian shirt ... levis and
shirt didn’t go with ... black chauffeur’s cap on his head.
8. ... waitress had ... red-checked apron that matched .. table-cloth.
9. “That’s ... pretty outfit you’re wearing.” Susan was in ... all-white
ski suit. “... colour becomes you.”
10. Sally, dressed in ... slacks and ... yellow pullover, said brightly
“W e’ve come to help.”

EE Fill in prepositions or adverbs «here necessary:


1. She says she is looking ... a good fur-coat
2. I think this pink blouse is .. your size.
3. What size ... gloves do you usually take 9
4. 1 wonder what shoes are ... fashion now.
5. The hiking-boots are made ... genuine leather
6. It is a blend ... cotton and nylon.
7. Such pyjamas are ... sale ... our department store.
8. The T-shirt doesn’t fit ... me, it’s too loose ... me
9. The cardigan is tight ... the shoulders.
10. Let’s buy a winter coat ... fur-trimmed cuffs and fur-trimmed collar.
11. How do you like this pleated skirt made ... tweed?
12. The jacket doesn’t go ... your trousers.
13. What size ... hat does she wear?
14. Evening gowns like this are fashion now, nobody wears ... them
15. Try ... this cardigan It fits ... you well, I believe.
16. The frills are made ... satin, aren’t they 9
17. They say double-breasted jackets are not sale. They are ........
fashion.
18. The trainers are tight ... the toes. Let me try .. another pair.
19. What size ... mittens does the girl wear 9
20. Sorry to say, but the hat doesn’t go the coat

Ш Translate into English in writing:


1. Ha молодом человеке был черный костюм с голубой рубаш­
кой и галстуком в тон. Костюм сидел на нем как влитой.
2. Почему ты нарядился как клоун? Надень новый джемпер,
сними эти старые ботинки.
134 Essential Course

3. Эта соломенная шляпа не подходит к этой юбке-джерси.


4. Такие блузки продаются в универмаге на Садовой улице. Я
только что купила желтую.
5. Вы всегда модно одеты. Как часто вы ходите на просмотры
модной одежды? - Каждый месяц.
6 . На старике было старомодное коричневое пальто, резиновые
сапоги, потрепанные брюки.
7. Какой размер шляпы вы носите? - Не знаю , позвольте мне
примерить вон ту зеленую шляпу, она подходит по цвету к
моему плащу.
8 . Платье так идет тебе! Купи его непременно. - Сколько оно
стоит, кстати? - Немного больше 200 рублей.
9. Я потратила все деньги. - Л что ты купила? - Юбку с блуз­
кой из атласа, замшевые туфли и сумку в тон. - Сколько за­
платила? - Около 500 рублей. - Совсем недорого!
10. Могу я примерить вон ту шубу? - Конечно, эго как раз ваш
размер. Она вам впору и очень к лицу. Я се возьму.
11. Блузка ей мала, дайте другую, на размер больше.
12. Туфли мне велики. Я бы хотела примерить вон те черные, на
высоком каблуке.
13. Покажите мне вон тот халат в цветочек. Я думаю, он моего
размера.
14. Из чего сделан блейзер? - Это смесь поплина и нейлона. П о­
смотрите, как он вам идет.
15. Вы можете торговаться на рынке, а не в магазине.
16. Сколько вы заплатили за эго? - 120 рублей. О, вы перепла­
тили.
17. Давайте купим ей пару сапог, ей нужны новые зимние сапоги.
18. Она лю бит ходить в магазин прицениваться и глазеть на вит­
рины.
19. У нас кончился сахар, пойди в бакалею и купи килограмм.
20. Если у вас кончился творог, идите в молочную и купите мо­
лока, я научу вас, как делать творог.

ЕЕ a) Discuss the latest fashion in clothes with your partner. Use the
phrases:
to come into fashion, to be back in fashion, out o f fashion, to
be fashionable.

b) Pairwork. One of you is a customer, the other is a shop-assistant. The


customer is going to the South for a holiday. lie needs a lot of
things, hut doesn’t have much money. The shop-assistant does his best
to help the customer. Use the following:
too expensive/dear, rather cheap, pricey, at reduced prices.
Unit IV 135

S P EA KIN G PRACTICE
Before reading the dialogue below m ake sure that yo u can pronounce
the follow ing words correctly:

millinery I'milinari] alter ['o:lto] straw [stra:]


exquisite I'ekskwizit] delighted [di'laitid] striking ['straikirj]
chic |Ji:k| completely (kam'plitli] bargain |'ba:gm]

SHOPPING
S h o p -w a lker: W hat can w e sh o w y o u to d a y , M adam ?
M a ry : M illin ery, please.
S h o p -w a lker: C erta in ly , M a d a m . T h is w ay. First floor.
P lease take th e lift.
M a ry : ( O n the w a y ) N o w , M argaret, y o u leave it to me.
S h o p -a ssista n t: C an I help y o u , M ad am ?
M a ry : P lease sh o w us a really sm art hat to go with
this coat and skirt.
S h o p -a ssista n t: C ertainly, M ad am . N o w here is a really chic
little hat, M adam . P ersonally, I sh ou ld call it
exquisite. W ill y o u try it o n , M adam ? A little
sm all in the head? W e can alter it for you.
(L o o k s e c sta tic a lly a t M a rg a re t.) M adam look s
three years youn ger. N o , M a d a m , the left eye is
com p letely covered. T here. (G ives her a m irror.)
M a rg a ret: I co u ld never w ear it.
M a ry : N o , I d o n ’t like it very m uch H a v e n ’t you
so m e th in g a little qu ieter n ot quite so
striking. T h ere w ere so m e very pretty hats in
the w in d o w .
S h o p -a ssista n t: ( B rin g s a s m a ll stra w h a t w ith velvet trim m in g .)
N o w here is a lo v ely little hat, M ad am , very
quiet. A llo w m e - a little further b ack - a
sh ad e to th e sid e. Isn ’t th at b ecom in g?
M a ry : It suits y o u , M argaret.
M a rg a ret: I like it aw fu lly . H o w m uch is it?
S h o p -a ssista n t: T w en ty -n in e p o u n d s, M a d a m A bargain.
136 Essential Course

M a rg a re t: But I c a n ’t, M ary. It’s to o dear. W hat will


Jam es say?
M a ry : Y o u m ust. W hen Jam es sees it, h e’ll be d e­
lighted .

EE Find in the text the English equivalents for the following:


соломенная шляпа с бархатной отделкой пройдите сюда
с энтузиазмом смотрит на Маргарет переделать
дежурный администратор магазина это дешево
что-нибудь немного поспокойнее предоставь эго мне
не так бросающуюся в глаза на витрине
я бы назвала ее изысканной слегка набок

ЕЕ Answer these questions:


I Where did the conversation take place?
2. What floor was the millinery department on?
3. What did Mary and Margaret want to buy?
4. W ho was going to wear the hat?
5. What was the first hat Margaret tried on 9 Did she like it9
6. What kind o f hat did Mary ask the shop-assistant to show?
7. What hat did the shop-assistant bring?
8. Did the hat suit Margaret? Did she like the hat?
9. H ow much was it? Was it a bargain?
10. What was Mary’s opinion o f buying the hat?

EE Say if the phrases below are true or false. If they arc true, repeat
them. If they are false, correct them using the following:
• That's not right • I can’t agree.
• T hat’s wrong, surely. • 1 am afraid that’s nonsense.
• I don’t think it’s right. • On the contrary.

1. Mary wanted to see the shoe department.


2. The shop-walker suggested that Mary should walk to thedepartment
3. Mary asked the shop-assistant to show them anelegant hat
4. The shop-assistant refused to show the ladies a hat, he showed
them a bag instead.
5. Mary told the shop-assistant to bring one o f the hats she had
seen in the window.
6. The shop-assistant brought a big felt hat with leather trimming
7. The hat didn’t suit Margaret
8. Margaret didn’t like the hat.
9. The price o f the hat was very low.
10. Mary advised Margaret against buying the hat
Unit IV 137

ЕВ Copy out all the adjectives from the dialogue "Shopping”, give their
degrees of comparison.

m Retell the conversation in the person of: a) M ary, b) M argaret, c) the


shop-assistant.

m Imagine that Margaret is looking for a pair of shoes. Dramatize the talk.

m a) Read and translate into Russian:


to try on a flowered skirt with lace striking beauty
trimming exquisite taste
a pair o f patent leather shoes to go loose in the waist
with this handbag dear leather bags
expensive court shoes very pretty mittens
tight in the shoulders tight across the toes
a really chic little blouse

b) Translate into English:


шикарная блузка с кружевной отделкой одежда, бросающаяся в
туфли, подходящие по стилю к сумке глаза
вы выглядите на десять лет моложе брюки слишком дорогие
примерить полосатый кардиган хорошенькое платьице
узкий в талии модный костюм изысканная мода
-элегантный бархатный пиджак это дешево

S 3 ' a) Read the conversation and summarize it in indirect speech:


Mrs. Bashford is in a departm ent store She is looking fo r о
sweater fo r her husband The salesman is showing her some.

M rs В. I always choose my husband’s clothes very carefully He


dresses very well.
S: {politely) Yes, Madam I’m sure. N ow , you said a size 38,
didn’t you? Something like this perhaps 9 It’s a very good
sweater!
M rs В Perhaps, but 1 don’t really think it's good enough for my
husband! H aven’t you anything better?
S. Better than this, Madam? (Laughing nervously a bit) Well
uh ... there’s this grey sweater.
Mrs. В: I don’t think I like that shade o f grey It’s not dark
enough.
S': I see. You want something darker than this ... like this,
perhaps?
M rs В : (thinking) Hmm ... you know, I don’t really think I like
grey at all. It’s too ... dull.
138 Essential Course

S: I see. N ow this green sweater is brighter than the grey one


Mrs. B: N o. I don ’t like green, either.
S: Well ... let me see ... there’s this red sweater.
Mrs. B: G ood heavens, no! My husband never wears red! It’s too
bright.
S: (confused) So you want som ething darker than the light
grey, brighter than the dark grey but not as bright as the
green or the red sweater?
Mrs. В Exactly! And please hurry up. I really haven't much time.
S: Something like this blue sweater?
Mrs. B: Blue ... Hmm ... yes, I think 1 like that. H ow much does it
cost?
S ' 40 pounds.
M rs B\ 40 pounds! G ood heavens! Haven’t you anything ... anything
... uh ...
S ' Cheaper than this, Madam? Only this other blue sweater. It
costs 35 pounds.
Mrs. B: N ow that’s exactly what I’m looking for. T hat’s much nicer
than all the others. Why didn't you show it to me before?
S ' (angrily) But 1 did, Madam! It was the first one you saw!

b) Give English equivalents for the following phrases:


очень тщательно хорош о одеваться размер 38
не такой яркий свитер носить красное оттенок серого
сколько он стоит гораздо лучше
недостаточно темный слишком яркий

c) Make up and write down sentences of jo u r own using the phrases


above.

ГП Insert the necessary words from the box.


jacket, w ool, jeans, blazer, scarf, handkerchief, fur-trimmed, suit,
shoelaces, clothes, socks, fitted

1. She was crying frankly now and had to take out her ...
2. She changed into her street ... and hurried out o f the building
3. Rudolph was carrying the ... o f T hom as’s one suit, striped and
greenish.
4. She had given him a blue flannel ... for his birthday. As he ap­
proached she thought how well the blazer ... him.
5. Bring down a pair o f nice, warm ... and a towxl for Mr. Jor-
dache. His feet are soaked.
6 . Then he drew on the socks. They were o f soft ...
7 He was dressed as always in a black ... with waistcoat.
Unit IV 139

8. The door was opened by a girl in blue ... .


9. It was Virginia Calderwood, a ... over her head, in a ... grey coat
10. He tied his ... deliberately.

ГП Fill in articles where necessary:


- Well, we’re here. This is ... store I was telling you about.
- What ... huge place it is! It looks as if it’s ... rather expensive
store.
- It’s not at all expensive. Y ou get ... huge choice and ... best
value in ... whole o f London.
- Well, there are ... few things I’d like to buy I need ... new pair
o f boots and ... dress for M argot’s party on Sunday. I like ...
lighting here, I must say.
- It’s ... good system, not dull at all. By the way, you know ...
dress I showed you last week? I bought it here.
- I thought it was ... lovely dress. Where’s ... dress department in
here? I’d like to have ... look round
- It’s on ... third floor, and if you want som e boots there’s de­
partment on ... ground floor and one upstairs.
- I’d like ... pair like ... pair you’ve got. Where did you buy them 9
- I bought my boots here too. ... quality is fantastic
- So this is where y o u ’ve been buying all those lovely things! .
(From: English in Mind by C. Ttofi T. S. Creed)

Ш a) Read and translate these sentences:


I Full skirts are coming into fashion.
2. Stiletto heels are back in fashion again.
3. She never wears a hat. They are out o f fashion
4. He put on one o f his favourite striped shirts that were fashion­
able in the 1960s.
5. He was a tall young man o f twenty-four, his hairfashionably long
6. She is always stylishly dressed.
7. Flowery materials became the vogue.
8. Brightly coloured cardigans had a brief vogue in the previous
decade.

b) Translate into English in writing:


1. Мини-юбки снова входят в моду.
2. Туфли на платформе опять в моде.
3. Он перестал носить джинсы, потому что считает, что они не
модны.
4. Он надел одну из своих любимых клетчатых рубашек, кото­
рые никогда не были в моде.
140 Essential Coarse

5. Эта девушка всегда модно одета, правда? - Д а, она сама


шьет себе одежду.
6 . Парки, анораки, стеганые пальто всегда модны, потому что
они легкие и теплые.
7. Мне нравится моя полосатая юбка, хотя я знаю, что полоса­
тые материалы сейчас не в моде, почти никто их не носит.
8 . Если вы хотите модно одеваться, вам следует ходить на пока­
зы модной одежды.

ЕЕ Fill in prepositions or adverbs where necessary:


1. I really think this pinafore dress is good ... my little daughter.
2. D o you like this shade ... green? - I don’t think I like green ... all
3. Hurry ..., we haven’t much time.
4. Let's go ... a department store. I’m looking ... a new bag ... my
granny. - ... pleasure. There is a department store not far ... our
house.
5. These red shoes are much nicer than all the others. Why didn't
you show them ... me before?
6. Let me buy the clogs. They fit ... me ... a T.
7 I don’t think these wellingtons go ... your raincoat
8. Are you sure it’s ... your size? - It is, but it’s a bit tight . the
shoulders.
9. What is the brooch made ...? - Gold.
10. How do you like this winter coat ... fur-trimmed cuffs? - It’s out
... fashion, 1 believe.

a) Read the text and translate it into Russian in writing:

CURIOUS FACTS
When people go through all the rituals and ceremony concerned
with marriage - they do what is “expected" For example, it is ex­
pected that an engagement ring will have a diamond.
Why the diamond? O f course it’s a beautiful gem. Rut the dia­
mond w'as considered the right stone for the engagement ring in Italy
as far as the Middle Ages! It was called pietra della reconciliazione
because it was supposed to have the pow-er to maintain good rela­
tions between man and wife.
But there is a superstitious tradition that gives another reason
for using the diamond in engagement rings. According to this belief,
the sparkle o f the diamond is supposed to have originated in the fires
of love - so only a diamond can hold the promise o f enduring love
and happiness for an engaged couple.
(From: Mozaika, 1987, No. I)
b) Find a legend or a story connected with a gem, tell it to your fellow
students in class.
Unit IV 141

S3 Translate into English:


1. Интересно, есть ли лифт в универмаге? - Конечно, это деся­
тиэтажное здание.
2. Если ты хочешь выбрать ей действительно хороший подарок,
предоставь это мне. Я знаю ее вкус лучше, чем ты.
3. Мне нужны по-настоящему элегантные туфли, которые подой­
дут к моему нарядному платью.
4. Примерь, пожалуйста, пиджак. Он подходит к брюкам. - Пе
могу е ю надеть, он узок в плечах. - Ничего, тебе могут его
здесь переделать.
5. В этой блузке ты выглядишь лез на десять моложе. - Правда?
Мне идет этот цвет.
6 . Я бы никогда не смогла носить такое /шинное пальто.
7. Шляпа мне не очень нравится. Покажите вон ту соломенную
шляпку с букетиком цветов. Позвольте примерить. Нет, она
мне немного мала. Лайте другую , пожалуйста.
8 . Вам идет эта полосатая юбка, купите ее Но у меня нет
подходящей блузки.
9. Ш уба очень дорогая. Что скажет муж? - Когда он ее увидит,
он будет восхищен.
10. Брюки велики в талии. Вы можете их переделать? - Лучше
примерьте вот эти, это как раз ваш размер.

5 2 - а ) Read the text, copy out all the expressions you liked most, use
them in your own sentences:

FASHION FOLLY
Up the wall, round the bend, looney, nuts, crackers - there are a
lot o f different ways o f saying crazy in English. Many visitors to
England think the people are a bit nuts (looney) crackers ... in other
words, that they are crazy.
The one thing that most visitors would agree we are not crazy
about, however, is fashion. But they might be wrong At least one
Englishman was mad about clothes the elegant Beau Brummel.
Beau used to spend four or five hours dressing every day. His
shoes shone like the sun. A friend asked him what kind o f polish he
used. “Polish?” he replied. “ I never ase polish I use nothing but the
froth o f champagne.”
He became such a symbol o f elegance that the Prince o f Wales
used to go to Beau’s house to watch him dress. Poor Beau was even­
tually ruined by his love o f clothes. His tailoring and laundry bills
broke him, and he died, inelegantly, in a lunatic asylum.
(From: Mozaika, 1987, No. 6)
142 Essential Course

b) Make up and «rite a few special questions about the text “ Fashion Folly” .
c) Do you think people like Beau Brummel exist nowadays?

Ш a) Read the text to yourself and retell it in detail:


There was a pleasant feminine hum in the store Women shopped
quietly.
lie found the section where w om en’s sweaters were sold When
the nice young girl who was serving him asked, “What size, Sir?”
after he had described what he was looking for, he was stumped. He
knew what size coat Sheila wore and Sheila was a big woman and
wore a forty-two. A s far as he could judge, M iss W alton was about
twice as large as Sheila although not as tall.
“W ell,” he said to the salesgirl, “ I’m not quite sure.” He put out
his hands in front o f his chest to make a semicircle that he guessed
was about the amount o f space Miss W alton’s bosom took up. “ I
would say she’s about this big in this vicinity,” he said.
“I’m afraid, Sir,” the girl said, “that you w on’t find anything
nearly like that here. I suggest that you try the men’s department.”
lie found a sweater in light blue cashmere that was too big for
him when he tried it on, but bought it when the salesman assured
him that if it didn’t fit the lady, she could bring it back and ex­
change it. He felt that the price was hideously expensive, but he was
in no mood to worry about money.
(From: Acceptable Losses by I. Shaw. Abridged)
b) Speak about your recent visit to a department store. Use the phrases
and words from the text.

EB a) Translate into English in writing:


Когда у них кончились сметана, молоко и творог, именно
Энн сказала, что пойдет за покупками. Мама была очень удивле­
на, потому что Энн не была образцовой девочкой, она никогда
прежде не делала покупок. F.e любимым занятием было только
прицениваться и глазеть на витрины.
Но в тот день Энн очень хотела пойти в универсам. Дело бы­
ло в том, что в небольшом магазинчике, расположенном недалеко
от универсама, она увидела пару красивых туфель. Ей очень нужны
были эти туфли: они подходили по цвету' к ее новому красному
плагыо. Туфли были на высоком каблуке, из черной замши и стои­
ли 10 фунтов. Она знала, что они ей впору, так как уже примерила
их, и продавец сказал, что оставит их специально для нее.
Итак, она вышла из дома и отправилась в магазин. Она
прошла мимо булочной, мясного, овощ ного магазинов, аптеки.
Она даже не взглянула на витрины, у нее было мало времени.
Когда Энн вошла в обувной магазинчик, владелец уже ждал ее
с большой белой коробкой. Он сказал, что упаковал для нее туфли
Unit IV 143

Она поблагодарила его, заплатила 10 фунтов (те 10 фунтов, кото­


рые мама дала ей, чтобы купить молочные продукты) и ушла. Она
подумала, что заглянет в цветочный магазин и купит букет весен­
них цветов для мамы, чтобы доставить ей удовольствие ...
b) Think of an ending to the story and tell it in class.

m Find Russian equivalents for the following proverbs, make up a short


story to illustrate the proverb you like best:
1. Appearances are deceptive.
2. Clothes do not make a man
3. Clothes make the man.
4. Cut your coat according to your cloth
5. Dress up a stick, and it doesn’t appear to be a stick.
6. Near is my coat, but nearer is my shirt

ED a) Translate the text into Russian in writing:


PERFUME
Perfume has been defined as “an odour which is used to drown
out a worse one”, and that is exactly why perfume was first used.
Perfume dates back at least five thousand years. The ancient He­
brews first used it to disguise the odour o f animals sacrificed to the
gods by burning. The ancient Chinese perfumed their robes and
burned incense at funerals. Ancient Egyptians offered incense to the
gods and anointed the bodies o f dead Pharaohs with scented oils.
The word perfum e comes from the Latin meaning “through the
sm oke” (o f the burnt offerings). People came to believe that perfume,
added to the burnt offerings, pleased the gods. Its value to repel evil
forces was at least as important, and people thought that perfume
could exorcise the demons o f disease. Som e doctors were known to
recommend it to prevent respiratory illnesses.
Perfume has been used for many purposes through the years - re­
ligious, medicinal, and social, but its principal value today is social.
Whatever its uses, perfume seems to be here to stay And it has amaz­
ing lasting power - in 1922 a 2,500-year-old tomb was discovered in
Egypt. In it were several vases o f perfume - some still fragrant.
(From: Moscow News, 1988, No 47)
b) Say whether you like perfume, which is your favourite, characterize
its fragrance using as many adjectives as you can.

52 Write a short essay on one of these topics:


1. D o you enjoy shopping? Is shopping your hobby? Explain either
what you like about it or what you hate about it.
2. Describe a well-known shop or department store in your city -
one you think a foreign visitor should go to.
144 Essential Course

EE Find two pictures in which some old-fashioned and fashionable clothes


are shown and compare them using the active vocabulary of this unit.

m Make up short dialogues taking place at one of the shops of your


native town. One of you is doing some market research, the other is
a customer who has just bought something. You may use the follow­
ing phrases:
1. Would you tell me what you’ve just bought from the shop?
2. I’m doing some market research.
3. It’s market research.
4. I like all white, so ...
5. There was nothing I liked, but ...
6. I’ve just bought ... (a pair o f brown jeans; a red and blue
sweater; a summer outfit; a T-shirt in black and red stripes; a
straw hat; a long-sleeved dress with a high neck)

EE a) Read this extract taken from С. B. Shaw’s “Pygmalion”:


She is perhaps eighteen, perhaps twenty, hardly older. She wears
a little sailor hat o f black straw that has long been exposed to the
dust and soot o f London and has seldom if ever been brushed. (...)
She wears a shoddy black coat that reaches nearly to her knees and
is shaped to her waist. She has a brown skirt with acoarse apron
Her boots are much the worse for wear.She is no doubt asclean as
she can afford to be, but compared to the ladies she is very dirty.

b) Find an extract from a novel which gives a description of a person’s


clothes. Write it out and read aloud in class.

m a) Read the extract below and translate it into Russian. Use a dic­
tionary.
It was never more difficult for a woman to be beautiful than
during the 1920s. Fashion flattered no one, femininity in all its mani­
festations was truncated, hidden, distorted. Hats hid the forehead and
the eyes; eyebrows were unnaturally tweezed, bodies forced ruthlessly
into unflattering boyish forms; cosmetics used badly. Only three colors
o f lipsticks existed and hairstyles were so ugly that only the most
authentic beauty could overcome them.
(From: Mistral's Daughter by J. Krantz)

b) Make up five questions about the extract. Let your fellow students
answer them.

c) Is it difficult for a woman to be beautiful nowadays? Arrange a talk


about the styles of the 90s.
\
UNIT V

The smiling spring comes in rejoicing,


And surly winter grimly flics:
Now crystal clear are the falling waters
And bonnie blue are the sunny skies.
R. Burns

WEATHER, S EA SO N S,
N AT UR E
t G R A M M A R EXERCISES
Before you start doing the exercises m ake sure that you remember
how to handle:

• t he u n c o u n ta b le s,
eg There is little snow on the street.
It’s pleasant to walk barefoot in warm rainy weather.
It was reasonable advice and I followed it.
This area is rich in vegetation.
N o news is good news.

• th e n o u n s used w ith a p lu r a l v erb ,


e.g. The public always try to forecast the weather.
Are the police well-paid?
The family are all together now.
The majority support the opposite point o f view.
The staff are satisfied with their working conditions.

• th e m o d a l verb s,
e.g. - May I go to the pictures tonight, Dad?
- Y es, you m ay, but you must be back by nine.
- Well, D ad, perhaps I might be later today?
Robert is very clever: he doesn’t have to work hard to
pass his exams.
Y ou can buy these things at our shop.
Can she swim?
We can’t do anything right now.
lie hasn’t been able to walk recently.
Are you able to speak French?
146 Essential Course

We’ve got a lot o f time, we needn’t hurry


Should we go shopping? - Yes, I think we should.
The sick man is asleep. You mustn’t shout.

a) Write these nouns in two columns: countable - uncountable:


experience money bread work loaf coin
information stamp poem job egg pork
furniture clothes poetry noise cow sheep
case meat book music mutton weather
bottle beef song cushion luggage coffee
b) Make up and write down a few questions with the above nouns, be­
gin your questions with How many IHow much as in the model.
M odel: How many clothes do you need for one season 7
Mow much money do you have?
c) Make up a short dialogue with a partner using a few of the above nouns.

2 Insert the indefinite article if necessary:


1. Our chief says he wants som eone with ... experience for this jo b .
2.
lie was hungry and ate ... whole chicken
3. She told him she had already bought ... new iron.
4. ...paper is made from wood.
5. This region o f France produces ... very good wine.
6 . We had ... strange experience yesterday.
7. ... sugar has become expensive
8 . The mother asked the children not to make ... noise.
9. Many people believe that ... education must be free.
10. She has just broken ... glass.
11. He prefers ... chicken to ... turkey.
12. She says she wants to have ... good education.
13. I’d like ... ice.
14. ... ice floats, ... iron sinks.
15. Give me ... beer, please, and two sandwiches
16. He usually has ... boiled egg for lunch.
17. Tommy, there’s ... egg on your cheek.
18. Let me tie the box with ... ribbon.
19. ... glass is made from . sand
20. She needed two metres o f ... ribbon.

0 Fill in the blanks with so or such:


1. But indeed, my friend, you were not .happy as you think
2. Are you ... sure that is the only reason? D o you not realize, m y
friend, that ... knowledge may be dangerous?
3. He was not really ... a very bad player.
Unit V 147

4. I’m terribly sorry I’ve been ... a hopeless correspondent.


5. He had never seen her look ... beautiful.
6 . It was odd how they had become ... friends when they had
nothing whatsoever in common.
7. Decima always looked ... smart.
8 . My twenty-first birthday falls next Sunday, and it would be . a
relief if you could stay until after the celebration dinner party
9. The house itself, b e in g ... remote, was in fact o f little financial value.
10. He had always been attracted to older women before and this
was the first time he had felt even a remote interest for a
woman ... young.
11. She was very pale, and people sometimes thought she looked ill,
although she was ... strong and ... healthy.
12. Darling, you look marvellous, ... brown, ... young.

2 Pill in the blanks with modal verbs in the right tense according to
the instructions given in brackets at the end of each sentence. Use
the verbs from the box:
must, can, may, should, need, to be able, to have to_____
1. I ... see her smiling at me now. (the Present Indefinite Tense, ability)
2. Our marriage was a fixed and certain mark and I only feared I
... die before I reached it. (the Past Indefinite Tense, possibility)
3. I ... work harder on these portraits, (the m odal verb which has
(Tnly one form , necessity)
4. I ... not say that we feared each other, the fear was all mine.
(the Present Indefinite Tense, possibility)
5. I ... try to describe Hartley. (the modal verb which has only one
form , necessity)
6 . I ... go on and on simply describing Hartley (the Past Indefinite
Tense, ability)
7. I w'as afraid o f my mother’s disapproval She ... say we were too
young, (the Past Indefinite Tense, possibility)
8 . ... I ask what you are doing at the Raven Hotel 7 (the Present
Indefinite Tense, permission)
9. I sat down but I ... not eat or drink in her presence, (the Past
Indefinite Tense, ability)
10. For some time I ... not move, (the Past Indefinite Tense, ability)
11. I ... now, in mentioning my mother, speak o f Aunt Ftelle. (the
modal verb which has only one fo rm , necessity)
12. Oranges ... be eaten in solitude and as a treat when one is feel­
ing hungry, (present advisability)
13. I have reread what I wrote about Hartley and feel moved simply
by the fact that I ........ to write it. (the Past Indefinite Tense, ability)
1^- I am not rich. My house took most o f my savings I ... save up
(the modal verb which has only one fo rm , necessity)
148 Essential Course

15. “I’ll never sell this,” she had told him bluntly, “so you ... as
forget about it. This is my hom e now and for all time.” {the
Present Indefinite Tense, permission)
16. You ... or you ... not marry me, but I am not going to permit
you to marry anybody else, {the Present Indefinite Tense, permission)
17. I’d better walk with you to the hotel. - You ... not My car is
near, {the m odal verb which has o nly one tense fo r m the Pres­
ent, necessity)
18. You leave your windows open downstairs. You ... not, you
know, {present advisability)
19. But did she love him? I ... to know . Was she really happy?I ...
to know, {the Past Indefinite Tense, the m odal expression meaning
necessity arising out o f circumstances)
20. I had mixed feelings aboutice cream until I realized that it ...
always be eaten with a cake or tart, never with fruit alone, {the
m odal verb which has only one fo r m , obligation)

E] Open the brackets using the verbs in the right tenses:


Jordache {to bake) a birthday cake and he {to come) in from the
kitchen carrying it, eighteen candles alight on the icing, and they all
actually {to sing) “Happy Birthday to you, dear Rudolph,” when the
doorbell {to ring). The sound {to stop) the song in mid-verse. The door­
bell almost never (to ring) in the Jordache house. N o one ever {to come)
to visit them and the mailman {to drop) the letters through a slot.
“Who {to be) that?” Jordache (to ask).
“I {to go),” Gretchen {to say). She (to run) down the stairs as
Rudolph {to blow) out the candles. She {to be) glad that she (to be)
all dressed up and (to do) her hair that morning for Rudolph’s party.
(From: Rich Man, Poor Man by I Shaw. Abridged)

Q a) Read and translate these examples. Remember that the italicized


nouns are used only with a plural verb.
1. Cattle are large four-legged anim als which are kept on the farm
for their meat and milk.
2 . All the clergy o f the town were present at the meeting.
3. The m ilitary were often called in to help the police
4. They say the police haven’t caught him yet.
5. People who live in Wales speak in a different way from people
who live in Scotland.
6 . Swine are usually kept in a pigsty.
7. Vermin are small animals such as rats and mice. They carry dis­
ease and damage food or crops.
b) Make up and write down your own sentences with the italicized
words from (a).
Unit V 149

VOCABULARY
R ead the vocabulary list and get ready to do the exercises that fo l­
low it.

The weather is the most important topic in England. По not be


misled by those who, on the Continent, wanting to describe someone
as exceptionally dull will remark: “He is the type who would discuss
the weather with you.” In England this is an ever-interesting, even
thrilling topic, and you must be good at discussing the weather
(7. Mikes

You may need the follow ing words for opening phrases
in a weather talk:

beautiful - прекрасная bright - ясная


rainy - дождливая beastly - мерзкая
cool - прохладная sunny - солнечная
fine - прекрасная unpredictable - непредсказуемая
foggy - туманная It looks like rain/snow/gale/thun-
chilly - зябкая, прохладная derstorm. - Похоже, что будет
windy - ветреная дождь/ снег/буря/гроза.
lovely*- хорошая I hope it will keep fine. Надеюсь,
muddy - грязная что хорошая погода постоит
dull - пасмурная (сохранится).
slushy - слякотная It’s clearing up. - Проясняется.
awful - ужасная To change for the better/for the
nice - прекрасная worse - меняться к лучшему/
close - душная худшему (о погоде)
terrible - ужасная The sun/moon is going in. - Солн­
wonderful - чудесная це/луна заходит за тучу.
stuffy - душная
nasty - ненастная

The words below will be helpful when speaking o f the things


that norm ally happen each season both on the Continent and
in G reat Britain:

S P R IN G - ВЕС Н А

in spring - весной early/late spring ранняя/поздняя


this spring - этой весной весна
150 Essential Coarse

to rise ( o f temperature) - подни­ to grow back ( o f leaves and buds) -


маться (о температуре) вырас! и вновь (о листьях и
to get warm - становиться теплее почках)
to shine (shone, shone) - светить to open ( o f flow ers) - раскры­
to melt - таять ваться (о цвет ах)
to thaw - таять to be in bloom/in blossom - быть
a thaw has set in - наступила в цвету, цвести
оттепель to burst into bloom/blossom - рас­
mud - грязь цвести
slush - слякоть to get colourful стать разноцвет­
to splash with mud забрызги­ ными
вать грязью to nest - вить гнезда
to rain - идти (о дожде) a nesting season время года, ког ­
in the rain - под дождем да птицы вьют гнезда
to wake up ( o f nature) - просы­ tender-green - нежнозеленый
паться (о природе) April showers bring May flowers. -
to bloom - цвести, расцветать В апреле дожди, в мае цветы
to blossom - цвести, распускаться

S U M M E R - Л ЕТ О

a thunderstorm гроза to gather mushrooms - собирать


a flash of lightning вспышка грибы
молнии to shine brightly in the sky ярко
a clap o f thunder - удар грома светить в небе
It’s thundering. - Гремит гром. to lie in the sun - загорать
It’s lightening. - Сверкает молния. to bathe in the sunlight купать­
There has just been a thunder­ ся в солнечных лучах
storm. - Только что была to get sunstroke - получить сол­
гроза, нечный удар
hot - жаркий to get suntanned - загореть
heat - жара to stay in the shade - оставаться
a heat wave - период сильной в тени
жары to wear light clothes - носить
breeze - бриз легкую одежду
rainbow - радуга to swim (swam, swum) - плавать
hail - град to bathe - купаться
hailstone(s) - градина(ы) to go boating/fishing/cycling - ка­
to get wet through - промокнуть таться на лодке, рыбачить,
to get wet to the skin промок­ кататься на велосипеде
нуть до костей to go on holiday - ехать в отпуск,
to get ripe - созревать, поспевать на каникулы
to pick flowers/berries - собирать to go to the seaside - ехать к морю
цветы/ягоды on the beech - на пляже
I

Unit V 151

A UTUM N - ОСЕНЬ

to blow - дуть it’s drizzling - моросиз


it’s blowing hard - дует сильный to leave for the south улетать
ветер на юг
fog - туман to be caught in the rain - по­
foggy - туманный пасть под дождь
early frosts ранние морозы to run for shelter - бежать, что­
to be still in leaf - быть все еще бы укрыться от дождя
покрытым листвой to be overcast - быть покрытым
to get cool становиться про­ тучами
хладнее the sky is overcast небо затя­
gale - буря нуто тучами
blast - сильный порыв ветра grey with heavy clouds - серый
to pour - лить (о дожде) от тяжелых облаков
to rain hard/heavily идти силь­ puddles - лужи
но (о дожде) umbrella - зонтик
to bucket down - лить как из raincoat (rainproof) - плащ
ведра an Indian summer - бабье лето
a spitting rain - моросящий дождь a blaze of colour - яркое пятно
a heavy shower - сильный ливень harvest time время урожая
to drizzle - моросить (о дожде) to harvest - собирать урожай

W IN T E R - ЗИ М А

to get cold - стать холоднее a mild winter мягкая зима


the sun sets early/rises late - a severe winter - суровая зима
солнце садится рано/встает a Russian winter - русская зима
поздно a white C hristm as - Рождество со
to fall (о / temperature) - падать снегом
(о температуре) white frost - иней, изморозь
to freeze hard - сильно подмо­ black ice - ледяная корка
раживать to slip down - поскользнуться
It’s freezing hard. - Сильный мороз, slippery - скользкий
to be frozen over/up ( o f a river, it’s slippery today - сегодня го­
lake) - быть замерзшим (о лолед
реке, озере) icicle - сосулька
the lake is still frozen up - озеро to sparkle in the sun - сверкать
все еще сковано льдом на солнце
to wrap oneself warm - тепло ку­ There has just been a heavy snow­
таться fall. - Только что прошел силь­
to be frozen to the bone - за­ ный снегопад,
мерзнуть д о костей snowflakes снежинки
152 Essential Course

a heavy snowfall - сильный сне­ to ski - касаться на лыжах


гопад to skate кататься на коньках
to throw snowballs - бросать to sledge down the hills - катать­
снежки ся на санках с горок
to play snowballs/to snowball to go tobogganing - кататься на
играть в снежки санках
to make a snowman - лепить in hibernation в спячке
снеговика

The weather forecast plays an im portant role in our life.


If you don’t want to find yourself in an awkward situation,
i.e. to get wet through in the rain, to soak in the heat or
to shiver in the cold wind you must know the forecast (outlook)
for today which, depending on the season, may contain
the following:

forecast (outlook) for today/tomor­ to ease ( o f frost, fog. gale, etc.) -


row прогноз на сегодня/на слабеть (о морозе, тумане,
завтра буре и т.п.)
according to the weather forecast - it’s 5 degrees below/above zero
согласно прогнозу погоды 5 градусов ниже/выше нуля
the weather forecast says that... in the shade - в тени
в прогнозе погоды говорится, in the day - днем
что ... at night - ночью
to be in prospect (to be expected) by midday - к полудню
ожидаться the day is expected to be wet/win­
heavy and frequent showers силь­ dy/sunny/bright - день ожи­
ные и частые ливни дается сырой/ветрен ый/сол неч
the showers will fall as sleet or ный/ясный
snow - ливни, переходящие в dry - сухой
крупу или снег quiet - тихий
cloudy with outbreaks of rain - о б ­ hazy sunshine - солнце сквозь
лачно с дождями дымку
dry with sunny/bright spells - сухо to spread north-east/south-west
с периодами прояснения распространиться на северо-
average temperature - средняя тем­ восток/ю го-запад
пература

The weather is different in different cardinal p oints...

in the North - на севере in the East - на востоке


in the South - на юге at the Pole - на полюсе
in the West - на западе
Unit V 153

as well as on different continents...

Europe - Европа Africa - Африка


America (South America, North Asia - Азия
America) - Америка (Северная Australia - Австралия
Америка, Южная Америка) the Antarctic - Антарктида

The land is washed by numerous bodies o f water: oceans, seas,


channels, straits, bays, rivers and lakes.

the Atlantic Ocean - Атлантичес­ the Volga - Волга


кий океан the Thames (the river Thames) -
the Pacific Ocean - Тихий океан река Темза
the Indian Ocean - Индийский the Moskva - Москва-река
i океан the Danube - Дунай
the Arctic Ocean - Северный Ле­ the Mississippi - Миссисипи
довитый океан the Nile Нил
the Black Sea Черное море Baikal (Lake Baikal) - Байкал
the Baltic Sea - Балтийское море (озеро Байкал)
the Mediterranean Sea - Среди­ Aral (the Sea of Aral) Арал
земное море (Аральское море)
the Caspian Sea - Каспийское море Loch Ness (Lake Loch Ness) - .
the English Channel - Англий­ Лох-Н есс (озеро Лох-Несс)
ский канал (JIa-Манш) Windermere o f the Lake District,
the Strait of Dover Дуврский England (Lake Windermere) -
пролив (Па-де-Кале) озеро Уиндермиер
Trafalgar Bay - Трафальгарская Michigan (Lake Michigan) - озе­
бухта ро Мичиган
Botany Bay - залив Ботани Бей

H ere are som e words which might be helpful


if you want to speak about nature around you:

FLO R A Ф Л О РА

vegetation растительность to grow - расти, выращивать


petal - лепесток branch ветка
leaf (leaves) - лист (листья) shrub - кустарник, куст
plant - растение bud почка; бутон
tree trunk - ствол дерева bush - куст
to plant - сажать grass трава
root - корень blade of grass - травинка
154 Essenrial Course

T rees - деревья

birch - береза pine tree сосна


poplar - тополь rowan tree рябина
ash - ясень willow - ива
oak tree - дуб fir tree - ель
maple - клен lime tree (linden) - липа
elm - вяз acacia акация

Flowers - цветы

snowdrop - подснежник forget-me-not - незабудка


carnation - гвоздика lily-of-the-valley - ландыш
dandelion - одуванчик iris - ирис
aster - астра lilac - сирень
daisy - маргаритка violet - фиалка
chrysanthemum - хризантема tulip - тюльпан
corn-flower - василек dahlia - георгин

N ote a few plants that com m only grow in Britain:

beech - бук holly - остролист


heather - вереск crocus - крокус
plane (platan) - платан rose роза
mistletoe - омела ivy - плющ
sweet chestnut - каштан съедобный daffodil желтый нарцисс

FA U N A - Ф А У Н А

W ild anim als - дикие животны е

bear - медведь whale - кит


mouse (pi. mice) - мышь(и) hare - заяц
tiger - тигр monkey - обезьяна
wolf (pi. wolves) - волк(и) seal тюлень
frog - лягушка squirrel белка
lion - лев dolphin дельфин
fox лиса snake - змея
elephant - слон

Birds - птицы

sparrow - воробей swan - лебедь


robin - малиновка crow - ворона
Unit У 155

woodpecker - дятел swallow - ласточка


owl - сова dove - голубь (одомашненный)
magpie сорока crane - журавль
nightingale - соловей lark - жаворонок
eagle - орел pigeon - голубь

Insects насекомые
butterfly - бабочка beetle - жук
fly - муха bee - пчела
ant - муравей locust - саранча
grasshopper - кузнечик dragon fly - стрекоза

D om estic anim als and birds - дом аш н и е ж ивотны е и птицы

cow - корова donkey - ослик, ишак


sheep (pi. sheep) - овца (-цы) turkey - индюк
hen - курица rabbit - кролик
horse - лошадь ass - осел домашний
goose (pi. geese) - гусь (-си) duck - узка
cock - петух pig - свинья
goat - козел

C ats, dogs, ham sters, guinea-pigs, rabbits, fish, parrots


are commonly kept as pets at hom e.

- Do you keep a pet? - У вас - Yes, I keep a guinea-pig, it is my


есть домашнее животное? pet. - Д а, я содержу морскую
свинку, это мой любимец.

EXERCISES
Q Pairwork. Answer the question What is the weather like? using the
active vocabulary of the unit.

Modei. a) - What is/was the weather like today/yesterday?


- How do you like the weather?

b) - The weather is lovely today.


- Today is sunny.
- It is windy.
It is nasty weather today.
156 Essential Course

2 Translate and transcribe:


бук радуга сосулька хлопья снега
зонт спячка оттепель снег с дождем
град ворона цветение облачное небо
буря ливень ласточка легкий ветерок
жара голуби одуванчик собирать грибы
лужи молния загорелый порывистый ветер
гроза слякоть Рождество промокнуть насквозь
омела соловей насекомые распускаться (о цвет ах)
вереск ландыш прохладный затяжной моросящий дождь
сирень суровый

the words on the left with their definitions on the right:


1) a shower ( o f rain) a) a strong and violent wind
2) drizzle — b) frozen raindrops falling from the sky
c) strong, sudden rush o f wind
3) a mist \ d) a brief fall o f rain
4) a breeze e) rain in many small fine drops (fine rain)
0 (o f snow and ice) begin to melt
5) sleet
g) falling snow or hail mixed with rain
6) gale h) water vapour in the air less thick than fog
7) a blast i) a gentle wind
j) frozen vapour falling from the sky in soft
8) hail
white flakes
9) slush k) arch containing the colours o f the spectrum
10) fog formed in the sky opposite the sun in the
rain
1 1) a thaw I) vapour suspended in the atmosphere, thicker
12) snow than mist and difficult to see through
13) a rainbow m) a period o f time
n) melting dirty snow on the ground
14) white frost o) frozen coating o f vapour on the ground,
15) a spell roofs, plants, etc.

EE Read and translate these sentences into Russian. Learn the usage of
the italicized words and phrases. Make up and write down your own
sentences with them.
1. A blast o f hot air came from the oven.
2. The ship lost her masts in the gale.
3 It hailed during the morning.
4. Let’s go skating before a thaw sets in.
5. There were bad fo g s in this area in winter.
6. Leave fro zen fo o d to thaw before cooking it.
7. We heard a loud crash (a long roll) o f thunder.

и
Unit V 157

8. D on ’t go out in the ram.


9. There urn a heavy rainstorm last week.
10. The rain poured down.
11. It was sleeting yesterday.
12. The rainstorms caused flo o d s in low-lying areas.
13. The pond was fro zen over.
14. It was a bright cold day, the ground was covered with sleet.
15. I took my dog for a walk along the fro ze n stream.
16. The windscreen o f my car fr o s te d over during the night

ED Explain the difference between:


drizzle and shower mist and fog
breeze and blast gale and blast
hail and snow sleet and snow

EE Say in other words:


outbreak: _________________ a roll o f thunder: ___________
sh o w e r :____________________to melt:
normal temperature:_______ bad frost:
to be ex p ected :____________ melting dirty snow: ______________

EE Translate and transcribe:


градус временами солнце
ноль средняя температура
ослабевать ожидается (two words)
i'io прогнозу сильные, частые ливни
прогноз погоды дождливо с прояснениями
временами дожди осадки в виде дождя или мокрого снега

ЕЕ Insert the articles where necessary. Translate the sentences into Rus­
sian:
1 . Another ... very windy day is in ... prospect.
2. ... gale winds are in ... prospect over .. most o f British
Isles
3. ... strongest winds will be in ... north and will ease later in ...
day.
4. ... day is expected to be cloudy with ... outbreaks o f ... rain.
5. ... Southern England will be m ostly dry with ... sunny spells.
6 . ... temperature will be near ... average in ... North o f ... Brit­
ain.
7. ... Scotland will have ... sunny spells and showers.
8 . ... heavy frosts will ease over ... N orth-W est Scotland
9. ... temperature is a little below ... normal in ... North and a
little above ... normal in ... South.
158 Essen rial Course

EE Fill in (he blanks using the words from the box:


sunny spells, average, to thaw, snowfall, in the fog, wet through,
gale, heat, shade, in the rain, pouring, early, cool, drizzling, sun,
degrees, below zero, weather forecast, prospect, below, sunshine and
showers, heavy, dry, rain

1. It usually begins ... in ... spring.


2. It’s dangerous to drive in the ... .
3. There was a heavy ... in the morning.
4. It’s ... cats and dogs, you will get ... through.
5. I can’t stand ..., so I prefer ... weather.
6. - What is the ... temperature in winter in the M oscow region?
It varies from 5 to 15 ...........
7. According to the ........ for today the day will be ... with ... spells.
8. Yesterday we had a mixture o f ... and ... .
9. ... frosts are in ... in the afternoon.
10. I’m sick and tired o f ... .
11. The ... had broken the window and the fence and the farmer was
fixing them.
12. It is 32 degrees in the ... . What is the temperature in the ... , I wonder?
13. He sheltered from the ... under the tree.

EE Translate into English:


1. Он не знает прогноза на завтра.
2. Ожидаются ливневые дожди с грозами.
3. П о прогнозу будет облачно с дождями.
4. Завтра временами кратковременные дожди.
5. В понедельник дождливо с прояснениями.
6. Сильные снегопады ожидаются в конце января.
7. Ранней весной и поздней осенью часто идет мокрый снег.
8. Смотри, снег падает крупными хлопьями.
9. Сильные и частые ливни могут погубить урожай в этом году.
10. Не сиди на жаре, можешь получить солнечный удар.
11. Какая температура в тени?
12. Сегодня очень жарко, и можно хорош о загореть ив тени.
13. Было приятно гулять под дождем.
14. П о прогнозу завтра сухо и ветрено, не правда ли?
15. Смотри, дождь льет как из ведра.
16. Позавчера шел сильный снег.

ЕВ Correct the false statements. Use the words from the Reminder (sec
below) in your replies.
1 Snow melts in midsummer as a rule.
2. It’s easy to drive with slush on the road.
3. A breeze is a sudden strong rush o f wind.
Unit V 159

4. You can distinctly see lightning in the clear blue sky.


5. The average summer temperature in M oscow is 5 degreesbelow zero.
6. People like to stay indoors in fine weather.
7. It is often sleeting in August in the South.
8. The first snowdrops appear in December
9. The Volga is the longest river in Asia.
10. Apple trees are usually in blossom in midwinter.
11. Mistletoe is an evergreen plant with small white berries used as
an Easter decoration.

Reminder: I’m afraid you’re mistaken. Y ou can’t be serious.


N othing o f the kind. I’m afraid I don’t agree.
Just the other way round. Surely not.
I don’t think you are right. You must be joking.
By no means.

EE a) Read the poem.

THE SEASONS
Oh, do you remember
When springtime was here,
The snowdrops and catkins,
The bird-songs so clear?

Oh, do you remember


The long summer hours,
The hum o f the bees
And the scent o f the flowers?

And do you remember


When autumn came round,
H ow leaves red and yellow
Lay thick on the ground?

But now it is winter,


The branches are bare;
There’s ice on the puddles
And frost in the air.

I played in the sunshine,


I play in the snow,
And which is my favourite?
I really don’t know.
by Ivy Russel
160 Essential Course

b) Write out of the poem English equivalents for the following:


капель гомон
на солнце сережки
голые ветви жужжание
любимый замерзшие лужи
аромат лежать толстым слоем на земле

с) Say why it is rather difficult to answer the question Which is your


favourite season?

EE Answer these questions:


1. What was the weather like yesterday?
2. H ow often does it snow in M oscow in November?
3. Do you like to walk in the rain? Why?
4. What was the Russian winter like som e ten or twenty years ago?
What is it like now?
5. It’s a lovely day today, isn’t it?
6. Is there much snow in the street now?
7. Which season do you prefer? Why?
8. What is the weather forecast for tomorrow?
9. What is the most suitable weather for a picnic?
10. Why do people take their umbrellas with them?
11 Do you ever try to forecast the weather?
12. Do snowfalls favour harvests or do they ruin them?

EE Speak about the four seasons of the year. Use the words from the
Vocabulary.

ES Translate and transcribe:


часть света Африка Средиземное море
восток Австралия Атлантический океан
север Антарктида пролив Ла-Манш
юг Дунай пролив Па-де-Кале
континент Темза Трафальгарский пролив
Европа Нил озеро Уиндермиер
Азия Тихий океан озеро Мичиган

ЕЕ Correct these false statements:


1. The English Channel separates the British Isles from Africa
2. Polar foxes live in Asia.
3. The largest continent is North America.
4 The Thames is the largest river in Europe.
5. Lake Baikal is a reserve o f sea water.
6 . The Mediterranean Sea is in the south o f Russia.
Unit V 161

7 . Windermere is one o f the most beautiful lakes in France.


8. Loch Ness is famous for its size.
9 . The south o f Russia is washed by the Pacific Ocean.
10. The Arctic Ocean is in the south.
11. The Battle o f Trafalgar Bay was won by N apoleon
1 2. The Strait o f Dover is a very wide stretch o f water.
13. Botany Bay washes the coast o f Spain.
14. The N ile is the shortest river in Africa.
15. The name o f the sea between Africa and Europe is the Baltic Sea

m Translate into English:


1. Озеро Уиндермиер находится в Озерном крае в Англии. При­
рода здесь очень живописна и привлекает тысячи туристов
2. Трафальгарский пролив, расположенный на юге Атлантическо­
го побережья Испании, был местом знаменитой битвы между
флотом Англии и флотом Испании и Франции
3. Пролив Па-де-Кале довольно узок, его ширина всего 32 ки­
лометра. В 1994 году под ним был прорыт подземный тун­
нель, соединяющий Францию и Великобританию.
4. JIa-Манш отделяет Великобританию от Европы.
5. Озеро Лох-Несс в Ш отландии знаменито своим чудовищем по
имени Несс. Местные жители считают, что оно приносит им
удачу, хотя никто его никогда не видел.
6 . Трмза - самая длинная река в Англии.
7. Теплый климат Средиземного моря привлекает туристов со
всего света.
8 . Байкал - самое глубокое озеро в Европе.
9. Каждый русский школьник знает, что Волга впадает в Кас­
пийское море, а Дунай в Черное море.
10. Мои родители поехали в отпуск в Италию, чтобы позагорать
и поплавать в Средиземном море.

ЕЕ Translate and transcribe:


фауна хризантема осел (two words) стрекоза
ветвь бук сорока бабочка
береза вереск сова белка
одуванчик остролист голубь {two words) медведь
ландыш плющ ласточка обезьяна
рябина омела журавль дельфин
мимоза нарцисс еж животное
сирень лебедь хомяк насекомое
гвоздика гусь муравей
георгин корова жук
акация ворона саранча
162 Essential Course

m Complete these sentences:


1 [ would like to keep a pet, a ... for example
2 ... are honey producers.
3 ... and ... help keep sanitary balance in a forest.
4. You can see an ..., a a ..., a ... and a ... in the Zoo.
5 ... sing better than ... and ... .
6. ... and don’t leave for the South in autumn
7 Л ... isvery convenient as a pet It is small and undemanding
8. ..., ..., ..., ... and are domestic animals; ..., ..., ..., ..., ... and
... are wild animals.
9. Some ... spread diseases and may be dangerous for man’s life
10. N o wonder that an elephant’s nose is called a ...; it really looks
like a tree ... .
11. There are rows o f ... at the Mausoleum in Red Square.
12. On Palm Sunday, a week before Easter Holiday some Russian
people decorate their homes with branches o f ... trees
13. Branches o f ... are traditionally used as a Christmas decoration in
England.
14. Л ... is a symbol o f peace and concordance

EE Answer these questions:


1
When do catkins appear on the trees9
2
What is the colour o f dandelions?
3
Can you describe a crocus 9
4
Have you got any pot plants at hom e 9
5
Have you ever picked snowdrops 9
6.
What kind o f weather favours vegetation 9
7
How is clover used?
8 D o birches and willows grow in your neighbourhood 9
9 W'hen were you first presented with a bunch o f roses?
10. Which insect do people compare a hard-working person to?
11 When do tulips and daisies bloom in the M oscow Region 9
12. Why are some types o f plants and animals included in the Red
Book?
13. W'hat plants have been included in the Red Book 9

m Translate into English:


1. Ранней весной в Москве все еще прохладно.
2. В этих горах почти нет растительности.
3. М ногие не любят раннюю весну из-за слякоти и грязи под
ногами.
4 Я люблю свой сад в цвету в середине весны
5 Как можно усидеть дома в такую чудную погоду 1
6 Зима в этих краях очень мягкая и малоснежная
Unit V 163

7. Смешной снеговик был сделан за пять минут.


8 . Настоящая русская зима - суровая, с сильными морозами и
вьюгами.
9. Скоро небо прояснится и мы сможем выйти наулицу.
Ю. В конце лета созревает зерно (хлеба).
1 1. Бабье лето - это две недели сухой и теплой погоды в сентябре
12. Пришла зима; деревья стоят голые в саду, озеро замерзло и
очень холодно.
13. Ты помнишь жужжание пчел и запах цветов весной?
14. Первая оттепель обычно наступает в марте
15. Говорят, в вашей с гране осень всегда очень сырая Это верно?
16. На юге Англии ветрено в любую погоду.
17. Ветры с Атлантического океана приносят дож ди, благоприят­
ные для растительности.
18. Зимой снег в лесу лежит толстым слоем на земле и ветвях
деревьев.
19. Трудно сказать, какое время года я люблю больше всею .
20. По прогнозу завэра сухо и тепло, средняя температура дня 14
градусов выше нуля.

TEXT-BASED ACTIVITIES
Before reading the te x t below m ake sure y o u know how to pro ­
nounce the follow ing words:

nation ['neijn] to approach [a 'p ra o tj] to appear ia'pial


present ['preznt] Guy Fawkes [gai'fa:ks| to create [kri'eitl
common ['komanj to guarantee Lgaeran'ti:] especially li'spejah)
carol I'kaeral] background I'b aekgraundl antifreeze I'aentifriz]
normally |'no:mali| unpredictable [,Anpn'diktabl| to criticise I'kritisaiz]
reserved [ri'z3:vd| Harrods Dept ['haeredz! Blackpool I'blaekpu I]
(department) Store

LET’S TALK ABOUT THE W E A T H E R


In a nation full of different people living in different areas
with different backgrounds one thing that is common to all is
the unpredictable weather. This is one of the main reasons why
the normally reserved British find the weather such a useful
topic of conversation. So what do they find so interesting to
talk about?
164 Essen tiol Сourse

Let us begin with spring. Spring in Lngland generally ar­


rives by March. By this time the first buds are usually ap­
pearing on the trees and the gardens are once again beginning
to get more colourful with crocuses and daffodils. The famous
“April showers” - one minute rain, the next minute sun also
usually begin in March which allows the British to remark how
strange it is that the showers arc so early.
As the unpredictable spring weather moves into the even
more unpredictable summer weather the Great British public
try to forecast whether the summer months will be hot or not
Almost everyone wants to believe that August - the holiday
month - will be fine but at the same time many of them will
spend their holiday abroad. Those who don’t go abroad will
often go to the popular seaside resorts such as Blackpool in
the North and Brighton in the South - a suntan is never
guaranteed but the sand and the sea provide plenty of enter­
tainment for all.
As autumn approaches and the days grow shorter the
British once again begin to guess what kind of winter lies
ahead. Will it be mild, will there be lots of snow, is it worth
buying some antifreeze for the car? If they arc lucky there
might be an Indian summer plenty of warm days stretching
to the end of September this gives the people who have to
go back to work in the cities a lot to grumble about.
Autumn is a beautiful time of year with the changing col­
ours of the leaves, with its traditional Guy Fawkes night and
roasted chestnuts on open log Ores. It passes too quickly and
before the people know what’s happening winter arrives and
Christmas is just around the corner. The weeks leading lip to
the 25th are spent buying presents and going carol singing.
There is always far too much foodto eat on Christmas day
but for some reason the British do not complain about this.
Only the weather is criticised, especially if there is no snow on
Xmas day to create the traditionally White Christmas.
In January the public go out in the often cold winds and
rain to make their way to the famous January Sales. Some
shops like Harrods Dept. Store are so popular and have such
large reductions that some people camp out over Xmas in
front of the shop in order to be first in the queue when the
shop is open. They are probably among thefewin Britain
who won’t complain about a mild winter!
Unit V 165

m Find in the text English equivalents to the following:


снег на Рождество загар
предсказать погоду обеспечить
совсем рядом/близко как правило
по той или иной причине приближаться
популярный морской курорт тема разговора
становиться ярким от цветов направиться в/к
проводить отпуск за границей непредсказуемый
ворчать/жаловаться по поводу что ждет впереди
ходить и распевать рождественские выходить из дома
гимны

Give the four forms of the following verbs:


находить ехать знать замерзнут!
начинать расти давать вести
проводить покупать петь лить
становиться лежать есть

Translate into English and give the plural form of the 1


words:
очередь месяц крокус край
город лист курорт местность
подарок день минута волк
бутон ветер нарцисс

ЕЯ Search the text for synonyms of the given words:


season to foretell
short rain to come up to (near)
fortunate to go in the direction o f
sun-burnt complexion to give the right answer
territory to speak about
to make

ЕЕ Search the text for antonyms of the following words:


cold a severe winter emotional
closed behind the shop different
late a long way from here little snow
many few warm days little food
dull small reductions unknown
to enjoy to stay at home to freeze
to praise to grow longer
166 Essential Coarse

E2 M atch the left and right columns:


1) unexpected, that cannot be forecast a) lucky
2) person’s past experiences, education, etc b) entertainment
3) to say in advance what is likely to happen c) approach
4) to promise queue
d)
5) to give, to supply
e) complain
6) to come n e a r -----------------------------------
7) to happen in future 0 background
8) fortunate g) grumble
9) a period o f calm, dry weather in late autumn b) unpredictable
1 0 ) to complain or protest in a bad-tempered way i) suntan
1 1 ) to say that something is wrong, that one is lie ahead
J)
not satisfied provide
b)
1 2 ) a line of people waiting for their turn (to get
1) guarantee
on a bus, to buy smth)
13) known widely, having fame m) arrive
14) brown colour o f sunburnt skin n) Indian summer
15) a public performance (at a theatre, circus, e t c ) o) forecast
16) to come p) famous

EE Answer these questions about the text “ Let’s Talk About the
W eather” :
1. What is common to different people in different areas?
2. Why do the British find the weather a useful topic o f conversation?
3. What do the British remark about spring?
4. Why are the British public especially interested in the weather
forecast in summer?
5. How do the British spend their holiday?
6. What do the popular seaside resorts provide for the holiday­
makers?
7. What problems arise before the British as autumn approaches?
8. Why do some British people grumble about the weather in
autumn?
9. What makes people feel that Christmas is just around the corner?
10. What arc the British preoccupied with in December?
11. W'hen is the weather especially criticised in winter?
12. Do you think it is worth camping out in front o f the shop in
the cold winds and rain? Why?
13. What do the British grumble about in winter, in summer and in
spring?

EE a) Write out of the text the words that describe the four seasons.

b) Retell the text using the topical vocabulary.


Unit V 167

ею Read and translate the following fragment. How docs it characterise


human nature?
It always is wretched weather, according to us. In summer time
we say it is stifling; in winter that it is killing; in spring and autumn
we are not satisfied because it is neither one nor the other. If it is
fine, we say the country is being ruined for want o f rain; if it does
rain, we wish for fine weather.

m Find a small fragment from a book describing weather and present it


in class with your commentaries.

ЕЮ Translate these sentences into English following the model.


Model. Стбит купить немного антифриза для машины - зима и
этом году будет суровая.
It is worth buying som e antifreeze for your car: this winter
is going to be severe.
1. He стбит покупать много вещей сейчас, через месяц в универ­
маге будет распродажа.
2. Стбит посетить знаменитый универмаг в центре города, хотя
там много народу перед Рождеством.
3. Не стоит ехать в этом году на побережье - зима будет мяг­
кая и без снега.
4. На Рождество стоит послушать хоровое пение.
5. Здесь стоит остаться еще на две недели, вот-вот начнется ба­
бье лето, очень красивое время года в этих местах.
6. Я думаю, стоит поехать в отпуск за границу, так как лето в
Москве обещ ают холодное и дождливое.
7. Стоит ли покупать новую машину в этом году?

ЕЮ Rewrite these sentences according to the model.


Model: The British think that the weather is a useful topic o f con­
versation.
The British fin d the weather a useful topic o f conversation.
1. She thinks that the article is hard to translate.
2. We liked the place, we thought it was convenient for a camp.
3. The parents thought that the price was reasonable and soon they
bought the house.
4. We didn’t like his behaviour, it was very rough.
5. In his opinion the climate in our country is harmful for his health
6 . Everybody liked the joke as it was really amusing.
7. He said that the picture was very impressive.
8 . The mother remarked that the daughter’s new skirt was rather
short.
168 Essential Course

9. Tim said that the present we were going to give to our cousin
was quite suitable.
10. Mother said that the dinner I had cooked wasvery good.
11. To my mind the floor is not clean enough

m Translate into English paying special attention to prepositions:


1. По каким-то причинам поезд не прибыл па станцию вовремя.
2. К марту снег растаял и на деревьях появились первые почки.
3. В прошлом году на Рождество было много снега и детям бы­
ло очень весело.
4. Весна в Англии обычно наступает в марте.
5. В конце концов мне повездо, и я нашел ключвозле гаража.
6 . Семья моего брата прибыла к началу декабря.
7. В день рождения Энн ее друзья собрались перед ее окном и
громко спели «Счастливого тебе дня рождения».
8 . К марту в садах и парках Лондона расцветают крокусы и
нарциссы.
9. В курортных городах всегда много развлечений для публики
Одно только никогда точно не известно, будет ли хорошая
погода.
10. Весной наш сад становится ярким от тюльпанов, сирени и
нарциссов.

Make the right choice according to the model.


Model: ... the weather is such a useful topic o f conversation.
... spring showers are so early this year
1. The road was ... narrow that it was difficult for two cars to pass
each other.
2. The weather was ... warm that I didn't need a coat.
3. It is ... a long way from your house to the station.
4. The water was ... very dirty that we decided not to go swimming.
5. The food at the hotel was ... bad, I’ve never eaten ... awful food.
6 . It was ... a boring film that I fell asleep in the middle o f it
7. The wind was ... strong that it was difficult to walk
8 . Everything seems ... expensive these days, doesn’t it?
9. There were ... many people in the room that we couldn’t move.
10 The leaves on the trees are ... bright in autumn.
11. The holidays passed ... quickly.
12. She often criticised her mother’s views, she found them ... old-
fashioned.
13. Your new friends are ... nice people.
14. This is ... difficult work that I will never finish it.
15. The sun shone ... brightly yesterday morning that I thought
spring had come at last.
Unit V 169

ЕЕ Translate into English:


1. Смотри, идет полиция, она собирается кого-то арестовать
2. «М ожет быть люди в этом доме пожалеют меня», подумал
Оливер. «Л если нет, то лучше умереть возле людей, чем в
открытом поле».
3. Зачем, интересно, его разыскивает полиция?
4. М олодежь со всей округи привлекают страшные рассказы это­
го старика.
5. Летом публика предпочитает уезжать из Лондона в Европу,
где погода теплее и более устойчива.
6 . Полиция гарантирует безопасность всех людей, проживающих
в этой гостинице.
7. Публике разрешено присутствовать на этой красочной цере­
монии.
8 Полиции известно об украденных деньгах.
9. Этих денег недостаточно на покупку такого дорогого подарка
10. В горах северной Ш отландии мало растительности.
11. Ваши знания в этой области довольно поверхностны.
12. Мне не нравится эта газета, в ней мало новостей.

ЕЕ a) Read and retell the two descriptions of seasons composed by teen­


age English children:
Spring
In spring, the buds blossom and the flowers once again begin to
bloom and the leaves glow back on the trees - green and fresh. The
baby lambs are born in spring and so are the birds. It is the season
for all new life. The weather begins to get warmer, the days get
longer. Clocks go forward in spring to help the farmers with theii
work. Farmers plant their crops for the com ing year. People begin to
look forward to Easter.
Autumn
In autumn the weather is fairly cold. The leaves on the trees die
and fall to the ground. We put our clocks back and the days get
shorter. It begins to rain quite a lot and the days get colder. We
have bonfire night on the 5th November when we have bonfires and
fireworks. The centre o f town gets decorated with lights and trees
ready for Christmas.
Farmers harvest their fields. We have Halloween on the 3 1st Oc­
tober when people dress up as witches, ghosts, etc. and carry lanterns
round the streets knocking on people’s doors and asking for pennies
and candy.

b) Say «hat you know about the holidays mentioned in the texts.
170 Essential Course

m Speak about spring and autumn. Make your descriptions as informa­


tive as those above. Use the following phrases:

всё обновляется переводить часы вперед/назад


сеять хлеб с нетерпением ждать чего-л.
украшать чем-л. дни/ночи становятся длиннее/короче
распускаться (о лист ьях) собирать урожай с полей

ш a) Read and translate the text:

Weather Wisdom
Some people watch ants for weather clues. Anytim e you sec
ants industriously building huge mounds around their holes, prepare
for rain.
Bees give weather clues, too. They are usually active several
hours before a rain, but as humidity increases they return to their
hives.
Other insects are also good humidity indicators. Butterflies usu­
ally flit from flower to flower all day long. When they suddenly
disappear and can be found hiding on tree trunks or on the under­
side o f leaves, they are seeking shelter to protect their fragile wings
from a hard rain.
People say when fireflies are about in large numbers, the
weather will keep fine for the next three days.
And if you hear lots o f locusts singing, you can be sure the
air is dry.
Plants are also humidity indicators Just before a rain many
flow'ers - like the daisy, dandelion and tulip - close their blossoms.
By learning to read weather signs you can get a few hours ad­
vance warning if a storm is ahead. It may keep you from getting
wet in the rain.

b) Write English equivalents for the following:

наблюдать за кем-л., чтобы предска- нежные крылья


зать погоду защищать от дождя
за несколько часов д о дождя скапливаться
указывать на погоду светлячок
указывать на дождь, влажность цветки растений
порхать с цветка на цветок прятаться под листьями
U nit V 171

уберечься от дождя (не промокнуть) предупредить заранее


искать укрытие от дождя

с) Answer these questions:

1 What weather clues do some insects give?


2 How do some plants behave some time before rain?
3. What makes people think that the weather may keep One for
several days?
4. Have you ever watched any insects, birds, animals or plants for
weather clues?
5. Why do people think that it is useful to know how to read
weather signs? (useful to be weather-wise?)
6 . Have you ever got a few hours advance warning against a storm
or a rain ahead?

F73 Kill in articles where necessary:

1. As he set ... things on ... table there was vivid flash o f ...
lightning and ... clap of thunder almost overhead
2. It was ... fine sunny morning with ... scent o f ... lilac.
3. ... weather had changed and ... spring was announcing itself ... aii
was warm and there were little white clouds high in . . blue sky
4. I love ... autumn. It’s so much richer than ... spring.
5. ... sky was unclouded and ... air was hot and bright, but
North Sea gave it ... pleasant tang so that it was ... delight just
to live and breathe.
6 . One o f ... pleasant features o f that summer which I remember so
vividly was ... weather which was sunny and mild, flower-
fragrant, almost as if ... days had been arrested in ... seemingly
perpetual springtime.
7. It was ... winter, ... season that suited her best.
8 . ... snow was still falling but more slowly There was no ... wind,
and ... large flakes fell solem nly, purposively, as if just released
from ... huge hand
9. It was cold but crisp and sunny It was ... beautiful day for
January, spring-like in its clear freshness.
10. ... sea which lies before me as I write glow s rather than sparkles
in ... sunshine. Near to ... horizon it is a luxurious purple At
horizon it is indigo.
172 Essential Course

SP EA KIN G PRACTICE

THE W E A T H E R
Examples for conversation

For Good W eother


L o v ely d a y , isn ’t it?
- Isn ’t it beautiful?
- T h e sun ...
- Isn ’t it gorgeou s?
- W o n d erfu l, isn ’t it?
- It’s so nice and h o t ...
P erso n a lly , I think it’s so nice w hen it’s hot isn ’t it?
I ad ore it - d o n ’t you?

For Bad W eather


- N a s ty day, isn ’t it?
- Isn ’t it dreadful?
- T h e rain ... I h ate rain...
- I d o n ’t like it at all. D o y o u 7
- F an cy such a d ay in July. R a in in the m orn in g, then a
bit o f su n sh in e, and rain, rain, rain, all day long.
- I rem em ber ex a ctly the sa m e July d ay in 1936.
- Y e s, 1 rem em ber to o .
- Or w as it in 1928?
- Y es, it w as.
O r in 1939?
- Y e s, th a t’s right.

N o w o b serv e th e last few sen ten ces o f this co n versation . A


very im p ortan t rule em erges from it. Y o u m ust never co n tra ­
dict a n y b o d y w hen d iscu ssin g th e w eath er. S h o u ld it hail and
sn o w , sh o u ld hurricanes u p ro o t the trees from th e sides o f the
road , and sh o u ld so m e o n e rem ark to you: “N ic e d ay, isn ’t it?”
answ er w ith o u t hesitation : “ Isn ’t it lo v ely ? ”
Unit V 173

Learn the a b o v e c o n v e r sa tio n s by heart. If you are a bit


slo w in p ick in g tilings up, learn at least o n e co n v ersa tio n , it
w ou ld d o w o n d erfu lly for a n y o c c a sio n .
I f y o u d o not say a n y th in g else for the rest o f you r life,
ju st repeat this co n v ersa tio n , y o u w ill still h ave a fair chance
o f passin g as a rem arkably w itty m an o f sh arp intellect, keen
ob serva tio n and extrem ely p lea sa n t m anners.
(From: How to Be an Alien by G Mikes)

Transcribe the following words and translate them into Russian:


exceptionally uproot thrilling witty
remarkably hesitation intellect extremely
emerge contradict

m Find English equivalentsfor the following:


остроумный медленно (плохо) усваивать
интеллигентный отсюда следует важное правило
вырвать с корнем уметь хорош о говорить о погоде
заучивать наизусть сойти за ... (произвести впечатление)
противоречить кому-л. вечно интересная и захватываю-
этого будет достаточно щая тема для разговора

Ш Answer these questions:


1. H ow do some people describe an exceptionally dull person? D o
you share this opinion?
2. Whatis the important rule in talking?
3. How can you pass as a remarkably witty person o f sharp intel­
lect and extremely pleasant manners?
4 Why must you not contradict anybody in discussing the weather?
5. D o you take the above recommendations seriously? Why?
6 . When do you think people usually discuss the weather like in the
above dialogues?

m Learn the dialogues ahout weather by heart.

Ш Make up a weather dialogue of your own. The words below may be


useful:
in such fine/splendid/beautiful/nasty/awful weather
it’s snowing/drizzling/pouring
it looks like rain/gale/storm
What does the weather forecast say?
174 Essential Course

m Translate the following sentences into English using the active vo­
cabulary of the unit:
1 Англичане считают, что человек должен хорош о уметь гово­
рить о погоде.
2. Для фермеров погода -- самая важная и всегда интересная те­
ма для разговора.
3. Если будет град, нам придется остаться в городе.
4. В этом районе бурей вырвало с корнем несколько деревьев.
5 Не колеблясь, он ответил, что согласен поехать на север не­
медленно.
6. Мон тетя не любит, когда говорят о погоде, она считает это
скучной темой.
7. Если кто-нибудь заметил в разговоре с вами, что погода се­
годня замечательная, не возражайте, даже если идет пролив­
ной дождь. Если вы противоречите собеседнику, он может по­
считать вас невоспитанным.
8. Он любит поговорить о погоде и о всяких прочих пустяках.
9. Мне было трудно выучить наизусть две страницы текста.
10. Если вы выучите только одно это правило и будете поступать
в соответствии с ним, то сможете сойти за очень умного и
воспитанного человека.
11. «Ваш сын медленно усваивает материал, поэтому он должен
заучивать наизусть как можно больше текстов», - сказал учи­
тель Отец мальчика не согласился с ним.
12. Э тот костюм прекрасно подходит для лю бого случая и для
любой погоды.
13. Не противоречьте ей, когда она говорит о погоде. Лучшим
вашим замечанием будет «Прелестно, не правда ли?» или «Да,
ужасный день».
14. Я был рад познакомиться с таким остроумным, воспитанным
человеком.

ЕЕЗ Read the dialogue with a fellow student:

Here and I'here


L: H allo, Becky! You are looking very brown!
В Yes, it's very hoi in M oscow at the moment. I heard there was
a heat wave and everybody is sunbathing. People link Russia
with snow and ice, but that’s just not true.
I.: 1 remember you told me in your letter that it was very cold,
didn't you?
B: Yes, but it was in winter, the temperature went down to -25°
(minus 25 degrees Celsius). It was cold and the snow was up to
our knees. There were a couple o f snow storms when you
Unit V 175

couldn’t go out because the snow was falling so thickly that it


was difficult to breathe and the wind could knock you down.
That’s what is known as a proper Russian winter - bitter, severe
and beautiful.
L: Oh, but how did you survive?
B: The Russian central heating is very effective.
L: So you weren’t cold at night? As you know I am always cold.
And even in summer I have to use my electric blanket.
B: Poor thing! And what was the winter like here, in Southampton?
L: Oh, even you couldn’t believe how wet this winter was I always
wore my wellies. There were strong gales which destroyed many
trees. Our house suffered from the storm, several window frames
were broken.
В Oh, how dreadful! I hope that was all that was damaged.
L N ot all! My umbrella turned out o f my hands and was blown
into the dirty puddles.
В O on’t worry. I was just going to give you an umbrella as a
birthday present.
L Oh really? T hat’s very nice o f you.

m Transcribe the following words:

minus survive Southampton destroy


to breathe effective wellies damage

Give the four forms of the following verbs:

to fall to wear to blow


to destroy to break to buy

m Find English equivalents for the following:

ходить в резиновы х сапогах вы жить


связы вать одно с другим ж ара
снизиться до -10° / подняться до + 5 ° пострадать от бури
д оходить до колен потерпеть ущерб
снежная вью га, метель поломать деревья
сильны й снегопад сбивать с ног
ветром вы рвало из рук зонтик нет худа без добра
то, что называется «настоящ ая русская зима»

т Learn the dialogue of Ex. 53 by heart and perform it in class.

m Make up a weather dialogue of your own.


176 Essential Course

m Translate into English paying attention to the Passive Voice construc­


tions:
1. Несколько окон в дом е было разбито ветром.
2. Мой зонт отнесло ветром на самую середину лужи.
3. Если будет холодно ночыо, включи электрическое одеяло, и
ты быстро согреешься
4. Мне сказали, что в вашем районе во время бури было выво
рочено с корнями много старых дубов и поломаны живые из­
городи.
5. Боксер получил нокдаун и проиграл бой
6 - Когда был куплен этот портрет? - Его не покупали Мне
подарили его на день рождения в прошлом году.
7 Тебе ведь дали эту книгу всего на два дня, а ты держишь ее
уже две недели.
8 . Когда будет закончен ваш новый роман?
9. Теплую одежду отправили вовремя, поэтому никто не замерз­
нет зимой.
10. Когда будет поставлена эта пьеса в вашем театре 7
11. Пирог разрезали на несколько частей и дали каждому, кто
был приглашен.
12 Смотри, нарциссы посажены и кусты подстрижены
13. Какой сюрприз! Замок починили и дверь покрасили.

ш a) Read the dialogue with a fellow student.

A W i n t e r ’s Evening in February
It is a w inter’s evening in February and M r and M rs Howard are
sitting in fro n t o f a blazing fir e in iheir sitting-room.

Mrs. Howard: By the way, w hat’s happened to George? 1 haven’t seen


him for weeks
M r Howard: Oh, George’s gone to Scotland for the winter sports
Here’s a card from him, it came this morning. (Reads)
“Greetings from Carrbridge. Wish you were here
G eorge.”
Mrs. II.: And I wish we were there too. It must be wonderful
W e’ve had no snow since that one fall at Christmas
and it soon melted away.
Mr. H Yes, the winters seem to get milder every year. When 1
was a boy we used to have two feet o f snow for weeks
on end Ponds were frozen and people used to go
skating every evening and at weekends.
Mrs. H And how the children love snow! They take their
sledges out and go tobogganing at the first opportunity
Unit V 177

Mr H : There’s nolhing much for the children to look forward


to at the present - just fog and sleet I think I’ll put
some more coal on the fire. It’s dying dowm a little.
Mrs. H And draw- the curtains, dear Let’s shut out this awful
weather.
Mr. H (goes to the window) Well, what a surprise! It’s snowing
hard. We didn’t have much o f white Christmas but, with
luck, we may still get some skating if it freezes hard.
(From: English Monthly)
b) Kind Knglish equivalents for the following phrases and use them in
sentences of your own:
высокие сугробы если сильно приморозит
зимы становятся все мягче если повезет
один раз шел снег на Рождество
поехать куда-л., чтобы заняться зимними видами спорта

c) Present the dialogue above as a story. Use indirect speech. Begin


your story with
“On a winter’s evening in February Mr. and Mrs. Howard are
sitting in front o f a blazing fire in their sitting-room Mrs. Howard
wonders what’s happened to George ...

d) Speak about seasonal sports and games which very often depend on
the weather. Use the model.
Model- - If there is much snow you can ...
- If it’s dry ...
- If the weather keeps fine ...

33 a) Read the conversation and explain the meaning of the modal verbs
used in it.
Betty and Her Daddy
Betty: M ay I go to the pictures tonight, Dad^
Daddy: Yes, you may.
Betty: And m ay I stay out a little longer than usual?
Daddy: N o , you m a y not You mast be back by nine.
Betty: But Robert will be seeing me home You needn't worry.
Daddy: I don’t want Robert to come here every day You ought to be
working harder You oughtn’t to go out so often Besides.
Robert hasn’t graduated yet. He, too, ought towork hardei
than he does
Betty: Robert is very clever. He doesn’t have to work much to pass
his exams. By the way, m ay I invite him to our party next week?
Daddy: N o, I don’t want too many strangers It’ll be a family party.
(From: D o-It-Yourself English)
178 Essential Course

b) Give English equivalents for the following:


много работать (заниматься) проводить домой
пригласить на вечеринку закончить школу
вернуться домой к деняти часам волноваться
задержаться подольше (прийти домой попозже)

c) Say whose side you take, Betty’s or Daddy’s? Why?

d) Retell the conversation in indirect speech.

c) Make up a dialogue of your own. Use as many modal verbs as you can.

m Fill in the appropriate prepositions:


1. Betsy sat ... the darkest corner ... the carriage house. Outside, a
spring morning spread a mantle ... beauty ... the country side.
M eadows were green and soft ... new grass; ... the river, yellow-
green willows bent ... their graceful reflections.
2. The sky was clearing; she could even see a star sparkling... the trees.
3. Mrs. Howard went ... the fireplace to put some more coal ... the
fire.
4. If the snow stopped falling and then froze ... the ground and
then started again, as the weather forecast suggested, there would
be a hard weekend ahead ... the roads.
5. I saw young people ... national costumes playing classical music
... flutes.
6 . When set hard, this Christmas pudding ... birds is cut ... slices to
be left out ... the lawn ... Christmas Eve.
7. Later ... the afternoon you may watch the Queen ... television as
she delivers her message . . the British.
8 . D on ’t forget to leave your gifts ... the bottom ... the Christmas
tree to be found ... Christmas morning
9. Everyone goes ... the beach on holiday. Sometimes there are
donkeys there ... the children to ride ...
10. The thunder continued to roll slowly on and on ... the distance.
11. London’s parks ... spring are full ... people and many go .........
day trips ... Saturday and Sunday.
12. The gardens stood bright ... spring flowers.

m Translate into English. Mind the tenses:


1. Если удержится хорошая погода, вам совсем не обязательно
оставаться все время в городе. Вы можете поехать за город
или на побережье.
2. Когда мы прибыли в Л ондон, шел проливной дождь, люди
бежали, чтобы укрыться от дождя, а автобусы и такси двига­
лись очень медленно.
Unit V 179

3. Вы знаете, что футбольный сезон в Великобритании заканчи­


вается в конце мая и начинается сезон крикета?
4. Ей больше всего нравится лето, потому что летом она вместе
с родителями едет в какой-нибудь из популярных курортных
городов на юге Франции или Италии.
5. Женщина среднего роста с рыжими волосами и в лиловом ха­
лате готовила что-то на плите, когда мы вошли и поздоровались.
6 . Родителям сообщили, что их сын уехал в командировку на
север и вернется только через три месяца.
7. М ного книг написано о красоте этого сурового края.
8 . Не волнуйтесь, всё будет хорош о. Я уже поговорил с дирек­
тором, и он сказал, что обязательно поможет.
9. Не уверен, что вы сможете меня понять правильно, но я счи­
таю, что зима не самое удобное время для поездки в Англию.
10. Я вошел в зал и огляделся по сторонам - публика внима­
тельно слушала выступающего оратора. Через некоторое вре­
мя я понял, что ничего не смогу добавить к тому, что уже
было сказано. Не надо было мне приходить.

т a) Read the text and speak about the mood suggested by the weather
of the day. Add some more characteristic features of a nice May day.
It seemed impossible that anyone should be unhappy on such a
beautiful morning. (...) The windows were flung wide in the houses.
From within came the sound o f pianos; (...) The trees fluttered in the
sunny garden, all bright with spring flowers. Street boys whistled, a
little dog barked; people passed by, walking so lightly, so swiftly,
they looked as though they wanted to break into a run.
(From: Taking the Veil by K. Mansfield)
b) Find a description of a summer day, an autumn day and a winter
day in the book you’re reading and say what mood is suggested by
the fragment.
c) Say if your mood ever depends on the weather and the season. Why?

№ Choose the right adjective from the box and use it in the appropriate
degree of comparison.
popular, hot, cheap, easy, good, bad, long, old, nice, difficult,
young, short

1. In autumn birds start to migrate to ... countries.


2. A camping holiday is often the ... and ... kind o f holiday for a
family with children and many Britons choose this.
3. “Hope for the ... and prepare for the ...,” my ... brother said to me.
4. “The ... night will have an end” as the proverb says
5. Yesterday was the ... day o f the year.
180 Essential Course

6.
We were lucky to have one o f the ... rooms in the hotel.
7. It is becoming ... to find a job inthis season.
8 . The task turned out to be ... than he had expected.
9. Seaside trips were ... with middle-aged people than with young
people.
10. “Can you explain why the way back seems today?” the girl
asked her ... brother.
11. Summer is one o f ... seasons likedbymost people.

m a) Read the following weather forecasts:


a) Another very windy day is in prospect, with gale or severe
gale force winds over most o f the British Isles. The strongest winds
will be in the north and west and will ease later in the day.
There will be a mixture o f sunshine and showers in most parts,
with the showers heaviest and most frequent in the north and west.
The showers will fall as sleet or snow in Scotland and over the
high ground and there is unlikely to be much sunshine here. The
strong winds are likely to make it feel very chilly.
(December)

b) In southern and eastern parts o f England it will be mainly


dry with the clouds thinning at times to give some bright spells.
Much o f eastern Scotland and North-East England will also start
dry with some hazy sunshine but thicker clouds with outbreaks of
rain over North-W est England and Wales and South-West Scotland
will spread quickly north-east by midday
(Augusl)

c) Showers and scattered thunderstorms are expected tomorrow.


But Friday and Saturday should be mainly dry with some warm sun­
shine. More showers or longer spells o f rain will move in on Sunday
with a slow improvement on M onday. Temperatures up to 21 °C.
(June)

b) Imagine yourself a weather analyst and prepare two or three fore­


casts for Great Britain (or any other country) and this country. Use
the vocabulary of the texts above.

c) Comment on the forecasts in (a). Say whether the suggested weather


will do for your weekend.

m Choose the right possessive pronoun:


1. - Is this ... dog? - Yes, it is ... .
2. - Where are ... cars, I wonder? A h, ... is over there. But 1
can’t see ... .
Unit V 181

3. ... house is much larger than ... .


4. ... garden is smaller than ... .
5. - ... husbands can’t cook - Neither can ... .
6. - ... books are on the shelves but I don’t see ...
7. - My sister is going to send ... children to college.D o you want
... to go to university? N o , ... will stay here and help father
on the farm.

m a) Read the poem:

Л CALENDAR
(The Golden Year)
January brings the snow, Mot July brings cooling showers,
Makes our feet and fingers glow. Apricots, and gillyflowers.

February brings the rain, August brings the sheaves of corn.


Thaws the frozen lake again. Then the harvest home is borne.

March brings breezes, loud and shrill, Warm September brings the fruit;
To stir the dancing daffodil Sportsmen then begin to shoot.

April brings the primrose sweet, Fresh October brings the pheasant;
Scatters daisies at our feet. Then to gather nuts is pleasant.

May brings Hocks of pretty Iambs Dull November brings the blast;
Skipping by their Heecy dames. Then the leaves are whirling fast.

June brings tulips, lilies, roses, Chill December brings the sleet,
Fills the children’s hands with posies. Blazing fire, and Christmas treat.
by Sara Coleridge

b) Translate and transcribe the following words:


гореть фазан разбрасывать левкой
снопы примула кружиться
резкий букет удовольствие (радость)

c) Transcribe the names of the months.

4) Translate the poem into Russian.

e) Learn the poem by heart.

0 Describe each month with reference to Russia (or your own country).
182 Essential Course

m As you know, the human world and natural world interact andaffect
each other greatly. Read the texts below and say what you think
about the cases of such interaction:

Text I
When the Americans decided to clean the Statue of Liberty for the
bicentennial in 1986, the first thing they had to do was to drain off the
acid rain that had collected inside by drilling a hole in her nose.
The polluted air o f New York, mixing with the rain, had caused
considerable damage to the statue.

Text 2
The region above earth is, in a way, becoming a dump for large
pieces o f junk orbiting our planet. The space junk includes burned-out
rocket engines, old fuel tanks, satellites that have stopped working and
parts of exploded rockets.
Space trash has already fallen to earth. Most o f it has landed in
the oceans or on open land away from cities. Scientists are working on
various ways to clean up the litter while it is still orbiting in space.

Text 3
Money doesn’t grow on trees, but trees can grow on money. Lng-
land’s Middlesborough Botanic Centre is turning old, shredded bank
notes into garden compost. It seems the cotton based paper used in the
notes makes outstanding compost material and, conveniently, the ink
is nontoxic. The center is now negotiating to buy the Bank o f Lng
land’s entire supply o f old notes, which comes out to about six tons a
week. Plants have been grown using only shredded money, but for best
results the cash is mixed with salt and starch both o f which would
otherwise end up in landfills.

EE Describe the present global ecological situation and things to be done


to improve it, using the material below:
The beauty o f the natural world around us and our health too
largely depend on our reasonable attitude to the environment.
Global weather is constantly being affected by radioactive and
nuclear fallout, dumping chemicals into the water, industrial waste
and other pollution.

The present situation Things to be done


1. to face an ecological catastrophe 1. to use cleaning devices and filters
2. a threat to the world environ- 2. to fine, to shut down environ
ment mental offenders
Unit V 183

3. to upset the natural ecological 3. polluters must be responsible


balance for their actions
4. to exploit the country’s natural 4. the polluting enterprises must
resources for a quick profit feel the sting o f court-ordered
5. not enough attention is paid fines
to protecting the areas which 5. to try to find a way to com ­
arc still clean bine both our economic inter­
6 . the area may perish ests and nature protection
7. a health threat to people 6 . to preserve forests, untouched
8 . to disrupt the global climate areas
by causing a “nuclear winter” 7. to care about the environment
9. the pollution is likely to harm 8 . we have to teach young people
wildlife, agriculture and fish­ respect for the land
eries 9. to oblige industry to pay mo­
1 0 . there is no ocean or sea which ney into a new- ecological foun­
has not been used as a rub­ dation to compensate for air
bish dump and other pollution
1 1 . ecology analysts are concerned 1 0 . to use modern environmentally
that/by something friendly technology
11. a balance has to be found be­
tween economics* and ecology
1 2 . to protect birds
13. reserves must be saved

EZI Translate into English using the phrases from Ex. 70:
1. Докладчик говорил о б экологической катастрофе, перед кото­
рой стоит весь мир.
2. Загрязнение окружающей среды вредит сельскому хозяйству и
рыболовству.
3. Нам надо научить молодежь уважать свою землю и заботить­
ся об окружающей среде.
4. Предприятия этого региона должны быть привлечены к суду
и оштрафованы.
5. Эксперты-экологи озабочены тем, что политики не пытаются
найти путь, совмещающий экономические интересы с защитой
окружающей среды.
6 . Если предприятия будут заботиться только о сиюминутной
прибыли и не будут использовать очистные сооружения, это
приведет к нарушению мирового климата и естественного
экологического равновесия.
7. Заповедники этого края должны быть спасены, птицы и жи­
вотные - защищены, леса - сохранены.
8 . Предприятия, загрязняющие окружающую среду, должны быть
остановлены или оштрафованы на значительные суммы.
184 Essential Course

9. Правительство обязало промышленные отрасли делать денеж­


ные отчисления в новый экологический фонд для возмещения
yujq:i6 a от загрязнения воздуха.
10. На земном шаре нет ни одного океана, моря или реки, кото­
рые бы не использовались в качестве свалки отходов
11 Радиоактивные и ядерные выбросы, сбрасывание химических
отходов в естественные водоемы, свалки различных отходов
на суше являются прямой угрозой окружающей среде и здо
ровью людей
12. Местные экологи опасаются, что заповедники, расположенные
вокруг промышленных городов Урала могут погибнуть.
13. Необходимо разумно использовать природные ресурсы своей
страны.
14. В этой отрасли промышленности используется технология,
безопасная для окружающей среды

ЕЕ Write an angry letter to the local authorities to attract their atten­


tion to the dangerous ecological situation in your neighbourhood. Use
the phrases from Ux. 71.

EE Answer these questions:


1 Why do you think environmental offenders continue to cause
damage to the natural world'?
2. Why is it necessary to preserve forests and save reserves''1
3. How can an individual (you personally) improve the local envi­
ronmental situation?
4 Why is it difficult for a sick economy to solve ecological problems'?

EE Arrange a conference “The Kcological Situation in Moscow” (or in


your native town). Use the vocabulary of the unit.
L NIT VI

G o d m ad e the cou n try,


and m an m ad e the tow n
William Cowper.
English poet (1731 1800)

E NGL I S H TOWNS

G R A M M A R EXERCISES

Before y o u start doing the exercises m ake sure that yo u remember


how to handle

• the se q u e n c e o f te n s e s ,
eg The girl said she had already seen London
lie was sure that they would go to the country next Sun­
day.
She asked if she could get there on foot
Ann asked what they were planning for the coming week

• th e su b o r d in a te c la u s e s o f tim e and c o n d itio n ,


e.g. I f you don ’t hurry you’ll miss the train.
I f he doesn’t give her a lift to school she’ll be late for her
classes.
When I get a driving licence I’ll drive my car

Q a) Give the four forms of the following verbs:

to make to hear to bloom to stay to forget


to do to play to com e to look to remember
to see to marry to think to write to recognize
to suit to change to grow to meet to arrange
to go to match to believe to begin to understand

b) Choose the irregular verbs out of those given in (a). Spell and tran­
scribe them.

c) Make up and write down 10 sentences with subordinate clauses ol


time and condition using the verbs in (a). Follow the model:
M odel: I f the dress fits you I’ll buy it at once.
When the weather changes for the better we’ll go sightseeing.
186 Essential Course

0 Open the brackets using the verbs in the correct tenses. Pay special
attention to the remarks at the end of some of the sentences.
1. What you (to do) here? Why you (to be) in my house?
2. It (to stop) raining and the sun (to shine), but over most o f the
sea the sky (to be) a thick leadengrey (the situation refers to the
present).
3. Charles, how you (to gel) on?
4. It (to be) after lunch and I (to sit) at my upstairs seaward win­
dow (the situation refers to the present).
5. The will (to be) very short and (to be made) five years earlier
(the situation refers to the past).
6 . I (not to sw im ) today.
7 It (to be) now late at night and I (to sit) upstairs, with one of
my oil lamps (the situation refers to the present)
8 . But because this (to be) Cornwall the roses (to bloom) still (the
situation refers to the past).
9. If you (to be destined) to be fat, food (to make) you fat. But I
never (to have) a weight problem (the situation refers to the present).
1 0 . Flsie (not to come) to his flat before (the situation refers to the past)
11 Tw o days (to pass) since I (to write) the above (the situation re­
fe r s to the present).
12. So far he (to wash) everything himself, including the sheets which
he (to lay out) usually to dry upon the lawn (the situation refers
to the present).
13. The girl (to sit) down and when the waitress (to come) to serve
her she (to say), “I (to wait) for a friend.”
14. “Where,” (to say) R onald, “you (to get) your frozen peas?’ •
15. We (not to know) where he (to be). We (not to hear) anything
from him for nearly two years. He (to go) away (the situation re­
fe r s to the present).
16. I (to understand) that you (to buy) a house by the sea. This (ю
mean) that you (to give up) your theatrical activities? (the situa­
tion refers to the present)
17 On the magic Friday morning at ten o ’clock Jennifer (to make)
an appointment with a new Italian hairdresser Cynthia (to tell)
her all the models (to go) to.
18. Craig (to take) a cold shower to wake himself up. He (to dry)
himself without bothering to towel his hair (the situation refers to
the past).
19 Connie Garrett (to live) in a small neat apartment on Houston
Street. The door (to be opened) for Jennifer by an elderly white-
haired woman wearing an apron.
20. Jennifer (to be shocked) by her youth. For some reason she (to
expect) an older woman.
Unit VI 187

2 Translate into English in writing paying special attention to the


clauses of time and condition:
I Если ты вовремя не вернешься к обеду, он остынет. Ты ведь
любишь горячую еду?
2. Когда придет весна, мы отправимся в лес за подснежниками
Вы когда-нибудь их видели? - Нет. - К огда вы их увидите,
они вам сразу понравятся.
3. Если в комнате будет жарко, открой окно, но запри дверь.
Может быть сквозняк.
4 Давайте поужинаем в кухне. Если он придет, мы сейчас же
услышим звонок в дверь.
5. Если ты не будешь слушать объяснения учителя, ты не см о­
жешь сделать домаш нее задание.
6 Если Том не уберет свою постель утром, он не получит ника­
кого десерта на обед.
7. Если они не сделают утром зарядку, они не пойдут в парк гулять.
8. Мы пойдем за покупками, как только дети вернутся из школы.
9. Когда дождь перестанет, мальчики смогут пойти за грибами
Еоворят, в ближайшем лесу много грибов.
10. Если она сейчас не погладит белье, вечером у нее не будет на
это времени.
11. Если люди не будут охранять природу, их дети и внуки не
выживут.
12. Как только они приедут, мы сядем завтракать
13 Я надену новую шубу и сапоги, как только пойдет снег.
14. Если ты вымоешь посуду, то я пришью пуговицы к твоему
пиджаку.
15. Если эта блузка подойдет по цвету к той юбке, я куплю
блузку.

2 а) ПН in articles where necessary:


1. Otto Wenzel was ... completely different ... short, little man
was happily married. He regarded Jennifer as ... daughter and he
constantly brought her ... soups and cakes that his wife made. Unfor­
tunately, his wife was ... terrible cook, but Jennifer forced herself to
eat whatever Otto Wenzel brought in, because she did not want to
hurt her feelings. One Friday evening Jennifer was invited to ... Wen­
zel home for ... dinner. Mrs. Wenzel had prepared .. stuffed cabbage,
her speciality. ... cabbage was soggy, meat inside was hard, and
rice half-cooked. ... whole dish swam in ... lake o f .. chicken fat.
Jennifer attacked it bravely, taking ... small bites and pushing ... food
around on her plate to make it seem as though she were eating
(F ro m . Rage o f Angels by S. Sheldon. A bridged)
188 Essential Course

II. “N ot ... bad little place you have here,” Thomas said, stand­
ing in ... middle o f ... large living-room, with its fireplace and long,
straw-coloured corduroy couch, with ... two easy chairs on ... each
side o f it. There were ... fresh flowers in ... vases on ... tables, ...
pale-beige wall-to-wall carpet, and ... bright paintings on ... dark-green
walls. ... room faced west and ... afternoon sun streamed in through
... curtained windows. ... air-conditioning was on, humming softly,
and ... room was comfortably cool.
(From: Rich Man, Poor Man by I. Shaw. Abridged)

b) Translate the above extracts into Russian in writing.

VOCABULARY
Y ou’ve com e to a big city. W hat do you see around?

offices - конторы, офисы posters - афиши


high-rise buildings - многоэтаж­ signs - вывески
ные здания queues очереди
skyscrapers - небоскребы street lights уличные фонари
shopwindows - витрины building sites - стройплощадки

T hese words will help you to describe a town or a city


and the traffic in them:

crowded - переполненный lined with trees обсаженный де­


busy - оживленный ревьями
noisy - шумный modern современный
quiet - спокойный ancient древний
huge - огромный empty - пустой
immense - громадный exciting - волнующий; интерес­
polluted - загрязненный ный
♦ *
*
to go/come by bus, tram, metro to take a bus, tram, train, etc.
(underground), car, bike - сесть на автобус, трамвай,
ехать/приехать на автобусе, поезд
трамвае, метро, машине, ве­ double-decker (bus) - двухэтаж­
лосипеде ный автобус, «даблдекер»
to hire/take/hail a taxi - взять/ to be on a bus - ехать на авто­
нанять такси бусе
Unit VI 189

to be on the wrong bus - ехать to change the line - пересажи­


не на том автобусе ваться на другую линию
to go on foot - идти пешком to change at the next stop/station
to walk - идти пешком пересаживаться на следую­
to find oneself in the street/at the щей остановке
railway station - оказаться на to change to a number 15 bus -
улице/на вокзале пересаживаться на автобус
a bus stop - автобусная остановка номер 15
a metro station - станция метро fare плата за проезд
to drive а саг ехать на машине to pay a fare - платить запроезд
to drive a taxi - ехать на такси to travel free (free of charge) - не
to ride a bicycle - ехать на вело­ платить за проезд
сипеде a season ticket, a travel card
to ride a horse - ехать лошади проездной билет
to ride in a bus - ехать в авто­ to arrive at the station - прие­
бусе хать на вокзал
to give smb a lift - подвезт и кого-л. to arrive in a town, a country -
to get a lift - подъехать приехать в город, в страну
to catch a bus, train успеть на arrival - приезд
автобус, поезд departure отъезд
to miss a bus, train, etc. - не ус­ to commute - ездить ежедневно
петь на автобус, поезд и т.п. на работу из пригорода в
to get on a bus - сесть на авто­ город и обратно
бус a commuter - житель пригорода,
to get off the bus - сойти с ав­ работающ ий в городе и еже­
тобуса дневно ездящий на работу
to change from a train to a bus - поездом, автобусом и т.п.
пересаживаться с поезда на
автобус

Неге are more words connected with traffic:

public transport - общественный a subway - тоннель, подземный


транспорт переход
light/heavy traffic - несильное/ин­ a pedestrian - пешеход
тенсивное движение a rush hour час пик
traffic lights - светофор during rush hour в час пик-
a traffic policeman - регулиров­ at rush hours - в час пик
щик уличного движения to drive а саг ехать на маши­
a (zebra) crossing - пешеходный не; вести машину
переход a driving licence водительские
a pavement - тротуар права
a footpath - тротуар to park а саг - ставить машину
a sidewalk (A m E ) - тротуар на стоянку
190 Essential Course

a parking place - стоянка машин to get into a road accident - no­


road works/repairs - дорожны е/ пасть в дорожно-транспорт-
ремонтные работы нос происшествие
to get into a traffic jam - попасть
в дорожную «пробку»

V ehicles - средства пе;*едвижеиия:

а саг - легковая машина an ambulance - машина скорой


a lorry - грузовик помощи
a van - фургон a fire engine - пожарная машина
a motorcycle - мотоцикл

If you’ve lost your way you can ask som eone to help you out.

to lose one’s way потеряться, to walk/go straight on/ahead - ид-


потерять дорогу ти прямо
to find one’s way - найти дорогу to cross (over) - пересечь, перей
to ask the way/for directions - ти через
спрашивать, как пройти to go/walk/drivc up to - подойти,
to give directions давать указа- подъехать к...
ния, объяснять it will take you 1 0 minutes to get
to turn (to the) right, left - no- there - вам понадобится К)
вернуть направо, налево минут, чтобы добраться туда
take the first turning on the right You can’t miss it. - Вы сразу это
(left) сделайте первый ново- увидите (заметите),
рот направо (налево)

T here’s alw ays som ething to do in a big city.


W hy not go sightseeing or visit a museum?

to go sightseeing - пойти осмат­ to care for - любить, питать ин­


ривать достопримечательности терес
to see the sights of a town - to be fond of - любить
осмотреть достопримечатель­ a museum - музей
ности города a picture gallery - картинная га­
to do a city - осмотреть город лерея
places of interest - достопримеча­ a church - церковь
тельности a cathedral - собор
to prefer smth to smth - предпо­ an exhibition - выставка
читать что-л. чему-л. a tower - башня
to be keen on - живо интересо­ a display - показ, демонстрация
ваться, сэрастно увлекаться a show - показ, выставка
Unit VI 191

Apart from the transport service every city has the post office.
If you want to use it you have to know these words.

a post office - почта mail - почта, почтовая коррес­


a letter - письмо понденция
a registered letter - заказное письмо airmail - авиапочта
a postcard - открытка surface mail - обычная почта
an envelope - концерт (в отличие от воздушной)
a stamp - марка a letter-box - почтовый ящик
notepaper - писчая бумага a postman/-woman - почтальон,
a parcel - посылка почтальонша
a telegram - телеграмма to deliver post - доставлять почту

W riting letters tak es time and effort.


T hat’s why most o f us prefer telephoning.

to ring smb up/to give smb a ring/ to get through - дозвониться


to phone smb (u p )/to make a to be on the phone - быть у те­
call to sm b /to call smb (up) лефона
(A m E ) - позвонить кому-л. to take the call - ответить на те­
a telephone box/booth телефон лефонный звонок
пая будка to ring back / to phone back / to
to pick up the receiver - поднять call back - позвонить по те­
трубку лефону (в от вет no звонок)
to dial the number - набрать номер to hold on / to hold the line - не
to hang up / to ring o ff / to put вешать трубку
down the receiver - повесить to leave a message - оставить
трубку сообщ ение (передать что-л.)

EXERCISES
В Answer these questions:
1. D o you come from a city, a town or a village? What is it like?
2. In what area is your university (college) situated?
3. What can you see from your classroom window?
4. What are the busiest streets in your town?
5. What can you see in a typical modern street? (Nom e as т опу
things as yo u con.)
6 . D o you travel much within town? What means o f transport do
you use? H ow long do your journeys usually take?
7. What is the standard bus fare in your town?
8 . D o you ever use a season ticket or a travel card?
192 Essential Course

9. W ho travels free in your town?


10. D o you understand the meaning o f the word com m ute?
1 1 . Can you drive? Have you got a driving licence?
12. What makes driving in a big city difficult?
13. What vehicles can you name in English?
14. D o you often lose your way in town or have you got a good
sense o f direction?
15. Are you fond o f sightseeing? What places o f interest do you pre­
fer to see?
16. What Russian museum can boast o f an impressive collection o f
European paintings?
17. What places o f interest attract tourists in your town?
18. How often do you use the post service?
19. What things can you buy at the post office?
20 . W ho collects the mail from your letter box?
21 . Is the post service in your town efficient enough? Prove your
opinion.
22. What message do you usually leave when you phone your friend
up and find out that he or she isn’t at home?
23. When are you asked to call back?

2 Remember the words from the vocabulary section and give the oppo­
site of the following:
depart from the station a noisy city get on a bus
the centre o f the town miss a bus air mail
a low building find the way travel free
an empty street

0 Spell and transcribe the words:


древний плата за проезд выставка
современный приезд тротуар
загрязненный отъезд музей
переполненный пешеход пассажир
дорож ное происшествие ездить регулярно

Spell the words without consulting a dictionary or the textbook. Then


consult a dictionary.
['paost ’s3:vis) ['iaisans] ['raod ri.peaz] I'aembjolans]
['daial йэ 'п л т Ь э ) I'traefikJ ['m auta,saiklj ['teligraemj
['zi:bra 'krosuj] ['ion] [l'm ens] ['baisikl]
['red 3 istad 'lets)

0 Complete the sentences using the active vocabulary of the unit.


1. I’d like to learn to drive a ... .
2. Can you show me your driving ... ?
Unit VI 193

3. Are you driving or are you going on ... ?


4. How long does it take you to get to the city centre if you ... ?
5. W hat’s the fare to ... ?
6. Am I going the right way to ... ?
7. Can you ... a bicycle?
8. H ow many stops is it from here to ... ?
9. The train will ... in London at 5 o ’clock.
10. If you lose your way ask som ebody to ... .
11. I know you arc going my way. If you are in a hurry I can give
you a ... in my car.

EE Describe a place your friends haven’t seen. Say:


• where it is
• how you get there
• what it looks like
• what’s interesting or remarkable about it
• what’s pleasant or unpleasant about it

ED Use the given word combinations to substitute the italicized parts of


the sentences.
1. How long docs it take to walk there?

get there drive to London


fly to Paris get there by bus
start your car read that book

2. We/you/he/they can get there just as quickly on fo o t.

by bus by bicycle
by car on foot
by train

EE a) Read the conversation:


A: Where do you live?
B: In a suburb of London.
A: H ow do yo u gel to work?
В: I go by underground. It takes me an hour and a half each way.
A: An hour and a half! It takes me fifteen minutes.
B: How do you get to work?
A: I walk or I take a bus.

b) Make up a similar dialogue using the italicized phrases.

c) Describe how you usually get to the university.


194 Essential Course

EE Change the sentences as in the model.


Model: He'll get there in ten minutes.
It'll take him ten minutes to get there.
1. She’ll learn it in ten minutes.
2. They’ll get to the theatre in half an hour.
3. I’ll do it in twenty minutes.
4. We’ll get there in 24 hours.
5. You’ll get there in less than a minute.
6. They’ll complete the work in about an hour.
7. Everyone will arrive in five minutes.
8. I’ll do the shopping in two hours.
9. The players will score the first goal in some minutes.
10. You’ll know him better in a couple of days.
EE Complete the sentences. Remember not to use the future tenses in
clauses of time and condition.
Model : When/If you come to New York you'll see the famous sky­
scrapers.
1. .. you’ll ride a bicycle every day.
2. .. she’ll do all the sights of the capital.
3. .. you’ll wait till the traffic lights show green.
4. .. I’ll try to get all the information about this ancient tower.
5. .. they’ll send the letter by airmail
6. .. I’ll drive up to the front door.
7. .. he’ll feel very tired.
8. .. we’ll buy stamps, envelopes and some notepaper.
EE Translate into English:
очутиться на окраине города на следующей остановке
регулярно ездить в Лондон и обратно добраться до работы
осматривать достопримечательности заказное письмо
улицы, обсаженные деревьями не вешайте трубку
не успеть на автобус сойти с трамвая
чувствовать себя потерянным в центре заблудиться
Москвы положить трубку
ЕЕ a) Make up questions using the given model and the words below.
Let your friends answer these questions and explain their choice.
M odel : - Which do you prefer, to live in a town or in the country?
- I'd rather live in a town.
• commute or live permanently in town
• go by bus or by metro
Unit VI 195

• catch a train or ask som ebody to give you a lift


• hire a taxi or ride in a bus
• send your letters byairmailor surface mail
• drive or walk to the university
• do a museum or go to the cinema
• stand in a queue or walk away
• ask som eone for directions or try to find your way yourself

b) Give advice using themodels and the words below.


Model 1: Y ou ’d (had) better ask for directions, we must have lost
our way.
Model 2: Y o u ’d (had) better not go by train, it’ll take you longer
than by bus.
visit this exhibition stop at every shop window
m ove to another area make your parcel very heavy
take som e driving lessons park the car round the corner
travel light send the letter by registered mail
hurry up look for a zebra crossing

c) Translate into English. Follow the models above.


1. Вам бы лучше пересесть на другой поезд на следующей стан­
ции.
2. Ей бы следовало вести машину более внимательно и не пре­
вышать скорость.
3. Я, пожалуй, прогуляюсь по парку. Здесь, вдали от шумных
улиц, так тихо и свежо.
4. В этот раз я, пожалуй, куплю проездной: у меня совсем нет
мелочи, чтобы заплатить за проезд.
5. Я предпочитаю ехать за город на машине. Электрички (local
trains) сейчас переполнены.
6. Ей бы следовало уехать из дома пораньше, иначе она может
попасть в пробку на дороге.
7. Он говорит, что, пожалуй, не пойдет на вокзал пешком, это
займет у него слишком много времени.
8. Вам бы лучше не ходить по проезжей части, это опасно. Хо­
дить надо по тротуару.
9. Пожалуй, я лучше сам опущу письмо в почтовый ящик по
дороге в университет
10. Мы хотим покататься по городу на двухэтажном автобусе.
Это поможет нам лучше рассмотреть Лондон.
11. Вам бы не следовало кататься на велосипедах по этой улице.
Здесь сильное движение.
12. Пожалуй, не звони ему сегодня, уже слишком поздно.
196 Essential Course

EE Fill in the blanks using ride - rode - ridden - riding or drive - drove -
driven - driving. Remember the following:

1. After having a brief talk with my dad John jumped on his horse
and ... off.
2. He has been ... a bus for more than 25 years.
3. The little boy was ... on his father’s shoulders.
4. He ... over to see me yesterday.
5. In the ... school I had a very good instructor, so I passed my ...
test easily.
6. Have you ever tried to ... on horseback?
7. I don’t like ... in the back of the car, I always sit nextto the
driver.
8. After I fell from the horse and twisted my ankle I had to give
up ... .
9. I saw Dad’s car ... up to the gate and stop. To mysurprise Dad
didn’t hurry to get out.
10. Isn’t it fun to ... in a cart on a hot summer day?

EE Note the difference in prepositions and articles used with the verb
arrive. Translate the sentences below into English:
home
at a port/airport
at a station
ARRIVE in a country (arrive in Belgium)
in a big city
in harbour
on the scene
1. Когда прибывает самолет из Рима? Я боюсь пропуститьег
2. Поезд приходит на станцию ровно в семь. У нас ещемного
времени.
3. Когда приезжаешь в большой город, хочется увидеть все его
достопримечательности.
4. Корабль прибыл в порт невредимым, но опоздал из-за плохой
погоды.
Unit VI 197

5. Боюсь, мы приедем в аэропорт только вечером: на улице та­


кое сильное движение в часы пик.
6. Он приехал в эту страну лет десять тому назад без гроша в
кармане.
7. Если мы поторопимся, мы приедем домой к обеду.
8. Он приехал на место преступления на два часа позже.
9. Она пишет, что Дик уже приехал в США.
10. Поезд еще не прибыл на эту станцию.
11. Когда придет электричка, мы будем уже на платформе.
12. Они приехали в Клин ровно в восемь часов утра.
a) Read (he text:
Suppose you want to give your friend a ring. You may make a
call from a public telephone or telephone box/booth (G rB ) orfromо
pay phone (U S ). When you telephone someone you may not get
through. This may be because the line is engaged (U S: thenumber is
busy). The telephone may be out o f order. You may have a poor/bad
line. You may have a crossed line. The line may go dead or you may
be cut off. If your friend can’t lake the call, you’ll have to
ring/phone/call your friend back, or leave a message. Alternatively, you
may be asked to hold the line/to hold on. Finally your friend is on
the phone. After you’ve had a talk you say good-bye and hang
up/ring off.

b) Match the italicized word combinations from the text with their ex­
planations given below:
• someone is already speaking from this number;
• to speak to the person who is on the phone;
• to call someone again later;
• to get a connection;
• to wait while the person at the other end takes the call,
• you cannot hear clearly because of interference (crackling, buzzing,
etc.);
• telephone intended for public usage;
• you hear other people havinga conversation;
• to end a telephone call by replacing the receiver;
• the line is interrupted and the connection lost;
• someone is waiting on the phone to speak to you;
• the connection is lost.
198 Essential Course

TEXT-BASED ACTIVITIES
Before reading the text below m ake sure that you can pronounce the
following words correctly:

crimson ['knmzn] politics ['pnlitiks] base [beis]


roaring I'nmg] recognized ['rekagnaizd] sauntered ['sointad)
immense [l'mens] Cenotaph ['senata:f] gear-grinding ['gi3 ,graindirj|
column ['кЫэт] wreaths [ri :0 s] poster ['paosta]

LONDON
It was a fine afternoon, and this was the last week in Sep­
tember. Rose turned into the Strand and walked slowly toward
Trafalgar Square, where the crimson buses went roaring round
and round the immense column. After waiting for abreak in
the traffic, she slipped across and made for Whitehall.A lot of
importance, in weathered grey stone, all down there. Prime
ministers and all that. Rose did not care about them much.
Politics were still to her something men argued about. She rec­
ognized the Cenotaph and looked with interest at the fading
flowers and wreaths massed round the base.
She wandered on. There was the river, very broad, an oily
look about it. Houses of Parliament. Big Ben. Westminster
Abbey. Quite empty little streets and places round there. She
sauntered through a tangle of little streets and finally found
herself in a park, quite a small park, with all its seats filled
with authentic Londoners, mostly old and looking rather hope­
less. But the grass and the trees and water were nice. And the
buildings of Whitehall, which she had just seen, suddenly ap­
peared in the smoky-gold distance like white fairy palaces. She
came to some broad roads where cars were hurrying along,
negotiated the crossings carefully, and landed herself inanother
park. This was not so interesting. There was no water,and not
so many nice old trees. People were lying about on the grass.
They made her feel tired. Yes, she was tired. That was one
thing about London: it made you feel tired in no time. At the
top of this park was an important, crowded, gear-grinding
street. Piccadilly - fancy! And there, almost at once, as if by
magic, she found a familiar bus, Number 19, which would take
her quite close to Pitt Square.
Unit VI 199

O n ce in side th e b u s, sh e d id n ot n o tic e very m uch. She


felt very sm all a n d w eary. S he sat th ere a n d sa w w ith o u t real
a tten tio n the bright ju m b lin g o f sh o p w in d o w s, d o o rw a y s, o th er
b us w in d o w s, p o sters, a n d p e o p le , p e o p le , p eo p le.
(From: The Walk in the City by J. B. Priestley. Adapted)

F7*1 a) Read the text and translate it into Russian in writing.

b) Find in the text English equivalents for the following:


1. ярко-красные автобусы с ревом кружили возле огромной ко­
лонны;
2. дождавшись, когда поток машин приостановится;
3. потемневший от времени и непогоды серый камень;
4. масса увядающих цветов и венков вокруг подножия (памятника);
5. там была река, казавшаяся очень широкой, с пятнами бензина
на поверхности;
6. она побрела сквозь лабиринт маленьких улочек и в конце
концов очутилась в парке;
7. на всех скамейках сидели истинные лондонцы, преимуществен­
но пожилые и без всякой надежды на лицах;
8. неожиданно появились вдали в золотистой дымке, как белые
сказочные дворцы;
9. она осторожно и не без труда перешла через улицу на пере­
крестке и оказалась еще в одном парке;
10. поглядев на них, она почувствовала себя уставшей;
11. что можно сказать о Лондоне наверняка, так это то, что
здесь на тебя мгновенно наваливается усталость;
12. неподалеку от входа в парк была очень большая многолюд­
ная улица, по которой со скрежетом проносились машины;
13. она чувствовала себя очень маленькой, одинокой и обесси­
левшей;
14. она смотрела, но не вглядывалась в сверкающий калейдоскоп
витрин и подъездов.

Paraphrase the italicized words and word combinations in these sen­


tences using the equivalents from the text:
1. It was a wonderful afternoon.
2. She headed for Whitehall.
3. Rose didn’t take any interest in them.
4. She strolled on.
5. ... all its seats filled with real Londoners.
6. She ... managed the crossing carefully.
7. And there, almost at once, as if by miracle, she found a familiar bus.
200 Essential Course

EE M atch the place names with their definitions:


the Strand a major London thoroughfare between
the H ouses o f Parliament and Trafalgar
Trafalgar Square Square containing government offices
a well-known street in Central London
Whitehall
the memorial to the dead o f the two
the Cenotaph world wars in W hitehall, London
a church in London founded in 1065
Houses o f Parliament a square in Central London containing a
monument to Admiral Nelson
Big Ben
a main thoroughfare in Central London
Westminster Abbey the clock tower o f the Houses o f Parlia­
ment in London; the clock itself
Piccadilly the seat o f the British government

EE a) Remember what nouns these adjectives describe in the text:


fine immense fading oily authentic crowded
crimson weathered broad empty sm oky-gold familiar

b) Make a brief description of a place using sonic of the adjectives above.

EE Match the words with their definitions:


c r im s o n ----------- marked by the weather
immense \ to group together into a mess
slip (v) \ to overcom e a difficulty
weathered \ to go quietly
mass (v) deep red colour
saunter very tired
authentic huge, very big
negotiate a confusion
weary to walk in a leisurely way
jum bling real

EE Complete these sentences. Refer to the text if necessary.


1. R ose ... into the Strand and walked slowly ... Trafalgar Square,
where the crimson buses went ... and ... the immense ... .
2. Rose did not ... about them much. Politics were still to her
so m e th in g ..................
3. There was the river, very ..., an oily look ............
4. She sauntered through a tangle o f little streets and finally ..........
in a park.
5. And the buildings o f Whitehall, which she had just seen, sud­
denly appeared in the sm oky-gold distance like white ... .
6. It made her feel tired in ............
7. A t the top o f this park was an important ........ street.
Unil VI 201

ЕЕ Complete the columas:


Words from the text Svnonym(s) Antonym(s)
fine ... bad, ugly
slow sluggish
empty (streets) free o f people and traffic busy, crowded
small ...
broad (roads) ... narrow
tired ... rested
important (street) significant ...
crowded (street) ...
close (to a place) near, next door ...

ES Pairwork. Ask your partner:


when R ose came to London; how the parks impressed her;
if it was her first visit to London; when Rose felt that she was tired;
what places in London she saw; where she found a familiar bus;
what Whitehall is famous for; why she didn’t notice very much
what Rose saw at the base o f from the bus window,
the Cenotaph; where Rose stayed in London.

m Write a ten-scntence summary of the text.

Ш Retell the text as if you were Rose.

EE Write a paragraph about your impression of a place you visited last


‘ summer. Tell the class about it and let your group mates ask you
questions to find out more details.

ES Make up as many sentences as you can choosing words from both


columns. Follow the model.
be good (refers to the quality)
look well (refers to health)
feel exhausted
smell attractive
sound healthy Remember. In informal English:
seem happy
look/feel blue = feel sad
appear weary
fe e l cheap = feel ashamed,
smart
morally low
tired
fe e l sm all - feel unimportant
bad
sad
Model: I’m feeling tired.
He always looks healthy.
The soup sm ells good.
202 Essential Course

EE a) Read the definitions of the words town and city and explain the
difference in their use:

C i t y ( n ) (p i - t i e s )
1) large and important town; town given special rights in self-gov­
ernment; the City - the oldest part o f London, now the commer­
cial and financial centre;
2) people living in a city.
Town (и)
1) centre o f population larger than a village, esp. one that has not
been created a city (and often used in contrast to country):
Would you rather live in a town or in the country?
2) (preceded by a prep, and without the def. or indef. art.) the
business, shopping, etc. part o f a tow n (contrasted with the sub­
urbs, etc.): go to town to do some shopping He is in town today.
I ’m going down town this afternoon.
3) (without the def. or indef. art.) the chief city or town in the
neighbourhood (esp. in England, London): He is spending the
weekend in town He went up to town from Leeds Mr Green is
not in town/и out o f town.
4) (sing, with def. art.) the people o f a town: The whole town was
talking about it.

The ta lk o f the town - smth or smb everyone is talking about

b) Fill in the blanks with town or city. Note that in a few cases both
words are possible.
1. What ... do you com e from?
2. There was no doctor in the village, so he had to cycle to the
nearest ... .
3. Most banks have their head offices in the ... (o f London).
4. St. Petersburg is a very beautiful ... .
5. W e had lunch in ... and then went to the cinema.
6 . They drove through one ... after another.
7. We went on a tour o f the old ... .
8 . She enjoyed the peace and quiet o f the country after the noise
and bustle o f the ... .
9. A concert was given by the ... o f Birmingham Symphony Orchestra.
10. Shall we go to ... tomorrow?
11. D o they live in N ew York ...?
12. - Is Norwich a big ...? - Yes. In fact it’s a ... .
Unit VI 203

13. People from all the ... and villages in the area took part in the
competition.
14. Vienna is the capital ... o f Austria.
15. We visited the ancient ... o f Samarkand, Bukhara and Khiva.
(From: Get It Right by Jane Povey)

EE a) Read the text and translate it into Russian. Use a dictionary.


Queuing is as British as Big Ben. It is a symbol o f Britain and
British life as traditional as the bowler hat and as popular as the
Sunday joint. If a Briton wants to catch a bus or take a train, he
queues. He queues to make a telephone call. He queues to see an
exhibition. It has been said that wherever two or more Britons are
gathered together, they form a queue. If no one else is around, a
true Briton will form a queue by himself.
But what lies behind this curious custom? Why does everyone
obey the unwritten rules? Why stand and wait when you can push in
front o f everyone else? The answer lies in the British sense o f fair
play. In other countries the weak and the slow may get pushed aside
in the rush, the lame and the old may get left behind, but in Britain
all have their turn, if all are prepared to wait
But do not be deceived by the apparently placid picture o f a
queue. As long as everyone keeps their place, all is well. But the
moment som eone puts a foot out o f line, pandemonium breaks loose.
O ld .lad ies wave their sticks, City gentlemen brandish umbrellas and
insults fill the air. The innocent visitor will receive no mercy from an
outraged queue.
So, when in London, do as the British do - and whatever hap­
pens, don’t step out o f line!
(From London Life by Sandra Alfry, 1978)

b) As you have found out, British people get very annoyed with queue-
jumpcrs - people who do not wait their turn in the queue. Think of
several phrases that could he addressed to a queue-jumpcr. Make
them polite but effective. Use the following:
Oh, dear! (Oh, bother!) I find ... extremely offensive.
How infuriating/irritating! I must say I resent/object to ... .
... annoys/irritates me. I will not put up with ...
... really makes me cross/angry. I can’t stand ... (informal).
Look here, ... . I’m fed up with ... (informal).
Why on earth ... (informal)?

c) Have you ever had to queue-jump? Under what circumstances?


204 Essential Course

ES Find a picture or a photo of a big city. Get ready to describe it at


the lesson. Use the following:
Look at the picture/photograph. This picture shows ...
At the very edge/in the middle o f ... In the top (bottom) left-hand
This photograph was taken ... corner o f the picture ...
If you look carefully you can see ... The general impression is ...

m a) Big modern cities cannot do without many things. Can you con­
tinue the list? Discuss your lists in class.
• Shopping areas
• Recreational spaces
• .......................
• .......................

b) Write a paragraph about the future of big cities and what they will
be like, in your opinion.

EE a) Read the following text:

The Transport Service


Nearly every house and apartment within the London area is
served by public transport. A short walk will bring most Londoners
to a bus stop, an underground station or a railway station.
The underground (or ‘tube’) has nine lines. It has been running
beneath certain parts o f London for nearly 100 years. The London
underground is very fast. Each o f the eleven lines on the Under­
ground has a different name and a different colour on the Under­
ground map. You can use different lines (which will mean changing
trains) and follow any route you like. Your fare depends on your
destination. Say your destination at the ticket office to get the light
ticket, or buy a ticket from a ticket machine. To go through the
ticket barrier, use your ticket or show your travel card to an official.
Look after your ticket; you will have to hand it in at the end o f
your journey. Follow the signs for the line you want and to find the
right platform.
The red double-decker buses offer a much wider choice o f routes
and, from the top deck, a splendid view o f the city. Travelling by
bus is a good way to see London, though it is slower than the U n ­
derground.
In Britain there are different fares for different distances and you
pay on the bus. Children under 16 pay half price. Children under
five travel free. Visitors often think British buses are expensive. H ow­
ever there are cheaper tickets and cards, e.g. for a day’s or a week’s
travel.
Unit VI 205

Just over a million people com m ute into the City o f London
each morning to work in this great financial centre. This is the fa­
mous 'rush hour’. The train becomes very crowded as it approaches
London. As the train draws into the terminus platform, the carriage
doors all open and the passengers pour out. At the end o f the
working day the rush hour starts all over again - but in reverse. The
bus queues lengthen, taxis are hailed, railway stations packed.
b) Make up and write down as many questions about the text as you can.
c) Get ready to retell the text.

d) Compare the transport service in London with that in your home


town. Use the following:
On the whole... If you compare ... and ...
All in all... Y ou just can't compare ...
By and large... There’s absolutely no comparison
Compared to... between ... and ...
e) Speak about the advantages of different kinds of public transport.
ES Reread the text “The Transport Service” and translate these sentences:
1. Этот район очень хорошо обслуживается общественным транс­
портом.
2. Мне достаточно немного пройти пешком, чтобы оказаться на
.железнодорожном вокзале.
3. Московское метро не самое старое в мире, но в некоторых
районах города оно действует уже более шестидесяти лет.
4. В центре нам придется сделать пересадку с одной линии на другую.
5. Если вы выберете этот маршрут, то увидите самые старые и
самые красивые станции московского метро.
6. В нашем городе плата за проезд не зависит от того, куда вы едете.
7. На автомате для продажи билетов вы нажимаете кнопку (push
the button) с названием необходимой вам станции, и автомат
показывает, сколько нужно заплатить за проезд.
8. Служащие, стоящие возле автоматов, проверяют билеты и
проездные документы у всех пассажиров. В конце поездки все
отдают служащим свои билеты, чтобы те убедились в пра­
вильности оплаты.
9. Яркие надписи помогают вам сориентироваться (найти дорогу)
в метро.
10. С верха двухэтажного автобуса открывается прекрасный вид
города. Туристы знают, что поездка на таком автобусе - от­
личная возможность познакомиться с городом.
11. Ученики часто добираются до школы автобусом. За такую
поездку они платят половину ее стоимости.
206 Essential Course

12. Пенсионеры в Англии ездят на автобусе бесплатно в любое


время, кроме часов пик.
13. Множество поездов обслуживают тех, кто по утрам приезжа­
ют на работу в Лондон.
14. Вы когда-нибудь видели, как выглядит большой город в часы
пик? Улицы становятся многолюдными, у автобусных остано­
вок появляются длинные очереди, а железнодорожные станции
и станции метро переполнены людьми.
ЕЕ Rewrite the questions as in the model.
Model: Where’s the station? - Can you tell me where the station is,
please?
1 How far is it to London? 5. How can I get to the British
2. Where are the shops? Museum?
3. Which direction is the rail- 6. Where’s the High Street?
way station? 7. How far is it to the park?
4. Which way is the theatre? 8. Which direction is the bank?

EE a) Read the text below and remember the advice.


Asking for directions is no problem:
- Excuse me, could you tell me where ... is? or how to get to ?
Follow ing directions is a problem sometimes because it can be
difficult for som eone to explain to you where a place is - even if
you both speak the same language perfectly. However it is not neces­
sary to remember everything you are told. Listen carefully to the first
directions, follow them and then ask again. Keep asking people until
you get where you want to go.
If you are not sure you are follow ing directions correctly, you
can ask:
- A m I going the right w ay fo r ... ?
b) Read these conversations and act them out:
1. - Excuse me, can you tell me where South Street is, please?
- Take the second on the left and then ask again.
- Is it far?
- N o , it’s only about five minutes’ walk.
- Many thanks.
- N o t at all.
2. - Excuse me. Could you tell me the way to the station?
- Turn round and turn left at the traffic-lights.
- Will it take me long to get there?
- N o , it’s no distance at all.
- Thank you.
- T hat’s OK.
U nit VI 207

Complete these dialogues:


1. - Excuse me, but I’m trying to find the Town Hall.
- Should I take a bus?
- Thank you very much indeed.

2. - .......
- First right, second left. You can’t miss it.
- No, it’s only a couple of hundred yards.
- It’s a pleasure.
3. - Excuse me - er - am I going the right way to the Post Office?
- OK. Thanks a lot.

4. - ....?
- Yes, walk down this road, take the first turning on the left.
Y ou can’t miss it.

- About fifteen minutes if you walk quickly.


..... t
- Yes, there’s a bus stop on the opposite side o f the road.

N ot at all.

ED Fill in prepositions where necessary:


If you want to find Cherry Tree Lane all you have to do is ask
the policeman ... the crossroads. He will push his helmet slightly ...
one side, scratch his head thoughtfully, and then he will point his
huge white-gloved finger and say: “First ... your right, second ... your
left, sharp right again, and you are there G ood morning.”
And sure enough, if you follow his directions exactly, you will
be there - right ... the middle ... Cherry Tree Lane, where the houses
run down one side and the Park runs down the other and the
cherry-trees go dancing right down the middle.
If you are looking ... Num ber Seventeen - and it is more than
likely that you will be, you will very soon find it. To begin ..., it is
the smallest house ... the Lane. And besides that, it is the only one
that is rather dilapidated and needs a coat ... paint. But Mr. Banks,
who owns it, said ... Mrs. Banks that she could have either a nice,
clean, comfortable house or four children. But not both, for he
couldn’t afford it.
(From: Mary Poppins by Pamela L. Travers)
208 Essential Course

EE Here you have got the opening and the concluding remarks of a
telephone conversation. Complete the conversation and act it out.
Brian: H ello, Derek. It’s Brian. I’m at the Metro station.
How do I get to your house?
Derek: .....
Brian: Thank you, Derek, I’ll see you in a few minutes.

EE a) Fill in the appropriate articles where necessary.


The Police
... British Policemen (often called ... cops) can easily be recog­
nized by their unusually shaped helmets and dark blue uniforms. U n­
like many police forces in ... world, ... British police do not carry ...
weapons.
Although violent crime has increased in ... 1980s, neither ... p o ­
lice nor ... public want ordinary police constables to have ... guns. In
fact many policemen have recently left their patrol-cars to walk
streets again. ... sight o f ... policem an’s friendly face lets British peo­
ple sleep peacefully at ... night.
(From: Spotlight on Britain)
b) Speak about British policemen. Find some additional information in a
reference book or a magazine.

EE Read the signs and guess where you arc likely to see them. Follow
the model.
Model: You are likely to see it on the bus. Y ou might see it on the bus.
f Wet paint ] f s ile n c e area 1 I(eepBritaintidyt

These seats are meant


for elderly and handi­ well II(Tush ) Shoplifters
/'S h a k e X will 1
be prosecuted |
capped persons or for
people carrying children
before
\ u s e j ( Pull ) I |
Beware o f the dog
r Dry Slow down | Keep o ff th e g ra s s СP leaseshuP|
^ on ly J Рвуhere ] | [Handwash only^ Engaged J
th e door

No b la c k so le d s h o e s o n g y m flo o r

EE Translate into English:


I. Эта фотография сделана в центре больш ого города. На ней
видны современные высотные здания, широкая оживленная
улица с витринами магазинов, уличными фонарями и силь­
ным движением.
I
Unit VI 209

2. Вы не знаете, какова плата за проезд в лондонском двух­


этажном автобусе?
3. В часы пик лондонская «подзем ка» переполнена, поэтому я
советую вам ехать автобусом или взять такси.
4. Если вы переедете в деревню, вам придется каждый день ез­
дить в город и обратно.
5. Э тот маршрут очень удачен: вы сможете увидеть все глав­
ные достопримечательности Л ондона.
6 . Как только я получу водительские права, я покатаю тебя по
нашему древнему городу. Ты увидишь, как он красив.
7. П оездка в московском метро оказалась интересной для тури­
стов. Оригинально украшенные станции произвели на них
больш ое впечатление.
8 . - Не могли бы вы показать мне дор огу к ж елезнодорож но­
му вокзалу? Боюсь, что я заблудился. - Д а, конечно. Это
недалеко отсю да. И дите прямо по этой улице и сверните
налево у светофора. Вы его сразу увидите. - Большое спа­
сибо.
9. Им потребовалось только полчаса, чтобы осмотреть этот
крошечный музей. Все его экспонаты были великолепны.
10. П ереходите через дор огу по пеш еходному переходу и следите
за светофором: здесь сильное уличное движение.

ш Read the poem and retell it. Think of a different end to the story:

TAXI
It was raining hard in Frisco;
I needed one more fare to make my night.
A lady up ahead waved to flag me down;
She got in at the lights.

“Where you going to, my Lady Blue?


It’s a shame you ruined your gown in the rain.”
She just looked out o f the window;
She said, “Sixteen Parkside Lane.”

Something about her was familiar;


I could swear I’d seen her face before,
But she said, “I’m sure y o u ’re m istaken.”
And she didn’t say anything more.

It took a while, but she looked in the mirror,


Then she glanced at the licence for my name.
A smile seemed to com e to her slowly;
It was a sad smile just the same.
Essential Course

And she said, “H ow are you, Harry?”


I said, “H ow areyou, Sue?”
“Through the too many miles and the too little smiles,
I still remember y ou .”

It was somewhere in a fairy tale


I used to take her hom e in my car.
We learned about love in the back o f a Dodge;
The lesson hadn’t gone too far.

You see she was gonna be anactress


And I was gonna learn to fly.
She took o ff to find the footlights;
I took o ff to find the sky.

There was not much more for us to talk about;


Whatever we had once was gone,
So I turned my cab into the driveway
Past the gate and the fine trimmed lawn.

And she said, “W e must get together,”


But I knew it’d never be arranged.
Then she handed me twenty dollars for a two-fifty fare;
She said, “Harry, keep the change.”

Well, another man might have been angry,


And another man might have been hurt,
But another man never would have let her go;
I stashed the bill in my shirt.

And she walked away in silence,


It’s strange how you never know,
But we’d both gotten what we’d asked for,
Such a long, long time ago.

You see, she was gonna be an actress.


And I was gonna learn to fly.
She took o ff to find the footlights;
I took o ff for the sky.

And here she’s acting happy


Inside her handsome home,
And me, I’m flying in my taxi.
Taking tips and getting stoned.
I go flying so high when I’m stoned.
by Harry Chapin (From: Time to Tell. English Work­
shop Three by Peter Forrestal and Jo-Anne Reid)
Unit VI 211

SPEAKING PRACTICE
Before reading the dialogue below m ake sure that y o u can pronounce
the follow ing words correctly:

pollution [pa'luijan] accom m odation [a.koma'deijn]


quiet ['kwaiat] excitement [ik'saitmantl

TOWN and COUNTRY


C hris: Stan! I’ve g o t a n ew jo b ! I’m g o in g to live in L on d on !


Start: A r e you? O h , I lived in L o n d o n fiv e years ago.
C hris: D id y o u like it?
S ta n : N o t very m uch.
C hris: W hy not?
S ta n : W ell, there w ere to o m a n y p e o p le , an d there w as to o
m uch n oise.
C hris: O h , I lo v e cro w d s a n d noise!
S ta n : W ell, I d o n ’t ... a n d I d o n ’t lik e p o llu tio n .
C hris: W h at d o y o u m ean?
S ta n : O h , there isn ’t en o u g h fresh air in L o n d o n .
C hris: But there are a lo t o f p ark s.
S ta n : Y es, I k n o w ... an d p e o p le sleep in them .
C hris: W hy?
S ta n : B ecau se there isn ’t en o u g h a c c o m m o d a tio n ... there
aren ’t en o u g h flats an d h o u ses.
C hris: W ell, I still prefer b ig cities.
S ta n : But w hy?
C hris: 1 w as b o m in a sm all cou n try village. It w as to o quiet.
S ta n : Y o u w ere lucky!
C hris: I d o n ’t th in k so . T h ere w a sn ’t m uch to d o. T h a t’s w hy
y o u n g p e o p le g o to L o n d o n .
S ta n : B ut L o n d o n ’s t o o ex p en siv e fo r y o u n g p eop le.
C hris: But th ey still g o ... T h e y w an t excitem en t.
S ta n : H m m m ... I d o n ’t w an t ex citem en t. I ju st w ant a quiet
life, th a t’s all.
(From: Lingaphone Institute Limited)

EE Make up and write down as many questions about the dialogue “Town
and Country” as you can. Let your fellow students answer them.
212 Essen tin I Course

m a) Look at the dialogue again and sum up all the arguments Гог and
against big cities.

b) Think of several more arguments in favour of living in a big city


and against it. Use the following:
A good thing about living in a big city is ...
I really enjoy living in a big city as ...
I’ve always liked (loved) living in a big city because ...
What I hate about big cities is ...
I’m afraid I never liked living in a big city as ...
There’s nothing I like less than living in a big city ...
I dislike living in a big city for the simple reason that ...

m Write 20 sentences describing big cities. Use the models below:


1) There is too much noise.
2) There are too many people.
3) There is (isn’t) enough accom m odation.
4) There are (aren’t) enough flats and houses.

EE Describe life in a big city. Use the models and theadjectives below:
1) Cities are too crowded.
2) The traffic here is quite busy.
3) The air in big cities isn’t fresh enough.
Adjectives: polluted, noisy, busy, built-up, dirty, littered, dull, exciting,
quiet, m onotonous, expensive, hectic

m a) Read the conversation:


- I don’t like cities.
- Oh, I do. I think big cities are exciting. There’s always something to do.
- Yes, but cities are crowded and dirty.
- I agree. The suburbs are clean. A nd there are lots o f trees and flowers.
- It’s quiet in the suburbs, and cities are too noisy.

b) Make your own conversations about living in a city, its prosand cons.
Use the conversation above as a model. These phrases may help you:
Yes, but ... True enough ...
I can’t agree ... T hat’s quite right ...
I disagree, I’m afraid ... That’s just what I’m thinking.
I don’t think that’s right. I couldn’t agree more.
T hat’s not the way I see it. H ow true.
Oh, com e o ff it! Oh, exactly/quite.
Nonsense! Informal: Well, that’s the thing.
You can’t mean that! T oo true.
Y ou can’t be serious! I’m with you there.
Unit VI 213

23 Translate into English:


1. Воздух в современных больших городах сильно загрязнен, по­
этому многие состоятельные люди переезжают в пригороды.
2. Вы согласны с тем, что центр нашего города шумный и гряз­
ный? - Вы абсолютно правы. Главная улица переполнена
толпами людей. Лично я живу на одной из центральных улиц
и устаю от шума.
3. Он сказал, что тропинка слишком замусорена, он не собирается
ее подметать.
4. Движение было очень сильным, и они с трудом перешли улицу.
5. Она написала родителям, что жизнь в столице слишком д ор о­
гая, но люди достаточно богаты , чтобы приобретать дом а и
квартиры.
6 . Уверяю вас, что застроенные кварталы стали гораздо чище, в
них появилось много деревьев и зеленых лужаек. Жители д о ­
вольны.
7. Я живу в этом городе уже двадцать лет. Когда-то это был
скучный городок, людям было нечем заняться. Теперь он стал
довольно большим городом с шумными улицами и сильным
движением.
8 . Сколько лет она живет в Лондоне? - С 1983 года. Она гово­
рит, что привыкла к нему, хотя иногда видит во сне Москву.
9. Говорят, что все реки и озера в этом районе загрязнены,
здесь нельзя ловить рыбу. - Чепуха, я этому не верю.
10. В этом маленьком городке не хватает жилья. Те, кто приезжают
сюда с большими семьями, вынуждены уезжать в другие места.

ЕЗ Fill in prepositions where necessary and retell the text:

Industrial Misery
... the Industrial Revolution, many people moved ... the country
... the towns, where they usually lived ... dirty and overcrowded con­
ditions. They worked long hours ... very little money. Even small
children had to work ... the factories and mines. M any writers, ...
particular Charles Dickens, have written ... their misery. He wrote this
description ... one ... the new industrial towns:
“It was a town ... red brick, or ... brick that would have been red
if the smoke, and ashes had allowed it. It was a town ... machinery
and tall chimneys .......... which smoke came ... ever and ever. It had a
black canal ... it and a river that ran purple ... bad-smelling dye.”
Today the noise and sm oke ... factories ... the time ... Dickens
have been replaced ... modern industry, and the 19th century slums
have been cleared.
(From: Spotlight on Britain)
214 Essential Course

22 a) Read the following text:


During the 1930’s, a Swiss architect, Le Corbusier, called the
house “a machine for living in”. By this he meant that the most im­
portant part of a house was not its external appearance, but its func­
tion or use for the people who lived inside. Houses built according to
Le Corbusier’s ideas were stark and angular. Almost every form of
decoration was done away with, concrete was preferred to brick and
with their flat roofs, these "ultra-modern” houses looked like white
sugar cubes.
b) Nowadays a lot of people think that high-rise concrete buildings do
no credit to our cities and towns. Can you continue the list of argu­
ments against them?
• Multi-storey flats changed the skyline of our cities for the worse
• Mothers living high up cannot watch their children at play.
• Old people, nervous of the lifts, rarely go outdoors.
• Many people feel isolated and unhappy.

m Match the words in the right-hand column with their definitions in


the left-hand.
What Is It?
1) A set of rules a) Road junction
2) Part of the road which is raised or
marked, where pedestrians can wait in b) Vehicle
the middle of the road
c) Pedestrian crossing
3) Edge of the pavement
4) A place at the side of the road where d) Kerb
people walk
5) Person who walks e) Island on the road
6) Place where people can walk across the
road safely I) Pedestrian
7) Type of crossing which has black and
g) Code
white stripes painted on the road ---- .
8 ) Place where two or more roads meet \ T ra ffic |j g [ l t

9) Red, yellow and green lights which tell \


traffic when to stop and when to go i) Zebra crossing
10) Anything which travels along the road
on wheels j) Pavement or Footpath
Unit VI 215

22 a) Fill in the prepositions or adverbs where necessary. Your choice is:


across, on, in, from, of, near, for, along, at, with, past.
Fl ow lo Cross the Road
1. Where there is a pavement or a footpath walk ... it.
2. Keep as far away ... traffic as possible.
3. Young children should cross ... the road ... their parents or an
elder brother or sister.
4. It is safer to cross ... subways, islands, zebra crossings, traffic
lights or where there is a policeman. If you can’t find any good
crossing places like these, choose a place where you can see
clearly ... the roads ... all directions.
- 5. D o n ’t stand too ... the edge ... the pavement. Stop a little way
back ... the kerb - where you’ll be away ... traffic, but where
you can still see if anything is coming.
6 . Look all round ... traffic and listen. Traffic may be coming ...
any direction, so take care to look ... every road, and listen too.
7. If there’s any traffic near, let it go ... . When there is no traffic
near, walk straight ... the road.

b) Play the role of a teacher talking to seven-year-olds about how to


cross the road. Use the information above and any other rules you
can think of. These phrases may come in handy:
I.think you should/shouldn’t ... I would advise against
If I were you I wouldn't/would Y ou’d better (not) ...
I think you ought to ... Watch out for ...
I would/wouldn’t recommend ... Mind you don’t...
On no account should you ... Take my advice and ...

m M atch the num bers above the ro a d sig n s w ith th e ir verbal d escrip ­
tions below:

a) Turn right ahead


b) Pedestrian crossing
c) Stop and give way
d) Road narrows on both
sides
e) R oute to be used by
pedal cyclists only
0 Vehicles may pass either
side
g) N o pedestrians
h) Crossroads
0 Two-way traffic crosses
one-way road
216 Essential Course

EE Translate into English:


1. Я не умею ездить на велосипеде, но мне очень хотелось бы
научиться.
2. На этой улице сильное движение. Будь осторожен, пожалуйста!
3. Вы не могли бы меня подвезти? Э то совсем недалеко: прямо
по этой улице, а потом направо. Вся дорога не займет у вас
больше пяти минут.
4. Лондонские красные двухэтажные автобусы известны во всем
мире.
5. Неожиданно я почувствовал себя устадым и одиноким в этом
огромном городе.
6 . Если заблудишься, обратись к полицейскому. Он тебе всегда
поможет.
7. В центре города находился прекрасный собор в готическом
стиле, построенный еще (as early as) в XVIII веке.
8 . Сядь на семичасовой и поезжай в Л ондон. Ты приедешь как
раз к открытию выставки.
9. Очень трудно будет найти друг друга на этой шумной, мно­
голюдной улице. Давай лучше встретимся на станции метро.
10. Поставь машину здесь, у подземного перехода: дальше по
улице идут дорожны е работы.

ш Fill in articles where necessary:


1. They walked along ... winding, cobble-stoned streets that dated
from ... Middle Ages, and spent hours at ... tulip fields on
outskirts of ... city.
2. ... bus, because of ... unevenness of ... road, lurched and swayed
3. ... house was off ... main road and there was no ... traffic at
that time of ... night.
4. At ... next stop she would be on her way to ... school again.
5. ... London was unseasonably warm for ... October, and ... English­
men and tourists alike took ... advantage of ... bright sunshine.
6. ... noon traffic was heavy with ... hold-ups at ... Trafalgar
Square, ... Charing Cross, and ... Piccadilly Circus.
7. ... white car turned off ... Oxford street to ... New Bond Street.
8. I boarded ... eighty-eighty bus and sat in ... front seat on ... top.
9. ... store was crowded with ... shoppers.
EE a) Read the following dialogue:
Looking at the Map of Cambridge
The Blacks are m eeting Mr. a n d Mrs. Sm ith. They are planning to
do some sightseeing together.

Mrs. Black: We’re here, in Station Road and we’re going to meet the
Smiths at the entrance to St. John’s College.
Unit VI 217

Mr. Black: That’s ideal. W e’ll go straight along this street and when
we gel to that church, w e’ll turn left.
Mrs. Black: Yes, then after we’ve looked at som e o f the colleges,
we’ll walk along this road to St. John’s.
Mr. Black: Perhaps we ought to walk down this lane here. It leads
to a bridge over the river.
Mrs. Black: Y es, that sounds as i f it’ll be nice.
Mr. Black: Shall we walk or shall we catch a bus to the town cen­
tre? I always prefer walking.
Mrs. Black: I usually prefer going by bus But wait a minute. We've
forgotten the Fitzwilliam Museum. D o n ’t you want to
see that?
Mr. Black: O f course I do. L et’s go there first .
b) Plan a sightseeing tour of your native town with a friend. Use the
italicized words and phrases.

Here are ten of the places most popular with foreign visitors to Lon­
don. Read the information about them. And now you have to choose
only three places because you haven’t got much time for sightseeing.
What is your choice and why? Use the following:
• I(’d) prefer ... • I find ... more interesting/enjoyable than ...
• I’d rather ... • I like/enjoy ... more than ... »
• A s for me ... • My choice/preference would always be ...

Ten Popular Places


Tower o f London famous for the Crown Jewels (crowns, diamonds,
etc. o f the Royal Family), prisons, arms (guns, swords, etc.) and
the “Beefeaters” - the guards o f the Tower.
Westminster Abbey: church where Elizabeth II and those before her
became kings and queens o f England — many famous people are
buried there.
Houses o f Parliament: centre o f British government - famous clock
“Big Ben”.
St. Paul’s Cathedral: Christopher Wren’s great church.
Trafalgar Square: famous meeting place for crowds at the time o f
important national events, on the last day o f the year - and to
feed the birds.
Piccadilly Circus: centre o f one o f L ondon’s busiest districts for shop­
ping, theatres and cinemas.
National Gallery: more than 2,000 British and European paintings,
mainly from the 15th to 19th centuries.
Buckingham Palace: hom e o f the Royal Family - visitors can watch
the Changing o f the Guard in front.
218 Essential Course

British Museum: full o f interesting things from the past and the pres­
ent, from Britain and the rest o f the world.
Madame Tussaud’s: criminals, film stars, the Beatles ... all kinds o f
famous people made o f wax.

a) Here are ten cities and towns that are ver) popular with visitors
to Britain. How many have you heard of? Do you know what part
of Britain they arc in? Look at the map.
Bath Edinburgh Oxford
Cambridge Exeter Stratford-upon-Avon
Canterbury Norwich York
Chester

b) Can you name ten cities in Russia well worth seeing? Explain your
choice.

ее a) Read the text using a dictionary:

The Historic City of York


A s well as being an example o f living history, the city knows
well how to show its history to visitors. The N ational Railway Mu­
seum’s collection o f steam trains and Royal Carriages is world-
famous. In the Castle Museum one can imagine oneself in a 19th
century world o f Victorian streets, shops, farmhouses and homes.
York Story, in Castlegate, is a lively museum showing how the city
o f York grew during 1900 years. In the newest museum, visitors
travel in a special electric car (like a time machine) through an origi­
nal Viking street with the sights, sounds and smells which a Viking
in York would have experienced.
Most splendid o f all, o f course, is the magnificent Minster. It is
the largest G othic cathedral in northern Europe and the most impor­
tant church in the N orth o f England. It is famous for its mediaeval
stained glass windows, and the interior is full o f colour and light
You can see the huge Minster for miles. Y ou can climb to the top
o f the tower or take a trip into history below ground, where you can
see the Roman remains.
(From: Spotlight on Britain)

b) Answer these questions:


1. What museums can you visit in York?
2. What can you see in the newest o f Y ork’s museums?
3. Which is the most important church in the North o f England?

c) Speak about the museums of York.


Unit VI 219

Щ Fill in articles where necessary:


1. ... arrival o f ... aircraft has been delayed.
2. She went in and prayed in ... Westminster A bbey while herhus­
band was flying ... day after ... day to ... Germany.
3. As he walked he wondered where his son would be sent to meet ...
enemy, ... Africa? ... Australia? ... India? ... England? ... Russia?
4. ... street was narrow and at ... busiest o f ... times carried ... very
little traffic.
5. ... following week Mum and D ad went down to ... Cornwall to
see ... house again while Debbie and I were at ... school.
6. ... conductor carried ... suitcase to ... end o f ... carriage and
helped Tracy down ... steps. ... train began to move.
7. There will be ... plane ticket for ... Geneva waiting for you at ...
Swissair counter.
8. In ... light o f ... distant lamp, in ... light o f ... Big Ben I saw
her pale little face.
9. She drove ... car behind ... stand o f ... giant willow trees, where
it was hidden from view, and turned o ff ... engine, listening to ...
nocturnal sounds o f ... insects.
10. ... Ritz Hotel in ... Madrid is considered ... best hotel in ...
Spain, and for more than ... century it has housed and fed
monarchs from ... dozen European countries.

m a) Make a list of words you will need to describe amuseum or a


picture gallery.

b) Describe one of the museums you’ve visited in the form of a letter to


a friend. Remember: your address is usually written in the top right-
hand corner of the page. The date is written beneath the address and
is written in full. Start your letter with “Dear ...”, finish it with "All
the hest" or “Best wishes" or “Lots o f love".

c) Learn to address the envelope correctly from theexample below:

Airmail

Sarah Stewart
16 Pudding Lane
Throckley
N EWCASTLE-U PON -TYN E
NE 15 6 BQ
UNITED KINGDOM

Notice that the name of the town, the country and the code arc in
capital letters. Write the postcode at the end of a British address
like the one in the example.
220 Essential Coarse

m a) Read the folio» ing text:

Post in the UK
Post from one place in Britain to another can be sent either first
class or second class. First class post usually arrives the next day,
and second class post, which is a little cheaper, takes a bit longer.
One stamp, either first class or second class, is enough for a letter
weighing not more than 60 g. Besides letters you can send small
packets, printed papers (books or newspaper's) and parcels. When
you’re sending mail you can choose airmail or surface mail. Airmail,
as you probably know, is mail sent by plane. Post going by airmail
needs airmail labels (things you stick or tie to a parcel, envelope,
etc.). A cheap, easy way to send a letter by air is to use an aero­
gramme. This is the special kind o f letter sold by the post office
which you write on, fold, stick and then post. Aerogrammes already
have a stamp and cost the same to send to any country. Surface
mail, which goes by train, ship, etc., is cheaper but o f course slower
than airmail. Anything posted abroad from Britain, apart from letters
and postcards, may have to carry a customs declaration label, with
details o f the contents and their value.
(From: Discover Britain)

b) Find in the text English equivalents for the following:


посылать первым/вторым классом бандероль
письмо весом не более 60 г посылка
сложить, заклеить и послать по почте авиапочта
открытка наземная почта
таможенная декларация ярлык (наклейка)
содержимое (посылки) и его стоимость авиаграмма

c) Answer these questions:


1. Letters and postcards are two types o f post service. Whatother
kinds o f post service do you know?
2. How does first class post differ from second class post?
3. What is the advantage o f airmail?
4. What is an aerogramme?
5. When do you need a customs declaration label?

d) Speak about post in this country. Use the text above. You may also
need the following:
postman/woman, to deliver post, post box, Post Office staff, tele­
gram, to make a phone call (local, national, international)
Unit VI 221

m a) Read the following dialogue with a fellow student:

Post Office
Mr.White: H ello, I want to buy som e stamps. My w ife’s got
som ething to send to Switzerland. She wants to
send som e letters to Scotland, too. Can she post
them here?
Post O ffice man: Y es, she can. How many stamps would you like?
Mr. W hite: I’d like five twenty-five pence stamps and three air
letters, please.
Post Office man: Here they are. Is this the packet for Switzerland?
Mr. White: Yes, it is.
Post Office man: Airmail or ordinary mail?
Mr. While: Airmail, please. And these letters are going to
Scotland.
Post O ffice man: First class or second class?
Mr. While: First class, please.

b) Make up a similar dialogue between a customer and a Post Office assistant.

m Pairwork. Practise the model below. Use the given phrases.

M odel: A: D o you think I ought to send a telegram?


B: N o , I think you’d better phone him up.

... post the letter? ... leave a message?


... send her a Christmas card? ... have a word with Alice?
... buy a book o f stamps? ... phone the manager?
... send it in a registered envelope? ... hang up?
... buy a few airmail labels? ... ring him back?
... send the parcel by surface mail?

m Complete these conversations:


I. A : Hallo. This is Mary here. Could I talk to Sue, please?
B: I’ll just see if she’s in.
A : All right.

2. A: Hallo. M y name is Richard Coppen. Can I speak to


Judy, please?
В : Hang on a moment.
A : OK.
222 Essential Course

3. A: Hallo. Paul speaking. Is Norm an there, please?


B: I'll find out if he’s at home.
A : Right.

m a) Translate into English in written form:

Вчера я нашел в своем почтовом ящике письмо от друга с


приглашением приехать к нему в П етербург на зимние канику­
лы. Д о каникул оставалось всего несколько дней, и я решил
сразу же написать ответ. Я перевернул всё вверх дном в квар­
тире, но не нашел ни конверта, ни марок. Я понял, что придет­
ся идти на почту...

b) Continue the story. Add at least 15-20 phrases in English.

m Translate into English paying attention to the uncountable nouns:

1. Какая волнующая новость! Вскоре о б этом будет говорить


весь город.
2. Почему твои волосы выглядят так неопрятно? Т ебе бы сле­
довало расчесать их и завязать хвостик или заплести косу.
3. Я никогда не видел такого сильного уличного движения,
как в центре Л ондона.
4. У тебя слишком мало денег, тебе не хватит их на все по­
купки, которые ты хочешь сделать в центре.
5. М не бы хотелось получить кое-какую информацию о прибы­
тии и отправлении поездов.
6 . М ои знания о б этом гор оде очень ограниченны , вот почему
я хочу прежде всего сходить в городской музей.
7. Я давно коплю деньги. Они нужны мне, чтобы брать уроки
вождения.
8 . Какая чудесная погода! Давай возьмем машину и поедем за
город.
9. Я уже давно подыскиваю себе жилье неподалеку от универ­
ситета.
10. Наша квартира совсем пуста. Мы еще не купили мебель.
11. Мне нужна хорошая почтовая бумага и красивая поздрави­
тельная открытка. Сколько это будет стоить?
12. Я никогда не беру с собой м ного багаж а, я предпочитаю
путешествовать налегке.
Unit VI 223

m a) Read the text and make up as many questions about it as possible:

WINDSOR CASTLE
Of' the many Royal Palaces in Europe none can trace its origin
to so early a period as does W indsor Castle or is so closely con­
nected with national history. For over 800 years W indsor has been
the residence o f the K ings and Queens o f England. The building on
the present site is undoubtedly o f N orm an origin, and the site itself
was originally chosen for strategic purposes. Interesting and attrac­
tive stories attributing the origin o f the Castle to Roman and
Saxon times are probably legendary, although it is known that Ed­
ward the C onfessor had a palace at Old W indsor, som e three miles
away.
It is at any rate certain that in the year 1086 entry is found
in the D om esday B ook referring to a Fortress on the present site.
During the reign o f the Norm an K ings the C astle grew in impor­
tance, and the buildings had attained the proportions o f a Royal
Palace.
The Round Tower has been the central feature o f the Castle
since its original conception. The early N orm an structure was
probably som e form o f fortification erected on a natural mound,
protected by a m oat, probably also by a strong palisade. This was
replaced by a masonry ring wall, late in the 12th century. The first
substantial building erected on the mound was known as the Rose
Tower, which was built by Edward III, and in which the King
convened a “Round T able” after the manner o f the mythical King
Arthur. K nights and Squires from every country in Christendom , as
well as those o f England, were invited to attend, and the meeting
took place within the Tower. In 1344 the order now knowm as the
Order o f the Garter was established within its walls, when 26
Knights were elected members, including Edward III and the Black
Prince. Persons o f importance have been held captive in the Tower
from its earliest times. The Tower is the official headquarters o f the
Governor o f the Castle, an office which dates back to the reign o f
William the Conqueror.
The Tow er was raised to its present elevation by W yatville
during the extensive renovations carried out early in the nineteenth
century. The present Tower is considerably higher than any previous
building, and is crowned with a flag tower, from which the Royal
Standard is flown when the K ing is in residence, the U nion Jack
being displayed on other occasions. A n ornamental old-tim e garden
now takes the place o f the original m oat.
In the centre o f the Tower is a well, 164 feet in depth.
224 Essential Course

For varied picturesque scenery and for historic associations, few


parks can rival W indsor Great Park, access to which is via the
celebrated Long W alk, which is entered from Park Street.
(From: Official Guide to IVindsor Castle,
the Town and Neighbourhood o f Windsor)

b) M ake up an advertisement inviting tourists to Windsor, using words


and word combinations from the text.
UNIT VII |

O n e is never to o old to learn.


( Proverb)

LE ARNI NG
CAM BE E N JO Y A B LE

G R A M M A R EXERCISES
Before you start doing the exercises m ake sure that you remember
how to handle:

• the P r e se n t P e r fe c t C o n tin u o u s T e n s e ,
e.g. John’s hands and even face are dirty, he has been digging
up potatoes in the vegetable garden.
How long have you been writing this novel? - I've been
writing it since last year.

• the P ast P e r fe c t C o n tin u o u s T e n s e ,


e.g. Her hair was wet. She had been washing it.

• th e C o m p le x O b je c t C o n s tr u c tio n s ,
e.g The boy found his parents reading his letters.
We want you to know this grammar rule.
She heard someone enter the kitchen and turn on the hot tap.

• th e G eru n d ,
eg He always enjoys listening to classical music.
She is good at sewing and embroidering.
We feel like having a short rest.

D a) Write the forms of these verbs in the Present Perfect Continuous


and the Past Perfect Continuous Tenses as in the model.
Model: have been making; has been making; had been making

to work to live to talk to write to travel


to study to watch to cry to go to quarrel
to look to do to hold to laugh to wait
to walk to learn to teach to show
226 Essential Course

b) M ake up and «rite down your o«n sentences in the Present Perfect
Continuous Tense as in the model.
M odel: He has been talking about his illness for half an hour. I’m
tired o f it.
Y our eyes are red. Have you been crying?
0 Open the brackets using the verbs in the Present Perfect Continuous
Tense. Translate the sentences into Russian:
1. I (to clean and to tidy up) the house. What an extraordinary sat­
isfaction there is in cleaning things!
2. “G ood evening,” said Mor, “good evening. I see the picture has
begun.” “Begun!” said Dem oyte. “ I (to sit) all day for a portrait
o f one o f my rugs. Com e and look at this masterpiece!”
3. Miss Carter must be exhausted. She (top a in t) or pretending to paint,
for about six hours. “I am tired,” said Miss Carter. “Mr. Demoyte
doesn’t believe it, but I’ve done a great deal o f work today.”
4. Since I was eighteen I (to write), ten years already, and so what?
I’ve written ten novels and five plays and G od knows how many
short stories.
5. “Som eone (to tamper) with the slides!” Bill said into her ear
6 . “Why didn’t you let us know at once?” said Effingham. “So
much (to happen) all day.”
7. They said good-day, and all departed to get her. She turned to
Mor. “Y ou (not to look)\" “I have,” said M or, smiling. “Now
you show me the pictures.”
8 . Jamesie has burnt a lot o f photographs. And they (to burn) let­
ters and all sorts o f things.
9. His unmarried sister (to keep) house for him in Cambridge since
his first wife’s death.
10. Sorry, I’m being ungrateful - and I've been hereand eaten your
food and drunk your drink I know - but I (to think) - after all,
why should you bother about me?

0 Open the brackets using the verbs in the Past Perfect Continuous
Tense. Translate the sentences into Russian:
1. It was the end o f term. They just (to talk) with Mr. Everard.
2. The car (to speed) along as they talked.
3. D enis, who (to stand) perfectly still, gave a sudden exclamation.
4. The heat wave (to last) now more than a month.
5. All week Ezra (to show) Jenny how to hit a soft ball.
6. A loud burst o f laughter, which the School (to hold) in with dif­
ficulty until the end o f this period, broke out explosively.
7. She was very anxious that Bill should not know that she (to
drink) whiskey.
8 . Whatever the region was, Mor thought, in which he (to wander).
one thing was certain, that he would never visit it again.
Unit VII 227

9. The dog (to watch) us all the time, its bushy tail sweeping to
and fro against the bars.
10. I (not to sit) in the cafe for more than a few minutes when I
heard one o f the waiters calling out "M onsieur D ohnagoo”.
11. Since his departure from the house that morning Effingham (to
talk) almost continuously to Alice.
12. He was awakened by a murmur o f voices. He had the feeling as
he woke that the voices (to go) on for som e time. He lifted his
head. One o f the candles had gone out and the room was very
dark indeed and cold.
13. M or closed the door and escaped down the corridor with long
strides. A subdued din arose behind him. He just {to give) a les­
son to the history specialists o f the Classical Sixth.
14. Karen (to try) not to think about her twin sister April since the
day she had decided to try not to think o f N eville Bennett any
more.
15. She already (to worry) about their marriage for som e months, but
she had managed to convince herself that she was worrying un­
necessarily.

2 a) Read these sentences and find the Complex Object constructions in


them. Translate the sentences into Russian:
1. I watched her walk. She had that free stride I always remembered.
2.I'could feel the tension growing inside me.
3. He watched her run into the water.
4. I saw you walking down the block with Francie and I couldn’t
keep my eyes o ff you.
5. I remember Hartley singing in church.
6 . He could hear his mother talking to som eone in the kitchen.
7. The boy could feel his face whiten.
8 . He heard her m ove in the darkness.
9. She wants me to go down to Devonshire today, at once, in
thirty-five minutes.
10. M acDougal didn’t see this man die. He was dead when he arrived.
П. I saw my father and mother turn into enemies, trying to destroy
each other.
12. But you wanted us to have friends.
13. Kattie looked at her. She could feel a lump coming into her
throat.
14. O f course, he must live with Emily, but I want him to come
here a lot, I want him to have his own room here.
15. The house was very still, and in the dark o f the room she found
herself listening for every sound.
16. He could see her walking down the corridor away from him.
228 Essential Course

17. Pete pressed the button and the door closed. The elevator began
to rise. Silently they watched the indicator flash the numbers o f
the floors. A t five the car stopped and the door opened.
18. As I turned round I saw Gilbert beginning to slip and slither on
the rocks.
19. At the last moment som ething made me write a note to her.
20. I moved back and let the nurse pick her up.

b) Make up a list of the verbs after which the Complex Object may be
used.

2 Translate into English in writing using the Complex Object construc­


tions:
1. Я видела, как он переходил улицу недалеко от моего дома. У
него был очень печальный вид.
2. Они наблюдали за тем, как Мери опустила в почтовый ящик
письмо. Затем они увидели, что она садится в автобус.
3. Позвольте мне пойти осматривать достопримечательности,
ваш город так красив!
4. Мама увидела, что Китти стоит в очереди за газетой. Так
как она не хотела, чтобы дочь ее заметила, она зашла в
ближайший магазин.
5. Мы хотим, чтобы вы описали те достопримечательности Лон­
дона, которые понравились вам больше всего.
6. Он не хотел, чтобы она брала такси, поэтому дал ей мало
денег.
7. Кондуктор заставил всех пассажиров заплатить за проезд, хо­
тя некоторые из них очень хотели проехать бесплатно.
8. Отец сказал сыну, что очень хочет, чтобы тот научился водить
машину, но сын ответил, что предпочитает ходить пешком.
9. Дети видели, как большой грузовик повернул налево и исчез.
Однако им не хотелось, чтобы полиция об этом знала.
10. Я слышал, как он сказал кому-то, что не может дозвониться
Потом он повесил трубку.
11. Она хотела, чтобы шофер позвонил ей ровно в девять Она
сказала, что собирается за покупками.
12. Мальчик увидел, как незнакомец снял трубку и набрал какой-
то номер. К сожалению, он не смог увидеть, какой именно.
13. Она почувствовала, что кто-то дотронулся до ее руки, и
вскрикнула.
14. Вдруг они услышали звонок в дверь. Джон пошел открывать.
Это был почтальон, которого они ждали с утра.
15. Он хотел, чтобы она ему позвонила, как только приедет в
Москву.
Unit VII 229

16. Я хочу, чтобы вы увидели как можно больше интересного в


мире.
17. Она не хочет, чтобы я писала ему заказные письма.
18. Внучка увидела, что бабушка ставит пирог в духовку, и очень
обрадовалась.
19. Мы слышали, как он сказал, что уже продал свой коттедж.
20. Не заставляйте меня делать то, что я не хочу и не умею де­
лать. Я не умею готовить. Пусть Дженни приготовит ужин.
Q a) Use the gerund instead of the infinitive given in brackets:
1. It was worth {to lake) a risk.
2. Where could I get a copy? It was no use {to try) libraries or
bookshops.
3. It’s just a matter o f {to seize) the initiative.
4. “Oh, stop {to worry), will you?” said Sadie.
5. Mr. Everard was not famous for {to pul) his guests at their ease.
6 . He was very severe. I can remember {to be) made to paint the
same thing again and again.
7. She’ll despise me for {to tell) the lie, and she’ll despise me for {to
tell) her that I told her.
8 . “I don’t like {to leave) you alone in the w ood,” said Mor.
9. M or gave up {to try) to convince her.
10. She threw herself on the bed and went on {tocry).
11 Felicity was very disappointed at not {to find) Donald alone.
1 2 . l i e could not stop {to smile).
13. Rigden was good at {to paint).
14. I love {to pose) for people.
15. Rain was still sitting on top o f the ladder. She seemed to enjoy
{to be) there.
16. She said, “Would you mind {to lake) the ladder back to the studio?”
17. M or was not used to {to look) at pictures.
18. “I don’t know that there’s any point in your {to see) her,” said
Marian.
19. Marian heard him, but without {to understand).
20.There is nothing in London police hate so much as {to see) peo­
ple drop things into the river.
21. I sat there for a long time. At first I kept {to think) about the
money.
22. I hesitated at the door. I hate {to enter) a crowded room and {to
feel) a whole gallery o f faces focused upon me.
23. I sat looking at the carpet. I felt more like {to cry) than I had
for a long time.
24. G o on {to tell) me things.
25. Some time later it was necessary to start {to talk).
230 Essential Course

t>) Make up and write down a list of verbs that must be followed b>
the gerund.

c) Translate into English in writing using the gerund:

перестать болтать это стоит увидеть


бросить курить это стоит услышать
начать писать это стоит купить
кончить читать хотеть танцевать
уйти, не простившись продолжать думать
привыкнуть рано вставать любить рисовать
привыкнуть поздно ложиться ни на кого не глядя
иметь способности к пению, живо- не говоря ни слова
писи, танцам

Q Open the brackets using the verbs in the correct tenses.


1. Edris (to hang up) the glass cloth and (to take off) his apron. He
(to work) non-stop since six o ’clock and he (to fe e l) pretty tired
2. I’m not surprised you look like a student. Seaside life (to suit)
you. Y ou (to look) twenty. Well, thirty. I (to hear) them discuss­
ing you in the bar.
3. I (to see) you nearly three weeks ago. 1 (to recognize) you.
4. When he (to go) downstairs, Mr. Ketley (to tell) him everybody
(to go) to the tennis court.
5. When she next (to open) her eyes she (to fin d ) she (to lie) on the
sofa in N eville’s study.
6 . He (to have) breakfast with Leslie when the phone (to ring). She
(to go) to pick it up.
7. It (to he) time for lunch but Hazen (to say) he (to be) sorry, he
(to have) (to get) to his office immediately.
8 . Then I quietly (to leave) the room and (to go) to the cloakroom
and (to p u t on) my overcoat and (to take) my umbrella and (to
go) downstairs and out into Whitehall. It still (to rain) a little.
9. I (to straighten) my tie and (to go) downstairs to the drawing
room. I hardly (to be) there five minutes when Mrs. Thompson
(to come) in with the coffee. She (to bring) it on a silver tray.
10. Until that day I never really (to look) at a picture. I (to
know ), for instance, that there (to be) three water-colours in
Aunt Em ily’s living room , but outside the house I (cannot)
even (to rem em ber) their subjects
Unit VII 231

VOCABULARY

I f yo u w a n t to s p e a k a b o u t s tu d e n ts ’ life
y o u h av e to know th e se p h ra s e s :

to be a first/second, etc. y e a r stu ­ assessm ent - оценка, мнение, суж­


d en t - быть первокурсником, дение
второкурсником и т.д. to assess a stu d en t - оценить
to be in the th ird /fo u rth , etc. y ea r - студента
быть на третьем, четвертом to give sm b a m a rk - поставить
и т.д. курсе оценку
to en ter university/college - посту­ to get a m a rk in a subject - по­
пать в университет/колледж лучить оценку по предмету
to atten d classes, lectures, lessons - to get a m a rk fo r a te st - полу­
посещать занятия, лекции, чить оценку за контрольную
уроки to get a m a rk a t th e ex a m in atio n -
to m iss classes, lectures, lessons - получить отметку на экзамене
пропускать занятия, лекции, to m a rk and g rad e a p aper - про­
уроки верить и поставить отметку
to d o /read a subject - изучать за письменную работу
какой-л. предмет to m ak e a bad/glaring/silly m istak e
I read E nglish L ite ra tu re in the сделать грубую/вопиющую/
university. - Я изучаю анг­ глупую ошибку
лийскую литературу в уни­ to pass an ex am сдать экзамен
верситете, to fail an e x a m /a t an ex am про­
to tak e/d o a course o f a subject - валиться на экзамене
изучать курс I ’ve passed two ex am s alread y . -
M y friend is doing a course o f Я уже сдал два экзамена,
P hysics. - Мой друг изучает term - семестр
курс физики, class - занятие
to w rite an essay, a project, a test - in class - на занятиях
писать эссе, курсовую, конт­ a fte r class(es) - после занятий
рольную before class(es) перед занятиями
to ta k e/sit an ex am in atio n /ex am - a le ctu rer - лектор
сдавать экзамен a professor профессор
en tran ce exam s - вступительные a d o c to r - доктор
экзамены D ean - декан
final exam s (finals) выпускные D eputy D ean - заместитель декана
экзамены R e cto r - ректор (университета),
an ex a m in e r - экзаменатор директор (школы)
ex am in ation period - экзамена­ an academ ic tu to r - научный ру­
ционная сессия ководитель
232 Essen tial Course

timetable - расписание ganisation.) - получить стипен­


schedule — расписание дию, получить право на сти­
lunch break - обеденный перерыв пендию (в университетах и не­
to take/make notes of a lecture - которых школах) (Если ст у­
делать записи на лекциях дент получает право на сти­
to be good at English - иметь пендию, в школе ипи универси­
способности к английскому тете, его обучение оплачи­
языку вается школой ипи университе­
to do well in Linguistics - иметь т ом ипи иной организацией.)
успехи в языкознании to apply for a scholarship - про­
to be interested in History - инте­ сить стипендию
ресоваться историей to get a (student) grant (to gel a
to have difficulty/trouble in (doing) sum o f m oney that the govern­
smth - иметь трудности в чем-л. m ent gives to a student fo r edu­
to get/win a scholarship ( I f a stu­ cation) - получать стипендию
dent gets a scholarship to a (грант) (получить сумму денег,
school or university, his studies которую правительство дает
are p a id fo r by the school or ст удент у на образование)
university or by some other or-

T hese words and phrases describe language learning:

a dictionary - словарь spelling mistakes - орфографичес­


an explanatory dictionary - толко­ кие ошибки
вый словарь to pronounce - произносить
vocabulary - словарный запас; pronunciation - произношение
словарь языка (писателя) accent - произношение; акцент
to search one’s vocabulary for the an Irish accent - ирландский ак­
exact word - искать нужное цент
слово в своем словарном to read aloud - читать вслух
запасе to read silently - читать про
an encyclopaedia - энциклопедия себя
a rule - правило to read to oneself - читать про
a grammar rule - грамматическое себя
правило to repeat - повторять
a spelling rule - правило право­ to revise - повторять материал
писания to look a word up in a dictionary
to spell - называть по буквам, смотреть слово в словаре
писать по буквам a list o f words - список слов
English spelling - английское to be on the list — быть в списке
правописание, английская to mean - означать, значить
орфография meaning - значение
Unit VII 233

transcription - транскрипция to master English - овладеть анг­


to transcribe - транскрибировать лийским
to write in transcription - писать to make (good) progress in English -
в транскрипции делать (большие) успехи в
to read books in the original - английском
читать книги в оригинале to get a good command of English -
to listen to (the) tapes - слушать хорош о овладеть английским
записи to learn something by heart/by rote
to watch videofilms - смотреть учить что-л. наизусть
видеофильмы to translate into English перево­
to work in a language laboratory - дить на английский
работать в языковой лабора­ to translate from Russian into
тории English - переводить с рус­
to do exercises orally - делать ского на английский
упражнения устно oral/written translation - устный/
to do exercises in written form/in письменный перевод
writing - делать упражнения
письменно

H ere are a few phrases


if you try to teach E n d ish to a cla ss o f students:

Who"is absent/away/missing from Describe the picture to us. - Опи­


the class? - К ого нет на за­ шите нам картинку.
нятии? Finish it o ff at home. - Закончите
Why are you late? - Почему вы это дома.
опоздали? For your homework do Exercise 7
Where have you been? - Где вы on page 137. - На дом уп­
были? ражнение 7 на странице 137.
What’s your homework for today? - Has the bell gone? - Звонок был?
Какое домаш нее задание на The bell hasn’t gone yet. - Звон­
сегодня? ка еще не было.
What’s the English for лиса ? - Here’s the bell/buzzer. - Вот и
Как по-английски лиса? звонок.
The English for лиса is a fo x . - Let’s start our lesson. - Давайте
По-английски лиса - a fo x . начнем урок.
Open your books at page 44. - От­ Let’s get started. - Давайте нач­
кройте книги на странице 44. нем.
Look at the picture. - Взгляните The lesson/class is over. - Урок/
на картинку. занятие окончен(о).
What can you see in the picture?- Our time is up. - Наше время
Что вы видите на картинке? истекло.
234 Essential Course

EXERCISES

[jj Answer these questions:


1. What year are you in at the university?
2. What department are you in?
3. When did you first start thinking o f entering the Teacher Train­
ing University?
4. A t what age do young people usually enter university in Russia?
5. H ow old will you be when you graduate from the university?
6 . How often do you attend classes?
7. How often do you miss lectures?
8 . Are the classes and lectures at our department compulsory or op­
tional?
9. What subjects are you doing in the first year? What are your fa­
vourite subjects?
10. H ow often do you have to write tests in English? D o you often
get good marks for them?
1 1 . When do students take their examinations during the academic year?
12. D o you always make notes o f the lectures you listen to? What
does it depend on?
13. D o you think all the subjects should be compulsory? What sub­
jects should be optional in your opinion?
14. Are you doing well in English? D o you find it interesting to
study foreign languages? What other foreign languages would you
like to start learning?
15. What technical devices can be used when learning foreign languages?
16. What do you usually do after classes?

0 Translate and transcribe these words:


оканчивать колледж университет лекция
вступительные экзамены студент лектор
предмет (учебный) курс

ЕЕ Correct these false statements using an introductory phrase to express


your disagreement:
1. Students never fail their exams.
2. You are a third-year student.
3. There are three examination periods in the academic year.
4. M ost o f the students o f the Foreign Language Department o f the
Teacher Training University often miss their classes without any
valid reasons.
5. You needn’t take any exams to enter university in Russia.
6 . If you do well in a subject you always fail your exam in it.
Unit VU 235

7. The first-year students o f our department are not interested in


language learning.
8 . There are no breaks between classes and lectures.
9. Students do not take any exams before graduating from university
10. Your answer should be very good if you want to get a bad
mark at the examination.

ED Translate into English:


быть на третьем курсе посещать занятия
конспектировать лекции сделать ошибку
делать успехи в географии способный студент
получить отметку за ответ строгий экзаменатор
поставить отметку на экзамене писать контрольную
зимняя экзаменационная сессия поступать в колледж
интересоваться русской литературой изучать курс истории
декан факультета иностранных языков

ЕЕ Read and then spell the words without consulting a dictionary:


[^eka'demik] ['Gian] [ig'zaemina] ['knlid3 ]
[lirj'gwistiks] [pra'fess] [a'tend] (va'kaebjolari)
['dikjanri] [fell] ['esei]

EE Say a few words ahout how you became a university student. Use the
following phrases:
to apply for admission to ... to take exams
the Department o f Foreign Languages to pass exams
to get a mark in a subject oral/written exams

EE Fill in prepositions or adverbs:


1. You may find the answer ... the back ... the book.
2. The sitting-room ... our client opened ......... the ancient court ...
the old cottage.
3. ... the ground floor was the tutor’s room
4. Give me a good translation ... this sentence.
5. The examination must be postponed ... fresh papers are prepared.
6. I have a new writing table ... a fine surface ... red leather.
7. The lecturer unlocked the outer door and ushered us ... his room.
We stood ... the entrance while Holm es made an examinaiion ...
the carpet.
8 . “ I must explain ... you, Mr. Holm es, that tomorrow is the first
day ... the examination ... the Fortescue Scholarship. I am one ...
the examiners.”
236 Essential Course

9. M y subject is Greek, and the first ... the papers consists ... a
large passage ... Greek translation. This passage is printed ... the
examination paper.
10. What are you interested ...? - I’m interested ... languages.

EE Transcribe all the words and phrases which refer to language learn­
ing. Consult a dictionary if necessary.

EE Read and write down the words without consulting a dictionary or


the textbook:
['ги:1э) ГглЬэ] ['eksasaiz ,bok) I'taipraita]
['кл1э 'pensl] I'steipla) [,desk 'daian] ('bairaol
['lofaonz] ['faolda] [ka'set ri,ko:da]
['fa:pna) I'desk,dro:) [,pnkit 'kaelkjuleita]

ED Answer these questions:


1. What is the name o f the reference book which contains informa­
tion on all branches o f knowledge?
2. D o you ever use any encyclopaedia? What encyclopaedia do you
use?
3. What is a dictionary? H ow many dictionaries have you got?
Have you got an explanatory dictionary?
4. Are you good at English spelling? What do you do to make
your spelling better?
5. What should a student do to improve his pronunciation? What
do you do to have good pronunciation?
6 . D o you ever read aloud in English? How often do you do it?
What for?
7. How often do you work in the language laboratory?
8 . D o you read books in the original? Which is easier for you, to
read books in the original or adapted books?
9. D o you often look words up in a dictionary? What is your fa­
vourite dictionary?
10. How often do you listen to tapes or watch video-films? D oes it
help to improve your listening skills?
11. Which exercises do you prefer, oral or written? Why?
12. D o you find it useful to transcribe English words?
13. Have you got your own method o f memorizing new words? What
is your method?
14. What pieces o f advice can you give to those who only start
learning a foreign language?
15. How long have you been learning English? H ave you made any
progress? How large is your vocabulary?
Unit VII 237

ш Give the English variants for the following:


точилка для карандашей шариковая ручка ластик
тетрадь (для упражнений) писчая бумага пенал
корзина для мусора авторучка пластинка
цветной карандаш наушники кнопка
настольный календарь пишущая машинка папка
ящик письменного стола фломастер дырокол
карманный калькулятор

ш a) Fill in articles where necessary:


1. Before that I had been browsing in ... Danish dictionary over my
toast and tea.
2. Mr. Osmand taught ... French and very occasionally ... Latin at
... modest unambitious filthy little school which I attended. He
had been at ... school for many years but I did not become his
pupil until I was about fourteen.
3. I learned ... French and ... Latin and ... Greek at ... school. Mr.
Osmand taught me ... German in his spare time. I taught myself
... Italian.
4. “How can one tolerate ... language where ... word for "mother”
is little fa th er? ” “ Is it?” "... Esperanto for “mother” is pcitrino"
5. ... cleverest man looks ... fool if he can’t speak ... language
properly.
6 . “What ... language are you going to learn next, Hilary?” "...
Sanskrit. I’ve met ... wonderful Indian girl w ho’ll teach me. I’m
jealous!” “I can’t think why you want to learn ... dead lan­
guage.” “He knows all ... living ones,” said Freddie. “N o , I
don’t. I don’t know ... Chinese or ... Japanese or any Indian or
African or Polynesian language. M y Turkish is shadowy. My
Finnish is poor.”
b) Copy out the names of all the languages mentioned in the exercise,
transcribe them. Then make up and write down sentences according
to the model.
Model: English is spoken in Great Britain, America and som e other
countries.
EE Translate into English:
1. Он сейчас изучает турецкий, так как собирается в Турцию в
командировку.
2. Она только что сдала экзамен по французскому. - Наконец-
то. Я рада за нее.
3. Если вы хотите хорош о овладеть английским, вы должны
ежедневно посещать лингафонный кабинет, читать книги в
оригинале, слушать радио, смотреть видеофильмы.
238 Essential Course

4. Вам следует улучшить произношение. Слушайте пленки, по­


вторяйте упражнения за диктором, читайте вслух.
5. Где мои цветные карандаши? - Ты оставила свой пенал на
скамейке в саду.
6. Что означает это слово? - Возьми толковый словарь и по­
смотри.
7. Как по-английски блокнот? - Блокнот по-английски notepad
или pad.
8. Что вы сказали? Я не расслышал, повторите, пожалуйста.
9. Моя внучка сделала большие успехи в итальянском языке. -
Сколько она его изучает? - С прошлого года.
10. Где стоит энциклопедия? - На второй полке снизу. Пойдем, я
тебе покажу.
11. Ты можешь спросить у него что угодно, он знает всё, он хо­
дячая энциклопедия.
12. А теперь просмотрите вот этот список слов и отметьте те из
них, которые вам не знакомы. Выпишите их в свои словари.
13. Сколько книг в подлиннике ты уже прочитал? - Только две.-
Почему так мало? Ты мало читаешь.
14. Возьмите красные фломастеры и подчеркните те слова, кото­
рые вам нужно протранскрибировать к следующему разу.
15. Я больше люблю делать письменные упражнения, я лучше за­
поминаю слова, когда пишу их.
a) Read this information about one of the most famous dictionaries
known to learners of English, translate it into Russian in writing:
A. S. Hornby’s O xford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary o f Current
English is a dictionary that every English speaker in the world should
have at his elbow. It is compiled especially for foreign students of
English and their teachers.
The history of the O xford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary o f Cur­
rent English began in 1923, when Albert Sidney Hornby, then aged
twenty-four, went to Japan to teach English literature. He found that
his students were reading Shakespeare and Dickens with understand­
ing, but couldn’t speak or write English at all well. He found himself
teaching the language rather than its literature and, over the years,
became more and more interested in the problems of English language
teaching.
The dictionaries his students were using gave direct equivalents to
Japanese words in English, leading to absurd mistakes and misunder­
standings. It seemed to him that a dictionary entirely in English
could teach much more. It could show how words are used, bringing
them to life in a context. It could set out the rules that govern the
order of words in an English sentence. It could explain idioms. Illus­
trations could be used to add an extra dimension to definitions.
Unit VII 239

The dictionary A. S. Hornby compiled was set in type by Japa­


nese printers and the proofs were checked, unfamiliar letter by unfa­
miliar letter, by a Japanese publisher. The first copies were ready just
before 7 December 1941, when Japan attacked the American naval
base at Pearl Harbour, and declared war on the USA and Britain.
When this happened, Mr. Hornby was still working in Tokyo, but he
was such a respected figure in Japan, and held in so much affection
by generations of his Japanese students, that special arrangements
were made by the authorities for him to leave with the American and
British diplomatic staffs.
Later editions of the dictionary were published by the Oxford
University Press: the First Edition in 1948, the Second Edition in
1963, the Third Edition in 1974.
b) Retell the text about Hornby’s dictionary.

TEXT-BASED ACTIVITIES
Before reading the text below make sure that you can pronounce the
following words correctly:

studying ['stAdir}] estimate ['estimeit] condense (kan'dens)


enjoyable [in'd3Diabl] project ['prrx^ekt] record [ri’koid]
basic ['beisikl recreation [,rekri'eijnj particularly (pa'tikjolalil
schedule (Jedju.l] unfamiliar [,Anfa'miIia] bibliography Lbibli'ngrafi]
constantly ['knnstantlr| misspell [,mis'spel] regularly I'regjolali]

HOW T O STUDY
Learning can be interesting and enjoyable. It all depends
on you. This text points out some basic steps towards good
learning.
You should start with positive thinking. Don’t tell yourself
you can’t do it.
Next you should know your goal. Thus you won’t waste
time doing unnecessary work.
Finally, know yourself. Find out which methods of learn­
ing are best for you and use them.
A schedule can save you time and energy. It can keep you
from forgetting important things. With a schedule you won’t
constantly have to decide what to do next. Make out a chart
240 Essential Course

for a full week. Try to estimate how much time you’ll need
for each subject and schedule these times. Weekends are good
for working on longer projects or recreation.
When studying foreign languages, it is important to read
more for ideas than for the meaning of isolated words. Try to
guess at unfamiliar words. When you must look up a word,
put a mark beside it in your vocabulary. Use the list o f
marked words as a study list.
Spelling is one subject where mechanical copying can be a
good thing. Keep a list or stack of cards of the words you
have misspelled and want to learn.
The temptation to overload yourself with facts is strong.
But resist it! What you want are important ideas, not every
scrap of information. Whether taking notes in a lecture or
class or from a book, keep these rules in mind: (1) make notes
in your own words, (2) condense your information, (3) always
record where your notes come from. This last rule is particu­
larly important if you are writing a paper.
Study regularly and stay fit. Staying fit means proper diet
recreation each day, regular exercise and plenty of sleep.
You have some guidelines to follow, but the final results
are up to you. Self-knowledge and self-directions are the real
keys to learning. Knowing how to study will help you in many
ways and not only in college.

EE Give the English for:


П О ЗИ ТИ В Н Ы Й ПОДХОД основные направления, пути
напрасно тратить время написать (контрольную) работу
расписание/график посмотреть слово в словаре
сохранить здоровье/хорошую
физическую форму

ЕЕ Answer these questions:


1. Why is it important to know your goal when you begin studying
a subject?
2. How can a schedule help you in your work?
3. In what aspect of language learning can mechanical copying help
you?
4. What three rules of taking notes are you advised to remember?
5. What can help you to stay fit?
Unit Vll 241

EE C om plete these senten ces w ith o u t lo o k in g in to th e te x t:


1. Studying can be ... .
2. You should start with ... .
3. Learn your best methods for studying and then ... .
4. A schedule can keep you from ... .
5. Weekends are good for ... .
6. In the long run it’ll save you time because ... .
7. When you must look up a word ... .
8. Spelling is one subject ... .
9. What you want are important ideas, not ...
10. ... are the real keys to learning.
I f you couldn’t do the ta s k , re a d the te x t a s m an y tim es as neces­
sa ry and try again.

EE Match the words in the left-hand column with their definitions:


1) enjoyable a) useless
2) point out / b) pleasant
3) basic J c) small piece, fragment
4) unnecessary d) to plan
5) schedule (v) e) in good physical condition
6) constantly f) orderly pile or heap
7) chart g) to write down, to register
8) estimate h) to direct attention to
9) recreation i) sheet giving information in graphic form
10) stack j) especially
11) scrap k) to form an opinion, judgment of smth
12) record (r) 1) continually
13) particularly m) fundamental
14) fit (adj) n) rest, refreshment of mind and body
m Paraphrase the sentences using the vocabulary from the text “ How to
Study”.
1. It all depends on how you deal with the problem.
2. Next you should know what you do.
3. Learn your best methods for studying andthen ensure the condi­
tions for them.
4. It can help you to remember important things.
5. Work out a plan for a full week.
6 Try to decide how much time a weekevery subject will take you.
7. The temptation to learn as many facts as possible is strong. But
don’t give way to it.
8- Whether taking notes in a lecture or class or from a book, re­
member these rules.
242 Essential Course

9. Sum up your information.


10. You have some guidelines to follow, but the final results depend
on you.
m a) Read the paragraph written by a 13-year-old boy and be ready to
answer a few questions.
I began studying French when I was eleven and chose to do
Russian a year later. I can say that I prefer a more traditional,
grammar-based approach to language teaching than I actually receive,
especially in French, which still annoys me because I frequently do
not know why something is correct or incorrect.
I find reading and writing in both French and Russian much
easier than speaking, because there is more time to think! However,
as I found out recently, speaking comes easier with practice. Discus­
sion lessons are very useful for practising speaking in addition to
learning new vocabulary.
b) Answer these questions:
1. Why does the boy prefer a traditional grammar-based approach
to teaching? Which do you prefer, a grammar-based or direct
communication approach? Why?
2. Why does the boy find reading and writing easier than speaking?
Which is easier for yoiO.
c) Speak about your idea of language learning. Follow this outline:
• Say when you started to learn foreign languages and if you
think it is the right age, how many you know and what other
languages you would like to learn.
• Say what method of language learning you prefer, what you find
easy and difficult.
EE Answer these questions:
1. Which of the rules mentioned in the text “How to Study” do
you find useful?
2. Which of them do you usually follow?
3. Have you got any methods of your own that you find particu­
larly helpful?
4. Is studying interesting and enjoyable for you? If not, can you
make it interesting and enjoyable? How?
5. Why is it important to enjoy your work?
EE Think of three rules for working at (a) difficult spelling, (b) pronun­
ciation, (c) unfamiliar words. Begin your recommendations with: First
.... next finally ... .
Unit VII 243

22 U se the te x t “ H ow to S tu d y ” an d sp e a k ab o u t y o u r m eth od of
learn in g . M ention

(a) your schedule,


(b) how you work on vocabulary,
(c) how you take lecture notes and notes from books,
(d) how you set up the conditions for successful work.

ф D O Y O U S P E A K E N G L IS H W E L L ?

a) R ead out those sta te m e n ts w hich a re tru e in y o u r case:

• I hardly have any accent at all, but my grammar isn’t very good.
• I have trouble with English pronunciation.
• I have a hard time understanding people.
• I speak it fluently, but I make mistakes
• I speak it correctly but slowly.
• I speak it very fast but my accent is terrible.
• I understand it very well, but I speak it poorly.
• I speak it very badly.
• My vocabulary is still limited.
• I still have trouble expressing myself.

b) T he phrases above a re w hat a stu d en t m ight say to a te ac h er. A ct ds a


teacher and advise y o u r stu d en ts how to solve his o r her problem s.
Model. If your grammar isn’t good enough Iadvise you to do
more grammar exercises and read more.

EE C om plete the te x t. T h in k o f th re e p ro b lem s you have w ith the E ng­


lish language.
Things are going well for me. I’m learning a lot in myEnglish
class, and I feel better about speaking English now. However I still
have som e problems.

I hope with more practice I can improve my English.

EE Fill in th e b la n k s w ith what or which.


Remember: We use which instead o f what when referring to a defi­
nite group o f alternatives.

I. A : ... languages do you speak?


B; French, English and som e Spanish.
A: ... one do you speak the best?
B: French.
244 Essential Course

2. A: I think I’ll have som e soup. ... kinds do you have?


B: Bean and onion. ... one would you like?
A: Bean, please.
3. A: Excuse me - ... way is the post office?
B: That way.
A: And ... time does it close?
B: At noon on Saturdays.
4. A: ... sports do you like?
B: I like all sports.
A: Y es, but ... ones do you like best?
B: Soccer and tennis.
5. A: ... films have you seen recently?
B: S p y and The Races.
A: ... one did you like better?
B: Spy.

EE a) Com plete with correct prepositions:


be proud ... be jealous ... be satisfied ... dream ...
believe ... be tired ... get nervous ... worry
be afraid ... be excited ... get/be interested ... think

b) Com plete each sentence with a fact about yourself:


1. Sometimes I get tired o f ... . 6. For years I’ve dreamed ...
2 I often think ... . 7. I d on ’t think I’ll ever be sat­
3 I’m afraid ... . isfied ... .
4. I don’t like talking ... . 8 . It’s easy to get jealous ... .
5. For me it isn’t easy to get 9. I have always been interested ...
excited ... . 1 0 . I really believe ... .

EE a) Complete the sentences below.


Remember, to enjoy sm th/doing sm th/yourself
to suggest sm th/doing smth/that smth should be done
to look forward to sm th/doing smth
1. M y friend has always enjoyed ... .
2. ... is the game I enjoy most o f all.
3. The weather was lovely and we all enjoyed ... .
4. D o you really enjoy this kind o f ...?
5. I’ve never enjoyed ... .
6. Look at her, she is thoroughly enjoying
7. I've always been looking forward to ... .
8. N ow that summer is com ing I’m looking forward to ... .
9. I’ve always been fond o f travelling so I’m looking forward to
Unit VII 245

10. Let me suggest ... .


11. All o f a sudden som ebody suggested ... .
12. I have a day o ff tomorrow, so I suggest ... .
13. Harold has a brilliant idea! He suggests ... .
14. This reading room is too crowded, I suggest ... .

b) W rite 10 sentences ab o u t w hat you enjoy an d w hat you look forw ard to.

EE T ra n s la te in to E nglish:
1. Разреш ите мне взглянуть на эт о т б ло кн от. П о-м оем у, он
очень хорош для рисования.
2. П ослуш ай эту песню. Э то новая запи сь популярной группы.
О н а тебе понравится.
3. П рочти вслух это т параграф , а мы послуш аем: у тебя очень
хорош ее произнош ение.
4. М ы всегда с удовольствием слуш аем наш его лектора. Он пре­
красн о зн ает английскую литературу.
5. П осм отри те на эт о т список слов. Вам нуж но вы учить их п ра­
вописание и транскрипцию .
6. П ож алуйста, взгляните на новое расписание для первокурсни­
ков. К аж ется, оно лучш е прежнего.
7. П ослуш айте лекцию , а потом приходите в 14 аудиторию , что­
бы посм отреть видеофильм.
8. О ткрой те книги н а странице 93 и сделайте упраж нение 10
письменно, а упраж нение 11 устно.
9. П очем у ты ничего не делаеш ь, Том? - Я заб ы л д ом а ручку,
линейку и тетрадку. - В озьм и ли сто к бум аги , во т тебе моя
ручка, приступай к делу. - Б о л ьш о е спасибо. - Н е за что.
10. Включите м агнитофон, пожалуйста. М ы будем слушать текст
двенадцатого урока. П риготовьтесь отвечать на вопросы по
тексту.

т a ) T ry to guess th e m ean in g s o f these w ords. If n ecessary lo o k them


up in a d ic tio n a ry . T ra n s la te th e w ords in to R ussian:

1) Verbs:
misinform, misinterpret, misjudge, mislay, mislead, mis­
match, misname, misprint, mispronounce, misquote, mis­
read, misspell, mistake, misunderstand, misuse.
2) Nouns: overcoat, overdose, overpayment, overproduction, overshoe,
overview, overwork.
3) Verbs: overact, overdo, overdress, overload, oversleep.
4) Nouns: self-control, self-confidence, self-defence, self-direction, self-
knowledge, self-sacrifice.
b) M a k e up a sh o rt sto ry o f y o u r own u sin g a s m an y o f th e above
w ords as you can .
246 Essential Course

m Com plete the conversation and act it out:


A: How long have you been in England?
B: Three months.
A: Only three months! Your English is fantastic.
B: Well, I studied English before I came here, but

m a) R ead the follow ing tex t:

Oxford Words
The O xfo rd English D ictionary is well-known to students o f Eng­
lish everywhere. It contains approximately 5,000.000 entries, and there
are thirteen volumes, including a supplement.
Some o f the words are special Oxford words. For example, bull­
dog in Oxford is the name given to University policemen who wear
bowler hats and sometimes patrol the streets at night. They are very
fast runners. Punt is a word often used in both Oxford and Cam­
bridge. It refers to a flat-bottomed boat with sloping ends which is
moved by pushing a long pole in the water.
Oxford University Press, the publishing house which produces the
O xford English Dictionary, has a special department called the “O x­
ford Word and Language Service” (OW LS for short). If you have a
question about the meaning o f a word or its origin, you can write or
telephone, and the staff there will help you.
(From: Spotlight on Britain)
b) S a y if it is tru e o r false:
1. The Oxford English Dictionary is published in London.
2. The Oxford English Dictionary contains about 5 mln entries.
3. In Oxford the word bulldog means a University policeman
4. The word punt means a bowler hat.

c) S p e a k about:
the Oxford English Dictionary (use the text)-,
the dictionary you prefer (describe it),
the kind o f English textbook you could call ideal.

Ш Fill in p rep o sitio n s if n ecessary :


1. Your English is fantastic. Are you equally good ... Spanish?
2. I can boast that I attended all classes ... term.
3. M y friend seldom gets excellent marks ... the exams. The trouble
is that she hasn’t got enough self-m otivation.
4. When a student says: “I have a re-sit” he or she means that
he/she failed ... it.
Unit VII 247

5. The temptation to overload yourself ... facts is strong. But resist... it!
6. I’m ... my first year, I entered ... University only a few months
ago.
7. H ow many subjects are you doing ... your first year?
8 . Please list all the titles ... the bibliography.
9. We have a good club ... politics where we can share our views ...
many interesting issues.
10. It’s advisable to participate ... non-academ ic activities, it can
make your life much more interesting.
11. Let’s meet ... lunch-break and have a cup o f coffee together.
12. Y ou are doing so well ... M aths. If I were you I’d go ... the
University to read sciences.
13. Sorry, it was only a slip ... the tongue.
14. The lecturer ... History speaks so fast that it’s difficult to take
notes ... him.
15. ... the one hand writing an essay takes a lot o f time, ... the
other hand it’s good practice.

Ш a) Read this conversation with a partner:

Conversation
Pete: I just can’t concentrate here in the fiat. Y ou see, Arthur,
I’ve got three essays to do ... three essays behind I am. I
mean ... how can I concentrate with everyone else talking ...
playing records ... practising the guitar? I just can't get pen
to paper.
Arthur: Well Pete ... you could work in the university library.
Pete: I could ... yes ... that’s perfectly true. But ... YO U know ... I
not only need to sit down and write ... I ... I ... need to
TH IN K . And to think I need to be able to wander around
be on my own ... be sort o f free to do as I like. Living here
in this fiat with - how many others? - six ... well there are
constant interruptions, you see. Y ou’re okey ... you live in ...
Arthur: D on ’t you believe it’s as ideal as it seems. I mean people
call on you at all hours ... to borrow a book ... have a chat
... ask for som ething to eat ... N o ... it’s anything but ideal
for a quiet life.
Pete: I can’t just tell the others to shut up. They have a right.
Arthur: You know ... I suggest you look for a small fiat o f your
own. A bed-sitter perhaps. Mind you ... It’ll cost a lot more
than the ... the part o f rent you are paying at the moment.
Pete: Well I must do something.
A rthur Tell you what. Let’s look at the paper. At the ads. There
might be something.
248 Essential Course

b) Now read these statements and decide which of them arc true. Cor­
rect the false ones:
1. Pete and Arthur are students.
2. Pete’s problem is lack o f free time.
3. Arthur advises his friend to borrow books in the university library.
4. Pete doesn’t like to study in the library.
5. Pete has six roommates.
6. Arthur lives at his parents’ place.
7. Arthur suggests his friend renting a small flat o f his own.
8. Pete refuses to rent a flat because it will cost a lot.
9. The friends begin with looking at the ads in the newspaper.

c) Develop the ideas in the sentences below:


1. Pete can’t work properly because ... .
2. Arthur suggests that Pete should work in the university library
because ... .
3. Pete doesn’t like the idea o f using the library because ... .
4. Arthur thinks that living in a hall o f residence is far from ideal
because ... .
5. Arthur thinks that renting a flat o f his own will be a good solu­
tion o f Pete’s problems because ... .
6 . Pete is prepared to rent a flat o f his own because ... .

d) Act out the conversation. Try to show Pete’s irritation and nervousness.

m In the conversation above Arthur says: “ I suggest you look for a


small flat of your own.” O ther ways of saying the same are:
I suggest you looking for a small flat o f your own.
I suggest you should look for a flat o f your own.
I suggest a small flat o f your own.

R em em ber, the infinitive is never used after the verb suggest.


Work in pairs. M ake a conversation about what to do on Sunday.
Som e suggestions Som e objections
go out for dinner T hat’s too expensive,
go for a walk T hat’s too boring,
go to a rock club I don ’t like rock,
go to a museum I don ’t like museums,
go to the pictures I’ve seen this film before,
stay home I’m too tired,
watch TV I’m not hungry.
It’s too late/early.
Unit VII 249

ЕЕ a) Read the paragraph below:


When studying be on the lookout for distractions. Friends who
drop in unexpectedly can just as easily drop out again. If they are
really your friends they’ll understand why you have to be alone with
your work. If there’s som eone around to answer the telephone, let
them. Tell them to take a message. Y ou can call back later when
you are free.
b) Say how you can avoid constant interruptions in your work.
c) Imagine that your friends have dropped in at your place. Explain to
them politely that you are busy. You can Find these phrases useful:
I can’t tell you how sorry I am. This isn’t easy to explain.
I'm sorry to have to say this. I’m ever so sorry.
I’m afraid I’ve got som ething to tell you.

EE a) Use a dictionary and learn how to pronounce the words below


correctly:
efficient catalogue atlas magazine microfilm
fiction encyclopedia newspaper record librarian

b) Now read the paragraph below:


Learning to use your own or college library can make your
studying more interesting as well as more efficient. Y ou certainly
know the main book divisions o f fiction and non-fiction and the way
to use a card catalogue. M ost modern libraries also have a reference
section that has dictionaries, encyclopedias, atlases. A good library is
made up o f more than just books. Y o u ’ll be able to find the latest
newspapers and magazines - also such helpful learning aids as tapes,
records, microfilms and film strips. The librarian can not only help
you find what you want, but can make suggestions on other things
you might not know about.

c) Find in the text the English equivalents for the following:


художественная литература качественный диафильм
отдел справочной литературы учебные пособия словари

d) Answer these questions:


1. What library (libraries) do you use?
2. What is the library like?
3. What sections can you find there?
4. What reference materials are there in this library?
5. Are there any learning aids in it?
6. D o you know how to use the catalogue?
250 Essential Course

7. Can computers be used in a library? How?


8 . How many librarians work in your library?
9. D o they help you to find or choose what you want?
e) Describe your local library in every possible detail.
f) Describe a good modern university or college library.
g) Act as a guide and show your college library to a group of first-
year students. Let the rest of the group ask you all sorts of ques­
tions no m atter how unexpected they can be.

m Describe your university or college. You may find these words uscful:

... is situated ... D ean’s office games field building


hall(s) o f residence sports facilities library cafe
gymnasium (gym) laboratories sta ff room

m Speak about the things you arc planning to do by the end of your
first year at the university. Use the expressions from both columns:

I think I’ll ... develop the skill o f making notes


I’m certainly going to ... learn to manage my own finances
I may well ... gain experience that will last me a lifetime
I suppose I might ... do a lot o f social work
I’m hoping to ... start learning another foreign language
There’s a chance I’ll ... get married

m Give several pieces of advice to a student who is just beginning his


university course. Use the following phrases:
If I were you, I’d ... y o u ’d better ...
why don’t you ... have you ever thought o f

Model: It is advisable to attend lectures.

m What makes a good student?

a) Complete this list of qualities making a good student:

1) initiative 6) adaptability
2) hard work 7) the ability to work independently
3) sense o f humour 8 )..............
4) plenty o f self-motivation 9)..............
5) responsibility 10) ............ , etc.
b) And now rearrange the list putting all the items in the order of their
priority. Discuss your lists.

m Make up a list of qualities that make a good lecturer. Discuss your lists.
т Look at the list below and think of what a student may say about his or
her strong and weak points, likes and dislikes. Complete the sentences:
I have always liked ... I don’t like ...
I am good at ... I have trouble ...
I’m looking forward to ... I have a hard time ...

m a) Read the text aloud and translate it into Russian:


I went to the schoolroom . A fa in t sm ell o f polish hung in the
air. It looked like a schoolroom . There was a large window at one
end and heavy dark red serge curtains at them; there was a big fire­
place with a marble mantelpiece on which stood a plain carriage-type
clock. There were pictures around the room , scenes fr o m the Bible.
There were several cupboards and a long table rather scratched and
ink-stained with a bench on one side and a high dignified chair at
the head o f it, presumably for the teacher. A nd there were several
high-backed chairs about the room. A typical schoolroom , I thought.
(From: The Spring o f the Tiger by Victoria Halt)
b) What do you think is a typical schoolroom? Describe it using the
italicized words from the text above.
c) Speak about an ideal room for modern language learning. Mention
furniture, facilities for language learning and teaching, say what
makes the room attractive.

EE Match the words below with pictures,


pin
pencil sharpener
desk diary
252 E ssential Course

E3 a) Say what office materials you usually use and where you keep them.

b) Describe your desk.

c) Say what you do to discipline your desk. You may find these words
helpful:
throw away - litter straighten - papers
dust - desk top put away - unused books
sharpen - pencils and notebooks

23 Suppose you are an English teacher. Explain to your student what he


or she needs for the lesson and how to organize the desk for it.
Model: I want you to have som e coloured pencils today because we
are going to draw pictures. Put them on the left-hand side
o f your desk.

a) Cassette recorders, tape-recorders and record players are widely


used at the English lesson. Learn the basic vocabulary essential for
this kind of classroom activity:
I have brought the wrong cassette. Turn it on/off.
The recorder isn’t working properly. Switch it on/off.
Let me just find the beginning again. Is it clear enough?
Put this plug in the socket over there. Sorry about the delay.
Could you plug the recorder in, please? Unplug the recorder
Wail a second, I’ll just rewind the tape. Is the volume all right?
Try to follow what the actors are saying. Turn the volume up/down.
First of all just listen. D on ’t say anything. All together, after the
Here goes the text, listen to it. tape.
There seems to be something wrong with We’ll stop here for a mo-
the recorder. ment.

b) Choose a suitable record or cassette and play it at the lesson. Make


sure that you communicate with the class. Use the vocabulary above.

EE a) Read the conversation:


Two y e a rs ago Tom taught English in Paris H e taught at an in­
stitute fo r adult learners. One evening he went to another institute to
give юте o ra l examinations.

Tom : Y ou speak English very well. I’m going to give you a


very good mark. D o n ’t worry.
Student (g irl): Thank you very much.
Tom : N ot at all. Oh, when you go out, please tell the next
student to come in.
I
Unit VII 253

Student: Certainly. G ood-bye. (Goes out, closing door. Short pause.


Another person comes in.)
Woman: Excuse me. Are you Mr. Atkins?
Tom: Yes. Y ou don’t know me, o f course. I don’t teach here. I
just give oral exam inations here now and then. D on ’t be
nervous.
Woman: Nervous? Who? Me?
Tom: N ow , sit down, please. I’m going to ask you a few ques­
tions. Then we are going to have a short conversation in
English. D o you understand?
Woman: Yes, o f course, I do. But may I ask Y O U som ething first?
Tom: After the examination, please. Just concentrate on MY ques­
tions for the moment. First o f all, why are you learning
English?
Woman: Why am I learning English?
Tom: Yes. I mean what are you going to do with it? Are you
going to be a teacher o f English? Or what?
Woman: Please stop just a second. I really M U ST ask you som e­
thing first.
Tom: (irritated) Very well. If you insist.
Woman: Would you like a cup o f coffee?
Tom: Pardon? What did you say?
Woman: Y ou see, I’m English too. I’m one o f the teachers hdre.
I came to ask you if you would like a cup o f coffee.
(From: Kernel Lessons)
b) Work in threes. Act out the conversation for the rest of the group.
Try to be as artistic as you can. Decide among you whose presenta­
tion was the best.

Translate from Russian into English:


1. - Я думаю, что лучший способ изучения языка - слушать за­
писи на языке и смотреть видеофильмы. - А я предпочитаю
читать книги в оригинале и смотреть значения незнакомых
слов в словаре. А вообще, нет ничего лучше хорошего учеб­
ника.
2. - Что можно купить в магазине канцелярских товаров? -
Очень многое. Например, ручки, карандаши, ластики, линейки,
папки, скрепки, тетради и блокноты, писчую бумагу.
3. - Что ты будешь делать, когда окончишь университет? - Не
знаю точно, но думаю, что буду школьным учителем. Меня
интересуют педагогика и психология.
4. - Вам было трудно сдавать вступительные экзамены? - Вы
знаете, я легко сдал два экзамена, но едва не провалился на
сочинении.
254 Essential Course

5. - Ты бы хотел участвовать во внеаудиторной работе? - К о­


нечно, я уже вступил в спортивный клуб и собираюсь занять­
ся научной работой.
6 . - У нас в университете отличная библиотека. Я часто рабо­
таю в читальном зале. - Правда? А справочная литература
там есть? Я люблю иметь под рукой словари и энциклопедии.

ш An English teacher should be able to control his students’ activity in


good English. Why not start learning how to do it now?
a) Act as a teacher. Ask one of the students to do several sums on the
blackboard and the rest of the group to do the same in their note­
books. Use these phrases:
- Come out to the blackboard, please.
- Everyone, look at the blackboard.
- Write these sums on the blackboard.
- Can you see anything wrong with the sums?
- Try to keep your writing straight.
- Copy the sums down into your notebooks.
- Move to one side so that we can all see.
- Clean the board, please. Use the duster/sponge.
- Please, rub this off/out.
- Go back to your seat.
Models for the sums:
Form al Inform al
Add 10 to 10 equals 20 (or 10 add 10). 1 0 plus 1 0 is 2 0 .
Subtract 10 from 30 equals 20. 30 take away 10 is 20.
Multiply 2 by 12 equals 24. 2 times 12 is 24.
Divide 40 by 20 equals 2. 40 divided by 20 is 2.

b) Act as a teacher and get your students to write the dictation below
(with their textbooks closed). You may need these phrases: capitalize
the word-, make a new paragraph; put a full stop (or comma, dash,
question mark, quotation marks).

Dictation
The first roses are just coming into bloom in our garden. I have
a small private plan. My teacher is slim and blonde and b lu e -e y e d
and has quite won my heart. I pick three pink roses for her and
carry them to school, placing them on her desk. My heart pounds in
eager anticipation o f the moment when she will discover that I have
brought them to her.
Our little class gather round her. A lm ost fainting with excite­
ment, I watch her pick up the roses. “A nd who brought me these
Unit VII 255

lovely roses?” she asks, gazing out over her little group I am just
about to speak, when another little girl jum ps up and calmly claims
the glory. I am so astonished and shocked, that I simply close my
mouth and sit down. I never tell anyone about it.
(From: Philadelphia Rebel: the Education o f a Bourgeois by Clara Jaeger}

When you are through with the dictation, ask the students to ex­
change notebooks with one another and check each other’s works.

m Use the vocabulary o f Unit VII and speak about:


1. The most difficult exam you have ever had to take.
2. Your first impressions o f the university/collegc.
3. The subjects you are learning at university or college and what
you think o f them.
4. Your idea o f a very good university.
5. The future o f English language learning in Russia.

SP EAKIN G PRACTICE
Before reading the dialogue below m ake sure that yo u can pronounce
the follow ing words correctly:

Wales [weilz] Europe ['joarapj Denmark ['denma:k]


Welsh [weljl Romans ['raomanzl Vikings I'vaikirjz]
Angles ['aerjglzl Ireland ['aialandl Gaelic 1'geihk]
Irish 1'airijl Saxons ['saeksnz] the Netherlands [3a 'nedalandz]
Celts [kelts] Germany |'d3 3 :manij accent ('aeksant]
Celtic ['keltikj Germanic [d3 a'maenik] dialect ['dataiaktl

WHO ARE T H E BRITISH


M an y foreign ers say E n g la n d an d E n g lish w hen th ey m ean
B rita in , or the U K and B ritish . T h is is very a n n o y in g for th e 5
m illion p eo p le w h o live in S c o tla n d , th e 2 . 8 m illion in W ales
and 1.5 m illion in N o rth ern Ireland , w h o are certainly not
E nglish. (46 m illion p e o p le live in E n g la n d .) H ovvever, th e p e o ­
p le from S c o tla n d , W ales, N o r th e r n Ireland and E n glan d are
all British.
W hat m ak es th e S c o ttish , W elsh , E n glish and N orth ern
Irish different from each other? A b o u t 2 ,0 0 0 years a g o the
British Isles w ere in h a b ited by th e C elts w h o origin ally cam e
256 Essential Course

from co n tin en ta l E u ro p e. D u r in g th e next 1,000 years there


w ere m a n y in v a sio n s. T h e R o m a n s c a m e fro m Italy in A D 43
an d , in c a llin g th e co u n try B r ita n n ia , g a v e B ritain its nam e.
T h e A n g le s a n d S a x o n s ca m e from G e r m a n y , D en m ark and
th e N e th e r la n d s in th e 5th cen tu ry, and E n g la n d gets its nam e
from th is in v a sio n (A n g le -la n d ). T h e V ik in gs arrived from
D en m ark a n d N o r w a y th r o u g h o u t th e 9th cen tu ry, and in 1066
(th e o n e d a te in h isto ry w hich every B ritish sc h o o lc h ild k n ow s)
th e N o r m a n s in va d ed from F ran ce. T h e se in v a sio n s d rove the
C elts in to w h at is n o w W ales a n d S c o tla n d , an d they re­
m a in ed , o f co u rse, in Ireland. T h e E n g lish , o n th e o th er h and,
are th e d escen d a n ts o f all th e in v a d ers, but are m ore A n g lo -
S a x o n th a n a n y th in g else. T h ese v a rio u s o rig in s exp lain m any
o f th e differen ces to b e fo u n d b etw een E n g la n d , W ales, S c o t­
lan d an d Ireland - d ifferen ces in e d u c a tio n , religion and the
legal sy stem s, b ut m ost o b v io u s ly , in lan g u a g e.
T h e C elts s p o k e C eltic w hich su rv iv es to d a y in th e form o f
W elsh , S co ttish G a e lic a n d Irish G a elic. L ess th a n a quarter o f
all W elsh p e o p le sp eak W elsh. S c o ttish G a e lic an d Irish G aelic
are still sp o k e n , a lth o u g h th ey h a v e su ffered m o re th an W elsh
from the spread o f E nglish. H o w e v e r , all th e three languages
are n o w o fficia lly e n co u ra g ed a n d ta u g h t in sch o o ls.
E nglish d ev elo p ed from A n g lo -S a x o n a n d is a G erm anic
la n gu age. H o w e v e r , all the in v a d in g p e o p le s, particularly the
N o r m a n F ren ch , in flu en ced th e E nglish la n g u a g e and you can
fin d m a n y w ord s in E n glish w hich are French in origin.
N o w a d a y s all W elsh , S co ttish an d Irish p e o p le sp eak English
(even if th ey sp eak th eir o w n la n g u a g e as w ell), but all th e
co u n tries h a v e th eir o w n sp ecial a ccen ts a n d d ia lects, an d their
p e o p le are easily reco g n iza b le as s o o n as th ey speak. O cc a sio n ­
a lly , p e o p le from th e fo u r co u n tries in th e U K h ave d ifficu lty
in u n d ersta n d in g o n e a n o th er b eca u se o f th ese different accents.
A sou th ern E n glish accen t is gen erally a ccep ted to b e the m ost
easily u n d e r sto o d , an d is th e accen t u su a lly tau gh t to foreigners.
S3 Answer these questions:
1. What four parts does the U K consist of?
2. What languages are spoken in the UK?
3. What is the origin o f the word B ritain?
4. From what countries did the invaders com e to Britain?
5. Why can it be difficult for people from different countries o f the
U K to understand each other?
т Find in the text the English equivalents for the Following:
a) Британские острова были населены кельтами
b) единственная историческая дата, которую знают все британ­
ские школьники
c) эти вторжения оттеснили кельтов в те части страны, где сей­
час находятся Уэльс и Шотландия
d) англичане являются потомками всех этих завоевателей
e) различия в образовании, религии и законодательных системах
и, что наиболее очевидно, в языке
f) хотя они менее, чем валлийский, пострадали от распростране­
ния английского языка
g) как бы то ни было, официальная политика способствует раз­
витию всех трех языков
h) все они преподаются в школах
i) южно-английский акцент обычно считается самым легким для
понимания

ГП Try to guess the meanings of the words in the left-hand column and
match them with the definitions in the right-hand column:

1) annoying a) entering a country with armed forces


2) origin b) sometimes, not often
c) way o f pronouncing *
3) originally d) to continue to live
4) -invasion e) which makes you angry and irritated
5)-survive f)which can be recognized
6) particularly g) at the beginning or from the beginning
7) accent specially
h) variety o f a language spoken in a par­
8) dialect
ticular area
9) recognizable i) to take what is offered
10) occasionally j) beginning, where som eone comes from
11) accept k) especially

m Remember what these figures stand for. If necessary consult the text.
5 million people 46 million people the year 1066
2.8 million people 2,000 years the year A D 43
1.5 million people

m Fill in the missing words:


1. This is very ... for 5 million people w ho live in ..., the 2.8 mil­
lion in ... and 1.5 million in ... who are certainly not ... .
2. What makes the .......... ... and Northern ... different from each ...?
258 Essential Course

3. About 2,000 years ago the British Isles were ... by the ... who
originally came from ... Europe.
4. During the next 1,000 years there were many ... .
5. The Vikings ... came from ... and N orw ay throughout the 9th ... .
6 . The English, on the other hand, are the descendants o f all the ...,
but are more ........ than anything else.
7. The Celts spoke ... which ... today in the form o f Welsh, Scottish
... and ... Gaelic.
8 . However, all three ... are now officially ... and taught in ...
9. English developed from ... and is a ... language.
10. But all the countries have their own special ... and ..., and other
people are easily ... as soon as they ... .
11. Occasionally, people from the four ... in the UK have difficulty
in ... one ... because o f these different ... .
12. A ... English accent is generally ... to be the most ... understood,
and is the accent usually ... to foreigners.

m Work in pairs and ask your partner:


• if England and English mean the same as Britain and British.
• what you can call all the people living in England, Wales, Scot­
land and Northern Ireland.
• who inhabited the British Isles 2,000 years ago.
• if the Celts originally lived on the British Isles.
• who invaded the British Isles in the 1st, 5th, 9th and 11th centuries.
• where the Norm ans arrived from.
• what happened to the Celts as the result o f the invasions.
• if Celtic survives today.
• if many people speak Welsh and Gaelic today.
• if Welsh and Gaelic are taught nowadays.
• to what language group English belongs.
• what language influenced English m ost o f all.
• how you can recognize people from different countries in the UK.
• what accent is usually taught to foreigners.

Ш Fill in the blanks with suitable words:


1. The English live in ... and speak ... .
2. ... live in Scotland and speak English and ... .
3. The Irish live in ... and speak ... .
4. ... in Wales and speak ... and ... .
5. The Celts lived on the British Isles and spoke ... .
6. The Romans lived in Italy and spoke ... .
7. ... live in Germany and speak ... .
8. The Danish live in ... and speak Danish.
9. ... live in the Netherlands and speak ... .
Unit VII 259

Г71 Retell the text "Who Are the British?” in detail.

ГП Translate into English:


1. Официальное название страны - Объединенное Королевство
Великобритании и Северной Ирландии.
2. Некоторые иностранцы думают, что в Британии живут только
англичане.
3. Англичане - это потомки англов и саксов, вторгшихся на
Британские острова в V веке.
4. Различия в культуре и языке англичан, ирландцев, шотландцев
и валлийцев очевидны. И ногда им трудно понять друг друга
из-за разницы в акцентах.
5. 1066 год был годом нашествия нормандцев. Эту дату знают
все британские школьники.
6 . Гаэльский язык сохранился лишь в некоторых частях страны.
На нем говорят в Ш отландии, Уэльсе и Ирландии.

ш REMEMBER the difference between the following pairs of words:

Dictionary (я) f-ies): a book that Vocabulary (n) f-ies):


gives a list words in alpha- I. total number o f words that
betical order, with their pro- make up a language;
nunciations, meanings or som e 2 . words known to a person or
■other information which de- used in a particular book,
-pends upon the type o f a subject, etc.
dictionary;

Copy (r) f-ied. -ving): to make a Rewrite (v) (wrote, written): to


copy o f something; write again in a different way;

Learn (r) (learnt or learned): to Study (v) (-ied. -vine): a) to


gain knowledge o f som ething spend time in learning one or
or skill in something; more subjects; b) to examine
carefully;

m Choose the right word from those in brackets:


1. H ow many English words do students usually (learn/study) during
their first year at university?
2. Your work looks so untidy: could you (copy Irewrite) it?
3. I recently bought a very good pocket (dictionary/vocabulary), it
contains about 125,000 entries.
4. I’ll be free in a moment when I finish (copying/rewriting) this text
into my notebook.
260 Essential Course

5. Let’s (study/learn) the problem thoroughly and see why you ’re not
doing well in French.
6 . If you don’t (learn/study) your topical (dictionary/vocabulary) you
w on’t be able to speak about language learning.
7. H e had to (copyI rewrite) the poem several times before he got
what he wanted.
8 . We are going to sing the song at the concert, could you, please,
(learnlstudy) the words?
9. How long have you been (learning/studying) English?
10. Your (dictionary/vocabulary) is still rather limited. W hy don’t you
try to read more?

a) Complete the columns of adjectives and the corresponding adverbs:

certain - - ob
originally official
occasionally radical
particular easily
usually

b) Use the adverbs in sentences of your own.

23 a) Find in the text “Who Are the British?” and read out the five
sentences in which the Passive Voice is used.

b) Complete these sentences:


1. ... was inhabited by Germanic tribes.
2. ... were inhabited by the Celts.
3. ... was inhabited by Slavic tribes.
4. ... is spoken in Australia.
5. ... is spoken in Finland.
6. ... are spoken in Canada.
7. ... spoken in Switzerland.
8. Latin is a dead language now but once it was spoken in ...
9. Old English was spoken in ... .
10. Old Greek was spoken in ... .
11. ... is taught in schools.
12. ... are taught in schools.
13. ... is not taught in schools.
14. ... has never been taught in schools.
15. ... will sbme day be taught in schools.
16. ... is easier understood by foreigners than the Scottish accent.
17. Written English is easier understood than ... .
18. English is wider spread in the world than ... .
Unit VI/ 261

ЕЕ Practise the vocabulary of the text “Who Are the British?”

a) Think of different phrases in reply to which your partner could say:


“How (very) annoying Г
M odel: - M y little brother has broken my watch.
- Oh! H ow annoying!

b) Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of learning a foreign lan­


guage (being a university student; having a big family; living in the
country; travelling by train, etc.). Use the phrases: on the one hand
and on the other hand.

c) Complete these sentences:


1. When we say Gaelic we mean ... .
2. When we say Cells we mean ... .
3. When we say Vikings we mean ... .
4. ... we mean a group o f islands in the north-west o f Europe.
5. ... we mean 5 million people who mostly live in Scotland.
6. ... we mean the official language spoken in the UK.

d) Say what influenced your choice of the university or college; your


career.

e) Paraphrase the sentences using the word remain and the expression it
>emains to he seen:
1. If it rains we’ll stay at home and watch TV.
2. Wait here till I come and collect you.
3. - I ’m sure we’re going to have a hot summer this year. - W e’ll
see.
4. In England grass is green all the year round.
5. - She’ll make a wonderful wife. - W e’ll see in due course.
6 . Everyone kept silent. N o one wanted to answer the question.

EE Ask each other questions as in the model, use the phrases below.
Model: Do/did you have any difficulty/trouble (in) learning English?
Phrases:
getting here; understanding spoken English;
getting a membership card in the library; learning English pronunciation;
reading English books in the original; keeping your desk tidy;
taking lecture notes; using a pocket calculator;
passing your term examinations; operating your tape-recorder,
buying a good dictionary;
262 Essential Course

EE a) Complete the table and write all the words in transcription.


Country Nationality Major language

?.................. Argentine Spanish


?.................. Australian English
Austria Austrian
Belgium French; Flemish
?.................... Brazilian Portuguese
Canada ....?...
Chile Chilean ....?...
?............................................. Chin
Egypt Egyptian
Finland ....?...
?............................................ Germ
Greece Greek
The Netherlands Dutch
?..... Hungarian
?.................... Indian Hindi
Ireland English
?..... Israeli Hebrew; Arabic
Italy ....?...
?................... Japanese ....?...
Korea ....?....
M exico Spanish
?.... Norwegian Norwegian
?.... ....?.... Polish
Portugal Portuguese
?.... Spanish
?.... Swedish
?.... Swiss French; German
Turkey ....?......

b) Work in pairs.Talk about countries and languages as in the models:


1) - Could you tell me what language they speak in Canada?
- Yes, English and French.

2) - Could you tell me in what country Hungarian is spoken?


- Yes, in Hungary.

EE a) Read the followingsentences paying special attention to the use of


articles with geographicalnames andnames of nationalities:
1. I come from Holland, but I like England very much.
2. Sometimes there was a hot rice dish - Charles had a special
recipe he’d got in the Far East - but that was for winter.
Unit VII 263

3. My brother went back to A frica on an expedition.


4. He came into Rashid Street which is the main street o f Baghdad,
running through it for about four miles, parallel with the river
Tigris.
5. He was a man who travelled a lot. He had talked about the A r­
gentine and Canada and Uganda and the U SA . She had an idea
that he was actually an A m erican or a Canadian, though he had
hardly any accent.
6 . They grew oranges, started chicken farms, went as jackaroos to
Australian stations, got jobs with meat-freezing concerns in New
Zealand.
7. I’ve been in the running for President in a S o u th Am erican Republic.
8 . “Can you tell me, Miss Lemon, what exactly is a Spanish chest?’
“I suppose, Mr. Poirot, that it is a chest that comes originally
from Spain."
9. If there is a fault about the British it is that they’re inclined to
be a bit stand-offish until they’ve known you a couple o f years.
10. “Yes, he is an Irishm an.” “From what part o f IrelancP."
11. He had a good friend in E gypt from whom he could borrow.
12. N o , the man is not a Jap. He is an Italian.
13. Bella had married a foreigner - and not only a foreigner, but a
Greek. In Miss Arundell’s prejudiced mind a Greek was almost as
bad as cm Argentine or a Turk.
14. I’m getting married - to a French girl.
15. Elsa, a German girl, was with her.
16. Parsons looked at the little Belgian pityingly.
17. A n Englishman travelling in his car from Persia to Iraq was shot
dead - supposedly by bandits.
18. In the door appeared an Arab who uttered some incomprehensi­
ble remarks in Arabic.
19. On her head she wore a fantastic Chinese hat o f jade-green card­
board.
20. My father had been a minor diplom at, so as a child I had lived
in France, Turkey and Paraguay and learnt their respective
tongues.

b) Copy out all the italicized words and transcribe them.

Ш Translate into English paying special attention to adjectives:


а) голландские тюльпаны греческий алфавит
голландский картофель греческие персики
голландский сыр датский сказочник
летучий голландец датские галеты
швейцарский сыр кубинский сахар
264 Essential Course

швейцарский шоколад кубинские лимоны


французские духи римские каникулы
немецкие книги римские завоеватели
японские зонтики римские цифры
польские костюмы венгерские босоножки
американская литература румынские плащи
канадские коньки чешские карандаши
шведские газеты и журналы русская икра
испанские художники русский балет
испанские музеи французское шампанское
итальянские апельсины английская поэзия

b ) 1. Давайте спросим вот того японца, когда мы сможем уви­


деть его начальника.
2. Это китайские туфли? Я , пожалуй, их куплю. М не нравится
фасон.
3. Его мать - валлийка, отец - англичанин, значит, все они
британцы.
4. Дайте мне двести граммов швейцарского сы ра.-П ож алуйста.
5. Норвежцы живут в Норвегии и говорят по-норвежски.
6. Британцы живут на Британских островах.
7. Шотландцы живут в Ш отландии. Ш отландия находится к
северу от Англии.
8. Датчане живут в Дании.
9. Вы любите голландский сыр? - Д а, я предпочитаю его
швейцарскому.
10. Один из его дальних родственников живет в Японии.
11. В группе пять испанцев и зри итальянца.
12. Эта девушка живет в Польше, но она сама болгарка, а ее
муж поляк.
13. Кто вы по национальности? - Венгерка.
14. Они ирландцы, правда? - Нет, валлийцы.
15. В их группе есть француз. Он совсем не умеет говорить
по-английски.

т a) Remember the following phrases:


in the North/South/West/East - на севереЛоге/западе/востоке
to the North/South/West/East o f ... - на север/юг/запад/восток ...

b) Fill in prepositions:
1. Where is the Black Sea situated: ... the North or ... the South? -
The Black Sea is situated ... the South ... Russia.
2. Baikal, the deepest lake ... the world, is ... the East ... our country.
3. M oscow is situated ... the middle ... the European part ... Russia.
Unit VII 265

4. ... which country is Warsaw the capital? - Warsaw is the capital


... Poland.
5. What is the name ... the sea ... England and France? - It’s the
English Channel.
6 . St. Petersburg is situated ... the north-west ... M oscow.
7. Our summer cottage is .. the south-west ... the district we live ... .
8 . The needle ... the compass always points ... the North.
9. W e’ve lost our way, I believe. Let’s go ... the South. My aunt’s
house is there.
10. The sun rises ... the East and sets ... the West.

m Read the jokes and retell them in indirect speech.


- What time do you get up in summer?
- As soon as the first ray o f the sun comes into my room.
- Isn’t that rather early?
- N o , my room faces West.
** •

- The harder it rains, the better I like it.


- Y ou must be an optimist.
- N o , I’m an umbrella seller.
* * *

Father: I promised to buy you a car if you passed your examina­


tion, and you have failed. What were you doing last term?
Son: I was learning to drive a car.

Johnny: Papa, would you be glad if I saved a dollar for you?


Papa: Naturally, my son.
Johnny: Well, I have saved one for you. Y ou said if I brought a good
mark this week, you would give me a dollar; and I haven’t
brought one.
* * *

An inspector Tell me, my little friend, how much do five and one
in a class: make?
No answer.
The inspector: Suppose I give you five rabbits, and then another
rabbit, how many rabbits will you have?
The child: Seven.
The inspector: Seven?! H ow do you make that out?
The child: I have one rabbit at hom e already.
266 Essential Coarse

m a) Use the degrees of comparison of the adjectives in brackets.


1. The Caspian Sea is (large) lake in the world.
2. Lake Superior is (sm all) than the Caspian Sea.
3. Is the N ile (long) river in the world?
4. The Am azon is (short) than the N ile.
5. Everest is (high) m ountain both in A sia and in the whole
world.
6. Kilimanjaro is more than 250 metres (high) than Elbrus.
7. The Caribbean Sea is (sm all) than the Mediterranean Sea.
8. Paris is (sm all) than N ew York.
9. The Amur is (long) than the Lena.
10. lie is (bright) student in the group.
11. Y ou may find that cherry-tree in (far) corner o f the orchard.
12. W e wish you (far) success.
13. I think you are (great) liar I know.
14. You really are (bad) driver in the world.
15. The pavilion was at the side o f the pool (far) from the house.
16. Today was (terrible) day o f my life.

b) M ake up a short talk using adjectives in their degrees of comparison.

ED a) Read the text, look up all the unfamiliar words, make sure that
you know how to pronounce the following:

Bible to convey evolution M alayo-Polynesian


N oah signal to evolve Turco-Tatar
Babel comparable spontaneous Basque
Sanskrit Finno-Ugrian Burmese

The Origin of Language

According to the Bible sto ry the descendants o f Noah, who built


the Tower o f Babel wanted to reach heaven. B ut G od did not want
the tower to be built a nd caused the people to speak different lan­
guages so they could not understand each other, hence the tower was
never completed.

When we speak o f languages, we are referring to a system o f


sounds used by human beings to convey ideas from one person to
another. O f course, animals also use sounds to transmit signals to
each other, but, so far as we know, no anim als can produce any­
thing com parable to human speech.
M an, it seems, has been able to speak from very early times,
but there must have been a beginning, a tim e when speech was
Unit VII 267

primitive indeed. Various ideas have been put forward to explain


the origin o f speech. Som e people accepting the ideas o f Charles
Darwin about the evolution o f life, thought that language, too, had
evolved in a similar way. Yet others decided that it had been a
spontaneous thing, arising from m an’s intelligence. T he first lan­
guage must have com e when early man felt the need to make him­
self understood.
Languages have been classified by language scholars, or phi­
lologists, into ten main fam ilies, so grouped because the languages
in each are related to each other like members o f a family. The
first o f these is the great Indo-European family which includes such
languages as English, Russian, Greek and Sanskrit.
Second is the Finno-U grian fam ily to which Hungarian and
Finnish belong. Thirdly, there is the Sem itic fam ily, including He­
brew and Arabic, and fourthly, the H am itic fam ily, containing the
Berber language spoken by people in parts o f N orth Africa.
The fifth family is the Indo-C hinese, including Chinese and
Burmese, the sixth is M alayo-Polynesian, which includes M alay and
M aori, the seventh, Turco-Tatar contains Turkish, the eighth is
Dravidian, including languages spoken by peoples o f southern India,
and the ninth is the Bantu fam ily, which includes the tongues sp o­
ken by the N egro people o f Africa.
Strictly speaking, there is no tenth fam ily, but there are st>me
hundred or so other languages taken together which do not fall
into any group or family at all, such as Japanese, Basque, and the
Indian tongues o f America.
(From: Collins Children’s Encyclopedia o f the Arts o f the World)

b) Answer these questions. Check your answers with the help of the text.
1. What is language?
2. What theories explain the origin o f speech?
3. Why did the first language appear?
4. How many language families do philologists single out?
5. What languages belong to the same group?
6. Which is the largest group?
7. Can you remember to what families Turkish, Hungarian, Arabic,
Maori, Japanese, Russian and Chinese belong?

m Translate into English:


1. М ногие иностранцы не знаю т разницы между словами А н г ­
лия и Брит ания, английский и брит анский.
2. Д о открытия Америки этот континент был населен индей­
скими племенами.
268 Essential Course

3. Вторжение нормандцев оказало очень больш ое влияние на


английский язык. М ногие слова в современном английском
языке имеют французское происхождение.
4. Диалекты, на которых говорят в разных частях Великобри­
тании, сильно различаются в произнош ении и лексике.
5. Сегодня все ирландцы, шотландцы и валлийцы говорят по-
английски, но их можно узнать по акценту.
6 . Родным языкам обучаю т в школах и пользование этими
языками поощряется.
7. Как английский, так и русский принадлежат к индоевропей­
ской группе языков.
8 . Она умеет говорить по-венгерски. - Неужели? Э тот язык -
один из самых трудных. Он принадлежит к финно-угорской
группе.
9. Язык - средство общения. Чем больш е языков вы знаете,
тем лучше вы способны понять других людей.
10. Я только что начала учить японский язык. П ока что я сде­
лала небольшие успехи.

т a) Read the text. Find some more information about the British Li­
brary. Don’t forget to find out where it is situated, when it was
opened, what it is famous for, what well-known people worked there.

The British Library


The British Library has several departments. The Department
o f Printed Books is the largest. It contains works alm ost in all lan­
guages and also maps, musical scores and postage stamps.
The collections o f early printed books, o f old English books
and o f books in all European languages m ake it one o f the finest
libraries in the world. It is not, however, only a collection, it is
also a rapidly growing modern library.
N ow , as in the past, the collections are not only in many lan­
guages, but also cover all fields o f human knowledge. The collec­
tions on history, biography, art, literature, languages, music are
huge.
The Reading R oom contains, apart from the reference books
on open access, an up-to-date copy o f the catalogue o f the general
library. T he room is used by university professors and lecturers, by
students reading for higher degrees and by those working at other
jobs who are engaged in research in their spare time.

b) Get ready to speak about the British Library. Make sure that you
know how to pronounce all the words you need for your story.
Unit Vll 269

с) Write a paragraph about the Russian S tate Library in Moscow (the


former Lenin Library).

m Write a paragraph about your local library and the types of books
you can find there. Use the following:
Novel modern novel, psychological novel, historical novel,
war novel, adventure novel, detective novel.

Story: short story, detective story, adventure story, love story,


fairy story (fairy tale).

Other types: science fiction, travel book, biography, thriller.

m Study this list thoroughly and write a paragraph about one of the
books you’ve read.
Adjectives applied to books: interesting, good , brilliant, enjoyable,
entertaining, original, unusual, funny, w itty, exciting, gripping,
powerful, profound, true-to-life, well-written, very readable;
boring, dull, badly-written, slow -m oving, unoriginal, depressing,
heavy-going, superficial, unconvincing.

Aspects o f a novel or a storv: subject (them e), p lot, setting, charac­


ters, ideas, view s, style, atmosphere.

Adjectives applied to literary characters: well-drawn, true-to-life,


com plex, poorly-drawn, unconvincing, lifeless.

Positive/negative characters: admirable, virtuous, strong, honest, un­


selfish; despicable, wicked, im m oral, weak, dishonest, selfish

Style: good, graceful, flow ing, polished, clear, simple, terse, em o­


tional, lively; bad, poor, heavy, obscure, high-flown, wordy,
unem otional, lifeless, dull, m onotonous.

m Read the text. Look up the unfamiliar words in a dictionary. Trans­


late the text into Russian:
Mrs. Ellis was methodical and tidy. Unanswered letters, unpaid
bills, the litter and rummage o f a slovenly writing-desk were things
that she abhorred.
Mrs. Ellis went into the drawing-room and settled herself at her
desk. She was determined to be ruthless. T he pigeonholes were
searched, and those old envelopes that she had kept because they
were not torn and could be used again were thrown away.
270 Essential Course

She permitted herself the luxury o f filling her blotter with new
sheets o f paper. The pen tray was dusted. A new pencil sharpened.
And she threw the stub o f the little old one, with worn rubber at
the base, into the waste-paper basket.
She straightened the m agazines on the side table and filled the
flower vases with clean water. Then Mrs. Ellis sat dow n, a little
breathless, before the fire, and smiled with satisfaction. Her morning
had been very full indeed.
(From: Split Second by D. du Maurier)
UNIT VIII |

A ll w o rk and n o play
m a k es Jack a dull b o y .
(Proverb)

PEOPLE AT LEISURE
G R A M M A R EXERCISES
(REVISION)
Before yo u stu d y the last unit o f the textb o o k y o u should do a fe w
exercises on inserting articles a nd prepositions and on using verbs in the
correct tenses.

Q a) Insert articles where necessary:


1. I hired ... fine gardener for you.
2. Being ... farmer (he had come to it late in ... life, in his forties)
was ... first test he had faced as ... individual.
3. His father was ... naval officer.
4. H e knew ... Swiss jeweller who had retired to ... villa just outside
-London.
5.. He was ... good cook and there was ... neatness and easy deft­
ness in his manner and moves.
6 . It was years ago, when I was trying to be ... actress.
7. So Mrs. Adams is ... good mechanic. She knows all about ... in­
side o f ... car.
8 . ... cultured man, he was ... art connoisseur, ... collector o f rare
first editions, ... devotee o f drama and music.
9. My parents were very surprised when it turned out after ... war
that James had decided to become ... professional soldier.
10. He became ... stockbroker, then ... publisher.
11. I wanted to be ... botanist when I was ten. M y father loved ...
plants and we looked at many things together.
12. I have decided to be ... poet. M y father said that there isn't ...
suitable career structure for ... poets and no pensions and other
boring things, but I am quite decided. He tried to interest me in
becoming ... computer operator, but I said, “I need to put my
soul into my work and it is well known that computers haven't
got ... soul.” My father said, “... Americans are working on it.”
But I can’t wait that long.
b) Copy out names of professions from the above sentences. Make up a
short story using as many names of professions as you can.
272 Essential Course

0 Insert prepositions where necessary:


1. Rehearsals were to begin ... the end ... March: the season
opened ... May.
2. T he director was w alking ... and ... one ... the aisles, and all
the actors were ... stage.
3. The small stage was lit ... spotlights. Then the music began. It
started slowly. A group ... performers casually ascended ... the
platform, the women wore colourful skirts and blouses, the male
dancers were dressed ... the traditional tight trousers and vests.
4. She took ... the black wig, ran her fingers ... her own luxuriant
hair, and creamed ... her dark make-up.
5. Armand was ... the m iddle ... directing a new play that was to
open ... two weeks and he spent all day ... the theatre. As a
rule when Armand was ... production, he thought ... nothing
else. N oth in g existed ... him but the four walls ... the theatre
and the actors he was working ... .
6 . One play ... Jean Paul Sartre 1 affected ... her deeply. It starred
Philippe Sorel 2, one ... the idols ... Europe. She went back to
watch him again and again, sitting ... the front row studying
his performance, trying to learn the secret ... his magnetism.
7. One evening ... the interm ission an usher handed ... her a note.
It read, “I have seen you ... the audience night ... night. Please
come backstage this evening and let me meet you. Philippe."
She went backstage ... the performance. An old man ... the
stage door ushered her ... Sorel’s dressing-room. He was seated
... a make-up mirror w iping ... his m ake-up.
8 . W illie Sutherland was such a pleasant young fellow , so de­
lighted ... the success ... his first play, so happily ready to sit,
beaming, ... the stalls throughout rehearsals, and to bring large
parties ... acquaintances ... alm ost every perform ance throughout
the run, so eager to buy cham pagne ... all the cast ... the mer­
est hint ... a birthday or anniversary, that he had som ehow be­
come a friend.

0 Open the brackets using the verbs in the correct tenses:


1. When I (to see) Finn waiting for me at the corner o f the street I
(to know) at once that som ething (to go) wrong.
2. “By the w ay,” he (to ask) the salesman, “you (can, to tell) me
where the furs department (to be)T' The salesman (to tell) him
and he (to take) the elevator again.

1 Jean Paul Sartre 1'за;п 'рэ:1 'sa:tr|


2 Philippe Sorel I'filip 'sDral]
t\ Unit VIII ______________________ 273

3. T he wallet ( to be) old and cracked, he (to see). H e (to forget)


how long he (to have) it. “Where (to be) the leather goods de­
partment, please?” “D ow nstairs,” the man (to say).
4. The jacket (to cost) more than any entire suit he ever (to buy),
but he (not to buy) a new suit in six years. Inflation, he (to
think) lightly.
5. N an (to say), “ I (to make) som e coffee. Then I really (must, to
do) that ironing. What you (to go) to do, Bill?” He (to say),
“I (to go) down to the Public library on my bike - and then
I’d better go back into school and do various jo b s.” “You
really (must, to work) today?” (to say) N an. “I (to think) holi­
days (to start).” “I (to tell) you a hundred tim es,” (to say)
M or, “holidays (not to start) for me at the end o f term.”
6 . N an (to bring) in a tray with coffee and biscuits. They (to sit.
to look) out o f the window. “T he autumn (to come),” she (to
say). “It (to be) strange how early you (can. to see) it. A s soon
as the phlox (to come) out you (to know) that the best part o f
the summer (to be) over. Then you (can) soon (to expect) the
falling leaves.”
7. “There (to be) a lot o f places in this world I’d like to see. But
on a teacher’s salary you (not to do) a lot o f travelling. I (to
encourage) it in my offspring and (to tell) them to bring b^ck
photographs. One o f my daughters (to think) o f going to
Greece this summer.” He (not to know) why he (to bring) that
into the conversation. “I (to make) a tour o f the Lake District
last summer,” Judith (to say). “The English teacher’s dream.”
“H ow it (to be)?' “Dreary.” Judith (to laugh). “ It (to rain) all
the time and I (to be) with a group o f English teachers from
the M iddle West. W e (to discuss) W ordsworth for one day and
(to spend) the rest o f the tim e on how to present Hamlet to
teenage children. I (not to say) much.”
8 . H alf a block down the street (to be) A cm e Luggage Store.
Tracy (to study) the display in the w indow before she (to walk)
inside. A clerk (to approach) her. “G ood morning. And what I
(can, to do) for you this m orning?” “I (to want) to buy some
luggage for my husband.” “Y ou (to come) to the right place.
We (to have) a sale. We (to have) som e nice, inexpensive
“N o ,” Tracy (to say). “N oth in g inexpensive,” she (to step) over
to a display o f suitcases stacked against a wall. “That (to be)
more what I (to look) for. We (to go) away on a trip.” “Well,
I (to be) sure he (to be) pleased with one o f these. We (to
have) three different sizes.” “ I (to take) one o f each.” “Fine.
That (to be) charge or cash?” “C harge.”

I
274 Essential Course

VO CABULARY

After the term o f hard work


don’t these words sound like music to your ear?

leisure - досуг, свободное время to feel lazy - чувствовать себя


diversion - развлечение, забава ленивым
entertainment - развлечение, уве­ pastime - времяпрепровождение,
селение развлечение
to relax - расслабляться, отдыхать

W e all enjoy our free tim e.


W hat opportunities does it give us?

to go on holiday - отправиться в to go (down) to the country, to the


отпуск sea - поехать за город, к морю
to have/make a journey, trip, out­ to travel light путешествовать
ing, sightseeing tour - совер­ налегке
шить путешествие, поездку, to go camping - отправиться на
загородную прогулку, экскур­ отдых на лоне природы (в па­
сию с целью осмотра досто­ лат ках)
примечательностей to spend an evening out - провес­
to go on/set off on a trip, tour - ти вечер вне дома
отправляться в поездку, турне to go to a discotheque (disco) -
to go to the seaside - отправить­ пойти на дискотеку
ся к морю to give/throw a party - устроить
to go on an organized walk - вечер
пойти на организованную про­ to visit a park, a garden or a museum
гулку - посетить парк, сад, музей

How about going to the theatre or opera house or


do you prefer cinema or a concert?
Your choice may depend on what is on.

a play - пьеса a ballet - балет


a drama - драма an operetta - оперетта
a straight/serious play - чистая a musical - мюзикл
драма (без м узы ки) a variety (show) - варьете
a comedy - комедия a puppet (show) - кукольный
a psychological drama - спектакль
психологическая драма one-man show - представление с
a tragedy - трагедия одним действующим лицом
a melodrama — мелодрама a first night - премьера
an opera - опера a premiere - премьера
Unit VIII 275
\
an opening night - премьера an amateur or professional show -
a matinee - утренний спектакль любительский или профессио­
an evening performance - вечер­ нальный спектакль
ний спектакль a thriller - триллер
a circus (show) - цирк, цирковое a western - вестерн
представление a horror Film - фильм ужасов

And this is how you can get to a show.

a ticket for a performance - би­ to reserve a ticket beforehand - за­


лет на спектакль казать билет заранее
a ticket to a theatre - билет в театр to get an extra/spare ticket - дос­
to buy/get a ticket or a pass at the тать лишний билет
box-office or a ticket agency - to get to a concert through the
купить/получить билет или back door - попасть на
контрамарку в кассе или в концерт без билета, «зайцем»
агентстве

W here is your seat?

in the stalls - в партере in the gallery - на галерке


in the orchestra stalls в первых in the balcony - на балконе
рядах партера in a box - в ложе
in the pit - в амфитеатре to have standing room - иметь
in the dress circle - в бельэтаже стоячее место
in the upper circle - в верхнем to have a blind seat - иметь
ярусе ненумерованное место

There are more words connected with theatre:

a bill - афиша; программа the scenery is good - декорации


a programme - программа хорош ие
on the programme - в программе a rehearsal - репетиция
opera glasses - бинокль a dress rehearsal - генеральная
binoculars - бинокль репетиция
a stage - сцена a costume - костюм
to come onto the stage - выйти a dressing room - артистическая
на сцену уборная
a curtain - занавес backstage - за кулисами
the curtain rose - занавес поднялся to go backstage пойти за кулисы
the curtain fell занавес упал behind the scenes - за кулисами
footlights рампа; свет, огни рампы wings - кулисы
a spotlight - прожектор to stand in the wings - стоять в
sets/scenery - декорации кулисах
276 Essential Course

a cloakroom - гардероб to play the part/role of Hamlet


a refreshment-room - буфет играть роль Гамлета
a screen - экран to play the leading part/lead -г иг­
a screenplay/scenario - (к и н осц е­ рать главную роль
нарий to play/dance/sing encore - играть/
a script - сценарий танцевать/петь на бис
a TV/stage production - телеви­ to take curtain calls - выходить
зионная/театральная поста­ на аплодисменты
новка to stay in character - не выходить
repertoire - репертуар из образа
a company - труппа to underact - играть не в полную
a cast - состав исполнителей силу
an all-star cast - «звездный» со­ to overact - переигрывать
став исполнителей the highlight of the programme -
a supporting cast - исполнители «гвоздь» программы
второстепенных ролей the hit of the season - «гвоздь»
a director - режиссер сезона
a producer - режиссер-постанов­ applause - аплодисменты
щик to applaud to smb/to clap to smb
a stage manager - помощник ре­ аплодировать/хлопать кому-л.
жиссера to hiss - освистать
a performer - исполнитель a burst of applause - взрыв ап­
a dresser - костюмер лодисментов
a technician - техник a roar of applause - рев апло­
a stagehand - рабочий сцены дисментов
an attendant - капельдинер, слу­ a storm of applause - гром апло­
житель дисментов
audience - зрители (аудитория) to be popular with ... - быть по­
a theatre-goer - театрал пулярным среди
a cinema-goer - любитель кино the lights go up/down/fade - огни
a screenwriter - сценарист зажигаются/гаснут
to walk on - играть роль без слов the orchestra tunes up - оркестр
a walk-on part - роль без слов настраивает инструменты
encore - крики бис, вызов на бис

What kind of music do you like?


classical - классическая pop - поп-музыка
light-classical - легкая классическая dance - танцевальная
serious - серьезная instrumental - инструментальная
folk - народная string - струнная
jazz - джаз chamber - камерная
Unit VUI 277

M any people could say that television is their life.


It’s important that you should know how to talk about TV
in English

to watch TV - смотреть телевизор to put broadcasting on/off - вклю­


to watch/see a film or a programme - чить/выключить телевизор
смотреть фильм или про­ to put the TV on/off - включить/
грамму выключить телевизор
a TV channel - телевизионный to turn/switch up - увеличить
канал громкость
a TV viewer - телезритель to turn/switch down - уменьшить
the news (the nine o’clock news, громкость
etc.) - новости (девятичасо­ cable TV - кабельное телевидение
вые новости и т.д.) a TV announcer/newscaster диктор
a (animated) cartoon - мульти­ a quiz - викторина
пликационный фильм an interview - интервью
a serial - сериал news and commentary - новости и
a soap opera - мыльная опера комментарии
(сериал) a documentary - документальный
TV commercial - телевизионная фильм
реклама an educational programme - обра­
a colour/black-and-white TV - цвет­ зовательная программа
ной/черно-белый телевизор a sports programme — спортивная
to broadcast (live/recorded) - вести программа
телепередачу (в прямом эфире, to miss a programme - пропустить
в записи) программу
broadcasting - телевещание

EXERCISES

Q a) Read and spell the words:

1'1езэ] ['s3:kas] ['oikistra] [a'pbid]


[dai'v3:Jn] [,saika'lDd 3 ikl] [ri'h3:slj ['tjeim baj
I'draim a] I'prem iea] [si'nairiaul I'tjaenl]
l'traed3adi] ['maetineil I'repatw a:] [ka:'tu3i]
I'opre] ['aemata] [tek'nijn] ['siarial]
I'baelei) ['eid 3 ansi) ['ordians] ['b ro .d k ast]
[va'raiati] (ri'z3rv] ['or)ko:]
278 Essential Course

b) Transcribe these words:


folk scenery costum e commercial
stalls journey character discotheque
usher musical announcer
puppet operetta com pany

В Match the words in the left-hand column with their


right-hand column:

1) an opera house a)

2) a repertoire b)
crime
3) an outing c)

4) a western d)
the stage
5) a pastime e)
film
6) a commercial
0
7) a c i r c u s --------- ч g)
8) a thriller h)
for performance
9) a matinee i)
Indians in the U SA
10 ) a dress rehearsal
j)
11) a stagehand ^ k)

Q What do we call it/them?


People listening to a concert, watching a film or a play.
Calling for a performer to repeat a song, a piece o f music, etc.
TV or radio programme where people are asked questions.
T o have a non-speaking part in a play.
To send out by radio or television.
Music for a few instruments, originally played in a small room.
Seats on the ground floor in a theatre or a cinema.
A factual film about a real subject.
A person who writes plays.
A person who writes stories for films(screenplays).
The side o f the stage in a theatre where actors wait before going
on stage.
Unit VIII 279

Q Look at the seating plan of a theatre and match the letters numbers
with the words below:
the pit the curtain the orchestra the dress circle
the stage the balcony the footlights the stalls
the boxes the gallery

0 a) Complete these conversations:


1. A : I’d like to book two seats for tomorrow.
В Would you like something in the front stalls?

2. A: Can I get tickets for tonight’s show?


B: The front row o f the dress circle is fairly free.
280 Essential Course

3. A: Are there any seats left for Saturday night?


В: A-11 and B-14 are all that’s left.

4. A : Is it still possible to get tickets for tonight?


B: N o , I’m afraid you ’ve left it rather late.

5. A : I’d like two seats for the concert on Thursday evening.


B: Yes. Where would you like to sit?

b) Make up a conversation between a ticket agent and a customer. Act


it out.

Q Insert prepositions where necessary:


1. Many theatregoers ... the world know this play ... Chekhov.
2. I’d so much like to go ... backstage and see what is happening
there ... the play.
3. When the curtain rose the stage was brightly lit ... stagelights
and footlights. The whole cast was ... stage.
4. The success ... a performance depends ... many things but it be­
gins ... the play.
5. Could you, please, show me ... my seat, I’m afraid I can’t see
Row F.
6 . The opening night is ... a week. It’s time to take care ... the
tickets.
7. Y ou’d better borrow a pair ... opera-glasses: your seat is ... the
pit rather far ... the stage.
8 . H ow many seats ... the show would you like, sir?
9. ... singing ... encore she had four curtain calls. Her number
definitely was the highlight ... the programme.
10. I love the sound ... the orchestra tuning ... before the beginning
... the performance. It gives me thrills to watch ... the curtain
go ... and the lights fade slowly. It’s all part ... the miracle
called theatre.
11. Classical plays are becoming less popular ... young people who
prefer m odem , unconventional, experimental art.
12. When the conductor dropped his baton there was a burst ... ap­
plause.
13. He is a great admirer ... jazz music and has been collecting jazz
records ... over forty years.
14. I can hardly hear what the announcer is saying, please turn ...
the telly.
15. D o you find it difficult to stay ... character .................. the TV
camera?
Unit VIII 281

ЕЕ Answer these questions:


1. What do you do when you are at leisure?
2. W hat’s your favourite pastime?
3. What diversions outdoors and indoors are most popular in this
country?
4. W hat’s the best place for an outing?
5. H ow do you like the idea o f organized walks?
6 . Where do you go if you want to spend an evening out?
7. H ave you ever gone camping? I f you have, was it fun? Why?
8 . Where do you usually go on holidays? Why?
9. What are the advantages and disadvantages o f sightseeing tours?
10. What entertainments would you arrange for foreign guests staying
with you? Explain your choice.

ED Write an aaswer to a letter in which a friend asks you how you


spend your free time.

EE a) Fill in articles where necessary:

What Is a Pub?
... word pub is short for “public house”. In fact, in som e ways
... “public house” is exactly that: it’s ... public place and at ... same
time it’s rather like som eone’s house. This means that in ... best pubs
you are both ... customer and ... visitor. Because ... main business o f
pubs is selling ... drinks to people, there are always plenty to choose
from, but ... most popular one is ... beer.
One thing you may discover is that som e pubs have ... drinks
and little else, but others have more to offer, such as ... food, ... mu­
sic or ... accommodation. What ... most pubs have in common is that
they have more than one bar. Y ou can usually choose between the
public bar and the lounge bar. In ... public bar you may find ...
games, ... machines and ... music, and frequently plenty o f people. ...
lounge bar (or saloon) is likely to be quieter and more comfortable.
Naturally one o f ... things that people enjoy m ost about ... pubs
is having ... drink in company, but there are other things that attract
... people to ... pubs too. Many pubs, for example, are ... interesting
buildings, in ... pleasant environment, or both. It’s not unusual to
find places that have been in ... business for several hundred years,
and many ... buildings have kept at least ... part o f their old charac­
ter. If you’re not interested in ... buildings and ... history, however,
you might still enjoy visiting ... pub which has ... attractive garden or
... good view.
It’s useful to remember that there are ... laws in Britain about ...
sale o f ... alcohol. For example, ... children under 14 cannot go into
282 Essential Course

bars where ... alcohol is served. ... people under 18 can’t buy or
drink ... alcohol in ... pubs. ... person serving may refuse to sell ...
alcohol to ... person who seems younger than 18. ... people under 18
are also not allowed to play ... machines that give ... money as
prizes - in ... pubs or in any other place.
For visitors ... pubs do have ... particular advantage. ... visitors
to any country often feel, after ... time, that although they’re seeing
lots o f interesting things, they don’t know anything about ... places ...
ordinary people go or ... way they live. ... m ost pubs, however, offer
... opportunity to escape from ... crowds o f tourists and to see some­
thing really British from ... inside.

b) Say what new information you received from the text above.

TEXT-BASED ACTIVITIES

OUTDOORS and INDOORS


I f y o u co m e to B ritain y o u w ill s o o n fin d o u t that there
are all k in d s o f th in g s to d o o u td o o rs: th ere’s a lm ost every
sp ort y o u can im a g in e, there are p arks and gardens to visit.
Y o u can g o sig h tseein g , either o n y o u r o w n or in a group,
an d if y o u like w a lk in g y o u can g o o n o rg a n ized w alk s, w hich
c o u ld in clu d e sig h tseein g to o .
I f y o u h a v en ’t g o t m uch m o n ey to sp en d o n entertainm ent,
it’s useful to k n o w that lots o f events tak in g p lace o u tsid e or in
the street are free. T here are street festivals for exam p le, like the
fa m o u s N o ttin g H ill C arnival that h ap p en s in L on d on each
sum m er. T here are p u b lic p rocession s, such as the O pening o f
Parliam ent. In fact there are all k in d s o f o ld cu sto m s y o u can
enjoy w atching. S o m e o f these are very o ld gam es o r p lays, like
m orris dancing, w here p eo p le in strange clo th es w ith ribbons and
bells o n them dance w ith handkerchiefs o r big sticks to tradi­
tional m usic. T h ere’s been street entertain m en t for centuries, as
yo u m ight im agine, a n d there’s still p len ty to see tod ay.
I f th e w eather is c o ld or w et, it n e e d n ’t b e a big problem
b ecau se th ere’s p len ty g o in g o n in d o o rs. T h e cin em a rem ains
Unit VIII 283

extrem ely p o p u la r. “G o in g to th e p ictu res” is o n e o f th e great­


est p astim es an d d iversion s o f all ages. P o lls h ave sh ow n that
o n ly o n e B ritish cin em a g o er in fiv e g o e s to see a particular
film ; th e o th er fo u r are c o n te n t to see w h a tev er h ap p en s to be
p layin g.
In L o n d o n as w ell as in o th e r b ig cities y o u ’ll fin d all
so rts o f th eatre, m u sic an d d a n ce. T h e sta g e p ro d u c tio n s o f
L o n d o n ’s W est E n d are a m o n g th e b est in th e w orld. T h e v a ­
riety is w id e, th e q u a lity u su a lly high or excellen t. T h e R oyal
O pera H o u s e , C o ven t G a rd en , th e R o y a l V ictoria (better
k n o w n as th e “O ld V ic ”) a n d m a n y o th ers p ro v id e perform ­
ances for m an y tastes. A m a te u r theatrical societies are w id e­
spread th r o u g h o u t th e co u n try and b o a st an a ctive m em bership
o f th o u sa n d s o f p eo p le. A d d to th ese th e th o u sa n d s o f p ro fes­
sio n a l a cto rs, p la y w rig h ts, p ro d u cers, tech n icia n s, agen ts an d so
o n , an d it b eco m es o b v io u s th a t B ritish th eatre is flou rish in g.
M u seu m s a n d art galleries are perfect fo r rainy w eather.
A lth o u g h a visit to a m u seum d o e s n ’t a lw a y s so u n d m uch fu n ,
British m u seu m s are very p o p u la r w ith th o se w h o in d u lge in
self-ed u ca tio n .
R u sh in g a ro u n d from p la ce to p la c e can o f cou rse be tir­
ing, an d th ere’ll p ro b a b ly be tim es w h en y o u w an t to relax.
H ere, are a few ideas fo r w hen y o u ’re fe e lin g lazy. T elev isio n ,
o r th e “ te lly ” , as it is ca lled , o ffe r s y o u a variety o f p r o ­
gram m es. F o r th o se w h o feel lik e sp e n d in g a p leasan t even in g
o u t there are p u b s, clu b s, restau ran ts a n d d isco s. In th e d a y ­
tim e you can ta k e a b o a t trip a n d en joy th e scen ic view s o f
B ritain. I f y o u are in th e co u n try g o fish in g or hire a bicycle
and fin d a g o o d co u n try ride. F o llo w a natu re trail an d have
a nice w alk lo o k in g at w ild life o r visit th e park an d relax on
th e grass listen in g to a b a n d p erh a p s. G o to a fun fair w hich
has all sorts o f g a m es, m ach in es to ride a n d frighten y o u rself
o n , bright lights a n d n o isy fun. A n o th e r idea is to fo llo w you r
n o se. T h is m ean s “ g o th e w ay th a t a ttracts y o u m o st” .

Find in the text the words that mean the same as:
not costing you any money
artistic entertainment put on at regular intervals
festival with dancing and eating in the open air
group o f people marching in line
284 Essential Course

hobby or way o f spending your spare time


som ething giving rest or amusement
questioning a group o f people to find out the views o f the whole
population
goodness or worth
person who is not paid to do something
clear, easily seen
doing well
teaching yourself
to rest from work
to rent for a short time
birds, plants or animals living free, untouched by man
group o f musicians
group o f amusements, food stalls, etc. set up in one place usually
for a short time

Read the text again and match the words in these

1) organized a) procession
2) country — b) variety
3) wide
Л c) festival

4) street d) walk

5) scenic e) quality
0 entertainment
6) high
g) production
7) public
H) view
8) nature
V i) ride
9) fun trail
j)
10) stage k) fair

Ш a) Find in the text English equivalents for


специально организованные пешие прогулки
уличные праздники/шествия/развлечения
народный театрализованный танец «моррис»
люди в необычных костюмах с нашитыми на них лентами и
колокольчиками
старинная народная музыка
Unit VIII 285

один из любимейших видов досуга и развлечения


любитель кино, зритель
остальные четверо довольствуются просмотром того, что им
случается увидеть на экране
театральные постановки
даю т представления на любой вкус
могут похвастаться тем, что в них активно работают тысячи
людей
не всегда кажется большим удовольствием
привлекают тех, кто занимается самообразованием
когда вам ничего не хочется делать
живописные виды Британии
хорошая загородная тропа, пригодная для езды на велосипеде
тропинка, проходящая по местам, которые славятся своей
природой
ярмарка с аттракционами
машины, на которых можно покататься и испытать свою
смелость
пойти куда глаза глядят

b) Translate the text “Outdoors and Indoors” into Russian. Which enter­
tainments out of those described in it would you choose for yourself?
Put them in the order of preference and discuss them with your fel­
low students.

Ш Answer these questions:


1. What opportunities does a visitor to Britain have if he wants
to spend his free tim e outdoors?
2. What are a visitor’s chances if his m oney is limited?
3. What British outdoor entertainm ents can you name?
4. What are popular pastim es for rainy weather?
5. In what part o f London can you find most o f its theatres?
6 . What is the difference between amateur and professional theatres?
7. W hat’s your opinion o f amateur theatrical societies? What are
their strong and weak points?
8 . D oes a visit to a museum sound fun to you? Why?
9. What makes museums so good for self-education?
10. What do you do when you are feeling lazy?
11. Where can a Briton spend a pleasant evening out?
12. H ow can you explore the countryside in Britain?
13. Why are fun fairs so popular with children?
14. D o you prefer to spend your free tim e indoors or outdoors?
Why?
286 Essential Course

ffi Make up sentences with the help of the tables and complete them as
in the models.

M odel I: I f the weather is cold or wet it w on’t be a big problem be­


cause we can sta y a t home a nd watch TV.

the supermarket is closed


big problem
you’ve quarrelled with
your friend tragedy
you’ve run out o f money
IF you’ve failed an exam IT WON'T BE great disappoint­
your hair doesn’t look ment
good reason for being
you can’t decide what to do upset/unhappy
with your spare time
nobody loves you shock

M odel 2: A visit to a museum doesn’t always sound much fun to me


because such visits can be boring.

Going to the theatre


A game o f tennis
A weekend in Brighton to me
Staying indoors
Spending an evening out SOUNDS FUN to her
A boat trip MUCH FUN
Listening to a band DOESN’T SOUND LIKE FUN to my
Fishing friends
Camping
Going on a ride at a fun fair
Riding a bicycle in the country

M odel 3: I often feel like spending an evening with my friends: we


enjoy being together.

dining out
I playing the guitar
He OFTEN visiting a museum
She FEEL(S) LIKE (having) a cup o f coffee in the morning
We NEVER working at weekends
They taking a walk in rainy weather
going to the pictures
Unit V lll 287
1
EE Remember the text “Outdoors and Indoors” and fill in the missing
words:
1. There’s almost every sport you can ... .
2. Y ou can go sightseeing either on ........ or in a group.
3. Lots o f ... taking place outside or in the street are ... .
4. There’s been street ... for centuries.
5. The cinema ... extremely popular.
6. G oing to the pictures is one o f the greatest pastimes and ... o f
all ages.
7. Only one British cinemagoer in five goes to see a ... film.
8. The ... is wide, the ... usually high or excellent.
9. Amateur theatrical ... are widespread throughout the country.
10. And it becomes ... that British theatre is ... .
11. Museums and art galleries are ... for rainy weather.
12. British museums are very popular with those who ... in self-
education.
13. Rushing around from place to place can o f course be ...
14. Here are a few ... for when you are feeling ... .
15. If you are in the country go fishing or ... a bicycle and find a
good ............
16. Follow a ........ and have a nice walk looking at ... .
17. Another idea is to ... your nose.

EE Fill in prepositions where necessary. Retell the text.


X session ... Parliament lasts about a year and usually starts ...
the late autumn. Every session is opened ... the Queen, who drives in
state ... Buckingham Palace ... the Houses o f Parliament. The opening
ceremony takes place ... the H ouse o f Lords, because the Queen is
not allowed to enter ... the H ouse o f Com m ons. She reads the
Queen’s Speech, which is prepared ... the Government, and sets ...
what new laws they hope to pass ... the session just beginning.
(From: Look at Parliament by Kenneth Robinson, M.P )

EE a) Speak about the way you can spend your free time in Britain.

b) Speak about the way you can spend your free time in your home
town.

Ш a) Read about Steve’s plans for tonight and make up a conversation


between him and his friend Caroline. Act it out.
Steve'. Tonight we’re going to a discotheque. I’m taking Caroline.
I hope it's going to be fun. The group that’ll be there tonight plays
terrific music for dancing. Caroline loves dancing. Perhaps some o f
my other friends will be there, too. W e often meet there. It’s our
288 Essential Course

favourite discotheque. We like it for dancing but not for sitting and
listening. The music’s too loud for listening and sitting is boring. I
hope it w on’t be too crowded tonight.
b) Write about your own plans for tonight or the coming weekend or
holiday.

ГП a) Read the text and say which of the ways of holiday making men­
tioned in the text appeal to you most and why:
Whether they have a boat or not, most Britishfamilies like to
spend som e time at the seaside in the summer. The beaches get very
crowded in hot weather. Groups o f people go on organized outings
to popular resorts like Brighton or Blackpool. Coaches full o f pen­
sioner or factory or office workers drive to the coast for a day out.
If the sea is warm enough they can go for a swim. Or they may
prefer to take o ff their shoes and socks and paddle in the shallow
water Holiday-makers bring a picnic lunch with them, and they can
buy ice-cream from the ice-cream van, tea from the refreshment kiosk
and drinks at the pubs. It may rain but the British are used to
changeable weather. The family can always sit in the car, or find the
nearest amusement arcade, or simply turn round and go home.
Not everybody in Britain is interested in sport or in outings. A
minority is interested in going to the theatre, to the cinema, to con­
certs, to the opera. But this kind o f entertainment is getting expen­
sive. A. specially British activity, which may count as cultural enter­
tainment, is attendance at day and evening classes in Adult Institutes
and Colleges o f Further Education. Som e people may go to practical
classes like dressmaking or car maintenance but many go for pleasure
to do pottery or ballet dancing, to learn how to arrange flowers ar­
tistically, or to learn a foreign language. Others enjoy listening to
lectures and discussing subjects like philosophy.
In general there is not much difference between the British and
other nationalities in the way they react to “culture”: it depends on
personal taste.
b) Make 10 questions about the text, let your fellow students answer them.
c) Suppose one of your students has just come back from Britain. Ask
him or her about how the British spend their holidays.

EE The success of a holiday depends on many things. Can you continue


the list?
• the weather
• people with whom you spend your holiday

EE Write a short story about an ideal holiday. Discuss your stories in


class and decide whose idea of a good holiday sounds more attractive.
Unit VIII 289

m a) Fill in prepositions where necessary. Act the conversation out:


Conversation
Sarah: A h, Pauline! D id you have a good holiday?
Pauline: N o . I certainly did not have a good holiday.
Sarah: Oh, I’m very sorry to hear that. What was wrong?
Pauline: Well, when I arrived ... Brighton, I had to spend an hour
... the railway station because nobody met me. I had to go
... the hotel ... a taxi and the taxi cost ... me £ 1 2 .
Sarah: Oh, dear, you had a very bad start. But I hope the hotel
was nice.
Pauline: N o , it was not. We couldn’t sleep because ... the traffic
noise. And the restaurant served fish ... every day.
Sarah: Oh, no!
Pauline: The hotel was ... the beach and we could walk ... the sea
... two minutes, but the beach was terribly littered and the
sea was polluted.
Sarah: Oh dear! Better luck ... next time.
b) Note how Sarah expresses her sympathy and makes “polite noises”.
Make up similar conversations about a very bad holiday. Use some
of the following:
Cheer up. I’m so sorry about ... .
What a shame/pity! It could be a lot worse.
Take it easy. These things do happen.
H ow terrible for you! Poor thing! D o n ’t let it worry you.

m Read the text and say on what days banks, shops, restaurants, etc.
are closed in England and Wales.
Bank Holidays
All banks, many shops, restaurants and petrol stations close on
Bank Holidays, perhaps for several days at Easter and Christmas
time. When a Bank H oliday happens on a Saturday or Sunday, the
following M onday usually becom es the holiday. The holidays in this
list are for England and Wales: in Scotland and Northern Ireland
some holidays may be different.
Holiday Dale
New Year’s Day January 1
Good Friday different dates each year in March or April
May Day Holiday first M onday in May
Spring Bank Holiday last M onday in May
Summer Bank Holiday last M onday in August
Christmas Day December 25
Boxing Day December 26
290 Essential Course

E2 a) Read and translate this newspaper ad using a dictionary if necessary:

J o im 3 -pOP/
W or Рим
THREE D P IY В Р1П К H D L ID E IY ЕУЕПТ

jlia g itia n Punch and Judy Show


Рэш tpQdkss
^ fa irg ro u n d Jgarb ecu e
__________ шс mm
C h ild r e n 's lR id e s O i/c o doncing

b) Say which of these events you would choose and why.

m Translate into English:


1. Люди на досуге обычно становятся добрее и общительнее
Они наслаждаются своим свободным временем, и это вполне
естественно.
2. Каждый год летом в этом южном городе много отдыхающих
Г ород расположен на побережье Черного моря. М ногие ста­
раются летом поехать к морю.
3. Моя дочь каждую субботу ходит на дискотеку. Она говорит,
что ей это очень нравится. Я не могу ее понять, для меня
лучшим времяпрепровождением всегда было чтение.
4. В нашем районе нет кабельного телевидения. У меня нет воз­
можности смотреть эти фильмы.
5. Пожалуйста, не разговаривайте. Оркестр уже настроил инст­
рументы, опера начинается.
6 . Ее сыну пятнадцать лет, а он все еще лю бит мультфильмы.
Неудивительно! Я , взрослый человек, тож е их обож аю.
7. Вы вчера видели образовательную программу? - Нет, я была
в оперетте.
8 . Он никогда не пропускает спортивных программ. Он увлекает­
ся многими видами спорта: теннисом, хоккеем, лыжами, конь­
ками.
9. Жаль, но мои ученики слишком малы, чтобы ценить камер­
ную музыку. Они любят дж аз и популярную музыку.
10. Включи телевизор, давай послушаем девятичасовые новости.
11. Многие пожилые женщины с утра до вечера смотрят мыльные
оперы. Они говорят, что это для них хорош ее развлечение.
12. Вы видели этот сериал? - Нет, я никогда не смотрю телеви­
зор. Я считаю это пустой тратой времени.
13. Не выключай телевизор, будет прямая трансляция с Олимпий­
ского стадиона.
Unit VIП 29!

14. Огни погасли, поднялся занавес, раздался гром аплодисментов.


Публика приветствовала своего лю бимого артиста.
15. Балерину попросили станцевать на бис.

ш Surely you wouldn’t refuse to go camping for a few days. Think of the
fresh air, the beauty of the landscape and the healthy exercise you
need so much. Work in two groups and decide between you how to
convince the other group that a walking holiday is the best for them.

FT*] Use the list of words and make a story about a camping holiday
which was a) great fun, b) a complete failure:
pack/unpack first-aid kit
sleeping bags waterproof and wellies
cooking utensils choose a camping site
folding bed put up/pitch a tent
fold-up tables and chairs make a bonfire/camp fire

ES a) Here is a list of statements to prove the advantages of camping.


Think of the disadvantages. Follow the model.
Model: Camping is good for your health.
- Y es, but it’s awfully tiring.

1. Camping is fun.
- Maybe, but ... .
2. Camping is a challenge.
- True, only ... .
3. It’s cheap: it can’t be beyond anybody’s means.
- Well, it depends ... .
4. F ood cooked outdoors tastes better.
- N ot necessarily ... .
5. Y ou can get away from other people.
- Fair enough, but ... .
6. It satisfies your need for exercise and fresh air
- However ... .
7. You are close to nature.
- On the other hand ... .
8. Y ou are free to move and stop wherever you like.
- In my experience ... .
9. Y ou can enjoy the company o f your friends
- But sometimes ... .

b) Make up a conversation between two friends. One is enthusiastic about


a walking holiday, the other is all for the comfort of a modern hotel.
292 Essential Course

Щ Fillin the blanks with the English for “Я тоже”.


Rem em ber: as a reply to affirmative sentences we say “S o do/am/can,
etc. / ”; as a reply to negative sentences we say “Neither
do/am/can, etc. Г ’.
A: I’m on holiday next month.
B: ........
A: I need a change.
B: Oh, ......... I’m tired o f the m onotony o f life.
A: Where are you going?
B: France. I went there last year.
A: ........ We always go to France, but we never go to Italy.
В: ........ I don’t speak any Italian.
A : Where exactly are you going?
B: Nice. I’ve been there several times.
A: , and w e’re going there this year, too.

FE1 a) This is how a travel agency advertises a trip to Moscow. Study it and
write your own advertisement of any place in or outside the country.

One of the world’s most fascinating capitals awaits you.


Moscow. The city is at its most dramatic and charming during
the Winter months with snow-capped cupolas and ice-covered
ponds. In Spring and Autumn it is particularly welcoming and
friendly. Throughout the year, you are offered a whole host of
exciting things to se e and do.
Your first excursion is likely to be a city tour by coach with
stops such as the vantage point of the Lenin Hills from where
the panorama of Moscow old and new is spread before you.
Don't miss an excursion to the Kremlin, the historical centre
of Russia since its foundation in 1147. The Kremlin - meaning
“fortress” - includes ancient cathedrals and museums, icons,
the throne of Ivan the Terrible, the biggest bell in the world,
the Tsar cannon ... se e the treasures for yourself!

b) Make up your own advertisement of some place you have visited and
read it in class. Let the students guess what place it is.

EG Complete the conversation and continue it:


David: Hello, Mike. Where were you last month?
M ike: ......
David: Oh, really? But you were on holiday in January.
M ike: Y es..........
David: Where were you last month?
M ike:............
David: Florida! W hat was it like?
Unit Vlll 293

Mike: Excellent! .......


David: What were people like?
Mike: ......
EE Write a paragraph about:
a) the pleasures o f travelling;
b) the benefits o f sightseeing tours;
c) the advantages o f seaside holidays;
d) the pros and cons o f spending your holiday in the country.

S P EA KIN G PRACTICE

While reading Dialogues 1, 2, 3 make a list o f expressions that may


be used in discussing the topic “Entertainment". Answer the follow-up
questions. Act out the dialogues in class.

I. AT THE OPERA
(Mr. and Mrs. Smith in fu ll evening dress get out o f their taxi at
the Opera House, Covent Garden.) ,

Mr. Sm ith: It’s ten past eight. The curtain goes up at half
past seven. We’ve got plenty of time.
Mrs. Sm ith: All the better. I hate arriving at the last moment.
Mr. Sm ith: Some people have a habit of arriving after the
curtain has gone up. I can’t conceive of anything
more objectionable.
A ttendant: Gentlemen’s cloakroom on the left, ladies’ on the
right.
Mrs. Sm ith: I’ll keep my cloak. The theatre’s a bit draughty,
but wouldn’t you like to leave your hat?
Mr. Sm ith: No, thanks. I hate the cloakroom scramble after­
wards.
(They enter the dress circle, where an attendant shows them to their seats.)
A ttendant: Programme, sir? Opera glasses?
Mr. Sm ith: Yes, please. Give me a programme and two pairs
of opera-glasses. Our seats are rather a long way
from the stage, so we’ll need them.
Mrs. Sm ith: How full the theatre is tonight! Not a single seat
vacant.
Mr. Sm ith: Sh! Here’s the conductor.
294 Essen lial Course

Questions

1. Where was the Opera H ouse situated? What do you know about
Coven t Garden?
2. Why do you think old opera houses and theatres had separate
cloakrooms for ladies and gentlemen?
3. Is the dress circle an expensive part o f the house? What are the
best seats?
4. D o you buy a programme and borrow opera glasses when you
go to see a performance? Why?
5. Are you in the habit o f arriving at the performance when the
curtain has gone up? W hat’s the best tim e to arrive?

2. TASTES DIFFER
Bill: Hallo, Sue, have you got any plans for tomorrow eve­
ning?
Sue: No, I don’t think so. No, I am free. Why?
Bill: Well, I was wondering if you’d like to come to the
cinema with me.
Sue: Oh, what’s on?
Bill: There’s this American thriller on - it’s supposed to be
very exciting.
Sue: I don’t think I’m too keen on thrillers, so I’d rather
not if you don’t mind.
Bill: How about a horror film?
Sue: What is it?
Bill: The Blood.
Sue: Oh, I ’ve seen it. It’s really frightening.
Bill: Frightening? I think horror films are amusing.
Sue: Amusing? H orror movies?
Bill: Yes. I went with Anne to see Dracula last week. I w as
very amused. I laughed from beginning to end.
Sue: What about Anne?
Bill: Oh, she was terrified. She wasunder the seat.

Questions

1. D o you think horror films are amusing or frightening?


2. What kind o f films do you prefer? Why?
Unit VIII 295

3. W hy do you think people watch thrillers or horror films?


4. What in your view are the m ost popular cinema genres today?
5. What films are popular with teenagers? Young people? People o f
advanced age?

3. IM PRESSIONS
Barbara: Did you enjoy the performance, Sharon?
Sharon: Yes, I enjoyed every minute of it. I love musicals.
Barbara: Do you? I prefer straight plays. Last week Charlie
and 1 went to see Julius Caesar.
Sharon: I heard the production wasn’t very good.
Barbara: No, unfortunately the actors and actressesweren’t
very good either.
Sharon: Who played Caesar?
Barbara: Henry Stone. He was in a film I saw on TV last
week.
Sharon: I don’t think I saw the film.
Barbara: You didn’t miss much. It was rather dull. And
there was a lot of violence. Such films bore me.
Sharon: That reminds me, there’s a comedy on television
tonight. It’s supposed to be good. Charlie saw it in
the Odeon and was very amused. He said it was
worth seeing.
Barbara: Really? Is it coming up after the ten o’clock news?
I’m going to watch it then.

Questions

1. What examples o f world-renowned musicals and straight plays


can you give?
2. W ho wrote Julius Caesar? What other plays by this author can
you remember?
3. What do you think about show ing violence, sex or cruelty on
television and in the cinema?
4. D o you watch the news? H ow regularly? W hat news and on
what channel?
5. What information offered by news programmes do you find most
interesting?
296 Essential Course

m M a k e up sen ten ces using are supposed to be and w ords an d p h rase s


from left-hand and rig h t-h a n d colum ns:

comedies boring
classical plays interesting
tragedies frightening
musicals sad
historical plays amusing
m odem plays terrifying
operas exciting
ballets ARE SUPPOSED TO BE enjoyable
horror films instructive
thrillers entertaining
psychological dramas educational
documentaries outdated
love stories disturbing
football matches exclusive
avant-garde (experimental) popular/growing
films in popularity

m Develop the idea using the word either in negative sentences and too
or also in affirmative sentences.

M odel 1: The production w asn’t very good, the actors and actresses
weren't very good either.

M odel 2: The sets were excellent, the acting was very good too/also
good.

1. The seat wasn’t comfortable, ...


2. The refreshments were excellent, ...
3. The script wasn’t particularly original, ...
4. The director’s work wasn’t brilliant at all, ...
5. The audience was quite enthusiastic, ...
6. The cloakroom was crowded, ...
7. The house was beautifully illuminated, ...
8. The actors looked clumsy and stiff, ...
9. The music wasn’t really good, ...
10. The dancing was terrible, ...
11. The singing was the best I ever heard, ...

m a) Say what kind of films, plays, books or TV programmes you enjoy.


Use the model.

Model: I like (love, adore, dislike, hate) horror films, I think they
are amusing (boring, etc.).
Unit VIII 297

b) S p eak a b o u t people’s h a b its. U se th e m odel.

M odel: Some people have a habit o f arriving after the curtain has
gone up.

c) S p e a k a b o u t d iffe re n t th in g s co n n ected w ith th e a tre . U se th e m odel


and the suggested adjectives.

Model: How fu ll the theatre is tonight!

dull terrifying interesting enjoyable


silly original touching beautiful
cold instructive unusual skilful

d) G ive y o u r fellow stu d e n ts advice a b o u t w hat to re a d o r see o r visit


(n o t to re a d , see o r visit). U se th e m odel.

Model: The book Love Story by Erich Segal is very moving. It's
certainly worth reading.

m Say what you would rather do or not do under certain circumstances.


Follow the model.

M odel: I f it’s the same film, I ’d rather not go. »

1." If the play is sentimental, ...


2.' If the programme is so long, ...
3. If my seat is such a long way from the stage, ...
4. If it’s a Tarkovsky’s film, ...
5. If there are any seats in the stalls left, ...
6 . If I have som e spare time, ...
7. If it’s only a walk-on part, ...
8 . If I’m asked to sing an encore, ...
9. If there’s any chance to reserve a seat, ...
10. If they show this soap opera on TV again, ...
11. If I ’m allowed to see the dress rehearsal, ...
12. If it’s going to be a concert o f chamber music, ...

Ш Give replies to the suggested phrases. Use the word combination


nothing worth.

Model: - Why don’t you switch on the telly?


- There’s nothing worth watching tonight.

1. Why don’t you look through this magazine?


2. Why don ’t you go to the cinema one o f these days?
298 Essential Course

3. Why don’tyou read the newspaper?


4. Why don’tyou buy som e souvenirs in .th is shop?
5. Why don’tyou want to see this thriller? Y ou may like it.
6. Why don’tyou switch over to another channel?
7. Why don’tyou listen to music on the radio?
8. Why don’tyou choose som e o f these new tapes?
9. Why don’tyou videotape one o f these films?

ED Translate into English:


1. Этот спектакль не стоит смотреть: вы только напрасно потра­
тите время.
2. Нам совсем не понравилась постановка. Костюмы и декора­
ции тоже были не слишком хороши.
3. Моя подруга имеет привычку опаздывать на занятия. Из-за
этого у нее вечные неприятности.
4. Полагают, что фильмы ужасов должны быть страшными, но
некоторые из них слишком глупы для этого. Когда их смот­
ришь, невозможно не смеяться.
5. Как прекрасен театр перед началом спектакля! Зал уже полон,
оркестр настраивает инструменты, но занавес пока опущен,
волшебство еще не началось.
6. Предполагается, что опера должна быть серьезной, но ведь
существуют и забавные комические оперы.
7. Фильмы, в которых много насилия и жестокости, не стоит
смотреть детям.
8. У него есть привычка что-нибудь жевать, когда он смотрит
телевизор, неудивительно, что он поправляется.
9. Я бы, пожалуй, сходила куда-нибудь сегодня вечером: в кафе
или дискотеку, да и в местном кинотеатре идет что-то инте­
ресное.
10. Как великолепны декорации в этом спектакле! Вы помните
фамилию художника, который их делал?
11. Детям очень нравятся веселые песенки из диснеевских мульт­
фильмов, да и персонажи в них тоже очень забавны.

ЕЕ Write a short review of a film, a play, a book or a TV programme.


Use the vocabulary of thp unit.

m a) Read the conversation below and answer these questions:


1. What do Susan and Tom do during the performance?
2. Is this kind o f behaviour typical o f young people?
3. D o you think theatre has any future?

Support what you say.


Unit VIII 299

At the Theatre
Susan: What time is it, Tom?
Tom: Ten past eight. The curtain will go up in a minute or two.
Susan: I haven’t any chocolates. G et som e quickly, please. Don't
get many, I shall get fat!
Tom: All right. (To the girl) H alf a pound o f those chocolates,
please. Have you any matches?
Girl: N o , I’m sorry, I haven’t.
Tom: Never mind. It doesn’t matter. (To Susan) Here you are, Su­
san. Are these all right?
Susan: Yes. Thank you very much.
Tom: I wanted som e matches, but she hadn’t any.
Susan: Never mind. I have som e in my bag. N ow sit down. The
play is beginning.
(The curtain goes up)
Susan: (looking at the actors and actresses on the stage) Look at
that green dress - isn’t it pretty? I saw that dress in a shop
in Bond Street last week.
Tom: The girl in the dress is pretty.
Susan: (quietly) Ssh! D o n ’t speak so loudly. People are looking at
you. Have a chocolate?
Tom: N o , thank you.
* * *

Tom: Well, that’s the last curtain. Did you enjoy it?
Susan: Yes, I did. I always enjoy a good laugh.

b) Suppose you arc taking a group of scvcn-year-olds to the theatre. Tell


them what they should and what they shouldn’t do at the theatre.

Ш Complete the sentences by adding a question tag. Use a falling into­


nation to show that you expect the statement to be true.
Model: Y ou like theatre, ...? - Y ou like th eatre,,don't you?
We shouldn’t miss this film, ...? - We shouldn’t miss this
film, vshould wel

1. I can sit wherever I like, ... ?


2. He usually sits in the stalls, ... ?
3. You booked the seats, ... ?
4. There isn’t a performance on M onday, ... ?
5. There weren’t any tickets left, ... ?
6. Y ou wouldn’t like the third row, ... ?
7. You haven’t got anything cheaper, ... ?
300 Essential Coarse

8. I suppose there’s nothing further back, ... ?


9. Y ou w on’t buy seats for а matinde, ... ?
10. There will be som eone to show us to our seats, ... ?

m a) Read the text with a dictionary. Translate it into Russian:

The First Night


There is usually a day or two before opening night to Fit the
sets into the stage area and rehearse scene changes. A lighting engi­
neer is brought in to establish the level o f lighting and to prepare a
list o f lighting cues. The stage director and his staff are also busy
collecting props for use in different scenes and in organising sound
effects and their cues. Final dress rehearsals bring together all these
elements and provide an opportunity for last minute alterations and
to get rid o f unnecessary delays.
On the opening night, performers and staff arrive in good time.
The “call-boy” - nowadays more often a loudspeaker system linked
to every dressing room - calls the “ half-hour”. The front-of-house
staff begins to receive the audience, to sell them a drink, a box o f
chocolates, a programme. The stage director checks the sets and the
readiness o f the stage staff to make the first changes. The cast begin
to make up and get into their costumes with the help o f dressers
who already have the costume changes waiting in their correct order.
The house lights are on, the stage lights dimmed. The electricians are
ready with their cues. “Beginners” are called and those performers
who open the play make their way down to the stage to take up
their positions. Music from a tape-recorder begins to flood the audi
torium. The footlights go on, lighting up the curtains or “tabs” as
they are called in the theatre. The first lighting pattern for the stage
is already set. The switch is thrown. The players lick their lips, clear
their throats, make final adjustment to their clothing. Everybody
stands by. There is a moment as though time has stood still. The
music fades, the curtain rises, there is an expectant cough and shuffle
from the audience. Som eone makes the first move or speaks the first
line. The play has begun ...
(From: Collins Children’s Encyclopedia o f the Arts o f the World)

b) Say what these people do in the theatre:


director player (performer) electrician call-boy
stage director attendant (usher) costume designer dresser
playwright lighting engineer stage designer audience
stage staff
Unit VIII 301

Read the following terms and say how they are used in the theatre:
stage sets (scenery) house lights loudspeaker system
curtain sound effects stage lights lighting effects
props dressing-room footlights

d) Say what people do:


in the foyer in the house on the stage
in the refreshment room in the boxes in the wings
in the cloakroom in the gods at the box-office
at the ticket agency

eq a) Imagine that you’ve been invited backstage. Describe your impressions.


b) Suppose you are a young actor. Describe your first appearance on the stage.

m a) Fill in the blanks with prepositions. Choose from: before, of, fo r,


to, by, from , outside.
Giuseppe Fortunino Francesco Verdi (1813-1901) was not born ...
wealth and fame. His father was an impoverished, illiterate innkeeper,
and the first music Verdi heard was ... the street singers ... his fa­
ther’s tavern. When his parents noticed Verdi’s talent, they sent him
... the village organist to study music, and he was writing com posi­
tions ... the local orchestra and the church ... he was 18. Verdi- was
very ambitious - a hard worker w ho had his first opera produced
when he was 23. Fifty years later he wrote Otello. ... that time he
was world famous ... dozens ... operas and was retired ... com posi­
tion, but he was persuaded to write Otello ... Arrigo Boito, the young
man who translated and revised Shakespeare’s play. Otello is one ...
Verdi’s most beautiful and intense dramatic works.

b) Retell the text.

m Describe a theatre or an opera house you know well. Say where it is


situated, what its interior is like and what actors play there. Mention
some of the most successful productions.
Remember, in English the names o f theatres and cinemas are used
with the definite article, e.g. the M oscow A rt Theatre, the M aya­
kovsky Theatre, the Taganka Theatre, etc.

Make up a conversation between two friends going to the theatre or


to the cinema. Mention:
• where you are going and when;
• what you are going to see;
• if it is a matin 6 e or an evening performance;
302 Essential Course

• where you’re going to sit;


• the price of the tickets;
• what you’re going to wear;
• where you’re going to meet and when.
EE T ra n s la te into E nglish:

1. Вчера я была в Большом театре, но плохо видела сцену, так


как у меня было неудобное место.
2. Он начал писать для сцены в возрасте сорока лет. С тех пор
он написал более двадцати пьес.
3. После спектакля режиссер отправился за кулисы, чтобы по­
здравить молодую актрису с премьерой.
4. Занавес поднялся, и мы увидели декорации. Они были очень
красочными и произвели на нас больш ое впечатление.
5. Я не люблю эстрадные представления, я предпочитаю класси­
ческую музыку. Поэтому я регулярно посещаю консерваторию
6 . Она сказала, что генеральная репетиция уже состоялась.
7. Занавес не поднимался, и нам пришлось его поднимать рука­
ми. Это было нелегко, так как он был очень тяжелый.
8 . Первое действие спектакля происходило в Америке, в 30-е годы.
9. Смотри не потеряй билеты. Лучше отдай их мне.
10. Я так давно не была в Малом театре! Мне хотелось бы уви­
деть там любую пьесу. Я люблю актеров М алого театра.
11. Ведь спектакль стоит посмотреть, правда? - Д а, наша самая
знаменитая актриса играет в нем главную роль. Хотя не могу
сказать, что мне нравится сама пьеса.
12. Актер надел парик и вышел на сцену. Раздался взрыв хохота.
13. Самые дорогие места - в партере, самые дешевые - на галер­
ке. Какие вы предпочитаете? - На галерке, у меня с собой
мало денег.
14. Пойдемте в бельэтаж и займем места в первом ряду. Мы
увидим сцену без бинокля.
15. После того, как упал занавес, актеров много раз вызывали на
сцену. Спектакль имел большой успех.
16. В конце песни дети зааплодировали.
17. В кулисах ждал врач, так как один из актеров почувствовал
себя плохо.
18. Я сомневаюсь, что из нее получится хорошая актриса. Она
слишком робкая и боится сцены.
19. Обратите внимание на старых актеров. Они всегда смотрят на
галерку. Эта привычка осталась с тех пор, как галерку запол­
няли бедные студенты, преданные театру.
20. Она сказала, что предпочитает сидеть в партере, потому что
оттуда очень хорош о видно сцену и лица исполнителей.
Unit VIII 303

ш a) You all know Shakespeare’s tragedy Othello, written in 1604. The


story of the opera Otello composed by Giuseppe Verdi was adopted
from this play. See if you remember the plot well and check yourself
by putting the names of characters and place names into the blanks.
The story is in front of you, and the names that you need are:
Emilia, Desdemona, Cassio, lago, Cyprus, Venice, Venetian, Moor,
Morocco.
The S t o r y
The action takes place in the late 1400’s in ....., which was con­
quered by ........
Otello is a ..... (from.......) who was stolen from his home when
he wasa child. When the story begins, Otello is a well-respected sol­
dier whohas risen to the rank of General in the Army. He has
been sent to govern the island of Otello’s wife ..... is a beauti­
ful . lady. They are.. passionately in love. The other important
characters in the story are the villainous ..... , his wife and ,
one of Otello’s soldiers.
is an ambitious, evil man who believes he deserves to be
Otello’s lieutenant (second in command). Instead, Otello gives the job
to ................. pretends to be a loyal friend, but secretly he despises
Otello sets into motion a plot to bring down both ..... and
Otello. t
When the opera begins, ..... is in the midst of a raging storm.
Thunder and lightning crack and flash as Otello’s victorious fleet of
ships tries to come into the port.
In celebration of their victorious battle against the Turks, the
soldiers enjoy a huge party where the wine flows freely arranges
for ..... to have more wine than he can handle and then sends a sol­
dier to pick up a fight with ........ When Otello runs in to stop the
violence, ...... blames the chaos on ........ Otello is furious with .....
and dismisses him saying, “You are no longer my lieutenant.” .....
has accomplished the first step of his plan.
The next day ...... tells ...... he should go plead his case with
and she will ask Otello to forgive him.
is left alone on the stage, and he sings his ‘credo’, or the
philosophy of his corrupt life. He looks out of the window and sees
talking to Part two of his plan begins to fall into place.
Otello enters the hall just as ..... leaves ................. makes sure
Otello sees them together, then acts as if he thinks there was some­
thing romantic about the encounter. Otello, a warrior used to violence
and treachery, is easily driven into a jealous rage. When ..... enters,
the first thing she does is innocently beg Otello to forgive ........
Otello’s jealousy steadily increases sees that Otello is very upset,
but she has no idea why, and she offers him her handkerchief to
304 Essential Course

wipe his forehead. Otello rejects the handkerchief, and it falls to the
floor where , ..... ’s wife and a servant to ......, picks it up........
then grabs the handkerchief from her and hides it in his shirt.
Otello is so upset that he tortures himself by imagining ..... with
; he says farewell to his fame, his troops, the flag he fought for,
and his life. He turns his anger violently on ..... , demanding proof of
’s infidelity tells his next big lie, claiming that he heard .....
talking in his sleep about being in love with ................. then asks
Otello about ’s handkerchief. Otello replies that the handkerchief
was his first gift to her. “Well,” says ..... (knowing the handkerchief
is hidden in his own shirt), “I have seen it in ’s hand.” The furi­
ous Otello now wishes ...... had many lives, since killing him once is
not enough punishment.
In the next scene, Otello calls ...... to him and tries to trick her
into admitting that she has been unfaithful. Otello asks her to show
him her handkerchief. She says she doesn’t have it, but will find it
later. Once more she asks him to forgive ........ By now Otello has
nearly lost his mind with jealousy, and he openly accuses her of un­
faithfulness. She is shocked and denies everything. After ..... runs out,
re-enters, telling Otello that is coming. With Otello hidden
and eaves-dropping, ...... makes it look as i f got the handkerchief
from ......... By now, Otello is absolutely convinced that ..... has been
unfaithful has retired to her bedroom. She falls to her knees to
say her evening prayers. She is asleep when Otello comes into the
room.
Otello approaches the bed and kisses ..... three times. When she
awakens, Otello tells her if she has anything to confess to God, she
should do it now. With horror, ..... realizes that Otello is planning
to kill her. Otello stifles her pleas for mercy and strangles her.
pounds on the door, and Otello lets her in. With her dying
breath, ...... tells...... that she has killed herself. ..... calls for help.
....... and other soldiers come running in, horrified to find .....
murdered. Then ..... accuses her husband ..... of lying, explaining
how he took the handkerchief from her.
races from the room when he realizes he has been found
out, and the soldiers go after him to arrest him. Otello is left with
the reality of what he has done to his innocent wife. Before the oth­
ers can stop him, he pulls a dagger from his shirt and stabs himself.
As he dies, he sings to ....., “Before I killed you, I kissed you, and
now that I die, a kiss ...... a kiss anotherkiss.....”
P.S. Having read the story you may ask, “Why is Othello’s
name spelled Otello in Verdi’s opera?” The answer is: because the
opera is in Italian, and in the Italian language there is no “th”
sound.
Unit VIII 305

Another question you are likely to ask is, “Why did Otello get
so jealous when he did not seem to have any reason to be?” In
Shakespeare’s play there are two quotes that help the audience better
understand Otello’s jealousy. Desdemona’s own father plants the first
seed of suspicion. He is so angry that Desdemona married Otello
without his permission that he says to Otello, “Look to her, Moor; if
thou hast eyes to see. She has deceived her father and may thee."
Also, Emilia notes that sometimes people are jealous simply for the
sake of being jealous. “They are not ever jealous for the cause, but
jealous for they are jealous: ‘tis a monster begot upon itself, born on
itself.”
b) R etell the sto ry o f O th e llo .

m R ead the e x tr a c t from S h a k e sp e a re ’s “ A s Y ou L ik e I t ” w ith a dic­


tio n ary and co m p a re it w ith the R u ssian tra n s la tio n . L earn the e x ­
tra c t by h eart:

ALL THE W O R L D ’S A STAGE


All the world’s a stage
And all the men and women merely players:
They have their exits and their entrances;
And one man in his time plays many parts,
His acts being seven ages. At first the infant,
Mewling and puking in the nurse’s arms;
And then, the whining schoolboy, with his satchel,
And shining morning face, creeping like snail
Unwillingly to school. And then, the lover;
Sighing like furnace, with a woful ballad
Made to his mistress’ eyebrow. Then a soldier;
Full of strange oaths, and bearded like the pard,1
Jealous in honour, sudden and quick in quarrel,
Seeking the bubble reputation
Even in the cannon’s mouth. And then, the justice,
In fair round belly with good capon lin’d,
With eyes severe, and beard of formal cut,
Full of wise saws and modern instances,
And so he plays his part. The sixth age shifts
Into the lean and slipper’d pantaloon,
With spectacles on nose, and pouch on side,
His youthful hose well sav’d, a world too wide
For his shrunk shank; and his big manly voice,

1 pard - leopard
306 E ssential Coarse

Turning again toward childish treble, pipes


And whistles in his sound. Last scene of all
That ends this strange eventful history,
Is second childishness, and mere oblivion;
Sans1 teeth, sans eyes, sans taste, sans every thing

ВЕСЬ МИР - ТЕАТР


Весь мир - театр.
В нем женщины, мужчины —все актеры.
У них свои есть выходы, уходы,
И каждый не одну играет роль
Семь действий в пьесе той. Сперва младенец,
Ревущий горько на руках у мамки...
Потом плаксивый школьник с книжной сумкой,
С лицом румяным, нехотя, улиткой
Ползущий в школу. А затем любовник,
Вздыхающий, как печь, с балладой грустной
В честь брови милой. А затем солдат,
Чья речь всегда проклятьями полна,
Обросший бородой, как леопард,
Ревнивый к чести, забияка в ссоре,
Готовый славу бренную искать
Хоть в пушечном жерле. Затем судья
С брюшком округлым, где каплун запрятан,
Со строгим взором, стриженой бородкой,
Шаблонных правил и сентенций кладезь, -
Так он играет роль. Шестой же возраст -
Уж это будет тощий Панталоне,
В очках, в туфлях, у пояса - кошель,
В штанах, что с юности берег, широких
Для ног иссохших; мужественный голос
Сменяется опять дискантом детским:
Пищит, как флейта... А последний акт,
Конец всей этой странной, сложной пьесы
Второе детство, полузабытье;
Без глаз, без чувств, без вкуса, без всего.
(П ер ево д Т . Щ еп кин ой -К уперн и к)

1 sans w ithout
Unit VIII 307

ЕЕ Look at the ticket and build up a story around it:

CX ■ = П = - ... .

RSC RSC RSC


ROYAL SHAKESPEARE THEATRE
As You Like It

FRI Evening
10 Nov 7.30 pm

BALCONY A 24

THE CONDITIONS ON WHICH THIS TICKET


IS SOLD ARE AVAILABLE FROM THE BOX OFFICE

£ 8.00 inc VAT (*)


BIRTHPLACE T210889WI0788A 24

EE a) Read the reviews and decide which of the two productions you
would prefer. Explain your choice.
a) Even before the performance, the atmosphere on the stage of
the Children's Theatre is so American that the Russian speech of the
actors comes as a surprise.
A realistic ferry passes by at the front edge of the stage where
two bosom friends, Tom Sawyer and Huckleberry Finn, are sitting
fishing in the orchestra pit. But maybe a real river flows down there,
because the boys jerk their rods up, sending splashes of water
around. Children from the frontrow dash to the stage to see whether
there is indeed a river there.
It’s a long time since the theatre heard such roaring laughter
from the audience as that heard during Timothy Mayson’s play Ad­
ventures of Tom Sawyer, staged by John Cranney in co-operation with
artist Marjory Kellogg and composer Alan Shorter from the USA
The American kids are played by the studio students with as much
zest as if they were having an exam in comedy acting.

b) The world’s greatest love story and the most popular ballet of
the twentieth century, Romeo and Juliet, returns to The Royal Ballet
repertoire after an absence of two seasons.
Sergey Prokofiev’s magnificent symphonic score has inspired doz­
ens of productions all round the world, but it is Sir Kenneth Mac­
Millan’s version, created for The Royal Ballet in 1965, which is con­
sidered the best known and most loved.
308 Essential Course

MacMillan’s spectacle gives audiences both the swirling drama of


the feuding families and the intimate tragedy of the innocent young
lovers doomed by fate. This season The Royal Ballet is happy to
welcome again Bernard Haitink, Music Director of The Royal Opera,
as a guest conductor.
b) W rite y o u r own review o f a p la y , o p e ra , b a lle t o r film .

m a ) R ead the te x t w ritte n by a sen io r sch o olg irl a b o u t her in terests:

My main interest is probably music. I enjoy listening to many


different kinds of music including classical, jazz and pop. My favour­
ite composers are Mozart and Tchaikovsky but there are many others
I like very much. My parents also love music and sometimes go to
concerts and operas, unfortunately not as often as they would like.
As well as listening to music I enjoy playing. I have been playing the
violin for nearly ten years and although I do not play very well 1
am good enough to enjoy playing with other people. I play in a folk
group with some friends. We play for folk dances and other events
and festivals. It is good to feel as though we are keeping traditions
alive. Young people are often surprised to find they have as much, or
even more fun at folk dances than at a disco.
As well as the orchestra and the folk music band, I play in a
small group with my mother and her friends. My mother is a piano
teacher and also plays the flute. We are not very good at playing
and spend most of the time chatting but occasionally we hold a small
concert for friends. We play a very different type of music, mainly
Bach or Mozart but it is just as much fun.
Although we do get a little bit of money for playing for folk
dances, that is not the reason I play. I will never be good enough to
be a professional musician but I hope I will be able to keep up
playing the violin when I am older because making music with
friends can be very enjoyable and satisfying. I hope people enjoy lis­
tening to us as much as I enjoy playing.
b) C o m plete these sentences:

1. Rachel enjoys listening to different kinds of music ...


2. Her parents also love music ...
3. She plays not only in the orchestra and the folk music band ...
4. She is not good enough to be a professional musician but she
hopes ...
c) S p e a k a b o u t your a ttitu d e to m usic g e n erally a n d to d ifferen t kinds
o f m usic in p a rtic u la r.

d) S p e a k a b o u t y o u r m ain in te re st. U se th e te x t above a s a m odel.


ш C om plete the colum ns. T ra n sla te the n am es o f in stru m en ts into R ussian:
violin violinist
cellist
flute..................................................
clarinettist
pianist
accordion.............................. ......
trumpet-player
trombone.............................. .....
saxophone .....
drummer
guitar .....
S3 O pen the b ra c k e ts an d u se th e verbs in th e p ro p e r form :

Mary, Carolyn, Jane and I (to sing) together for a year. We (to
sing) at school assemblies and school parties. Our quartet (to be)
formed one boring lazy afternoon at Jane’s house. We (to discover)
that our voices (to have) a wide range - two sopranos,1 a mezzo-
soprano,2and a contralto.3 Jane’s piano (to be) at once brought into
use to help us. Through September, October, and November we (to
practise) on Friday afternoons and Sundays. Mr. Sorrell, director of
our school chorus, (to ask) us to sing at the fall concert. We (to
sing) some beautiful old French songs for our French class, some
Elizabethan madrigals for English, and some ballads and folk songs
for Miss Martin’s history class. All this (to take) our weekends, but
we (to have) so much fun getting together and practising and per­
forming that we (not to mind).
m A nsw er th ese questions:

1. How often do you listen tothe radio and watch television?


2. Do you prefer radio or television?
3. Was there anything interesting on television last night? If there
was, what was it?
4. Did you hear thenews onthe radio thismorning? How much
do you remember, if you did?
5. What TV channel do you usually watch? Why?
6. What’s your favourite TV or radio programme?
7. Can you name any TV announcer (a newscaster, an interviewer, a
commentator, or a quiz master)? Which of them do you like? Why?

1 soprano - a high-pitched singing voice


2 mezzo-soprano - a voice lower in pitch than a soprano
3 contralto - a low-pitched singing voice
310 Essential Course

8. Broadcasts can be live or recorded. Can you give an example o f


either?
9. What TV programmes in your view are the most popular in this
country? Why?
10. What do you think o f the growing popularity o f television all
over the world?

Ш Make up conversations about watching TV. Use the suggested phrases:


I. D o you mind if I switch 2. Is there anything worth watching
over? on TV tonight?
I rather wanted to see ... D o you know what comes next?
I’ve been looking forward W hat’s on after the news?
to watching it all day. I couldn’t say for sure/certain.
I’m very keen on ... Let me look in the R adio Times.'
I’m not particularly fond If I remember rightly ...
o f ... The weather forecast is on after
I’ll go along with what- the news.
ever you decide. We mustn’t miss that.

Read the text and remember more facts connected with arts:
Do you know that ...
• Picasso, the Spanish artist who died in 1973, is estimated to have
produced over 13,000 paintings, as well as a great many engrav­
ings, book illustrations and sculptures, during his long career (he
lived to be 91)? This means that he painted an average 3 1/2
pictures every week o f his adult life.
• Leonardo da Vinci’s M ona Lisa is probably the world’s most
valuable painting? It was stolen from the Louvre, Paris, in 1911,
where it had hung since it was painted in 1507. It took two
years to recover. During that time, six forgeries turned up in the
U SA , each selling for a very high price.
• the Ashmolean Museum in Oxford, Britain, was built in 1679? It
is considered to be the oldest museum.
• the Winter Palace and the Hermitage in St. Petersburg have 322
galleries showing a total o f 3 million works o f art and archaeo­
logical exhibits? A walk around all the galleries is 24 km.
• the Beatles were the most successful pop group o f all time? They
sold over 1 ,0 0 0 million discs and tapes.

1 Radio Times - weekly magazine writing about BBC radio and TV pro­
grammes
• the smallest professional theatre in the world is to be found in
Hamburg, Germany? The Piccolo seats only 30 people. The Perth
Entertainment Centre, Australia, has a theatre that holds 80,000.

• Shakespeare, com m only thought the world’s greatest playwright,


wrote 37 plays in all? The longest is H am let. The role o f Hamlet
is also the longest written by Shakespeare.

• W olfgang Amadeus Mozart wrote about 1,000 pieces o f music,


including many operas and symphonies? He died aged 35, but
had been com posing since he was four. H e is thought to be one
o f the world’s greatest composers.

m Use the verbs in this extract from Suzanne Simmons’ ‘The Tempestuous
Lovers’ in their proper form. Retell it in indirect speech.
“I would like to tell this story to you, N icki. Perhaps it (to help)
you to understand my son better.” She paused as if to organize her
thoughts.
“It (to begin) during the war. I was signed to do a concert tour
o f England as part o f goodwill mission for the state department. I
(to perform ) in London when I met Eric’s father. He (to come) back­
stage to tell me how much he (to enjoy) the concert. He (to come)
every night for a week until one night I finally (to agree) to have a
late supper with him. It was a whirlwind courtship and we (to be)
married two weeks later. I was no dewy-eyed child, but we were su­
premely happy.” Louisa (to pause) and the girl could only imagine
the private memories she (to relive).
“You must understand the chaos that (to exist) in Europe at
that time. M y husband (to be) som e years older than I - he already
(to lose) his entire family - father, wife, tw o children. He (to have) so
much pain in his life, but he (to fig h t) on. He was a man o f heroic
proportions.” There was a quiet pride in her voice as she (to speak)
o f him again after more than three decades.
“We didn’t know how much time we (to have) together. He was
in the underground and I only (to see) him occasionally. Then he (to
come) to me one night, unexpectedly, to tell me ... that his first wife
and his two young sons (to be) miraculously found alive in a refugee
camp. There was nothing for us to do - but be strong. There were
so many goodbyes during the war. Ours was but one. And then, just
before my baby (to be) born I (to receive) a cable from Gaby telling
me that my - that Eric’s father (to be) killed while on a mission into
Denmark.” Her voice was so soft Nicki was forced to move closer to
bear the last few words.
312 Essential Course

m a) Tick what is true for you in this questionnaire.

1. Are you keen on reading? 2. How much do you read?


Very much so Every day
N o t really Once or twice a week
N ot at all Occasionally
Hardly ever

3. What do you read apart from fiction? 4. Do you read


Newspapers for your job?
M agazines for pleasure?
Comic books for self-education?
Reference literature

5. What kind o f books do you enjoy reading?


Historical books Books about outstanding people
Adventure books Books about animals
Romantic stories Books about travel
Horror stories Children’s books
Crime stories C ooking recipes
Books about sport

6. Where do you read?


A t college or at work On long journeys
On your way to college or work In the library
In bed At your desk
In the kitchen

7. Do you like to share your impressions of the book you’ve read and
who with?
Always With friends
Never With parents
It depends With brother(s) or sister(s)

Do you finish a book?


Always N o t always
A s a rule Hardly ever

b) Speak about your reading habits.


Unit УШ 313

S3 Translate into English:


1. Переключи на восьмой канал, я собираю сь смотреть свою
лю бимую комедию.
2. Пойдемте в Эрмитаж, мы не были там два года.
3. Балет «Ромео и Джульетта» сохраняется в нашем репертуаре
с 1965 года.
4. Какой канал телевидения вы обы чно смотрите? - Четвертый.
Они показывают очень хорош ие сериалы. К роме того, мне
нравятся новости и комментарии.
5. Ш експир написал 37 пьес. М оя любимая - «Гамлет». Я д у ­
маю, что каждый актер мечтает сыграть роль Гамлета.
6 . После того, как занавес опустился, раздались вежливые
хлопки, хотя мы ожидали бури аплодисментов.
7. Эта песня была гвоздем программы. Назавтра ее пел весь
город.
8 . М ногие театры в Москве имеют филиалы.
9. Она сказала, что готова играть лю бую роль, даж е без слов.
10. Говорят, спектакль освистали. Это правда? - К сожалению, да.
И . Она сказала, что собирается замуж и уже купила книгу ку­
линарных рецептов, потому что собирается кормить мужа
вкусными обедами.
12. «М оя прекрасная леди» - известный мюзикл. Он основан на
пьесе Бернарда Ш оу «Пигмалион».
13. Д оуренс Оливье (Laurence Olivier) был одним из величайших
английских актеров X X века. Он был первым директором
Национального театра. Он сыграл роли Гамлета, Генриха V,
Ричарда III и многие другие.
14. М ой любимый диснеевский персонаж - Бемби.
15. Э тот фильм ужасов не стоит смотреть, он совсем не инте­
ресный.
16. Кремль является историческим центром нашей древней сто­
лицы. Не пропустите экскурсию в Кремль.
17. К огда-то он был рабочим сцены, теперь он наш помощник
режиссера.
18. Она всегда испытывает волнение перед выходом на сцену,
хотя уже играет тридцать лет.
19. Великие актеры никогда не выходят из образа д о конца
спектакля.
20. Э то был сценический вариант романа «Анна Каренина».
Одна из молодых актрис играла роль Анны.
21. Д ж он Леннон был английским певцом и гитаристом, до
1969 года он входил в группу «Битлз».
22. Он сказал, что никогда не был в Третьяковской галерее. Мы
обещали сводить его туда, как только у нас будет время.
314 Essential Course

23. Давайте сходим на организованную экскурсию по городу.


Гид расскажет нам о б о всех местах, которые стоит увидеть.
24. Если погода будет дож дливой, мы не поедем к морю, а
пойдем в кино. В местном кинотеатре идет новый приклю­
ченческий фильм.
25. Спектакль провалился. Актеры были скованны, они плохо
знали свои роли.
26. В этой библиотеке масса справочной литературы. Если вам
нужен какой-нибудь словарь, они найдут вам его.
27. М олодые девушки лю бят сентиментальные романы о любви.
28. Я видела, как он брал в раздевалке бинокль, и поняла, что
его место не в первых рядах партера.
29. Если вы отправляетесь в длинное путешествие на поезде,
вам лучше взять с собой интересную книгу.
30. Она сказала, что очень увлекается американскими триллерами

т a) Read the beginning of the story “ Leading Lady” by Daphne du


M aurier and suggest your version of what Miss Fabian will do to gel
rid of the young and promising actor:
P aul H aynes, a theatre m anager, who is very p ro u d o f his high
morals is starting a new perform ance in one o f London's theatres He
asks M iss Fabian, a leading actress what she thinks o f M artin W il­
ton, a yo u n g and prom ising actor. P aul H aynes is intending the
young m an f o r a p a rt in his perform ance. M iss Fabian goes to a
matinee with the aim o f m akin g her opinion o f the actqr

She sat in the stalls without m oving a muscle o f her face. This
Martin W ilton was good. It was much too dangerous. Itwould be
fatal to have him in the new play. She w ould becom e a secondary
figure, her part would not matter at all.
And she had reached an awkward moment in her career. The
slightest slip, the sm allest m istake, and the attention would be
drawn away from her. People would say she was becom ing m o­
notonous, she was overplaying herself. N o , this boy was too good.
Already she could imagine the first night, with Martin W ilton get­
ting the applause. She would have to stand in the background and
efface herself, pushing him forward with a sm ile. Som ething had to
be done. He must be prevented at all costs from playing the part.
Mechanically she wrote a note to Martin W ilton after the matinde.
“Y our performance is quite m arvellous. N ever seen anything
like it. I want you to com e and be with me in my nextplay. Will
send it along for you to read tonight. W onderful part for you
Forgive me for not com ing round I’ve got to dash aw ay.”
Unit VU1 315

b) Read the end of the story and compare it tvith your own version:
She drove home, racking her brains for som e solution o f the
problem. After the rehearsal, when they had finished for the day, she
sat in front o f the mirror making up her face very carefully. Things
had gone exactly as she had feared; the boy had been wonderful -
never seemed to make a mistake, and his technique was uncanny.
H ow she hated him! Then the germ o f an idea came into her mind
In half-an-hour they were having dinner together in her flat. At
first he was painfully shy, he would scarcely say a word. Completely
unselfconscious on the stage, in private life he was nervous, clumsy,
aware o f his hands and feet. Soon he began to warm to the influence
o f the room, her voice, the excellent food.
He found himself speaking to her as if he had known her for
years. He was happy and at peace; she seemed to understand him so
well.
“H am let,” he was saying. “I want to play Hamlet as no one has
ever dared to play it before. There is som ething terrific about him,
misunderstood, suppressed. Y ou remember, in the beginning o f Act
Three ...”
“Yes, wonderful, wonderful!” she murmured. О G od, not Shake­
speare, not at this hour! If he went on much longer she felt she
would scream. What a fool he was!
She stirred slightly, and reached for his hand. “You dear, you
dear quixotic person. Y ou know, you remind me o f myself,” she told
him. “Oh, yes, quite a lot.All your ideas and beliefs. I so appreciate
your outlook on life. All for Art. A h, how well I understand! I
adore my work passionately.”
“It will almost break my heart if I d on ’t play this part with
you,” said Martin Wilton. “It’s the chance o f a lifetime. Supposing
Haynes thinks I’m no good?”
“O f course, you are young,” she said gently, “a little too young.
Paul Haynes is a very difficult man, but I think I can persuade
him.”
He seized hold o f her hands and kissed them. “Y ou are being
an angel to m e,” he said, flushing. “ I can’t ever forget this. Look
here - you ought to meet my wife; she is the most sympathetic per­
son in the world. I know you ’d like her. W e’ve only got a tiny flat,
but she’d adore to meet you. A nd we’ve got som e wonderful records
I’d love you to hear. A Beethoven concerto, Cesar Franck ...”
H e stumbled out o f the flat, not looking where he was going,
his head in the clouds, his mind filled with the glorious, impossible
future.
Thanking G od she was alone at last, she sank into a chair. Five
minutes after he had gone the telephone rang. It was Paul Haynes.
316 Essential Course

“Well, just tell me how it went. What about young Martin Wil­
ton? Is he going to be good? Will you like having him in the thea­
tre?”
She did not reply for a moment, and then laughed a little self­
consciously. “He was very much all there. His technique is marvellous
in anyone so young. He’s very good at his job. What more can I
say?”
“Look here, you’re keeping som ething back. D o n ’t pretend with
me. Martin Wilton was rude, bad-mannered?”
“N o , no. Please d on ’t ask me any more. It’s so unfair to the
boy. He probably didn’t realise what he was doing.”
“What are you driving at? W asn’t he sober? What did he do to
upset you?”
“Well, he - he tried to make the most violent love to me, that’s
all.” She laughed and shrugged her shoulders.
“I'm very sorry,” he said slowly. “But you remember what I told
you the other day? It’s just that type o f thing I want to stop. It’s
vicious and disgusting. H ow he dared try it on with you, that’s what
gets me! And to think I was going to offer him the chance o f his
life!”
Part И

PHONETIC
PRA CTICE
UNIT I

A . TEXT-BASED PHONETIC EXERCISES

Q Listen to the tape that goes with the text of Unit I. Pay attention
to the delimitation of the text (phonopassages - phrases - intonation
groups) and the accentuation of information centres. M ark stresses
and tunes. Prepare the text for reading.

0 Practise the sounds in the following words and phrases:


[i] well-built, English, Lynn, twins, difficult, still, trip
[i:] teacher, weekend, reading, teenage, she, he, people, means, seaside
|ej healthy, complexion, met, very, expression, friends, tennis, detective,
adventure, spends, collection, tell, pet, send
[ae] attractive, family, graduated, bachelor
[з:] university, journalism
[л] couple, sons, younger, wonderful, one, the other, wonder, love,
much, enough, money, brother
[a:] "Parker, rather, tasks, plants, laugh, last
[oj look, cooking, good
[u:] school, two, football
[d ] John, lot, golf, stories, washing, polishing, potted, fond, dog, col­
lege, often, holidays, watching
[o:] forty, tall, floor, watering, shopping, o f course, always, reporting
[ei] plays, player, name, day, they, make, stays, acquaintances
[ai] light, likes, wife, slightly, quite, time, ironing, alike, find, climbing,
fighting, quieter, Mike
[ui] noisy, boys, enjoys
[ia] career, theatres
[еэ] parents, their, year, hair
[оэ] during, usually
[ao] outings, out
|эо] local, close, both, so, no, home, hope, to go
320 Phonetic Practice

No devoicing before voiceless consonants:


• sh e is p ro u d o f h er co llectio n o f p o tte d p la n ts ;
• he h as a co u p le o f cjose frien d s;
• th ey a re fo n d o f fo o tb a ll;
• o f course;
• he is still a b ac h elo r.

Loss of plosion:
• lig h t b ro w n ;
• h e p la y s te n n is a n d golf;
• sh e is y o u n g e r th a n he a n d q u ite a ttra c tiv e ;
• he is a very g o o d te n n is p la y er.

Alvcolars replaced by dentals:


• he is a te ac h er a t th e local sch o o l;
• q t tjie w eekend.

Pronunciation of the linking |r|:


• h e r h a ir is light b ro w n ;
• th ey arg a j school;
• th ey a re a) hom e.

Q Transcribe the following phrases, mark stresses and tunes. Intone them.

1. J o h n P a rk e r is a b o u t fo rty , r a th e r tall a n d w ell-b u ilt.


2. H e p la y s te n n is a n d g o lf every w ee k en d a n d h e lik es re a d in g d e­
tective a n d a d v e n tu re stories.
3. S he is slig h tly y o u n g er th a n he a n d q u ite a ttra c tiv e .
4. She sp e n d s a lo t o f h er d ay d o in g ta s k s a b o u t th e house: th e
iro n in g a n d th e w ash in g , p o lis h in g th e flo o r, w a te rin g th e flow ers,
co o k in g a n d sh o p p in g .
5. T h ey a re tw in s an d so alik e th a t p e o p le fin d it d ifficu lt to tell
o n e fro m the o th e r.
6. N o w o n d e r th e h o u se is m u ch q u ie te r w h en th ey a re a t school
th a n w h en they a re a t hom e.
7. B u t o f co u rse th e p a r e n ts still love th e ir b o y s v ery m uch.
8. H e is tw enty-five, ta lle r th a n his eld er b r o th e r, b ro a d -sh o u ld e re d ,
g o o d -lo o k in g a n d alw ay s rea d y to h av e a g o o d la u g h .
9. D u rin g th e h o lid a y s th e fam ily likes to go o u t o n o u tin g s.
Unit I 321

0 Listen to the tape that goes with the dialogue of Unit I. Pay atten­
tion to the delimitation of the dialogue (diaiogical units - phrases -
intonation groups) and the accentuation of information centres. Mark
stresses and tunes. Prepare the text for reading.

s Before you start reading the dialogue practise the sounds in the fol-
lowing words and phrases:
[l] v ictim , a little, th in k , th is, p ic tu res
[i:l p o lic e m a n , he, m edium
[e] yes, te n , h ea v y , a n y , le n g th , help, very, an y w a y , w ell, checked,
g ettin g
Ы th a t’s, b la c k , p la id , lu m b e ija c k s, p a n ts , n a rro w s
[з] curly, s h irt, p erso n
1л] d o e sn ’t, m u c h , so m ew h ere
[a:] m a rk s, glasses, d a rk
[0 ] lo o k
[u:] y o u , blue, sh o e s, b o o ts
Ы n o t, w h a t, lo n g , w an t
lo:] s h o rt, all rig h t
[ei] sa y , w eig h t, m ay b e, face, s tra ig h t 4
lai] * h eig h t, rig h t, five, n in e, sid e, k in d , h ik in g
In.] b o y , cow boy
Ы h a ir, w earin g
M su re
[ao] a r o u n d , a b o u t, b ro w n , h o w , c o w b o y , d o w n , no w
lao] su p p o se , n o , d o n ’t, s o , clo th es, k n o w

B. FURTHER SO UND PRACTICE

The V o w e l |i:|
E Listen and repeat:
bean e a tin g pea cheeks peel E d ith
xheap je a n se a t cheese see ev en in g
easy m eal te a heel sheep Peter
eat m eat leek ih re e
322 Phonetic Practice

Listen to the following dialogue. M ark stresses and tunes. Memorize


the dialogue.

1n Restaurant
Peter: W h a t w o u ld y o u like to $ at, E d ith ?
Edith: A m e at sa n d w ich .
Peter: Je an ? W o u ld y o u like a m eat sa n d w ich o r a cheese s a n d ­
w ich?
Jean: A cheese sa n d w ic h , please.
Peter: G o o d evening. W e’ll h av e o n e m e a t sa n d w ic h a n d tw o
cheese sand w ich es.
Edith: A n d th re e te a s, please.
Waiter: (writing down the order) O n e m e a t sa n d w ic h ... tw o cheese
san d w ich es ... a n d th ree teas.

(3 Suppose you arc in a restaurant. O rder your meal using the following
words and phrases: coffee, tea, cheese, cheese cake , cream, ice-cream,
peaches , hearts, peas, teak, leak soup, pea soup.

Q Read and learn the following phrases, proverbs and rhymes:


1. Please believe me. 6 . A sa ilo r w ent to sea
2. P lease leave m e in peace. T o see w h a t h e co u ld see,
3. E x trem es m eet. B ut all he c o u ld see
4. S eeing is believing. W a s se a, se a , sea.
5. A frien d in need is a 7. I f all th e seas w ere o n e sea,
frien d indeed. W h a t a g reat sea th a t w ould be!

The V o w e l (ij
EE Listen and repeat:
li:] - Ы !>:] - l.l [i l - I.)
sh eep - sh ip cheeks - chicks ch eek - chick
b e a n - b in heel - hill feel - fill
ea^ - peel - pill rea ch - rich
se a t - sit le ad - lid
leek - lick w h ea t - w it

Ш Listen and repeat:


it’s In d ia n s film M rs. S m ith
isn ’t in te re stin g m in u tes fifty
ill T im b eg in n in g six ty
4

Unit I 323

EE Listen to the dialogue. M ark stresses and tunes. Memorize the dia­
logue.
Bill: Is T im in?
Lyn: Is he co m in g to th e p ic tu res?
S m ith : T im ’s ill.
Bill: H e re he is. H ello , T im .
Tim: H ello , Bill.
Lyn: A re y o u ill, T im ?
Tim: Is it a n in te re stin g film ?
Lyn: I t ’s Big Jim ant! the Indians.
Bill: A n d it begins in six m in u tes.
Smith: I f y o u a re ill, T im ...
Tim: Q uick! O r w e’ll m iss th e b e g in n in g o f th e film

EE Read the following contrasts:


b it - bid beat b ea d
hit - hid - heat - heed
lick - Pig - leak leag u e

EE a) Listen to some recorded sentences and tick the words you h e a r:,
1. sh eep , sh ip 4. c h e a p , ch ip
2. been, b in 5. heel, hill
3. cheeks, chicks 6. p eel, pill

b) Now check your answers in the keysentences:


1. H e w a n ts a sheep fo r h is b irth d a y . 4 I t ’s a cheap m achine.
2. T h a t's a very sm all bin. 5. W h a t a h igh Лес/!
3. L o o k a t th ese chicks. 6. D o n ’t e a t th a t pill

EE Read and learn the following:


• I t ’s a p ity th a t little K itty lives in a b ig city.

• Six little k itte n s lost th e ir m itten s.

• I t’s a p ity , th ey w ere so p re tty .

• L ittle Bill, sit still.


W ill yo u sit still, little Bill?
I f yo u sit still, little Bill,
Jim m y N ill will b rin g y o u to a b ig hill.
324 Phonetic Practice

The D i p h t h o n g [iaI
L isten and rep eat:

[i:] - M [•:) Ы
e - ear pea - pier
bee — beer bead - beard
tea - tear

a ) L isten to som e re co rd e d sentences and tick th e w ords

1. bee, beer 4. pea, pier


2. tea, tear 5. e’s, ears
3. bead, beard 6. D ee, dear

b) Now check y o u r an sw ers w ith th e key sen ten ces:

1. I’ve just swallowed a beer. 5. There should be two e ’s and


2. The tear fell on floor. you ’ve only got one.
3. What a funny bead'. 6 . H ow are you, dear?
4. What a lovely green pier!

EE L isten and re p e a t:
Lear clear mountaineer disappeared
here year cheers Austria
hear idea nearly windier
dear atmosphere bearded easier

EE L isten to the follow ing d ialo g u e. M a r k stre sse s a n d tunes. M em o rize


it.
(Mr. and Mrs. Lear are on holiday in A ustria.)

Mr. Lear. Let’s have a beer here, dear.


Mrs. Lear. What a good idea! They have very good beer here. We
came here last year.
Mr. Lear. The atmosphere here is very clear.
M rs. Lear: And it’s windier than last year
Mr. Lear (speaking to the waiter): Tw o beers, please.
Mrs. Lear: Look, dear! Look at the mountaineer drinking beer4
Mr. Lear: His beard is in his beer.
Mrs. Lear: His beard has nearly disappeared into his beer!
Mr. Lear: Sh, dear. He might hear.
W aiter (bringing the bear): Here you are,sir. Tw o beers.
Mr. Lear (drinking his bear): Cheers, dear!
Mrs. Lear: Cheers! Here’s to the bearded mountaineer!
Unit 1 325

FT*1 Read the following phrases:


• Here they are. • A mountaineer always drinks
• Here’s the beer. beer in the mountains.
• I can hear Mr. Lear. • He fears her tears.
• Mr. Lear calls her “dear”. • The fierce storm filled us with
• H e’s a mountaineer. fears.
• Here are all the books. • The engineer disappeared in the
• The beer is here on the rear.
table. • A glass o f beer will cheer you up
• He can hear us too. • He lost all that was near and
• Dear old Mrs. Lear is here dear to him.
in the kitchen. • Steer clear o f places like that.

The C o n s o n a n t [p]
EH L isten and re p e a t:
a pen a passenger a plastic plate empty
a pencil a policeman an apple helpful
a pin a newspaper please stop talking
a pear a pepper pot people upstairs
Peter a spoon pretty surprise perhaps
Poppy a piece o f pork pie a cup stop pulling
Paris an airport a pipe dropped
a pocket stupid an envelope Mr Tupman
a postcard impatient a stamp help me
a passport a plane help stop shouting

m L isten to the d ialo g u e. M a rk stre sse s an d tunes. M cm ori/.c it.

(M r and Mrs. Tupman are a t the airport. They have ju st got o f f the
plane fr o m Paris.)
O fficial: Passports, please!
Mr. Tupman: I think I’ve lost the passports, Poppy.
Mrs. Tupman: H ow stupid o f you, Peter! D idn’t you put them in
your pocket?
Mr. Tupman (em ptying his pockets): Here’s a pen ... a pencil ... my
pipe ... a postcard ... an envelope ... a stam p... a pin.
Mrs. Tupman: Oh, stop taking things out o f your pockets. Perhaps
you put them in the plastic bag.
Mr. Tupman (emptying the plastic bag): Here’s a newspaper ... an
apple ... a pear ... a plastic cup ... a spoon ... some
paper plates ... a piece o f pork pie ... a pepper pot ...
326 Phonetic Practice

Mrs. Tupman: Oh, stop pulling things out o f the plastic bag, Peter.
These people are getting impatient.
Mr. Tupman: Well, help me, Poppy.
Mrs. Tupm an: We’ve lost our passports. Perhaps w e’ve dropped them
on the plane.
Official: Then let the other passengers pass, please.
M r. Tupman: Poppy, why don’t you help? Y ou aren’t being very
helpful Put the things in the plastic bag.
Official: Your name, please?
Mr. Tupman: Tupman. .
Official: Please go upstairs with the policem an, Mr. Tupman.

EE R ead the follow ing:

• He bought a pen.
• He bought a pen and a pencil.
• He bought a pen and a pencil and a pin.

m P ra c tis e and m em ori/.c:


Peter Piper picked a peck o f pickled peppers.
A peck o f pickled peppers Peter Piper picked.
If Peter Piper picked a peck o f pickled peppers,
Where is the peck o f pickled peppers Peter Piper picked?

Sally speaks Spanish, What language she’s speaking


But not very well. Or trying to speak.
When she tries to speak Spanish The first time I heard her,
Y ou really can’t tell I thought it was Greek.
** *
Peter, Peter, pumpkin eater
Had a wife and couldn’t keep her.
He put her in a pumpkin shell
And thus he kept her very well.

The C o n s o n a n t [b]
EE L isten and rep eat:

[p] - [b] [p] - [b]


pin - bin cap - cab
pen - Ben pup - pub
pear - bear Poppy - Bobby
Unit 1 327

m a ) L isten to som e reco rd ed sen ten ces an d tic k th e w ords you h ea r:

1. pin, bin 3. pup, pub 5. pack, back


2. Poppy, Bobby 4. pig, big 6. peach, beach

b) N ow check y o u r a n sw e rs w ith th e key sen ten ces:


1. That’s a very small bin. 4. It’s a big house.
2. My friend’s name is Poppy. 5. Put it on the horse’s back.
3. That pup is very noisy. 6. What a lovely peach

m R ead and m em ori/.e th e follow ing:

The bear could not bear the boar.


The boar thought the bear a bore.
A t last the bear could bear no more.
That boar that bored him on the moor.
And so once more he bored the boar.
That boar will bore the bear no more.

The C o n s o n a n t [m]
m L isten and re p e a t:
Mum maybe Cambridge come smart ,
me tomorrow remertvber som e Mummy
met summer him home home-made
may family Tim Smith Tom Mitcham
make crumpets time small

M em orize th e follow ing rhym es:

Meet me in the morning. Meet me at midnight.


Meet me at noon. Meet me in the hall.
Meet me in September, Meet me in the summer
Or in the middle o f June. Meet me in the fall.

Meet me in the evening.


Meet me at eight.
I’ll meet you anytime you want
But please don’t be late.

Personal Questions
Where were you born? H ow tall are you?
I’d rather not say. How old are you?
Where are you from? H ow much do you weigh?
I’d rather not say. I’d rather not say
328 Phonetic Practice

H ow much rent do you pay? Where were you last night?


I’d rather not say. Why weren’t you home?
H ow much do you make? D id you stay out late?
I’d rather not say. D id you come home alone?
Why aren’t you married? Did you have a good time?
I’d rather not say. Did you see a good play?
Why don’t you have children? D id you go to a concert?
I’d rather not say. I’d rather not say.

Solom on Grundy Worse on Friday.


Born on Monday. D ied on Saturday.
Christened on Tuesday. Buried on Sunday.
Married on W ednesday. That was the end
Ill on Thursday. o f Solom on Grundy

C . FURTHER IN T O N A T IO N PRACTICE

IN T O N A T IO N PATTERN I
(L O W P R E -H E A D + ) LOW FALL ( + T A IL )

M odels: - I’ve just seen Tom . - .W h e re ?

W hose book is this? - .M a r y ’s, I o th in k .


I » t Q

- W hat’s his job? - H e ’s a .d o c to r. _

S tr e s s - a n d -to n e m a r k s in th e te x t:

L o w F a ll: [ , ] H a lf- s tr e s s e d sy lla b le s: [ о ]

U n stressed sylla b les h a v e n o grap h ic in d ic a tio n in th e text.


T h e L o w F a ll in th e n u cleu s starts so m e w h a t h igh er than the
m id -level o r lo w er a n d usually reach es th e lo w est level. T h e
unstressed sylla b les w h ich fo rm th e tail are p ro n o u n c ed o n th e
lo w est level p itch . T h e u n stressed sy lla b les fo rm in g th e p re-h ead
are p r o n o u n c e d either o n th e lo w level p itch o r rise gradually.
Unit 1 329

This intonation pattern is used:


1. In statements (final, categoric, calm, reserved), e.g.:
- W hose book is this? - It’s .Mother’s.
2. Inspecial questions (calm,serious,fla t, reserved, very often
unsympathetic), e.g.:
- One book is missing. - .Which?
3. In imperatives (calm, unemotional,serious), e.g.:
- I’ll send it to him. - .Don’t.
- H ow can I get in touch with Nick? - .Phone him.
4. In exclamations (calm, unsurprised, reserved), e.g.:
- H e’s just arrived. - .Fine!

2*J a) Run your eyes through thedescription of Intonation Pattern I


given above.
b) Listen carefully to the following conversational situations. Concen­
trate your attention on the intonation of the replies.

LOW FALL O N LY

Verbal Context Response


Statem ents
(final, categoric, calm, reserved)

Can you come tomorrow? - Yes.


Whose book is this? - Mine.
When can you do it? - Now.
Where does he come from? - France.
What subject do you prefer? - French./Maths.
W hat’s your name? - Smith./JonesJBrown.

Special Questions
(calm, serious, fia t, reserved,
very often unsympathetic) ■

Take only one o f them. - Which?


Just tell him. - What?
330 Phonetic Practice

- Make them at once. - H ow ?


- I saw a friend o f yours today. - W ho?
- Borrow som eone’s dictionary. - W hose?

Imperatives
(calm, unemotional, serious 1

- Would you mind calling your dog? - H ee l./S it./D o w n ./H ere.
- Shall we have another game? - I ^ t ’s.

Exclamations
(calm, unsurprised)

- He's just arrived. - Oh!/Right!/Good!/Fine!

EE a) Listen to the replies and repeat them in the intervals. Make your
voice fall as low as possible.
b) Listen to the verbal context and reply in the interval.
EE Listen carefully to the following conversational situations. Concentrate
your attention on the intonation of the replies.

LOW FALL + TAIL

M odel: .Yes, o M a ry .
Л с .

Verbal Context Response


Statements
(final, categoric, calm, reserved)
Where do you com e from? - India.
How old are you? - Seven.
Will you send it to me? - Yes, sir.

Special Questions
(calm, serious, fla t, reserved, very
pflen unsympathetic)
Pass me that box, Joan - W hich box?
H e’s away quite often. - H ow often?
She’s got something in her eye. - W hich eye?
H e’s broken a window. - W hose window , m ay Г ask?

Imperatives
(culm, unemotional serious)
- How can I get in touch with Miles? — Phone him.
Unit 1 331

Exclamations
(calm, unsurprised)

- Would you like an apple? - Thank you.


- Oh, I'm cold. * - Nonsense!/Rubbish!
- I’ve lost my ball. - Pity!

EE a) Listen to the replies and repeat them in the intervals. Make your
voice fall as low as possible. Do not forget to link the words to­
gether.

b) Listen to the verbal context and reply in the interval.

EE Listen carefully to the following conversational situations. Concentrate


your attention on the intonation of the replies.

LOW PR E -H E A D + LOW FALL ( + T A IL )

M odel: - H e’s a ,teacher.

VerbaI Context Response


Statem ents
(final, categoric, calm, re­
served)

- Whose pen is this? - Patricia’s./It’s mine.

Special Questions
(culm, serums, fia t, reserved,
very often unsympathetic)

Som eone’ll have to do it. - But who?


You'll find it in the drawer. - In which drawer?

Imperatives
(calm, unemotional, serious)

It's my book. Well, take it then.


What shall I do with these figures? Divide them./Remember
them.

Exclamations
(calm, unsurprised)

Did you lock the back door? O f course.


I’m afraid I've got a cold. N o wonder.
332 Phonetic Practice

m a) Listen to the replies and repeat them in the intervals. Make your
voice fall as low as possible. Do not forgetto link the words together.
b) Listen to the verbal context and reply in the interval.

Repeat all the replies until they sound perfectly natural to you. See
that your Russian pronunciation habits do not interfere.

m Listen to a fellow student reading the replies. Tell him what his er­
rors in intonation are.

m Listen to your teacher reading the verbal context below. Reply by


using one of the responses. Pronounce it with Intonation Pattern I.
Say what attitude you mean to render.

Verbal C ontext Response


- Is your brother in? - Yes.
- Have you any cousins? - No.
— W hose exercise book is this? - Mine.
- H ow old is your brother? - Ten.
- H ow old are you? - Twenty.
- May we go? - No, girls.
- May I go? - Yes, Betty.
- W ho is on duty today? - I am.
- May I switch o ff the tape-recorder? - Yes, please.
- W ho is absent today? - No one is.
- W hose book is this? - It’s Mary’s.
- When is he coming? - Tomorrow.
- Where is your sister? - At the Institute.
- May I ask you a question? - O f course, you may.
- Can I help you with the tape? - O f course, you can.
- W hat’s your uncle’s job? - He’s a turner.
- Where is Ann? - She’s out now.
- Where do you com e from? - Ukraine.
- Why do you stay here so long? - I have to.
- Where is your teacher? - At the dean’s office.
- Will you switch on the tape-recorder? - How?
- May I go and see him? - When?
— I’ve got a new flat. - Where?
— I’m afraid I can’t leave at once. - Why?
— Pass me the book, Tom. - Which one?
- He is on duty very often. - How often?
- Will you bring the tape? - Which tape?
Unil I 333

One book is missing. - Which one?


Som eone’ll have to do it. - But who?
I must go now. - Do.
I’ll stop him. - Don’t.
What do you want me to do? - Stay.
What shall I do now? - Write.
H ow can I get in touch with him? - Phone him.
It’s my book. - Then take it.
I’m afraid to miss the train. - Hurry up, then.
I don’t know this poem well enough. - Repeat it, then.
What shall I do with those naughty boys? - Ignore them.
All the students are present. - Fine!
Here’s the tape. - Thanks.
Y ou ’ve got many mistakes in pronunciation. - Oh!
We can go now. - Fine!
D o n ’t go so fast. - Good!
W e’ve got no ear-phones. - Pity!
I’ve already cleaned the blackboard. - Thank you, Mary.
Here’s the book. - Thank you, Tom.

m Your teacher will suggest a verbal context. You in turn respond by using:
a) statements, sounding final, categoric, calm, reserved;
-b) special questions, sounding calm, serious, flat, reserved or unsym­
pathetic;
c) imperatives, sounding calm, unemotional, serious;
d) exclamations, sounding calm, unsurprised, reserved.

EE Read the following rhythmic groups. Observe quick pronunciation of


unstressed and partially stressed syllables:

a) .Write ,to her. b) I can .answer you.


.Read ,to me. I can .wait .for you.
.Wait ,for them. It was .wonderful.
.Talk ,to her. It’s im.possible.
.Mary can. Y ou must .tell them .that.
.Answer it. He can .write ,to you.
.Certainly. I can .give it .to them.
.Open it. They must .keep it /o r you.
.Tell them .that. Y ou could .do it .for me.
.N obody is.
334 Phonetic Practice

IN T O N A T IO N PATTERN II
(LOW PRE-HEAD + ) HIGH HEAD + LOW FALL ( + TAIL)
If th ere is o n ly o n e stro n g ly stressed sy lla b le in th e h ead ,
th e fo llo w in g w eak sy lla b les are p r o n o u n c e d on th e sam e level
w ith th e p reced in g stressed syllab le.

Model:

- How much - ~*Моге than we can af.ford.


does it cost? i.

— Not 'more than we can


afford now.
Stress-and-tone mark in the text: M
T h is in to n a tio n pattern is used:
1. In statem ents {final, ca teg o ric, p e r s o n a lly in vo lved ), e.g.:
- I hate cabbage. - 'So do we .all.
2. In special questions {serious, intense, im p a tie n t. co n cern ed ), e g. :
- You can’t have this book. - "'Which one can I.have?
• *
3. In im peratives (serious, intense, c a te g o ric ), e.g.:
- What do you think you are doing? - "'Mind your own .business.
4. In ex cla m a tio n s (e m p h a tic , c o n cern ed ), e.g.:
- He says it was your fault. - "'How.ri.diculous.

ш a) Run your eyes through the description of Intonation Pattern II


given above.
b) Listen carefully to the following conversational situations. Concen­
trate your attention on the intonation of the replies.
Verba! Context Response
Statements
(final, cateyoric. personalty
involved)
- I hate cabbage - S o do I.
- I can’t bear Julia. _ Neither can I, nor can my
mother.

Unit I 335

- David’s grown a beard. - H e has.


- How much does it cost? - Five shillings.
- What’s the time, please? - F o u r o ’clock./Five p ast ele-
ven./T en m inutes to nine.
- Have you any news of Malcolm? - H e ’s passed his e x a m s ./1
w as ta lk in g to him y esterd ay .

Special Questions
(serious, intense, often suggesting #
irritation or impatience)

Harry’s not coming to tea. W h o is com ing to te a , then?


You can’t have that book. W hich one can I have?
I’m afraid I can’t do it. C a n ’t d o w hat?
I won't be able to go. W hy ever not?

Imperatives
(firm, serious, pressing)

What do you think you are doing? M in d y o u r ow n business.


I’m going to resign. D o n ’t be ridiculous.
What do you want? W rite him a letter.

Exclamations
(rather emphatic)

He says it was your fault. H ow ridiculous!


I’ve sprained my ankle. I ’ll m a k e you a p resen t o f it.
Thanks awfully!
EE a) Listen to the replies and repeat them in the intervals. Observe
high-level tone of the head. Do not forget to link the words together.
M ake your voice fall on the last stressed syllable.
*
b) Listen to the verbal context and reply in the interval.

EE Repeat all the replies until they sound perfectly natural to you. See
that your Russian pronunciation habits do not interfere.

EE Listen to a fellow student reading the replies. Tell him what his er­
rors in intonation arc.

EE Listen to your teacher reading the verbal context below. Reply by-
using one of the responses. Pronounce it with Intonation Pattern II.
Say what attitude you mean to render.

Verbal Context Response


I am hungry. — S o am I.
I’m not thirsty. — N eith er a re we.
336 Phonetic Practice

I can’t translate it. - Neither can I.


D o you often read English - Every chance I get.
newspapers?
When can you come? - Any time after six o’clock.
Where is my book? - I think you left it on
the table.
Where did you see him? - In Room twenty-four.
What did you do on Sunday? - I spent the whole day in the
park.
When did you start - I started to learn it
learning English? about three years ago.
When can you come? - Whenever you invite me.
What shall I do? - It’s up to you.
W hat’s the time? - I suppose it’s about eleven.
Why are you in a hurry? - I’ve got to catch a train.
I don’t like this film. - I entirely agree with you.
Will you give me your pen? - What do you want it for?
Pass the sugar! - Why don’t you say please?
Will you go and see Helen? - What street does she live in?
I’ve done the translation. - What will you do next?
I came on Tuesday morning. - At exactly what time?
The weather is horrid. - Then why can’t you stay?
I’ve finished my translation. - Now aaswer the questions.
What shall I do with the book? - Give it back to Kitty.
What shall I do? - Read the first paragraph.
I don’t like porridge. - Eat it up, I say.
How long do you want me - Stay as long as you can.
to stay there?
The doctor says it’s not serious. - Then don’t make so much
fuss about it.
I can’t undo the door. - T r y another key.
H ow long can I have it? - Keep it as long as you like.
I’ll give you an interesting - Thanks awfully.
book to read.
How do you do! - How do you do!
Lovely day, isn’t it? - Isn’t it beautiful!
Here’s to you. - Your very good health!
She asked us to tea. - How perfectly charming of her!
Here’s your tea. - What a big piece of cake
you’ve given me!
W e’re going picnicking.