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Московская финансово-промышленная академия

Турук И.Ф.
Самойлова Т.Т.
Лобанова Е.И.

English for Students of


Management

Москва 2004
Турук И.Ф., Самойлова Т.Т., Лобанова Е.И. English for students of
management / Московская финансово-промышленная академия – М,
2004. с.114.

Задачей пособия является научить студентов лексическим основам


чтения специального текста по тематике «Менеджмент» и
актуализировать знания по грамматике при чтении и понимании текста.
Пособие предназначено для студентов и слушателей всех форм
обучения с использованием дистанционных образовательных
технологий, а также для преподавателей высших и средних специальных
учебных заведений.

© Турук Ирина Федоровна, 2004


© Самойлова Тамара Тимофеевна, 2004
© Лобанова Евдокия Ивановна, 2004
© Московская финансово-промышленная академия, 2004

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Contents

Введение........................................................................................................... 4
Unit 1................................................................................................................. 6
Unit 2............................................................................................................... 12
Unit 3............................................................................................................... 18
Unit 4............................................................................................................... 23
Unit 5............................................................................................................... 30
Unit 6............................................................................................................... 34
Unit 7............................................................................................................... 39
Unit 8............................................................................................................... 44
Unit 9............................................................................................................... 49
Unit 10............................................................................................................. 54
Final Test......................................................................................................... 61
Grammar Reference ........................................................................................ 66
Business Case Study........................................................................................ 85
Supplementary Reading .................................................................................. 95

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Введение

Цель: данное учебное пособие (УПП) предназначено для


студентов, изучающих английский язык в условиях дистанционного
обучения по специальности «Менеджмент». Задачей УПП является
научить студентов лексическим основам чтения специального текста по
тематике «Менеджмент» и актуализировать знания по грамматике при
чтении и понимании текста.
В лексическом корпусе текстов выделяется терминологический
слой, который необходимо усвоить для чтения литературы по
менеджменту. Под термином понимается слово (или словосочетание),
языковой знак которого соотнесен с соответствующим понятием в
системе данной области знаний. Термину свойственно наличие у него
строгой, точной дефиниции (определения) и однозначности перевода.

Содержание: УПП состоит из 10 Units, Business Case Study,


Supplementary Reading, Grammar Reference, Final Test.

Каждый Unit состоит из 4 разделов:


1. Information for Study.
2. Exercises.
3. Vocabulary items.
4. Test.

В первом разделе представлены оригинальные тексты по


менеджменту для ознакомления студентов с разными разделами теории
менеджмента, лексическим и грамматическим наполнением их.
Во втором разделе даются упражнения, которые студент
выполняет с целью усвоения лексических, грамматических и речевых
навыков профессионально ориентированной направленности. В третьем
разделе дается список слов по тексту, четвертый раздел содержит тест.

Методические замечания: все упражнения выполняются в той


последовательности, в которой они даны в УПП. Большинство
упражнений студент должен делать письменно в тетради в соответствии
с заданиями. Выполненные задания студент предъявляет «тьютору»
(руководитель) с целью выявления правильности понимания и решения
задач, а затем выполняет тест, который проверяет по ключу с целью
самоконтроля и выявления ошибок. Прежде чем выполнить
грамматические задания студент должен повторить соответствующую
тему по грамматическому справочнику.

После усвоения учебного материала студент пишет Final Test,


который определяет его уровень подготовки по данному разделу курса

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английского языка в системе дистанционного обучения. Тест
оценивается «тьютором» или электронной системой (в случае ее
наличия).

Раздел Business Case Study введен в УПП для закрепления


полученных знаний и навыков в процессе работы по разделам (Units).
Кроме того, Business Case Study дает дополнительную информацию о
конкретных примерах из области управления. Тексты из раздела
Business Case Study студент читает и переводит письменно со словарем
(выборочно) для получения точной информации и проверки навыка
чтения и перевода специального текста, а также письменно отвечает на
вопросы по тексту.

Чтение текстов из раздела Supplementary Reading студент


осуществляет параллельно изучению Units по смежной тематике.
Усвоенная лексика по данной тематике дает возможность прочесть и
понять текст без словаря.

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Unit 1

I. Information for study.

Прочтите и постарайтесь понять текст.

MANAGEMENT: AN OVERVIEW

What Is Management?

Management is the process of achieving organizational goals through


engaging in the four major functions of planning, organizing, leading, and
controlling. This definition recognizes that management is an ongoing
activity, entails reaching important goals, and involves knowing how to
perform the four major functions of management.

Fig. The Functions of management

Planning:
Setting goals and
deciding how best to
achieve them
Controlling: Organizing:
Regulating Allocating and
activities arranging resources
to reach goals
Leading:
Influencing others
to work toward goals

Management functions

Planning. Planning is the management function that involves setting


goals and deciding how best to achieve them. This function also includes
considering what must be done to encourage necessary levels of change and
innovation.
Organizing. Organizing is the management function that focuses on
allocating and arranging human and nonhuman resources so that plans can be
carried out successfully. It is through the organizing function that managers
determine which tasks are to be done, how tasks can best be combined into
specific jobs, and how jobs can be grouped into various units that make up the
structure of the organization. Staffing jobs with individuals who can
successfully carry out plans is also part of the organizing function.

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Leading. Leading is the management function that involves
influencing others to engage in the work behaviors necessary to reach
organizational goals. Leading includes communicating with others, helping to
outline a vision of what can be accomplished, providing direction, and
motivating organization members to put forth the substantial effort required.
Controlling. Controlling is the management function that is aimed at
regulating organizational activities so that actual performance conforms to
expected organizational standards and goals. To do the necessary regulating,
managers need to monitor ongoing activities, compare the results with
expected standards or progress toward goals, and take corrective action as
needed.
The Management Process
Although the four major functions of management form the basis for
the managerial process, several additional elements are considered key
ingredients of this process as well. The additional elements were identified by
management scholars Steven J. Carroll and Dennis J. Gillen on the basis of
their review of major studies on managerial work.

Knowledge Base
and Key
Management Skills

Work Management Performance


Work
Methods Functions (goal achievement)
Agenda
and Roles
• Planning
• Organizing
• Leading
• Controlling

Fig. An extended model of the management process

As indicated in the model, the functions of management form the


central part of the process. However, the model also shows that work methods
and managerial roles, as well as work agendas, feed into the management
functions. A manager's working knowledge and key management skills also
are important factors that contribute to high performance (achieving goals).
To understand how management can influence in an organization, we
need to define the organization.
For most of us, organizations are an important part of our daily lives.
By organization, we mean two or more persons engaged in a systematic
effort to produce goods or services. We all deal with organizations when we
attend classes, deposit money at the bank, buy clothing, and attend a movie.
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We are also influenced by organizations more indirectly through the products
that we use.
It is useful to keep in mind that the management process applies not
only to profit-making organizations but also to not-for-profit organizations. A
not-for-profit organization (sometimes called a nonprofit organization) is
an organization whose main purposes center on issues other than making
profits. Common examples of not-for-profit organizations are government
organizations (e.g., the federal government), educational institutions (your
college or university), cultural institutions (New York's Carnegie Hall),
charitable institutions (United Way), and many health-care facilities. Of
course, environmental factors (such as the state of the economy and actions by
competitors) also have a bearing on ultimate goal achievement.

II. Exercises.

1. Ознакомьтесь со словами в разделе III и запомните их.*)


2. Найдите в тексте предложения, где употребляется герундий и
переведите их на русский язык (см. грамматический справочник, стр.
78).
3. Напишите, от каких глаголов образованы существительные,
взятые из текста и дайте перевод этих глаголов.
Например: learning (сущ.) – to learn (гл.) – учить.

planning
organizing
leading
controlling
management
innovation
performance

4. Переведите письменно текст на русский язык, пользуясь


словарем.
5. Выпишите из текста термины, переведите и запомните их.
6. Напишите определения к следующим терминам своими
словами на английском языке:
− management functions;
− managerial process;
− profit-making organization;
− nonprofit organization.
7. Напишите развернутые ответы на следующие вопросы по
содержанию текста:
1) Why is management an ongoing activity?
*)
Прослушайте слова на кассете и повторите их за диктором.

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2) What are the four major functions of management?
3) What does planning as the management function involve?
4) Which are the parts of the organizing function?
5) Which function of management includes influencing others to
engage in the work behaviours necessary to reach organizational goals?
6) What is controlling aimed at?
7) What forms the basis for the managerial process?
8) Why do you think organizations are an important part of our daily
lives?

8. Напишите на английском языке, как Вы понимаете:


“What is management?”

III. Vocabulary items.


management - руководство; управление; заведование;
менеджмент; дирекция; администрация
to achieve goals - достигать цели
syn. to reach goals
planning - планирование
organizing - организация; процесс организации
leading - руководство
controlling - контроль; контролирование
to perform functions - выполнять функции
to involve - вовлекать; включать в себя (in);
подразумевать, предполагать
to set goals - поставить цели
change - перемена, изменение; сдвиг
innovation - нововведение, новшество
human resources - людские ресурсы
non human resources - нелюдские ресурсы
to carry out plans - выполнять, осуществлять планы
task - задача
job - работа
to make up the structure - составлять структуру организации
of the organization
to staff jobs - набирать кадры для выполнения работ
to engage behaviours in - привлекать возможности для
the work выполнения работы
to outline a vision - нарисовать картину (перен.)
to provide direction - обеспечить руководство
to motivate - мотивировать
to be aimed at - быть нацеленным на ...
to regulate activities - регулировать деятельность
performance - исполнение, выполнение; действие;

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производительность
to conform to - соответствовать чему-либо
to monitor activities - контролировать деятельность
to compare results - сравнивать результаты
to form the basis for ... - составлять основу чего-либо
key ingredients - ключевые ингредиенты, составные
части
scholar - ученый
work method - метод работы
working knowledge - практические знания, необходимые для
работы
management skills - навыки управления
to contribute to - содействовать; способствовать
to deal with - иметь дело с кем-либо, чем-либо
to influence through - влиять посредством чего-либо
management process - процесс управления
profit-making - прибыльные, ставящие перед собою
organizations цель-получение прибыли, организации
not-for-profit - не ставящие себе целью извлечение
organizations = nonprofit прибыли, некоммерческие организации
organizations
to make profit - получать прибыль; приносить прибыль
charitable institutions - благотворительные учреждения
health-care facilities - здравоохранительные организации
environmental factors - факторы окружающей среды
state of the economy состояние экономики
competitor - конкурент
IV. Test.
1. Закончите предложения, выбрав необходимое слово или
словосочетание справа. Запишите ответы следующим образом:
например, 5)-m.
1) Management is an ongoing activity, entails a) the organizing function
reaching important goals, and involves knowing
how ... the four major functions of management.
2) The function of planning also includes b) a manager's working
considering what must be done to encourage knowledge
necessary levels of ...

3) Staffing jobs with individuals who can c) compare the results


successfully carry out plans is also part of ...
4) To do the necessary regulating, managers need d) key ingredients
to monitor ongoing activities, … with expected
standards or progress toward goals, and take

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corrective action as needed.

5) Although the four major functions of e) not-for-profit


management form the basis for the managerial organizations
process, several additional elements are
considered ... of this process as well.

6) ... and key management skills also are f) to perform


important factors that contribute to high
performance (achieving goals).

7) It is useful to keep in mind that the g) change and innovation


management process applies not only to profit –
making organizations but also to ...

2. Выберите определения справа, соответствующие терминам


слева. Запишите ответы следующим образом: например, 5) – g.

1) management a) the management function that involves setting goals and


deciding how best to achieve them
2) planning b) two or more persons engaged in a systematic effort to
produce goods or services
3) organizing c) the management function that involves influencing others
to engage in the work behaviours necessary to reach
organizational goals
4) leading d) the management function that is aimed at regulating
organizational activities so that actual performance
conforms to expected organizational standards and goals
5) controlling e) the management function that focuses on allocating and
arranging human and non-human resources so that plans can
be carried out successfully
6) organization f) the process of achieving organizational goals through
engaging in the four major functions of planning,
organizing, leading and controlling

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Unit 2

I. Information for study.

Прочтите и постарайтесь понять этот текст.

THE CONCEPT OF STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT

Most well-run organizations attempt to develop and follow strategies,


large-scale action plans for interacting with the environment in order to
achieve long-term goals. A comprehensive statement of an organization's
strategies, along with its mission and goals, constitutes an organization's
strategic plan. To learn where such strategies originate and how they are put
into action, we need to examine carefully an aspect of the planning function
called strategic management. Strategic management is a process through
which managers formulate and implement strategies geared to optimizing
strategic goal achievement, given available environmental and internal
conditions. This definition recognizes that strategic management is oriented
toward reaching long-term goals, weighs important environmental elements,
considers major internal characteristics of the organization, and involves
developing specific strategies.

The Strategic Management Process

The strategic management process is made up of several major


components. The process begins with identifying the organization's mission
and strategic goals. The process also includes analyzing the competitive
situation, taking into consideration both the external environment and relevant
organizational factors. Once the situation has been carefully analyzed,
managers can begin to develop, or formulate, various strategies that can be
used to reach strategic goals. The part of the strategic management process
that includes identifying the mission and strategic goals, conducting
competitive analysis, and developing specific strategies is often referred to as
strategy formulation. In contrast, the part of the strategic management process
that focuses on carrying out strategic plans and maintaining control over how
those plans are carried out is known as strategy implementation. Strategy
implementation is increasingly highlighted as a distinct part of the strategic
management process because even the most brilliantly formulated strategies
must be implemented effectively in order to reach strategic goals.

Importance of Strategic Management

Strategic management is important to organizations for several reasons.


For one thing, the process helps organizations identify and develop a

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competitive advantage, which is a significant edge over the competition in
dealing with competitive forces. For example, Disney has been able to gain a
competitive advantage in the family entertainment industry by creating
amusement parks, movies, and products based on the renowned Disney
characters.

Strategy Formulation Strategy


Implementation
assess
environmental
factors

Conduct
Identify Develop Carry Out
Competitive
Current Specific Strategic
Analysis:
Mission Strategies: Plans
• Strengths
And • Corporate
Strategic • Weaknesses
• Business
Goals • Opportunities Maintain
• Functional Strategic
• Threats
Control

assess organizational
factors

Fig. The strategic management process

Another reason for the importance of strategic management is that it


provides a sense of direction so that organization members know where to
expend their efforts. Without a strategic plan, managers throughout the
organization may concentrate on day-to-day activities only to find that a
competitor has maneuvered itself into a favorable competitive position by
taking a more comprehensive, long-term view of strategic directions. For
example, the Rayovac Corporation, a battery and flashlight maker based in
Madison, Wisconsin, had fallen behind competitors in the early 1980s
because of its aging product line, outdated packaging, and slowness in
entering the market for alkaline batteries (which became the industry
standard). Since that time, a new chairman and vice-chairman, the husband-
and-wife team of Thomas and Judith Pyle, have rejuvenated the company
partially through a variety of innovative new products.
Yet another reason for the importance of strategic management is that it
can help highlight the need for innovation and provide an organized approach
for encouraging new ideas related to strategies. For instance, Disney has a
special procedure for handling major innovations, whereby new ideas and
accompanying financial considerations are forwarded to the strategic planning
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group, which evaluates them for compatibility with the firm's overall strategy.
In addition, the process can be used to involve managers at various levels in
planning, thus making it more likely that the managers will understand the
resulting plans and be committed to their implementation.

II. Exercises.

1. Ознакомьтесь со словами в разделе III и запомните их.


2. Найдите в тексте предложения, где употребляется
страдательный залог. Переведите эти предложения на русский язык (см.
грамматический справочник, стр. 68).
3. В приведенных ниже предложениях заполните пропуски
следующими словами и словосочетаниями, опираясь на текст:
4. long-term goals; a competitive advantage; strategies; innovation;
new ideas; environmental elements; relevant organizational factors.
1) Most well-run organizations attempt to develop and follow … .
2) This definition recognizes that strategic management is oriented
toward reaching … .
3) Strategic management weighs important … .
4) The strategic management process also includes analyzing the
competitive situation, taking into consideration both the external environment
and … .
5) ... is a significant edge over the competition in dealing with
competitive forces.
6) Strategic management can help highlight the need for ... .
7) Strategic management can provide an organized approach for
encouraging ... related to strategies.
5. Переведите письменно текст на русский язык, пользуясь
словарем.
6. Напишите развернутые ответы на следующие вопросы, исходя
из содержания текста:
1) What does the definition of strategic management recognize?
2) What does the strategic management process begin with?
3) What does the strategic management process include?
4) Why is strategy implementation increasingly highlighted as a distinct
part of the strategic management process?
5) Why is strategic management important to organizations?
7. Напишите определения к следующим терминам своими словами
на английском языке:
− strategies;
− an organization's strategic plan;
− strategy formulation;
− strategy implementation;

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− a competitive advantage.

8. Напишите на английском языке, как Вы понимаете:


“The concept of strategic management”.

III. Vocabulary items.

concept - концепция
strategic management - стратегическое руководство, ~
менеджмент
large-scale action - крупномасштабная акция, ~ операция
environment - окружение; окружающая среда
long-term goals - долгосрочные цели
strategic goals - стратегические цели
environmental - условия окружения
conditions
internal conditions - внутренние условия
strategic management - процесс стратегического управления;
process ~ руководства
competitive situation - конкурирующая обстановка
external environment - внешнее окружение
strategy formulation - формулировка стратегии
strategy implementation - осуществление стратегии
competitive advantage - конкурентное преимущество;
преимущество перед конкурентами
competition - конкуренция
competitor - конкурент
product line - товарный ряд, ассортимент
packaging - упаковка
innovation - нововведение, новшество
strategic planning group - группа стратегического планирования
compatibility - совместимость; сочетаемость
overall strategy - всеобщая стратегия
achievement - достижение
mission - задача
to maintain - поддерживать
favorable - благоприятный
aging product time - устаревший ассортимент
outdated packaging - устаревшая упаковка
slowness - медлительность
approach - подход

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IV. Test.

1. Выберите определения справа, соответствующие терминам


слева. Запишите ответы следующим образом: например, а) – 7.

a) competitive advantage l) large-scale action plans for interacting with


the environment in order to achieve long-term
goals;

b) strategy formulation 2) a comprehensive statement of an


organization's strategies, along with its mission
and goals;

c) strategies 3) a process through which managers formulate


and implement strategies geared to optimizing
strategic goal achievement, given available
environmental and internal conditions;

d) strategy implementation 4) the process of identifying the mission and


strategic goals, conducting competitive analysis,
and developing specific strategies;

e) an organization's 5) the process of carrying out strategic plans and


strategic plan maintaining control over how those plans are
carried out;

f) strategic management 6) a significant edge over the competition in


dealing with competitive forces.

2. Выберите русские эквиваленты справа, соответствующие


английским словам, данным слева. Запишите ответы следующим
образом: например, 20) – b.

1) an organization’s strategic plan a) задача и стратегические цели


организации

2) planning function b) благоприятное положение в


конкуренции

3) strategic goal achievement c) анализ конкуренции

4) environmental and internal d) организованный подход


conditions
16
5) an organization's mission and e) медлительность при внедрении на
strategic goals рынок

6) internal characteristics of the f) стратегический план организации


organization

7) competitive analysis g) внутренние характеристики


организации

8) to maintain control h) необходимость нововведений

9) to develop a competitive i) функция планирования


advantage
10) a favorable competitive j) развивать конкурентное
position преимущество

11) aging product line k) достижение стратегической цели

12) outdated packaging l) внешние и внутренние условия

13) slowness in entering the market m) поддерживать контроль

14) need for innovation n) устаревший ассортимент

15) organized approach o) устаревшая упаковка

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Unit 3

I. Information for study.

Прочтите и постарайтесь понять этот текст.

MANAGERIAL KNOWLEDGE, SKILLS, AND PERFORMANCE

For managers to develop work agendas, act out roles, and engage in
planning, organizing, leading, and controlling, they need a sound knowledge
base and key management skills.

Knowledge Base

Although managers often switch companies and work in different


industries, they are apt to run into difficulties if they don't have a reasonably
extensive knowledge base relevant to their particular managerial job. A
knowledge base can include information about an industry and its technology,
company policies and practices, company goals and plans, company culture,
the personalities of key organization members, and important suppliers and
customers.

Key Management Skills

In addition to having a knowledge base, managers need three key types


of skills to carry out the various functions of management. A skill is the
ability to engage in a set of behaviors that are functionally related to one
another and that lead to a desired performance level in a given area. For
managers, the three key skill types are technical, human, and conceptual.
Technical Skills. Technical skills are skills that reflect both an
understanding of and a proficiency in a specialized field. For example, a
manager may have technical skills in a specialized field such as accounting,
finance, engineering, manufacturing, or computer science.
Human Skills. Human skills are skills associated with a manager's
ability to work well with others both as a member of a group and as a leader
who gets things done through others. Managers with effective human skills
typically are particularly adept at communicating with others and motivating
them to develop themselves and perform well in pursuit of organizational
goals.
Conceptual Skills. Conceptual skills are skills related to the ability to
visualize the organization as a whole, discern interrelationships among
organizational parts, and understand how the organization fits into the wider
context of the industry, community, and world. Managers need to recognize
these various elements and understand the complex relationships among them

18
so that they can take actions that advance the goals of the organization.
Conceptual skills, coupled with technical skills, human skills, and a
knowledge base, are important ingredients in organizational performance.

Performance

What constitutes high performance in an organization? Performance


actually is made up of two important dimensions: effectiveness and
efficiency.
Effectiveness. Effectiveness is the ability to choose appropriate goals
and achieve them. Effectiveness, then, has two parts. First, goals must be
appropriate. Second, goals must be reached. For example, Nordstrom, Inc., a
Seattle-based apparel, shoe, and soft-goods retailer, is carving out an
admirable niche for itself by providing legendary good customer service at its
55 department stores (mainly on the West Coast). Sales associates (many of
whom are college graduates) gift-wrap packages for no extra cost and have
even been known to drop them off at customers' homes in a pinch. Piano
players serenade customers while they shop. According to one story, which
the store has not denied, a customer got his money back on a tire. Given that
the company does not sell tires, the story illustrates the store's dedication to a
return policy based on "no questions asked". Bill Baer, a men's clothing
salesman in the Palo Alto store, says, "Nordstrom tells me to do whatever I
need to do to make you happy. Period." This stance has enabled the upscale
chain to expand into new areas of the country such as Washington, D.C., and
New Jersey. Nordstrom illustrates that effectiveness is essentially doing
(accomplishing) the right things.
Efficiency. In contrast, efficiency is the ability to make the best use of
available resources in the process of achieving goals. In the case of
Nordstrom, the store enjoys the highest sales per
In essence, organizations need to exhibit both effectiveness (doing the
right things) and efficiency (doing things right) in order to be good
performers.

II. Exercises.

1. Ознакомьтесь со словами в разделе III и запомните их.


2. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на подчеркнутые
словосочетания:
Пример: They need both a sound knowledge base and management
skills.
Перевод: Они нуждаются как в прочной базе знаний, так и в
навыках управления.
a) Technical skills are skills that reflect both an understanding of and a
proficiency in a specialized field.

19
b) Human skills are skills associated with a manager’s ability to work
well with others both as a member of a group and as a leader who gets things
done through others.
c) In essence, organizations need to exhibit both effectiveness (doing
the right things) and efficiency (doing things right) in order to be good
performers.

3. Найдите в тексте предложения, в которых употребляется


Инфинитив. Определите его формы и функции. Переведите эти
предложения на русский язык (см. грамматический справочник, стр. 82).
4. Переведите письменно текст на русский язык, пользуясь
словарем.
5. Напишите развернутые ответы на следующие вопросы, исходя
из содержания текста:
1) Why is a knowledge base important to managers?
2) What do managers need to carry out the various functions of
management?
3) What does a skill mean?
4) What skills are associated with a manager’s ability to work well with
others?
5) What is the difference between effectiveness and efficiency in
organizational performance?

6. Напишите определения к следующим терминам своими словами


на английском языке:
− knowledge base;
− technical skills;
− conceptual skills;
− effectiveness;
− efficiency.

7. Напишите на английском языке, как Вы понимаете:


“Some ways that managers can acquire an appropriate knowledge base
and the key skills”.

20
III. Vocabulary items.

work agenda - рабочий план, рабочая повестка


knowledge base - база знаний
management skills - навыки управления
to switch companies - менять компании
apt - вероятный, возможный; склонный
to run into difficulties - сталкиваться с трудностями
relevant - уместный
supplier - поставщик
customer - заказчик; покупатель
ability - способность; умение
to be related to - быть связанным с
level - уровень
technical skills - технические навыки
proficiency - опытность
human skills - навыки общения с людьми
to associate - соединять, связывать
adept - знаток, эксперт; сведущий
to develop - развивать (-ся)
in pursuit of - в поисках
conceptual skills - понятийные навыки
to visualize - отчетливо представлять себе
to discern - различать взаимосвязи
interrelationships
community - общество; сообщество
to recognize - признавать; различать
to take actions - принять меры
performance - исполнение, выполнение,
производительность
to constitute - составлять
dimension - величина; измерение
effectiveness - результативность; годность; польза
appropriate - подходящий, соответствующий
efficiency - эффективность; подготовленность
available resources - ресурсы, имеющиеся в наличии
to exhibit - показывать, проявлять
in order to - с целью; чтобы

IV. Test.
1. Закончите предложения, выбрав необходимое слово или
словосочетание справа. Запишите ответы следующим образом:
например, 8) – с.

21
1) Managers are apt to run into difficulties if they a) conceptual skills
don't have a reasonably extensive ... relevant to
their particular managerial job.
2) A ... is the ability to engage in a set of b) doing the right
behaviors that are functionally related to one things
another and that lead to a desired performance
level in a given area.
3) … are skills that reflect both an understanding c) skill
of and a proficiency in a specialized field.
4) Managers with effective ... are particularly d) doing things right
adept at communicating with others and
motivating them to develop themselves and
perform well in pursuit of organizational goals.
5) …, coupled with technical skills, human skills, e) human skills
and a knowledge base, are important ingredients
in organizational performance.
6) The given example illustrates that f) technical skills
effectiveness is essentially … .
7) The following example illustrates efficiency g) knowledge base
as … .
2. Выберите определения справа, соответствующие терминам
слева. Запишите ответы следующим образом: например, 6) – с.

1) conceptual skills a) information about an industry and its


technology, company policies and practices,
company goals and plans, company culture, the
personalities of key organization members and
important suppliers and customers;

2) effectiveness b) skills associated with a manager's ability to work


well with others both as a member of a group and
as a leader who gets things done through others;
3) knowledge base c) skills related to the ability to visualize the
organization as a whole, discern interrelationships
among organizational parts and understand how the
organization fits into the wider context of the
industry, community and world;
4) efficiency d) the ability to choose appropriate goals and
achieve them;
5)human skills e) the ability to make the best use of available
resources in the process of achieving goals
22
Unit 4

I. Information for study.


Прочтите и постарайтесь понять этот текст.
MANAGERIAL JOB TYPES
Managerial jobs do vary somewhat on the basis of two important
dimensions. One is a vertical dimension, focusing on different hierarchical
levels in the organization. The other is a horizontal dimension, addressing
variations according to the area for which managers have major
responsibility.

Vertical Dimension: Hierarchical Levels

Along the vertical dimension, managerial jobs in organizations fall into


three categories: first-line, middle, and top management. These categories can
be viewed as vertical differentiation among managers because they involve
three different levels of the organization.

TOP

Vertical
Levels MIDDLE
of
Management

FIRST-LINE

HR RD M F A E
u e e e a i c n
ms s v r n c g
a o e e k a o i
n u a l e n u n
r r o t c n e
c c p i e t e
e h m n i r
s &e g n i
n g n
t g

Horizontal Responsibility Areas

23
Fig. Types of managers by level and responsibility area
First-Line Managers. First-Line Managers ( or first-line
supervisors) are managers at the lowest level in the hierarchy who are
directly responsible for the work of operating (nonmanagerial) employees.
They often have titles that include the word “supervisor”. First-line managers
are extremely important to the success of an organization because they have
the major responsibility of seeing that day-to-day operations run smoothly in
pursuit of organizational goals.
Because they operate at the interface between management and the rest
of the work force, first-line supervisors can easily find themselves in the
middle of conflicting demands. At the same time, the power of first-line
supervisors has been gradually eroding because of such factors as union
influence and the increasing educational level of workers.
According to one recent review of research literature on first-line
supervisors, the autonomy and influence of first-line managers is likely to ebb
still further in the future. One reason is the increasing attempts by
organizations to emulate the Japanese emphasis on worker participation in
managing the work-place. Another is the trend toward work teams.
Still another is the use of computers to keep track of many activities
formerly regulated by first-line managers. Finally, a growing number of
specialists, particularly in fields involving sophisticated technology, provide
advice and direction to work areas. One implication of these developments is
that the job of the first-line supervisor is likely to change toward a greater
emphasis on dealing with internal human relations and on representing the
unit externally.
Middle Managers. Middle managers are managers beneath the top
levels of the hierarchy who are directly responsible for the work of other
managers below them. The managers for whom they have direct responsibility
may be other middle managers or first – line managers. Middle managers also
sometimes supervise operating personnel, such as administrative assistants
and several specialists (such as engineers or financial analysts). Many
different titles are used for middle managers. Some typical titles include such
words as “manager”, “director of”, “chief”, “department head”, and “division
head”. Middle managers are mainly responsible for implementing overall
organizational plans so that organizational goals are achieved as expected.
Organizations, particularly very large ones, often have several layers of
middle managers. For example, in recent years, giant General Motors has
generally had about 14 or 15 management levels. That number reflects a post-
World War II trend aimed at adding layers of middle management to help
coordinate expanding activities. By the early 1980s, however, that trend
began to reverse. At that point, many companies began cutting the number of
levels of management hierarchy in an attempt to lower costs, reduce the layers
involved in decision making, and facilitate communication.

24
One common result of having fewer layers is that the remaining
middle-management levels gain greater autonomy and responsibility.
Top managers. Top managers are managers at the very top levels of
the hierarchy who are ultimately responsible for the entire organization. Top-
level managers are few in number; their typical titles include “chief executive
officer” (CEO), “president”, “executive vice president”, “executive director”,
“senior vice president” and sometimes “vice president”. Top-level managers
are often referred to as executives, although the term “executive” also is
sometimes used to include the upper layers of middle managers as well. Top
managers have direct responsibility for the upper layer of middle managers.
They typically oversee the overall planning for the organization, work to
some degree with middle managers in implementing that planning, and
maintain overall control over the progress of the organization.

Horizontal Dimension: Responsibility Areas

In addition to their vertical differences, managerial jobs differ on a


horizontal dimension that relates to the nature of the area of responsibility
involved.
The three major types of horizontal differentiation among managerial
jobs on the basis of responsibility area are functional, general, and project
managers.
Functional managers are managers who have responsibility for a
specific, specialized area (often called a functional area) of the organization
and supervise mainly individuals with expertise and training in that
specialized area. Common specialized, or functional, areas include finance,
manufacturing or operations, marketing, human resources management,
accounting, quality assurance, and engineering.
General managers are managers who have responsibility for a whole
organization or a substantial subunit that includes most of the common
specialized areas within it. In other words, a general manager presides over a
number of specialties or functional areas (hence the term “general”). General
managers have a variety of titles such as “division manager” and “president”,
depending on the circumstances. A small company usually will have only one
general manager, who is the head of the entire organization. Depending on
how it is organized, a large company may have several general managers (in
addition to the chief executive officer).
Project managers are managers who have responsibility for
coordinating efforts involving individuals in several different organizational
units who are all working on a particular project. Because the individuals
report not only to managers in their specific work units but also to project
managers. Project managers usually must have extremely strong interpersonal
skills to keep things moving smoothly.

25
Project managers are frequently used in aerospace and other high-
technology firms to coordinate projects, such as airplane or computer project
development. They also are used in some consumer-oriented companies to
launch or stay on top of market development for specific products such as
cookies or margarine.

II. Exercises.

1. Ознакомьтесь со словами в разделе III и запомните их.


2. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на подчеркнутые
словосочетания:
Пример: Managerial jobs in organizations fall into such categories as:
first-line, middle, and top management.
Перевод: Виды управленческой деятельности в организациях
подпадают под такие категории, как: управляющий первого звена,
управляющий среднего звена и высшее руководство.
a) At the same time, the power of first-line supervisors has been
gradually eroding because of such factors as union influence and the
unceasing educational level of workers.
b) Middle managers also sometimes supervise operating personnel,
such as administrative assistants and several specialists (such as engineers or
financial analysts).
c) Some typical titles include such words as “manager”, “director of”,
“chief”, “department head”, and “division head”.
d) General managers have a variety of titles, such as “division manager”
and “president”, depending on the circumstances.
e) Project managers are frequently used in aerospace and other high-
technology firms to coordinate projects, such as airplane or computer project
development.
f) They also are used in some consumer-oriented companies to launch
or stay on top of market development for specific products such as cookies or
margarine.

3. Найдите в тексте предложения, в которых употребляется


причастие настоящего времени – Participle I. Определите его формы и
функции. Переведите эти предложения на русский язык (см.
грамматический справочник, стр. 80).
4. Переведите письменно текст на русский язык, пользуясь
словарем.
5. Напишите развернутые ответы на следующие вопросы, исходя
из содержания текста:
a) What do a vertical dimension and a horizontal dimension differ in?
b) What are first-line managers directly responsible for?

26
c) Why can first-line supervisors easily find themselves in the middle of
conflicting demands?
d) What titles are used for middle managers?
e) Why did many companies begin cutting the number of levels of
management hierarchy by the early 1980s?
f) What managers typically oversee the overall planning for the
organization?
g) What do functional areas include?
h) What does a general manager preside over?
i) Why must project managers usually have extremely strong
interpersonal skills?

6. Напишите определения к следующим терминам своими словами


на английском языке:
− first-line managers /supervisors;
− middle managers;
− top managers;
− functional managers;
− general managers;
− project managers.

7. Напишите на английском языке, как Вы понимаете:


“The variation of managerial jobs on the basis of a vertical dimension
and a horizontal one”.

III. Vocabulary items.

managerial jobs - управленческая, административная


деятельность (работа)
first-line manager (first- - менеджер, управляющий первого
line supervisor) (нижнего) звена
supervisor - контролер; надзиратель
work force - рабочая сила
worker participation - участие рабочих
work-place - место работы, рабочее место
work team - рабочая команда, рабочая группа
human relations - связи с людьми
middle manager - управляющий, менеджер среднего
звена
chief - заведующий
department head - руководитель отдела
division head - руководитель подразделения
top manager - главный управляющий; менеджер
верхнего звена
27
chief executive officer - главный управляющий делами
executive vice president - исполнительный вице-президент
executive director - исполнительный директор;
директор-распорядитель
senior vice-president - первый вице-президент
executive - должностное лицо, руководитель,
администратор (фирмы, компании)
functional manager - функциональный менеджер
general manager - главный управляющий;
генеральный директор
functional area - функциональная сфера, область
division manager - управляющий подразделением
project manager - руководитель проекта
differentiation - дифференциация
high technology - высокая технология
influence - влияние
level - уровень

IV. Test.

1. Выберите определения справа, соответствующие терминам


слева. Запишите ответы следующим образом: например, 6) – m.

1) general managers a) managers at the lowest level in the hierarchy who


are directly responsible for the work of operating
(nonmanagerial) employees;
2) project managers b) managers beneath the top levels of the hierarchy
who are directly responsible for the work of other
managers below them;
3) first-line managers c) managers at the very top levels of the hierarchy
who are ultimately responsible for the entire
organization;

4) top managers d) managers who have responsibility for a specific,


specialized area of the organization and supervise
mainly individuals with expertise and training in that
specialized area;

5) functional managers e) managers who have responsibility for a whole


organization or a substantial subunit that includes
most of the common specialized areas within it;
6) middle managers f) managers who have responsibility for coordinating

28
efforts involving individuals in several different
organizational units who are all working on a
particular project.

2. Дополните предложения, выбрав необходимое слово или


словосочетание справа. Запишите ответы следующим образом:
например,7)– m.

1) One dimension is a vertical dimension, focusing on a) first-line


different … in the organization. managers

2) ... are extremely important to the success of an b) horizontal


organization because they have the major responsibility of differentiation
seeing that day-to-day operations run smoothly in pursuit
of organizational goals.

3) The power of first-line supervisors has been gradually c) high-


eroding because of such factors as ... . technology
firms
4) … are mainly responsible for implementing overall d) hierarchical
organizational plans so that organizational goals are levels
achieved as expected.

5) Top-level managers are often referred to as ..., although e) general


the term “executive” also is sometimes used to include the manager
upper layers of middle managers.

6) The three major types of ... among managerial jobs on f) union


the basis of responsibility area are functional, general, and influence and
project managers. the increasing
educational
level of workers
7) A small company usually will have only one ..., who is g) executives
the head of the entire organization.

8) Project managers are frequently used in aerospace and h) middle


other ... to coordinate projects, such as airplane or managers
computer project development.

29
Unit 5

I. Information for study.

Прочтите, постарайтесь понять текст и запишите на полях


основные термины.

DEFINING OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT

Operations management is the management of the productive


processes that convert input into goods and services. Because of its close
association with manufacturing, operations management is sometimes called
production-operations management. Recently, though, the term “production”
is increasingly being dropped in favor of simply “operations management”, a
term that has less of a manufacturing connotation. The operations
management function is that part of the organization directly involved in
producing the primary goods and services.
In the case of a manufacturing organization such as Fanuc, the
operations management function would include plan managers and all the
other managers who work in the factories (e.g., production managers,
inventory control managers, quality assurance managers, and line
supervisors). If an organization's structure had corporate level, operations
would also encompass any manufacturing or operations vice presidents that
exist as the corporate level, as well as related corporate operations staff (such
as those primarily concerned with production, inventory, quality, facilities,
and equipment).
In a service industry such as the hotel business, the operations
management function would include hotel managers and the various managers
who work in the hotels (e.g., housekeeping managers, food and beverage
managers, and convention managers). Again. If there were a corporate level,
operation would also comprise managers and staff at the corporate level who
are directly involved in actually running the hotels (as opposed to managers
who are involved in other related functions, such as marketing and finance).
Regardless of whether an organization produces a service, a product, or both,
operations managers need to be acutely concerned about productivity.

The productivity-operations management linkage

Productivity is an efficiency concept that gauges the ratio of outputs


relative to input into a productive process. Effectiveness relates to the extent
to which performance reaches organizational goals. In contrast, efficiency
addresses the resource usage (inputs) involved in achieving outcomes
(outputs). Productivity is aimed at assessing the efficiency aspect of
organizational performance – the ratio of outputs relative to inputs. As such,

30
productivity can be a useful tool for managers because it helps them track
progress toward the more efficient use of resources in producing goods and
services.
Organizational productivity is often measured by using this equation:

goods and services produced (outputs)


Productivity = —————————————————————————
labor + capital + energy + technology + materials (inputs)

An approach, like this one, that considers all the inputs involved in
producing outputs is sometimes referred to as total-factor productivity.
Managers also use partial-factor productivity, a productivity approach that
considers the total output relative to a specific input, such as labor. For
example:

goods and services produced (outputs)


Productivity = ——————————————————
labor hours (labor input)

Manufacturing versus service organizations

Manufacturing and service organizations differ in several important


respects. Manufacturing organizations are organizations that transform input
into identifiable, tangible goods, such as soft drinks, cars, or videocassette
recorders. Typically, the tangible goods they produce can be stored (at least to
some degree), and the untimate customer does not usually need to be present
while the transformation process is taking place. As a result, manufacturing
can often be done in centralized places, and the products can be shipped to
customers. In addition, a manufacturing concern can often avoid wasting
capacity during slack periods by using available capacity to produce inventory
in anticipation of future sales.

II. Exercises.
1. Прочтите и запомните слова в разделе III.
2. Найдите в тексте предложения, где употребляется
сослагательное наклонение (см. грамматический справочник на стр. 71)
и переведите их.
3. Подберите к словам в колонке слева близкие по значению
эквиваленты из колонки справа. Запишите ответы следующим образом:
например, 1-5.
1) to involve 1) activity
2) to gauge 2) to deal with
3) to concern with 3) to track
4) process 4) to assess

31
5) to follow 5) to encompass
6) operations management 6) production
4. Переведите письменно текст, пользуясь словарем.
5. Ответьте на вопросы по тексту.
1) What is operations management?
2) What is the function of operations management?
3) What are the operations management functions in the case of
manufacturing organizations?
4) What are the operations management functions in the case of service
industry?
5) What is productivity?
6) How does productivity help managers?
6. Напишите на английском языке как Вы понимаете: “Operations
management”.
III. Vocabulary items.
production operations - управление процессами
management производства
connotation - вторичное, дополнительное
значение
primary goods and - первичные товары и услуги
services
to involve - вовлекать, включать в себя
corporate level - корпоративный уровень
to encompass - содержать, заключать в себе
to gauge - измерять, оценивать
total-factor productivity - совокупно-факторная
производительность (действие)
partial-factor частично-факторная
productivity производительность (действие)
to exist - жить, существовать, находиться
to relate - соотноситься
facilities and equipment - средства и оборудование
service industry - услуги в области промышленности
acutely - остро, сильно
to track - следить, выслеживать
labor (amer) = labour - труд, работа
(англ)
to store - снабжать, наполнять
to assess - оценивать
resources - ресурсы, источники
manufacturing - производственный
customer - покупатель
goal - цель

32
IV. Test.

1. Выберите определения к терминам из колонки слева и запишите


следующим образом: 10-b.

1. Operations management а) … is an efficiency concept that


gauges the ratio of outputs relative to
input into a productive process.
2. Productivity b) … are organizations that transform
inputs into indentifiable, tangible
goods, such as soft drinks, cars or
videocassette recorders.
3. Total-factor productivity c) … is a productivity approach that
considers the total output relative to
specific input, such as labour.
4. Partial-factor productivity d) … is an approach, that considers
all the inputs involved in producing
outputs.
5. Manufacturing organizations e) … is the management of the
productive processes that convert
inputs into goods and services.

2. Закончите предложения, выбрав необходимое слово или


словосочетание справа, запишите ответы следующим образом:
например, 1)-m.

1) The operations management function (OMF) a) productivity


would include …

2) The operations management function is the b) the primary goods and


part of the organization that is involved in services
producing …

3) The operations management functions in the c) labor


hotel business include …

4) Whether an organization produces a service d) customers


or a product, operations managers need to be
acutely concerned about …

5) Effectiveness relates to the extent to which e) goods and services


performance reaches …

6) Productivity can be a useful tool for f) organizational goals


33
managers because it helps them track progress
toward the more efficient use of resources in
producing …

7) A productivity approach considers the total g) hotel managers


output relative to a specific input, such as …

8) Products can be shipped to … h) plan managers

Unit 6

I. Information for study.

Прочтите и постарайтесь понять текст.

STRATEGIC HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (HRM)

At 3M, a company famous for fostering employee innovation, human


resource issues are increasingly an integral part of strategic management.
Thus 3M is at the forefront of a trend toward recognizing human resources as
a crucial element in the strategic success of organizations. In a growing
number of organizations, such as 3M and CARE, high-level managers within
the human resource management function participate directly in strategy
implementation. They also help coordinate human resource aspects of strategy
implementation. In this section, we review major aspects of the human
resource management process before exploring in greater depth the main
reasons for the growing strategic role of human resource management.

The HRM Process: An Overview

As suggested by the HRM process shown in Figure 12-1, human


resource management encompasses a number of important activities. One
critical aspect of the process, human resource planning, assesses the human
resource needs associated with strategic management and help identify
staffing needs. The staffing component of the process includes attracting and
selecting individuals for appropriate positions. Once individuals become part
of the organization, their ability to contribute effectively is usually enhanced
by various development and evaluation efforts, such as training and periodic
performance evaluations. Compensating employees for their efforts is another
important factor in the HRM process, because adequate rewards are critical
not only to attracting but also to motivating and retaining valuable employees.
Finally, managers must respond to various issues that influence work-force
perceptions of the organization and its treatment of employees.

34
In order to explore human resource management in an orderly fashion,
the various activities that make up the HRM process are discussed
sequentially in this part. The components, though, are actually highly
interrelated. For example, when a group of British financiers took over the
British arm of F.W. Woolworth from its American parent in 1982, the chain
of 1000 stores had a tarnished image and 30,000 employees with a reputation
for poor service. Investigation revealed many interrelated problems, such as
poor employment interviewing practices (interviews typically lasted 10
minutes), little training for either sales staff mangers, and a components of the
HRM process collectively reinforced the service problems.
Human resource professionals operating within human resource
departments typically play a major role in designing the various elements in
the HRM process and in supporting their use by line managers. Nevertheless,
line managers ultimately are responsible for the effective utilization of human
resources within their units and, thus, carry out many aspects of the HRM
process, particularly as they relate to implementing strategic plans

Fig. 12 – 1

Human Development
Resource Staffing and Compensation
Planning Evaluation

Maintaining Effec-
tive Work Force
Relationships

The Strategic Importance of HRM

Understanding the strategic potential of human resource management in


organizations is relatively recent phenomenon. In fact, the role of such
management in organizations, as it is known today, has evolved through three
main stages. From early in this century until the mid -1960s, HRM activities
comprised a file maintenance stage, in which much of the emphasis was on
screening applicants, orienting new employees, recording employee-related
data for personnel purposes, and planning company social functions (such as
the company picnic).
The second stage, government accountability, began with passage of
the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (which forbids employment discrimination based
on race, color, religion, sex, or national origin) and continued as additional
laws, court rulings, and federal regulatory guidelines increasingly impacted
various aspects of employment, such as hiring and promotion decisions,
pension plans, and health and safety issues. Of course, some laws, particularly
35
those governing relations with unions, existed before 1964, but the mid-1960s
ushered in an era of accelerated governmental regulation of employment
issues. As organizations attempted to gain greater control over activities that
could result in legal difficulties and large financial settlements, the HRM
function gained in importance. Indicative of the expense that can be involved,
under a 1973 consent decree (a court-sanctioned agreement in which the
accused party does not admit wrongdoing but agrees to discontinue a
practice), AT&T agreed to raise the starting pay of women promoted to
managerial positions so that their pay level would be equal to those of
similarly promoted men, at a cost of more that $30 million.
The third stage, which began in the late 1970s and early 1980s, can be
termed the competitive advantage stage. In this stage, human resource
management is increasingly viewed as important for both strategy formulation
and implementation. Thus. under some circumstances, human resources can
comprise a source of distinct competence that forms a basis for strategy
formulation. For example, 3M's notes scientists enable the company to pursue
a differentiation strategy based on innovative products. Under other
circumstances, HRM activities may be used to support strategy
implementation. For instance, at Honda of America's Marysville, Ohio, plant,
an emphasis on differentiation through quality is supported by such HRM
activities as training programs, developmental performance appraisal
processes, and promises of job security. Human resource management often is
an important ingredient in the success of such strategy-related activities as
downsizing, mergers, and acquisitions . At the competitive advantage stage,
then human resources are considered explicitly in conjunction with strategic
management, particularly through the mechanism of human resource
planning.

II. Exercises.

1. Ознакомьтесь со словами в разделе III и запомните их.


2. Найдите в тексте нижеприведенные слова, определите их
функции в предложениях и запишите перевод (см. грамматический
справочник стр. 77-78).
building –
selling –
planning –
staffing –
attracting –
selecting –
training –
compensating –
motivating –
retaining –

36
interviewing –

3. Переведите письменно текст на русский язык, пользуясь


словарем.
4. Напишите развернутые ответы на следующие вопросы, исходя
из содержания текста
1) What is an integral part of strategic management?
2) What are the major aspects of HRM?
3) What does HRM encompass?
4) What is one of the critical aspect of the process?
5) What does it associate with?
6) What does the staffing component include?
7) What are the three main stages in the activities of HRM?

5. Напишите определения к следующим терминам своими словами


на английском языке.
− human resource management
− file maintenance stage
− competitive advantage stage

6. Напишите на английском языке как вы понимаете:


“What is the strategic human resource management?”

III. Vocabulary items.

to be famous for - быть знаменитым чем-л.


to foster - поощрять
crucial element - решающий (критический) элемент
to coordinate - устанавливать правильное
соотношение, координировать
стратегию
implement(ation) - орудие, инструмент; (выполнение)
overview - обзор
to encompass - окружать
to assess - оценивать
staffing needs - персональные (материальные)
нужды
to contribute - способствовать, содействовать
to enhance - повышать (цену), увеличивать
to evaluate - оценивать, высчитывать
to interrelate - соотносить
- переправлять, перевозить
tarnished image - запятнанный имидж
to reveal - обнаруживать, открывать
37
to be responsible for - быть ответственным за
to evolve - развиваться, развертываться
to comprise - охватывать, включать в себя
to downsize - опускаться, снижаться
merger - слияние, объединение
acquisition - приобретение
to screen - выбирать, просеивать
to attract - привлекать
to select - отбирать, выбирать, подбирать
utilization - использование, утилизация
employee - служащий, работающий по найму
to compensate - вознаграждать, возмещать (убытки)
line manager - образ действия, (поведение,
установка) менеджера
competitive advantage - преимущественная степень в
stage конкуренции
activity - деятельность

IV. Test.

1. Закончите предложения, выбрав необходимое слово или


словосочетание справа. Запишите ответы следующим образом:
например, 1)-m.

1) Investigation revealed many a) attracting and selecting


interrelated …

2) The staffing component of the b) managers


process includes … and …
individuals.

3) Line managers ultimately are c) effective utilization of HRM


responsible for …

4) One critical aspect of the process - d) human resource management


… assesses the human resource
needs.

5) … encompasses a number of e) problems


important activities.

6) … is another important factor in f) human resource planning


the HRM process.

38
7) … must respond to various issues g) compensating employees
that influence work-force perceptions
of the organization.

2. Выберите определения справа, соответствующим терминам


слева. Запишите ответы следующим образом: 10)-b.

1) Human resource a) … may be used to support strategy


professionals implementation.
2) Line managers b) … is an important ingredient in the
success of such strategy – related activities as
downsizing, mergers, and acquisition.

3) The competitive c) … are responsible for the effective


advantage stage utilisation of human resources within their
units.

4) Human resources d) … can comprise a source of distinct


competence that forms a basis for strategy
formulation.

5) HRM activities e) … play a major role in designing the


various elements in the HRM.

6) Human resource f) … is increasingly viewed as important for


managment both strategy formulation and
implementation in the HPM.

Unit 7

I. Information for study.

Прочтите и постарайтесь понять текст. Запишите на полях


основные термины.

HOW LEADERS INFLUENCE OTHERS

Why do people accept the influence of a leader? One major reason is


that leaders have power. In this section, we examine the major sources of
power and the ways that leaders can effectively use the power they potentially
have available.

Sources of Leader Power


39
Power is the capacity to affect the behavior of others. Leaders in
organizations typically rely on some or all of six major types of power:
legitimate, reward, coercive, expert, information, and referent.

Legitimate Power. Legitimate power stems from a position's


placement in the managerial hierarchy and the authority vested in the position.
When we accept a job with an organization, we usually are aware that we will
be receiving directions related to our work from our immediate boss and
others in the hierarchy. Normally, we accept such directions as legitimate
because these persons hold positions of authority. Hence legitimate power
relates to the position, rather than to the person per se.

Reward Power. Reward power is based on the capacity to control and


provide valued rewards to others. Most organizations offer an array of
rewards, including pay raises, bonuses, interesting projects, promotion
recommendations, a better office, support for training programs, assignments
with high visibility in the organization, recognition, positive feedback, and
time off. The greater a manager's control over valued rewards, the greater that
manager's reward power.

Coercive Power. Coercive power depends on the ability to punish


others when they do not engage in desired behaviors. Forms of coercion or
punishment include criticisms, terminations, reprimands, suspensions,
warning letters that go into an individual's personnel file, negative
performance appraisals, demotions, and withheld pay raises. The greater the
freedom to punish others, the greater a manager's coercive power.

Expert Power. Expert power is based on the possession of expertise


that is valued by others. Managers often have considerable knowledge,
technical skills, and experience that can be critical to subordinates' success.
To the extent that a leader possesses expertise and information that is needed
or desired by others, the leader has expert power.

Information Power. Information power results from access to and


control over the distribution of important information about organizational
operations and future plans. Managers usually have better access to such
information than do subordinates and have some discretion over how much is
disseminated to work-unit members. The greater the control over important
information, the greater the information power.

Referent Power. Referent power results from being admired,


personally identified with, or liked by others. When we admire people, want
to be like them, or feel friendship toward them, we more willingly follow their

40
directions and exhibit loyalty toward them. Some observers argue that Lee
Iacocca’s initial success in turning around the Chrysler Corporation was based
partially on the fact that he possessed referent power in relation to the work
force. The more that a leader is able to cultivate the liking, identification, and
admiration of others, the greater the referent power.

Effective Use of Leader Power

Although all six types of power are potential means of influencing


others, in actual usage they may engender somewhat different levels of
subordinate motivation. Subordinates can react to a leader's direction with
commitment, compliance, or resistance. With commitment, employees
respond enthusiastically and exert a high level of effort toward organizational
goals. With compliance, employees exert at least minimal efforts to complete
directives but are likely to deliver average, rather than stellar, performance.
With resistance, employees may appear to comply but actually do the absolute
minimum, possibly even attempting to sabotage the attainment of
organizational goals. For example, when Chicago scrap-metal czar Cyrus
Tang bought the ailing McLouth Steel Products Corporation, he relied on
legitimate and coercive power to gain worker cooperation. Workers reacted
with production slowdowns and a wildcat strike that eventually led to the
further deterioration of the company and its sale to employees.
Managers usually rely on several different types of power in order to be
effective. When Jim Lynn was chosen to be chairman of the Aetna Life &
Casualty Company, the firm had just been through the painful process of a
competitive price-cutting program, had suffered write-offs from several ill-
fated acquisitions in noninsurance areas, and was facing the lowest earnings
in 9 years. At that point, Lynn, a 6-year veteran on Aetna's board of directors,
a previous partner in two prestigious law firms, and a former Nixon
administration cabinet member, had a reputation for being effective with both
handling people and solving problems. In establishing himself at Aetna, he
clearly had the legitimate power of his new chairman's position. However, he
relied heavily on building referent power. According to one former Aetna
senior vice president, Lynn went out of his way to "portray a peer relationship
with everybody". He also used reward power to boost the morale of the heads
of Aetna's three principal businesses, each with revenues of more than $3
billion, by awarding them the title of president in recognition of their major
roles in the company.
II. Exercises.
1. Прочтите слова в разделе III и запомните их.
2. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на подчеркнутые
выражения:

41
Пример: The greater the price on the good, the greater the tax on the
good.
Перевод: Чем выше цена на товар, тем больше налог на него.
1) The more we read, the more we know.
2) The greater a manager's control over valued rewards, the greater that
manager's reward power.
3) The greater the freedom to punish others, the greater a manager's
coercive power.
4) The greater the control over important information, the greater the
information.
5) The more we work, the more we get.
3. Найдите в тексте предложения, где сказуемое выражено в
страдательном залоге. Определите время. Переведите эти предложения
на русский язык (см. грамматический справочник, стр. 70).
4. Переведите письменно текст на русский язык, пользуясь
словарем.
5. Напишите развернутые ответы на следующие вопросы, исходя
из содержания текста:
1) What are the sources of leader power?
2) What does legitimate power stem from?
3) What is reward power based on?
4) What does coercive power depend on?
5) What is expert power based on?
6. Дайте письменно определения к следующим терминам на
английском языке:
− referent power
− information power
− power.

7. Напишите на английском языке, как Вы понимаете:


“How do leaders influence others?”

III. Vocabulary items.

leader power - руководящая власть (сила)


legitimate power - законодательная власть
reward power - поощрительная власть
coercive power - принудительная власть
expert power - экспертная власть
information power - информационная власть
referent power - власть эталона
promotion - содействие (реклама); продвижение
bonus - премия
42
to train - учить, обучать
to gain - получать, приобретать
slowdown - отсталый, медленный
deterioration - ухудшение, изнашивание
competitive - конкурентный
price-cutting program - программа снижения (уменьшения)
цен
write-off - списывание со счета;
аннулирование (долгов)
ill-fated - злополучный, несчастный
acquisitions - приобретения
noninsurance areas - необеспеченные районы (области,
зоны)
revenue - годовой доход, государственный
доход

IV. Test.

1. Закончите предложения, выбрав необходимые словосочетания


справа. Запишите ответы следующим образом: например, 1) – g.

1) Managers usually rely on several different a) referent power


types of power … .

2) The use of coercive power has a strong b) being effective with


tendency … . both handling people and
solving problems

3) Nixon administration cabinet member had c) to provoke resistance in


a reputation for ... . subordinates

4) Nixon relied heavily on building … . d) in order to be effective

5) He also used reward power to boost the e) in recognition of their


morale of the heads of Aetna’s three principal major roles in the
businesses, each with revenues of more than company
$3 billion, by awarding them the title of
president … .

43
2. Выберите определения справа, соответствующие терминам
слева. Запишите ответы следующим образом: например, 5) – h.

1) Power … a) is based on the possession of expertise that is


valued by others.

2) Legitimate power … b) is the capacity to affect the behavior of


others.

3) Reward power … c) results from being admired, personally


identified with, or liked by others.

4) Coercive power … d) is based on the capacity to control and


provide valued rewards to others.

5) Expert power …. e) results from access to and control over the


distribution of important information about
organizational operations and future plans.

6) Information f) depends on the ability to punish others when


power … they do not engage in desired behaviors.

7) Referent power … g) stems from a position's placement in the


managerial hierarchy and the authority vested in
the position.

Unit 8

I. Information for study.

Прочтите и постарайтесь понять текст.

Control as a management process

Like their McDonald’s counterparts, managers in other organizations


also face important issues related to the function of controlling. Controlling
is the process of regulating organizational activities so that actual
performance conforms to expected organizational standards and goals. As the
definition suggests, controlling means that managers develop appropriate
standards, compare ongoing performance against those standards, and take
steps to ensure that corrective actions are taken when necessary. Since most
aspects of organizations ultimately depend on human behavior, controlling is
44
largely geared toward ensuring that organization members behave in ways
that facilitate the reaching of organizational goals. Thus controls both
highlight needed behaviors and discourage unwanted behaviors. For instance,
during their 2-year training program, management trainees preparing to
become McDonald’s franchisees work their way through a thick quide that
spells out various aspects of what to do and not do in properly running a
McDonald’s outlet.

Significance of the control process

As you might expect, the controlling function is closely allied to the


other, three major functions of management: planning, organizing, and
leading. It builds most directly on the planning function by providing the
means for monitoring and making adjustments in performance so that plans
can be realized. Still, controlling also supports the organizing and leading
functions by helping ensure that resources are channeled toward
organizational objectives. For example, feedback from the control process
might signal the need to reorganize, provide more training to workers, clarify
communications, increase leadership influence, or take other actions
associated with the respective organizing and leading functions. For instance,
after detecting a shortage of workers who could assume some supervisory
responsibilities, six McDonald’s restaurants in Fairfax Virginia, have been
experimenting with a training program to teach English to workers who have
management potential but speak little English.
As part of the control process, managers set up control systems. A
control system is a set of mechanisms that are designed to increase the
probability of meeting organizational standards and goals. Control systems
can be .developed to regulate any area that a manager considers important,
such as quantity produced, resources expended, profit margins, quality of
products or services, client satisfaction, timeliness of deliveries, or specific
activities that are performed in producing a product or service.
For example, McDonald’s has a 19-step procedure that workers have
rigidly to follow when they are cooking and bagging french fries. Local
managers are expected to ensure that employees prepare and bag french fries
in accordance with these steps to that the french fries will conform to
McDonald’s standards. This procedure also is one of the operations that
corporate evaluation teams check during their unannounced inspections of
outlets. Thus the local managers, the corporate evaluation teams, and the
standards embodied in the procedure from part of a control system aimed at
achieving consistently good french fries at all McDonald’s outlets.

45
II. Exercises.

1. Ознакомьтесь со словами в разделе III и запомните их.


2. Найдите и подчеркните в тексте модальные глаголы и их
эквиваленты (см. грамматический справочник, стр. 75).
3. Переведите письменно текст на русский язык, пользуясь
словарем.
4. Напишите развернутые ответы на следующие вопросы, исходя
из содержания теста.
1) What is controlling?
2) What does the controlling mean from the management point of view?
3) How are controls related to behaviors?
4) What are the major functions controlling is closely allied to?
5) What is control system used for?
6) What is the role of controls?

5. Напишите определения на английском языке следующих


терминов:
− Controlling
− Control system
− Controlling function

6. Напишите на английском языке, как Вы понимаете:


“What kind of activities does the control process include?”

III. Vocabulary Items.


counterpart - двойник; зд. коллега
controlling - контроль; процесс контролирования
to regulate activities - регулировать деятельность
to conform to standards - соответствовать стандартам
goal - цель
to ensure - обеспечивать, гарантировать
syn. to provide
human behaviour - поведение людей
to behave - поступать; вести себя
to gear - направлять по определенному плану
training - обучение; стажировка
training program - учебная программа
trainee - проходящий обучение; стажер
franchisee - держатель лицензии (франшизы)
to run - зд. управлять
outlet - рынок сбыта; зд. торговая точка
to be allied to - быть тесно связанным с
to monitor - контролировать, проверять
46
to make adjustment - приспособиться
to channel resources - направлять ресурсы на…
toward…
feedback - обратная связь (информация)
shortage - нехватка; недостаток
to assume responsibility - брать на себя ответственность
to meet standards - соответствовать стандартам
quantity - количество
quality - качество
profit margin - маржа; предел доходности; разница
между себестоимостью и продажной
ценой
client satisfaction - удовлетворение желаний клиента
timeliness of deliveries - своевременность поставок
procedure - процедура
corporate evaluation - отдел контроля корпорации
team
highlight - основной момент, факт
performance - исполнение, выполнение
portable computer - переносной компьютер
inflation - инфляция
to expend - тратить, расходовать
research - исследование

IV. Test.

1. Дополните предложения слева недостающими совами или


словосочетаниями из колонки справа. Запишите ответы следующим
образом: например, 8-в.

1) Most aspects of organizations ultimately a) resources are channeled


depend on …

2) The planning function mainly provides the b) human behaviour


means for … so that plans can be realized.

3) The organizing and leading functions help c) to regulate


ensure that … toward organizational
objectives.

4) As part of the control process, managers set d) corporate evaluation


up … teams

5) Control systems can be developed … any e) highlight

47
area that a manager considers important.

6) … check some operations of the procedure f) control systems


during their unannounced inspections of
outlets.

7) Controls both … needed behaviors and g) monitoring and making


discourage unwanted behaviors. adjustments in performance

2. Выберите словосочетания из колонки справа, соответствующие


утверждению слева, основываясь на содержании текста. Ответов может
быть несколько. Запишите их буквами следующим образом: например –
k, f, e, c.

a) quality of products or
services

b) change and innovation

Control systems can regulate … c) portable computers

d) profit margins

e) timeliness of deliveries

f) consumer-products business

g) scientific research

h) quantity produced

i) client satisfaction

j) resources expended

k) inflation

48
Unit 9

I. Information for study.

Прочтите и постарайтесь понять этот текст. Запишите на полях


основные термины.

THE NATURE OF MANAGERIAL COMMUNICATION

Communication is the exchange of messages between people for the


purpose of achieving common meanings. Unless common meanings are
shared, managers find it extremely difficult to influence others. For example,
in looking back on his efforts to revitalize General Motors, former CEO
Roger Smith says that he would make the same decisions for again regarding
the implementation of major changes to rebuild the company foe global
leadership in the twenty first century.

Types of Communication

In their work, managers use two major types of communication: verbal


and nonverbal. Each type plays an important part in the effective
transmissions of messages within organizations.

Verbal Communication. Verbal communication is the written or oral


use of words to communicate. Both written and oral communications are
pervasive in organizations.
Written communication occurs through a variety of means, such as
business letters, office memorandums, reports, resumes, written telephone
messages, newsletters, and policy manuals. In many cases, considerable time
and effort are expended in preparing written communications. According to
several estimates, the cost of producing a single letter or memo has risen to
more that $7, with one recent estimate placing the figure as high as $25 for
the average memo. Yet one study of 800 randomly selected letters from a
variety of industries indicates that written business correspondence suffers
from significant deficiencies in such areas as proper word usage, clear
sentence construction, and precision. A related study shows that more than 80
percent of managers judge the quality of the written communication they
receive as either fair or poor. They also did not give themselves very high
grades, with 55 percent describing their own writing skills as fair or poor.
Despite some possible shortcomings in writing skills, written
communication generally has several advantages over oral communication.
Written communication provides a records of the message, can be
disseminated widely with a minimum of effort, and allows the sender to think
through the intended message carefully. Written communication also has

49
several disadvantages, including the expense of preparation, the relatively
impersonal nature of written communications, possible misunderstanding by
the receiver, and the delay of feedback regarding the effectiveness of the
message.
In contrast to written communication, oral communication, or the
spoken word, take place largely through face-to-face conversations with
another individual, meetings with several individuals, and telephone
conversations. Oral communication has the advantage of being fast, is
generally more personal than written communication, and provides immediate
feedback from others involved in the conversation. Disadvantages include the
fact that oral communication can be time-consuming, can be more difficult to
terminate, and requires that additional effort be expended to document what is
said if a record is necessary.
Given the advantages and disadvantages of written and oral
communication, it is not surprising that both types of verbal communication
are used.

Nonverbal Communication. Nonverbal communication is


communication by means of elements and behaviors that are not coded into
words. Studies estimate of elements that nonverbal aspects account for
between 65 and 93 percent of what gets communicated. Interestingly, it is
quite difficult to engage in verbal communication without some
accompanying form of nonverbal communication. Important categories of
nonverbal communication include kinesic behaviour, proxemics,
paralanguage, and object language.

Kinesic behavior refers to body movements, such as gestures, facial


expressions, eye movements, and posture. We often draw conclusions
regarding people's feelings about an issue, not only from their words but also
from their nonverbal behaviour, such as their facial expressions.

Proxemics refers to the influence of proximity and space on


communication. For example, some managers arrange their offices so that
they have an informal area where people can sit without experiencing the
spatial distance and formality created by a big desk. Another example of
proxemics, which you have probably experienced, is that you are more likely
to get to know students whom you happen to sit near in class than students
who are sitting in other parts of the room.

Paralanguage refers to vocal aspect of communication that relate to


how something is said rather that to what is said. Voice quality, tone of voice,
laughing, and yawning fit in this category.

50
Object language refers to the communicative use of material things,
including clothing, cosmetics, furniture, and architecture. If you have
prepared a job resume lately, you probably gave some thought to the layout
and to the type of paper on which you wanted your resume printed -
nonverbal aspects of your communication about yourself and your credentials.
Nonverbal elements form an important part of the messages that managers
communicate.

II. Exercises.

1. Ознакомьтесь со словами в разделе III и запомните их.


2. Найдите и подчеркните в тексте, где употребляются причастия
прошедшего времени – Participle II – в функции определения и
переведите их на русский язык. (См. грамматический справочник на стр.
78).
3. Переведите письменно текст на русский язык, пользуясь
словарем.
4. Напишите развернутые ответы на следующие вопросы, исходя
из содержания текста:
1) What is communication?
2) What kind of communication do managers use in their work?
3) What is verbal communication?
4) How does written communication occur?
5) What are the advantages of written communication?
6) Where does oral communication take place?
7) What do the disadvantages of both written and oral communications
include?
8) What can you say about nonverbal communication?

5. Дайте письменно определения следующим терминам своими


словами:
− proxemics
− paralanguage
− object language
− kinesic behavior

6. Напишите на английском языке, как Вы понимаете:


“The nature of managerial communication”.

51
III. Vocabulary items.

communication - связь; общение; сообщение


managerial - управленческая связь;
communication административное общение
verbal communication - вербальная связь; ~ общение;
~ сообщение
common meaning - общее значение
written communication - письменная связь; ~ общение;
~ сообщение
nonverbal - невербальная связь; ~ общение;
communication ~ сообщение
estimate - оценка
kinesic behaviour - кинетическое поведение
paralanguage - паралингвистический язык
object language - предметный язык
implementation - выполнение, осуществление
transmission - передача, пересылка
deficiency - недостаток; нехватка
shortcoming - недостаток; несовершенство
to disseminate - распространять
to involve - включать в себя; вовлекать
layout - план; компоновка
credential(s) - полномочия
to refer - посылать, отослать, ссылаться

IV. Test.

1. Найдите в колонке справа английские эквиваленты следующих


русских словосочетаний. Запишите ответы следующим образом:
например, 1)-m.
1) административное общение a) common meaning
2) вербальная связь b) kinesic behaviour
3) общение c) managerial communication
4) общее значение d) verbal communication
5) письменная связь e) object language
6) невербальная связь f) paralanguage
7) кинетическое поведение g) communication
8)паралингвистический язык h) written communication
9) предметный язык k) nonverbal communication

52
2. Выберите определения справа, соответствующие словам и
выражениям слева. Запишите ответы следующим образом: например: 1)-
m.
1) Communication is ... a) ... the written or oral use of words to
communicate.
2) Paralanguage refers b) ... vocal aspect of communication that relate to
to … . how something is said rather that to what is said.
3) Proxemics refers to c) … the influence of proximity and space on
…. communication.

4) Kinesic behaviour d) ... the communicative use of material things,


refers to ... . including clothing, cosmetics, furniture, and
architecture.

5) Nonverbal e) ... the communication by means of elements and


communication is … . behaviours that are not coded into words.

6) Verbal f) ... the exchange of messages between people for


communicational is ... . the purpose of achieving common meanings.

7) Object language g) ... body movements such as gestures, facial


refers to … . expressions, eye movements and posture.

53
Unit 10

I. Information for study.

Прочтите и постарайтесь понять текст. Запишите на полях


основные термины.

THE NATURE OF INTERNATIONAL MANAGEMENT

If you took an inventory of the items that are in your living quarters,
you would probably find many that reflect the increasing volume of business
conducted on an international basis. For example, you might have shoes from
Italy or Brazil, a television and VCR from Japan, and a shirt made in Korea.
Even items that bear, the brand names of a U.S. - based company may have
been produced in a far-off land in the course of international business.
International business refers to profit-related activities conducted across
national boundaries. Such activities encompass importing supplies from other
countries, selling products or services to customers abroad, or providing for
the transfer of funds to subsidiaries in other countries. International
management is the process of planning, organizing, leading, and controlling
in organizations engaged in international business.

Changing character of international business

There is strong evidence that the United States is losing its competitive
edge in international trade and is facing increasing competiting in world
markets. According to some accounts, the United State enjoyed an abnormal
advantage for several decades after World War II because the productive
facilities of other large industrial powers had been severely damaged by
wartime activities. Now countries such as Japan and Germany have become
formidable competitors, and developing national such as Brazil, India, and
South Korea also are emerging as potential major players. Despite the
increased competition, though, international markets are growing rapidly,
providing expanded opportunities for many U.S. - based businesses.

Organizations engaging in International management

Organizations that engage in international management vary


considerably in size and in the extent to which their business activities cross
national boundaries. One special type of organization involved in
international management is the multinational corporation. Although
definitions differ somewhat, the term multinational corporation (MNC) is
typically reserved for an organization that engages in production or service

54
activities though its own affiliates in several countries, maintains control over
the policies of those affiliates, and manages from a global perspective.

The World's 25 Largest Industrial Multinational Corporations


RANK
1988 1987 Company Headquarters Industry
1 1 General Motors Detroit Motor vehicles
2 4 Ford Motors Dearborn, Mich Motor vehicles
3 3 Exxon New Yerk Petroleum refining
4 2 Royal Dutch/Shell Group London/The Hague Petroleum refining
5 5 International Business Armonk, N.Y. Computers
Machines
6 8 Toyota Motor Toyota City (Japan) Motor vehicles
7 10 General Electric Fairfleild, Conn Electronics
8 6 Mobil New York Petroleum refining
9 7 British Petroleum London Petroleum refining
10 9 IRI Rome Metals
11 11 Daimler-Benz Stuttgart Motor vehicles
12 16 Hitachi Tokyo Electronics
13 21 Chrysler Highland Park, Mich Motor vehicles
14 18 Siemens Munich Electronics
15 17 Fiat Turin Motor vehicles
16 19 Matsushita Electric Industrial Osaka Electronics
17 15 Volkswagen Wolfsburg(W.Ger.) Motor vehicles
18 12 Texaco White Plains, N.Y. Petroleum refining
19 14 E.I. Du Pont de Nemours Wilmington, Del Chemicals
20 20 Unilever London/Rotterdam Food
21 24 Nissan Motor Tokyo Motor vehicles
22 22 Philips' Endhoven Electronics
Gloeilampenfabrieken (Netherlands)
23 27 Nestle Vevey (Switzeriands) Food
24 32 Samsung Seoul Electronics
25 25 Renault Paris Motor vehicles

Multinational corporations are not always easy to identify, since it may


be difficult to determine from the outside how much control management
maintains over the policies of affiliates or whether management actually uses
a global perspective. As a result? for purposes of gathering statistics, an
arbitrary percentage (such as 25 percent of sales from foreign sources) is
sometimes used to distinguish multinational corporations from other types of
international businesses. However, there is no single universally accepted
percentage of foreign sales that clearly separates multinational corporations
from others.
Regardless of their size, companies may decide to expand
internationally for a number of different reasons. Some organizations may
become involved through unsolicited orders from foreign customers. Others
may initiate international efforts in order to open new markets or to preclude

55
foreign companies from entering specific foreign markets and eventually
becoming domestic competitors. Still others may be motivated by the need to
develop sources of supplies, possibilities of acquiring needed technology or
prospects for reducing costs by operating in foreign countries. Whatever the
reason, managers need to think through their basic orientation toward
international management.

Orientations toward International Management

Top-level managers in companies that are expanding internationally


(particularly those in multinational corporations) tend to subscribe to one of
three basic orientations, or philosophies, regarding a degree to which methods
of operatting are influenced by headquarters or by company members in other
parts of the world. The three orientations are ethnocentric (home-country
oriented), polycentric (host-country oriented), and geocentric (world
oriented). A home country is the country in which an organization's
headquarters is located, whereas a host country is a foreign country in which
an organization is conducting business.
An ethnocentric (or home-country) orientation is an approach to
international management whereby executives assume that practices which
work in the headquarters or home country must necessarily work elsewhere.
For example, during the period 1973 to 1986, Procter & Gamble lost an
estimated quarter of a billion dollars of business in Japan partially because of
an ethnocentric orientation. As one former Japanese employee stated, “They
did not listen to anybody”. One of the most serious blunders was a
commercial for Camay soap that was used in the late 1970s. The commercial
showed a Japanese man meeting a Japanese woman for the firs time and
immediately comparing her skin to that of a fine porcelain doll. Although this
commercial had worked well in the Philippines, South America, and Europe,
it was a disaster in Japan. A Japanese advertising specialist who worked on
the commercial had warned Procter & Gamble that only an unsophisticated or
rude man would say something like that to a Japanese woman, but company
representatives would not listen. As the visechairman of Procter & Gamble
later noted, “We learned a lesson here [in Japan] about tailoring your products
and marketing to the market. Although an ethnocentric orientation often is a
phase that organizations go through when they enter the international area, it
can prove extremely difficult to eradicate.”
A polycentric (or host-country orientation) is an approach to
international management whereby executives view host-country cultures and
foreigners as difficult to fathom and, therefore, believe that the parts of the
organization located in a given host country should be staffed by local
individuals to the fullest extent possible. Locals – or nationals, as they are
sometimes called – are thought to know their own culture, mores, work ethics,
and markets best.

56
As a result, subsidiaries in various countries operate almost
independently under the direction of local individual and are tied to the parent
company mainly through financial control. The parent company may maintain
a very low public profile relative to the subsidiary, as was the case until
recently with Unilever and its U.S. subsidiary. Level Brothers. It is very
possible that you only discovered that a Level Brother was owned by a
foreign company when you read the individuals run operations in the host
countries, they have little prospect of holding senior executive positions as
headquarters, largely because they are perceived as having only a local
perspective and expertise. Still, a polycentric approach may be successful
when decision making is largely decentralized to host-country personnel.
The geocentric (or world) orientation is an approach to international
management whereby executives believe that a global view is needed in both
the headquarters of the parent company and its various subsidiaries and that
the best individuals, regardless of home- or host-country origin, should be
utilized to solve company problems anywhere in the world. Major issues are
viewed from a global perspective at both headquarters and subsidiaries, which
consider questions such as “Where in the world shall we raise money, build
our plant, conduct R&D, develop and launch new ideas to serve our present
and future customers?” The geocentric approach is the most difficult to
achieve because it requires that managers acquire both local and global
knowledge.

II. Exercises.
1. Ознакомьтесь со словами в разделе III и запомните их.
2. Найдите в тексте предложения, где употребляются модальные
глаголы с Perfect или Passive Infinitive и переведите их (см.
грамматический справочник, стр. 79).
3. Переведите письменно текст на русский язык, пользуясь
словарем.
4. Напишите развернутые ответы на следующие вопросы, исходя
из содержания текста.
a) What does international business refer to?
b) What is international management?
c) What does MNC mean?
d) What are the three orientations in international management?
5. Напишите определения к следующим терминам своими словами
на английском языке:
− international management
− multinational corporation
− ethnocentric orientation
− polycentric orientation
− geocentric orientation

57
6. Напишите на английском языке, как Вы понимаете:
“What is the nature of international management?”.

III. Vocabulary items.

inventory - инвентарь
to conduct - руководить, управлять
to bear - нести
far-off - отдаленный
boundary - граница
to encompass - заключать в себя (содержать)
edge - конкурентно - способное
положение
abnormal - ненормальный
formidable - значительный, громадный
to emerge - всплывать, появляться
rapidly - бистро
to be engaged - быть занятым
to vary - 1) меняться, изменяться
2) расходится, различаться
extent - степень, протяжение, пространство
to affiliate - присоединяться в качестве филиала
perspective - перспективный
unsolicited orders - невостребованные заказы
to involve - вовлекать
to subscribe - подписываться
headquarters - главное управление, штаб
to assume - взять на себя
executive - исполнительный
to fathom - вникать
blunder грубая ошибка
subsidiary вспомогательный, дополнительный
ethnocentric этноцентрический
polycentric полицентрический
geocentric геоцентрический

IV. Test.

1. Подберите к определениям слева соответствующие термины


справа. Запишите ответы следующим образом: например, a) – 10).

58
a) The process of planning, organizing, leading, 1) multinationnal corpo-
and controlling in organizations engaged in ration
international business is ... .

b) One special type of organization involved in 2) international mana-


international management is ... . gement

c) An approach to international management 3) geocentric orientation


whereby executives assume that practices work
in the headquarters is ... .

d) An approach to international management 4) ethnocentric orientation


where by executives view host - country
cultures and foreigners as difficult to fathom
and believe that the parts of the organization
located in a given host country should be
staffed by local individuals to the fullest extent
possible is ... .

e) An approach to international management 5) policentric orientation


whereby executives believe that a global view is
needed in both the headquarters of the parent
company and its various subsidiaries is … .

f) … is a foreign country in which an 6) international business


organization is conducting business.

g) … refers to profit-related activities 7) home country


conducted across national boundaries.

h) … is the country in which an organization’s 8) host country


headquarters is located.

2. Закончите предложения, выбрав необходимое слово или


словосочетание слева. Запишите ответы следующим образом: например,
а)-1.
1) international trade a) In the inventory of the items you would
probably find many that reflect the increasing
volume of business conducted on … .
2) international mana- b) The brand names of U.S. – based company
gement may have been produced in … .
3) international business c) The profit-related activities encompass
important supplies from … .
59
4) the subsidiary d) The United States is losing its competitive
edge in… .

5) different reasons e) There is no single universally accepted


percentage of foreign sales that clearly separates
… from others.

6) other countries f) Regardless of their size, companies may


decide to expand internationally for a number of
….

7) a far –off land g) Whatever the reason, managers need to think


through their basic orientation toward … .

8) multinational corpo- h) The parent company may maintain a very low


rations public profile relative to … .

60
Final Test
(Итоговый тест)

Grammar

1. Выберите русский эквивалент из колонки справа,


соответствующий английскому предложению слева. Запишите ответы
следующим образом: например, 9) – f.

1) This function also includes a) Чем больше руководитель


considering what must be done to способен вызывать симпатию,
encourage necessary level of change желание подражать и
and innovation. восхищение у других, тем
больше у него власти эталона.

2) Disney has been able to gain a b) Во многих случаях


competitive advantage in the family значительное количество
entertainment industry by creating времени и усилий тратится на
amusement parks, movies, and подготовку письменных
products based on the renowned сообщений.
Disney characters.

3) In addition to having a knowledge c) Контролирование также


base, managers need three key types of способствует выполнению
skills to carry out the various functions организационной и руководящей
of management. функций через обеспечение
направленности ресурсов на
достижение главных целей.

4) Some typical titles include such d) Для выполнения различных


words as “manager”, “director of”, функций управления помимо
“chief”, “department head”, and базы знаний менеджерам
“division head”. необходимо иметь три основных
вида навыков.

5) The more that a leader is able to e) Данная функция также


cultivate the liking, identification, and включает в себя рассмотрение
admiration of others, the greater the того, что должно быть сделано
referent power. для поддержания на
необходимом уровне процесса
изменений и нововведений.

61
6) In many cases, considerable f) Некоторые типичные названия
time and effort are expended in должностей включают такие слова, как
preparing written «менеджер», «директор»,
communications. «руководитель», «начальник отдела» и
«начальник подразделения».

7) Controlling also supports the g) Дисней смог получить


organizing and leading functions преимущество перед конкурентами в
by helping ensure that resources семейной индустрии развлечений
are channeled toward the main путем создания парков с
objectives. аттракционами, кинофильмов, а также
производства товаров,
ассоциирующихся со знаменитыми
диснеевскими героями.

2. Определите функцию подчеркнутых слов в предложениях и


буквой укажите выбранную функцию из колонки справа и запишите их
перевод. Например 9) – f.

1) To understand how management can a) обстоятельство цели


influence in an organization, we need to define
the organization.

2) They are to organize controlling function in b) левое определение


international management.

3) He asked the audience to define the Human c) правое определение


Research Management (HRM) more.

4) To make the process of management more d) дополнение


effective we must include analyzing the
competitive situation.

5) He explained the function of controlling for e) подлежащие


the second time for us to understand it better.

6) Controlling is the first process to sequlate


organization aclivities so that actual
performance conforms to expected
organizational standards and goals.

62
Vocabulary

1. Выберите определение из колонки справа, соответствующее


термину, приведенному в колонке слева. Запишите ответы следующим
образом: например, 9) – а.

1) organizing a) a process through which managers formulate


and implement strategies geared to optimizing
strategic goal achievement, given available
environmental and internal conditions;

2) strategic management b) skills related to the ability to visualize the


organization as a whole, discern interrelationships
among organizational parts, and understand how
the organization fits into the wider context of the
industry, community, and world;

3) controlling c) an efficiency concept that gauges the ratio of


outputs relative to input into a productive process;

4) nonverbal com- d) the management function that focuses on


munication allocating and arranging human and nonhuman
resources so that plans can be carried out
successfully;

5) ethnocentric orient- e) communication by means of elements and


tation behaviors that are not coded into words;

6) productivity f) the process of regulating organizational


activities so that actual performance conforms to
expected organizational standards and goals;

7) conceptual skills g) an approach to international management


whereby executives assume that practices which
work in the headquarters or home country must
necessarily work elsewhere.

2. В приведенных ниже предложениях заполните пропуски


следующими словами или словосочетаниями, опираясь на текст.
Запишите ответы следующим образом: например, 9) – а.

1) tool; 2) human resources; 3) directions; 4) signal; 5) disadvantages;


6) multinational corporations; 7) sense of direction.

63
a) When we accept a job with an organization, we usually are aware
that we will be receiving … related to our work from our immediate boss and
others in the hierarchy.
b) … are not always easy to identify, since it may by difficult to
determine from the outside how much control management maintains over the
policies of affiliates or whether management actually uses a global
perspective.
c) Written communication also has several …, including the expense
of preparation, the relatively impersonal nature of written communications,
possible misunderstanding by the receiver, and the delay of feedback
regarding the effectiveness of the message.
d) Line managers ultimately are responsible for the effective
utilization of … within their units and, thus, carry out many aspects of the
HRM process, particularly as they relate to implementing strategic plans.
e) Another reason for the importance of strategic management is that it
provides a … so that organization members know where to expend their
efforts.
f) Feedback from the control process might … the need to reorganize,
provide more training to workers, clarify communications, increase leadership
influence, or take other actions associated with the respective organizing and
leading functions.
g) Productivity can be a useful … for managers because it helps them
track progress toward the more efficient use of resources in producing goods
and services.

Text

1. Переведите письменно текст на русский язык со словарем.

Management Skills

The three levels of management also differ in the importance attached


to the three key management skills: technical, human, and conceptual.
Generally, conceptual skills are most important at the top management level.
The reason is that top managers have the greatest need to see the organization
as a whole, understand how the various parts of the organization relate to one
another, and associate the organization to the world outside.
In contrast, first-line managers have the greatest need for technical
skills. The logic here is that it is the first-line managers who directly supervise
most of the technical and professional employees who are not managers. On
the other hand, middle managers often may need to have technical skills that
are at least sufficient to assist in communicating with subordinates and
recognizing major problem. Even top managers must have some technical
skills, particularly when technology is an important part of the products or

64
services their organizations produce. Otherwise, upper-level managers will
have difficulty fostering innovation, allocating resources efficiently, or
devising strategies to stay ahead of the competition.
For example, when Chairman John Sculley joined Apple Computer,
most of his experience was in marketing with PepsiCo and he knew little
about computers. He realized immediately that he was not going to be able to
function well without more technical knowledge. “I’m essentially an intuitive
leader, and you can only be intuitive about something you understand.” As a
result, he quickly initiated an extensive effort to boost his knowledge of
computer technology through such steps as arranging for tutors, reading
books, and talking with knowledgeable staff members.
Interestingly, all three levels of management must have strong human
skills because they all must get things done through people. In fact, in one
recent study, managers at all levels rated human skills as most important for
good job performance. Ironically, individuals often are promoted into first-
level management because they have good technical skills, without adequate
consideration being given to the adequacy of their human skills. Individuals
who lack sufficient human skills usually run into serious difficulties
attempting to deal with individuals inside and outside their work units.

65
Grammar Reference
(Грамматический справочник)

The Verb /глагол/

По употреблению в речи глаголы классифицируются на:


1) самостоятельные (смысловые или знаменательные); he works
2) модальные; he can work
3) глаголы-связки; he is a student
4) вспомогательные глаголы; he is reading

Глагол становится служебным, если он выполняет функцию


глагола-связки или вспомогательного глагола.
Глагол, выполняющий функцию смыслового глагола в
предложении, имеет форму времени, категорию наклонения и залог.
В английском языке глагол имеет следующие видо-временные
группы: Indefinite, Continuous, Perfect, Perfect Continuous.

Сводная таблица видо-временных форм глагола


в действительном залоге

Форма глагола Употребление формы


Indefinite (or Simple)
Present Past Future
I ask
I  I shall  Глагол в форме Indefinite
He  asked He 


He 
   will 
She 
представляет действие
She  
She 
asks  We shall 
 как:
We 
You  
 will
1) факт;
We  You  They  
You 
 
They 
ask 2) обычное, регулярно
They  повторяющееся
ask
действие;
3) последовательность
действий.

66
Форма глагола Употребление формы
Continuous (or Progressive)
Present Past Future


Глагол в форме
 Continuous обозначает:
I am 

He  
I 



I shall be 

1) процесс,
 is  He  was  He   asking
She  She   She
 will be  происходящий в
 
We    определенный какой-то
 We   We shall be asking
You  are 
They  
 You  were 
 You  момент (или период);
They   will be asking
 They 2) параллельно
asking asking происходящие
процессы;
3) процесс,
охватывающий
определенный отрезок
времени.

Форма глагола Употребление формы


Perfect
Present Past Future
Глагол в форме Perfect
обозначает:
I have 

I 

I shall 

1) действие,
He   asked He  He   have asked
 has
She  She   will 
She
завершенное к
 had asked 
We 
We 
We shall  определенному
You  

You  have asked  You   have asked моменту и результат
They   will
They  They   этого действия
налицо;
2) Past и Future Perfect
выражают действия,
завершенные до
другого действия и
предшествующие ему.

67
Форма глагола Употребление
формы
Perfect Continuous
Present Past Future
Глагол в форме
Perfect
I have been 

I 

I shall have been asking
Continuous
He   asking He  He 
 has been 
She  She 
 will have been asking
She выражает
  had been asking
We 
We  We shall have been asking действие,
You 

You  have been asking  You 
 will have been asking
начавшееся до
They 
They  They 
какого-то
момента и
продолжающеес
я в данный
момент, включая
или исключая
его (for two
hours – в течение
2-х часов; since
1941 – c 1941
года).

The Passive Voice /Страдательный залог/

В английском языке, как и в русском, различают формы глагола


действительного или страдательного залога; формы глагола
страдательного залога выражают действие, совершенное подлежащим и
направленное на него, в то время как форма действительного залога
показывает действие, производимое самим подлежащим.

Например:
Действительный залог Страдательный залог
/Active Voice/ /Passive Voice/

He asked them at the lesson They were asked (by him) at the lesson
(он спросил их на уроке) (их спросили на уроке)

Страдательный залог образуется из вспомогательного глагола “to


be” в соответствующем времени, лице, числе и формы Past Participle
(Participle II) смыслового глагола (см. Table 1).

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Table 1
The Indefinite Tenses in the Passive Voice

Affirmative Sentence Interrogative Sentence Negative Sentence


Present

I am asked Am I asked? I am not asked

He  he  He 
 is asked Is   asked?  is not asked
She She
she
We 
We  we  
   You  are not asked
You  are asked Are  you  asked?
They 
They  they 
 
Past
I 
 I  I 
He  was asked   
Was he  asked? He  was not asked
She She
she
 
We  we  We 

   You  were not asked.
You  were asked Were  you  asked?
They 
They  they 
 
Future

I shall be asked. Shall I be asked?


I shall not be asked.
He  he  He 
 will be asked. Will   be asked. She will not be asked.
She 
she
We shall be asked. Shall we be asked? We shall not be asked.
You  You 
 will be asked.  you   will not be asked.
Will  They 
They   be asked.
they 

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Тable 2
The Perfect Tenses in the Passive Voice

Affirmative Sentence Interrogative Sentence Negative


Sentence
Present

I have  Have I  I have 


  
He   been asked. he  been asked? He   not been asked.
 has  Has    has 
She  she She 

We  we  We 
   
You  have been asked. Have  you  been asked? You  have not been asked.
They  they 
  They 

Past
I  I  I 
he 
He    He 
 
She  she  She 
 had been asked. Had we  been asked?  had not been asked.
We    We 
You   you  You 
   
They  they  They 

Future

I shall  Shall I  I shall 


He    He  
he 
 will  Will   will 
She  she  She 
 have been asked.  have been asked?  not have been asked.
We shall  Shall we  We shall 
 
You   you  You 
 will  Will    will 
They   They  
they 

Примечание: Употребление глагольных форм Perfect Passive


такое же, как и в действительном залоге и переводится на русский язык
формами глагола совершенного вида.
Many new houses have been built.
Много новых домов было построено.

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Table 3
The Continuous Tenses in the Passive Voice

Affirmative Sentence Interrogative Sentence Negative Sentence


Present

I am  Am I  I am 
  
He is  being asked now. he  being asked? He is  not being asked.
She is  Is   She is 
she
We  We 
 we  
You  are being asked.   You  are not being asked.
Are  you  being asked? They 
They  they 
 
Past

I  I  I 
   
He  was being asked. Was he  being asked? He  was not being asked.
She 
She  she
 
We  we  We 

You  were being asked. Were  you  being asked? 
You  were not being asked.
They  they  They 
 

Future
Эта форма отсутствует. Вместо отсутствующей формы Future Continuos
употребляется Future Indefinite.

Примечание: Английский глагол в форме Continuos Passive


переводится на русский язык формами глагола только несовершенного
вида с окончанием на -ся или неопределенно-личным предложением.
Например:
New houses are (were) being built.
Новые дома строятся (строились).

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Сослагательное наклонение

Сослагательное наклонение указывает на то, что говорящий


рассматривает действие не как реальный факт, а как желательное,
предполагаемое, условное или возможное.

Формы сослагательного наклонения

1. Простая форма (синтетическая), которая совпадает с формами


изъявительного наклонения за исключением следующих случаев:
а) глагол to be в Present Subjunctive имеет форму be для всех лиц:
I be we be
He, she, it be you be
they be

б) глагол to have в Present Subjunctive имеет форму have для всех


лиц:
I have, he have

в) остальные глаголы в Present Subjunctive не имеют окончания -s


в 3-м лице единственного числа:
he speak

г) глагол to be в Past Subjunctive имеет форму were для всех лиц:


I were, he were

2. Сложная форма (аналитическая), которая образуется из


сочетания вспомогательных глаголов should или would или модальных
глаголов can, could, may, might с инфинитивом; последние частично
сохраняют свое лексическое значение.

Система форм сослагательного наклонения

Синтетические Аналитические
Present I, he, she 
 be, ask, have
Subjunc- we, you, they —
tive
Past I, he, she 
 were, asked
Subjunc- we, you, they should или would +
tive Indefinite Infinitive
Perfect I, he, she 
 had been, had asked
Subjunc- we, you, they should или would + Perfect
tive Infinitive

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Грамматическая форма времен в сослагательном наклонении не
соответствует действительному периоду времени. Формы Present
Subjunctive и Past Subjunctive относят действие к настоящему или
будущему периоду времени, а форма Perfect Subjunctive относит
действие к прошедшему периоду времени. Все эти формы
сослагательного наклонения обычно переводятся на русский язык
сочетанием глагола в прошедшем времени с частицей бы или с союзом
чтобы.

Употребление сослагательного наклонения

В простых предложениях:

Пример: Success attend you!


Перевод: Пусть успех сопутствует тебе!

В сложных предложениях:
1. В придаточных предложениях подлежащих, в том числе после
безличных оборотов типа it is necessary, it is important.

Пример: It is necessary that one of the surfaces of a disc be made of


some material that has a low coefficient of friction.
Перевод: Необходимо, чтобы одна из поверхностей диска была бы
сделана из материала, имеющего низкий коэффициент трения.

2. В придаточных дополнительных предложениях:

Пример: They recommended that thorough laboratory tests should be


conducted before the system is installed in the computing centre.
Перевод: Они рекомендовали, чтобы были проведены тщательные
лабораторные испытания, прежде чем система будет установлена в
вычислительном центре.

3. В придаточных обстоятельственных предложениях цели с


союзами that, so that; lest – чтобы не.

Пример: They give him a list of instructions lest he should repeat the
mistake made in his previous work.
Перевод: Они дали ему список инструкций, чтобы он не повторил
ошибок, сделанных в его предыдущей работе.

4. В придаточных обстоятельственных предложениях сравнения


или образа действия с союзами as if, as though – как будто.
Пример: He listens as if he were greatly interested in our conversation.

73
Перевод: Он слушает, как будто бы он очень заинтересован
нашим разговором.

5. В уступительных придаточных предложениях с союзами и


союзными словами though, although – хотя (бы); even if, even though –
даже если (бы), хотя (бы); whenever – когда бы ни; whatever, no matter
what – что бы ни; wherever, no matter where – где бы ни; whoever, no
matter who – кто бы ни.

Пример: Whatever the nature of the tubes and the arrangement of the
electrode be, an emitting electrode should be present.
Перевод: Каковы бы ни были лампы и устройства электрода,
необходим изучающий электрод.

6. В условных предложениях. Условные предложения


сослагательного наклонения бывают 2-х типов и выражают:
а) Условие выполнимое, относящееся к настоящему или будущему
периоду времени. В этом случае в главном предложении употребляются
формы should или would + Infinitive, а в придаточном – простая форма
Past Subjunctive.
Условное предложение такого типа переводится на русский язык
глаголом в пошедшем времени с частицей «бы».

Пример: If you increased the order they would reduce the price.
Перевод: Если бы вы увеличили заказ, они бы снизили цену.

б) Условие невыполнимое, относящееся к прошедшему периоду


времени. В этом случае в главном предложении употребляются формы
should или would + Perfect Infinitive, а в придаточном предложении –
простая форма Perfect Subjunctive. Такие условные предложения
переводятся на русский язык так же, как и условные предложения типа
а).

Пример: If we had come some minutes earlier we should have met the
delegation at the plant.
Перевод: Если бы мы пришли на несколько минут раньше, мы бы
встретились с делегацией на заводе.

Примечание: Следует иметь в виду, что в английском языке


существуют условные предложения, в которых сказуемое стоит в одном
из времен изъявительного наклонения. Такие предложения переводятся
на русский язык в соответствующем времени изъявительного
наклонения.

74
Пример: If further information is required we shall send it
immediately.
Перевод: Если потребуется дальнейшая информация мы
немедленно вышлем ее.

Условные предложения вводятся союзами и союзными словами if


– если; unless – если не; provided (that), providing (that), on condition
(that) – при условии если, при условии что; in case (that) – в случае если;
supposing (that), suppose (that) – если, если бы, в случае.

Пример: I should not have been able to realize what a wonderful


instrument it was if I had not seen it in action.
Перевод: Я не смог бы понять, какой это прекрасный прибор, если
бы не видел его в действии.

Пример: They would finish the work in time, provided they had the
necessary material.
Перевод: Они закончили бы работу вовремя, (при условии) если
бы у них был весь необходимый материал.

Примечание: Слово provided в предложении может встречаться в


различных функциях и в зависимости от этого по-разному переводится.
а) provided –глагол-сказуемое в Past Indefinite:
II
Пример: We provided the expedition with all the necessary
equipment.
Перевод: Мы обеспечили экскурсию всем необходимым
оборудованием.

б) provided – причастие прошедшего времени в функции


определения:

Пример: The expedition provided with all the necessary equipment


will start tomorrow.
Перевод: Экспедиция, снабженная всем необходимым
оборудованием, отправится завтра.

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Modal Verbs /Модальные глаголы и их эквиваленты/

Модальные глаголы выражают не действие, а отношение


говорящего к действию, выраженному последующим инфинитивом.
Модальные глаголы имеют не все временные формы, отсутствующие
временные формы восполняются эквивалентами модальных глаголов,
например: to be able to или to have to.
Модальные глаголы могут употребляться в сочетании с любой
формой инфинитива.
Наибольшие трудности представляет перевод сочетаний
модальных глаголов с Infinitive Passive и Perfect Infinitive.

Таблица модальных глаголов и их эквивалентов

Модаль- Зна- Present Past Future


ные чение
глаголы и
их
эквива-
ленты
1. CAN Воз- can could —
мо- am  was  shall
  able ( to)  be able ( to)
to be able жность is  able ( to) were will 

(to) совер- are


2. MAY шения may might —
дей- am  was  shall be allowed
  allowed ( to) 
to be ствия*) is  allowed ( to) were will  ( to)

allowed are 

(to)
3. MUST Дол- must — —
to have (to) жен- have (to) had (to) shall
 have ( to)
ство- has (to) will 

to be (to) вание am (to) was (to)


is (to) were (to) —
are (to)
should should — —
ought (to) ought (to) — —
am was  shall be obliged
  obliged ( to) 
to be is  obliged ( to) were will  ( to)

obliged are

(to)

*)
can – мочь, уметь (я могу, умею)
may – быть вероятным, выражает просьбу или разрешение (можете войти. вероятно это интересно).

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Сочетание модальных глаголов с Infinitive Passive и Infinitive Perfect

Сочетание модального глагола с Infinitive Passive указывает, что


подлежащее является объектом, на который направлено действие,
выраженное инфинитивом. Поэтому подлежащее английского
предложения часто переводится на русский язык дополнением, прямым
или предложным.

Пример: The man was so excited that he could not be understood.


Перевод: Человек был так возбужден, что его нельзя было понять.

Модальные глаголы must, may и might в сочетании с Perfect


Infinitive выражают возможность или вероятность действия,
относящегося к прошлому и обычно переводятся словами должно быть,
возможно.

А Пример: He must have lost his book somewhere.


Он должно быть потерял свою книгу где-то.
Б Пример: He may have got the article he needed.
Он возможно достал статью, которая была ему нужна.

Глаголы can и could в отрицательной форме в сочетании с Perfect


Infinitive выражают сомнение в возможности совершения действия в
прошлом и обычно переводятся при помощи слов не может быть.

Пример: He cannot have made such a serious mistake.


Не может быть, чтобы он допустил такую серьезную ошибку.

Модальные глаголы ought (to), should, could и might в сочетании с


Perfect Infinitive указывают на то, что действие, которое могло или
должно было бы совершиться не совершилось.

Пример: You should have told her the truth.


Тебе следовало бы рассказать ей правду.
Пример: He could have written that letter, he had a lot of free time.
Он мог бы написать это письмо, у него было много
свободного времени.

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The Participle /Причастие/

Формы и функции

Participle I Participle II
Tense Voice Active Passive
1. –ed for regular
verbs
Indefinite asking being asked e.g. asked

Perfect having asked having been 2. specific form for


asked irregular verbs
e.g. written spoken
etc.

Функции Participle I

1. Определение, которое может стоять перед существительным. В


этой функции перфектные формы причастия не употребляются.
Переводится на русский язык как причастие, а иногда как обычное
прилагательное.

The reading boy – читающий мальчик

Participle I может стоять после существительного. В этом случае


после Participle I могут стоять прямое дополнение и обстоятельство,
которые в целом образуют причастный оборот. Переводится причастный
оборот на русский язык придаточным определительным предложением
или причастным оборотом.

The boy reading a book is my friend.


Мальчик, читающий книгу – мой друг.

2. Часть сложного дополнения.

I see him speaking with a manager.


Я вижу, что он говорит с менеджером.

3. Обстоятельство времени, образа действия, причины и


переводится как деепричастие.

Having discussed this problem they came to the conclusion.


Обсудив проблему, они пришли к заключению.

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4. Participle I может быть частью самостоятельного причастного
оборота (The Absolute Participle Construction), т.е. такого причастного
оборота, в котором перед причастием стоит существительное в общем
падеже или местоимение в именительном падеже, являющееся
субъектом действия, выраженного причастием.
Такой оборот отделяется запятой и переводится на русский язык
придаточным предложением, если стоит в начале предложения.

Weather permitting, we’ll continue our search.


Если позволит погода, мы продолжим свой поиск.

Функции Participle II

Participle II в предложении может иметь следующие функции:


1. Определения. Стоит перед или чаще после определяемого
существительного и переводится на русский язык причастиями на –мый,
-нный, -тый, -вший(ся) (предшествовавший).
The translated book – переведенная книга.

2. Части сказуемого в страдательном залоге.


The book was translated last year.
Книга была переведена в прошлом году.

3. Обстоятельства /переводятся обстоятельственными


придаточными предложениями времени, условия, причины и др./. Перед
Participle II в этой функции иногда могут стоять союзы if, unless, when.
If translated well the book will be a success.
Если книга переведена хорошо, она будет иметь успех.

4. Participle II так же, как и Participle I может быть частью


самостоятельного причастного оборота.
The book translated, we shall be able to buy it.
Когда книга будет опубликована, мы сможем купить ее.

The Gerund /Герундий/

Формы и функции

Tense Voice Active Passive

Indefinite asking being asked

Perfect having asked having been


asked

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Будучи неличной формой глагола, герундий имеет категорию
относительного времени и залога, может иметь прямое дополнение и
определяется наречием.
Имея свойства существительного, герундий выполняет в
предложении те же синтаксические функции, что и существительное:
подлежащего, именной части сказуемого, дополнения, определения с
предлогом и обстоятельством с предлогом. Герундий может
переводиться отглагольным существительным, инфинитивом или
деепричастием.

Reading English books is useful. (подлежащее)


Чтение английских книг – полезно.
I like reading – Я люблю чтение (читать). (дополнение)

Примечание: После глаголов, данных ниже, в качестве прямого


дополнения может стоять только герундий:
to avoid (избегать); to enjoy (получать удовольствие);
to excuse (извинять(ся)); to intend (намереваться);
to need (нуждаться); to require (требовать);
to want (хотеть).
Герундий может определяться существительным в
притяжательном или общем падеже, а также притяжательным или
указательным местоимением.
Такие герундиальные обороты обычно переводятся придаточным
предложением, вводимым словами:
то, что; в том, что; тем, что; о том, что и т.п.
John’s returning home so late stayed unnoticed.
(То, что Джон вернулся домой так поздно, осталось
незамеченным.)
His returning home so late surprised nobody.
(Его возвращение домой так поздно никого не удивило.)
The Infinitive /Инфинитив/
В английском языке имеются следующие формы инфинитива:
Active Passive
Indefinite to translate to be translated
Continuous to be translating
Perfect to have translated to have been translated
Perfect to have been translating —
Continuous

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Инфинитив является основной глагольной формой, от которой
образуются все личные формы глагола во всех группах времен в
действительном и страдательном залогах.
Infinitive Indefinite употребляется для выражения действия,
одновременного с действием, выраженным глаголом-сказуемым в
личной форме в предложении.
Infinitive Continuous выражает действие в процессе его развития
одновременно с действием, выраженным глаголом-сказуемым в личной
форме.
Infinitive Perfect выражает действие, которое предшествует
действию, выраженному глаголом-сказуемым в личной форме.
Infinitive Perfect Continuous выражает действие, продолжавшееся
в течение определенного периода времени и предшествовавшее
действию, выраженному глаголом-сказуемым в личной форме.
Форма инфинитива страдательного залога указывает на то, что
действие, выраженное инфинитивом, направленно на лицо или предмет,
связанный с инфинитивом.

Пример: Any mistake which is present in the calculation must be


removed.
Перевод: Любая ошибка, которая есть в вычислениях, должна
быть удалена.

Способ перевода инфинитива на русский язык зависит от его


функции в предложении.
Инфинитив в английском предложении может выполнять
следующие функции:
1. Подлежащего (переводится неопределенной формой глагола).
Пример: To prove this law experimentally | is very difficult.
Перевод: Доказать этот закон экспериментально очень трудно.

2. Именной части составного сказуемого (переводится


неопределенной формой глагола, нередко с союзом чтобы).
Пример: Your work | is to observe | the rise of inflation.
Перевод: Ваша работа заключается в том, чтобы наблюдать за
повышением инфляции.

3. Части составного глагольного сказуемого после модальных


глаголов и их эквивалентов и глаголов в личной форме, обозначающих
начало, продолжение или конец действия.
Пример: He | is to make | the experiment.
Перевод: Он должен провести этот эксперимент.

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4. Дополнения (переводится неопределенной формой глагола).
Пример: He | asked | to define the unit of measurement more
accurately.
Перевод: Он попросил определить единицу измерения более
точно.

Если дополнение выражено сложной формой инфинитива, то он


переводится придаточным предложением с союзом что или чтобы.
Пример: The students were glad to have obtained such good results in
the latest tests of the new model.
Перевод: Студенты были рады, что (они) достигли таких хороших
результатов при последних испытаниях новой модели.

5. Обстоятельства. Инфинитив в этой функции с группой


последующих слов чаще всего переводится на русский язык
обстоятельством цели с союзами чтобы; для того, чтобы.
Пример: To make the price higher | we must improve the quality of
goods.
Перевод: Чтобы повысить цену, мы должны улучшить качество
товаров.
Пример: We go to the University to study.
Перевод: Мы ходим в университет, чтобы учиться.

6. Правого определения. В этой функции инфинитив с зависящими


от него словами обычно переводится определительным придаточным
предложением. Часто инфинитив в функции определения имеет оттенок
модальности и переводится на русский язык с добавлением слов
следует, надо, должен.
Пример: Fielding | was the first | to introduce into the English novel
real characters in their actual surroundings.
Перевод: Филдинг был первым, кто ввел в английский роман
реальные характеры в их реальном окружении.
Пример: Experiments have shown that | the amount of work | to be
used for producing a given amount of goods | is the same under all conditions.
Перевод: Опыты показали, что количество работы, которое нужно
израсходовать для получения данного количества товаров, является
одинаковым при всех условиях.

Perfect Infinitive Passive в функции определения указывает на то,


что действие, выраженное инфинитивом, должно было совершиться, но
не совершилось.
Пример: Another important factor to have been referred to in that
article was that there are many functions of money.

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Перевод: Другой важный фактор, на который нужно было бы
сослаться в той статье, заключался в том, что существует много функций
денег.

Если инфинитив в функции определения имеет после себя


предлог, как в данном выше примере, то вся инфинитивная группа
переводится определительным придаточным предложением с
соответствующим предлогом перед союзным словом, а если предлог не
переводится, то он придает определенный падеж этому союзному слову.

Инфинитивные обороты в английском языке

Объектный инфинитивный оборот


(The Objective with the Infinitive)

Этот оборот состоит из существительного или местоимения в


объектном падеже и инфинитива, между которыми существует связь
аналогичная связи между подлежащим и сказуемым. Оборот в
предложении стоит обычно за сказуемым основного предложения и
синтаксически выполняет функцию сложного дополнения. Он
употребляется после глаголов типа: to want, to suppose, to find, to expect,
to believe и т.д. Оборот переводится на русский язык придаточным
дополнительным предложением, причем инфинитив переводится
глаголом-сказуемым в соответствующем времени в зависимости от
формы инфинитива, а существительное или местоимение в объектом
падеже – существительным или личным местоимением как подлежащее.

Пример: We know him to be the first inventor of an electrical


measuring instrument.
Перевод: Мы знаем, что он является первым изобретателем
электрического измерительного прибора.

Инфинитив в этом обороте употребляется без частицы to, если он


стоит после глаголов восприятия чувств, таких как: to hear, to see, to feel,
to watch и др.

Пример: We see the computer work well.


Перевод: Мы видим компьютер работает хорошо.

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Субъектный инфинитивный оборот
(The Nominative with the Infinitive)

Этот оборот состоит из существительного или личного


местоимения в именительном падеже и инфинитива, связанного с ним
по смыслу. Между ними стоит сказуемое, выраженное личной формой
глагола в страдательном залоге или глаголом типа to seem, to appear в
действительном залоге, или оборотами to be likely, to be sure и др.
Субъектный инфинитивный оборот синтаксически выполняет функцию
сложного подлежащего.
Перевод всей конструкции обычно начинается со сказуемого,
которое переводится неопределенно-личным предложением (известно,
сообщают, кажется и т.п.). Сам оборот переводится придаточным
дополнительным предложением, причем инфинитив переводится
глаголом-сказуемым в соответствующем времени.

Пример: All these goods are known to be produced by our firm.


Перевод: Известно, что все эти товары производятся нашей
фирмой.
Пример: Russian scientists and inventors are known to have
discovered electrical phenomena of the greatest importance.
Перевод: Известно, что русские ученые и изобретатели
открыли электрические явления величайшего значения.

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Business Case Study
(Примеры из деловой практики)

1. Ford at Dagenham

One of the plant managers, working with his area managers at Ford’s
Dagenham plant, had devised a plan for reducing costs by reorganising the
work in the area of machine operation. The problem was that if the plan was
to work it required two important changes from the workforce - first their co-
operation in moving from the production of one set of parts to the production
or another set half-way through each week. Second, it required the
introduction of a new twilight shift. No extra money was on offer nor were
any other inducements held out. The ‘case’ had to be sold direct to the
workforce (.some 80 people) by the relevant area manager. This was to be
attempted at a special meeting in the old canteen at the start of the morning
shift.
At the appointed hour, the workers were assembled and seated in a
rather cold and uncomfortable setting, unconducive to extended debate. The
shop stewards for the area were seated out at tile front. The area manager
arrived ‘chauffeur-driven’ in one of the plant’s electric vehicles. Flanked by
section heads he strode to the front and commenced his delivery. The style
was relaxed, down-to-earth, occasionally jovial, but very direct. In essence,
‘the problem’ was explained as uncompetitive costs in the production of two
power-train assemblies. The danger of at least one or these ceasing production
altogether, unless the ‘uneconomic’ low volume levels could be compensated
for by more flexible switching each week between one job and another was
explained.
The ‘solution’ was then described. This involved the introduction of a
‘swing shift’ and the necessity for the shift, on certain days of the week, to be
ready to finish the scheduled run in ‘Power Train I’ and relocate themselves
to a different area of the factory to commence work on ‘Power Train II’.
Questions were then invited and the area manager fielded these himself. One
issue of concern was the extra time that would be needed reporting to work
and in lost break time because of the distance between the two work locations.
The area manager dealt with this by promising to keep it under review during
the first few weeks of the new work scheme.
After about 40 minutes the area manager and the rest of the
management team departed and the shop stewards were left to address the
meeting. The tone was essentially a realistic one of the economics of
competition and the poor state of ‘Power Train I’ because of its age and its
low volumes. While some minor problems were noted with the management
plan, the overall message was that rearganisation was necessary. There was
very little opposition from the floor. A vote was taken and the plan was
accepted almost unanimously.

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(a) Identify the aspects of management that are taking place in this
situation.
(b) What leadership qualities did the plant manager and the area
manager demonstrate?
(c) What type of leadership style is the area manager adopting?
(d) What factors may have influenced this choice of leadership style?
(e) Use the leadership theory of Fiedler to explain why the strategy
adopted by the area manager was successful.

2. Marketing the Theatre

In all branches of the theatre today, marketing expertise is crucial.


When planning your strategy, the first step is to read the play which you are
going to be marketing. When you know a show it is sometimes easy to find
strong selling points.
Use these selling points in the design your posters and other publicity
material. These must be got out in good time, at least six weeks before the
show is due to open. Try to find ways to maximise local publicity about the
production: does something about the play itself, or its cast perhaps, give you
a key which will unlock local radio and press coverage?
It is important to think of possible group bookings – for example, you
can do useful business with school coach parties when you have a play which
is on the ‘A’*) level syllabus.
There will probably be a box office revenue target (largely determined
by the production cost of the play) and this will influence prices. Market
research of your potential audience is useful before setting prices. The careful
use of discount prices and concessions can be an important tactic.
It is interesting to consider Table 1 and the range of average ticket
prices charged for the different types of production and the varying extent to
which use is made by box offices of discounting.

Table 1
Average Ticket Prices and the Average Discount on Ticket Prices, 1991

Type of Production Average Ticket Average Discount


Price (£) on
Ticket Price (%)
Modern Drama 12.59 10.1
Comedy 13.08 8.5
Modern Musicals 18.28 1.5
Traditional Musicals 17.26 9.8
Revue 15.11 0.7

*)
“A” – advanced – продвинутый уровень в обучении.

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Opera 30.20 8.5
Ballet 21.05 3.8
Classical Plays 11.82 17.5
Children’s Shows / 10.79 4.3
Pantomime 13.28 5.5
Thrillers & Others

At the box office, the theatre business depends, to some extent, on the
custom of tourists, particularly those from the United States. However,
according to the Society of London Theatres, the relative importance of
tourists has been declining. While 42% of the West End audience came from
overseas in 1985, this had fallen to 32% by 1991.

Theatre managers do not like having to rely on tourists because it


means that there will be regular seasonal troughs in demand when the number
of foreign visitors falls off in the winter. For this reason, it has been quite
common for up to half a dozen shows to be forced to close during the first few
months of the year.

Moreover, there are inevitably going to be bad years for tourism, for
example, during periods when the Dollar is weak, or when the threat of
terrorism in Europe dominates the headlines (such as in the periods after Hie
Libyan bombing in 1986 and the Gulf War in 1991) and serves to discourage
people from travelling abroad.

Case Study Question 1: You are the business manager of your school or
college play which is to run for a week in the main hall. This means that you
have the take of selling 1,000 tickets. What are the main marketing steps you
must take?
Case Study Question 2: You decide to set your seat prices so that the
production will ‘break-even’. What are the main fixed and variable costs that
you should expect to incur.

3. High Lane VI Form College

High Lane VI Form College acquired designated status on 1st April


1993. This meant that control for the funding of the college moved from the
local authority to central government. In addition, the complete management
of the budget would be carried out by the principal of the college rather than
the local education authority. Finances for the college would be allocated by
the Further Education Funding Council and could depend, in the main, on the
number of students it could attract and on whether the college had achieved
its mission statement. This is a document that set out of college’s future goals

87
and objectives in terms of curriculum development and delivery and the
pastoral programme for student guidance and support.
The principal and governors of the college decided to restructure in
order to meet the challenge of the future. In the past the structure had four
levels – the senior management team (the principal and two viceprincipals),
senior tutors (responsible for the pastoral programme), heads of departments
and main scale teachers. It was recognised that the senior management team
needed to be expanded. Senior tutors were given extra responsibilities and
made part of the senior management team. In addition a new team of
curriculum leaders (CLs) was created. The team was made up from heads of
departments in the different curriculum areas, such as the social sciences and
sciences etc. and was responsible for curriculum development and delivery.
Much of the success of the college would depend on how well this group
worked together.
The group certainly had a variety of personalities in it - from those with
new, innovative ideas to those that more concerned with administration and
day to day problems. The group met formally once a fortnight to discuss
issues concerning a quality curriculum. It became apparent, however, that the
meetings rarely achieved concrete suggestions for future action. The meetings
seemed to be used as 'talking shops’ for curriculum leaders to air grievances
about the happenings of the week.
Some of the curriculum leaders were also part of an informal group of
friends who would socialise at lunchtimes and after college. It was often at
these informal gatherings/meetings that the real issues were raised and ideas
discussed. Other curriculum leaders who were not at such gatherings would
usually have any important issues raised communicated to them through the
‘grapevine’.
The informal meetings became a focal point for CLs to attack the lack
of focus in the official meetings and also the fact that their ideas were very
rarely accepted by senior management. They felt that senior management was
made up of individuals who had caused a decline in the number of students by
their inaction over the last five years. Their main complaint, however, was
that although they had been assured by the principal that they would be the
ones who would make decisions on curriculum matters, the senior
management team would often intervene and veto their proposals. For
example, CLs suggested that gNVQs (general national vocational
qualifications) should be more fully developed in the college to attract
students that had normally gone to the local FE colleges.
This idea was, rejected by the senior management team as not fitting
into the academic tradition of the college. Joan, the CL for Economics and
Business, felt exasperated by this decision. She said: “CLs were meant to be
part of the management of the college with responsibilities for curriculum
development and delivery. We meet formally and informally, communicating
in a variety of ways to each other, trying to advance a common view on

88
curriculum development. But at times we just don’t seem to have the authority
to make things happen. I just don’t know what we can do.”
(a) What new formal groups did the Principal and Governors set up in
April 1993?
(b) How did communication take place in formal and informal groups
at High Lane?
(c) Comment on the likely effectiveness of:
(i) formal groups;
(ii) informal groups;
at High Lane.
(d) What problems might High Lane face as a result at the way group
decision making is organised?
(e) Suggest 2 methods High Lane management could have used to
solve the problems suggested in your answer to question (d).

4. More Than Just a Leisure Park

The Dome Leisure Park is Europe’s largest multi-facility leisure


development under one roof, with a total floor area of 15 100 square metres.
Since its opening in October 1989, it has regularly welcomed more than one
million visitors through its doors per year, making it one of the UK’s top five
leisure attractions, ranking it alongside Alton Towers and the Chessington
World of Adventures.
The Dome is located in Doncaster, South Yorkshire. Its site gives quick
and easy access to the Ml, M18, and A1(M) motorways, thus giving good
communication links to surrounding towns and cities such as Sheffield,
Leeds, and Nottingham. Alternatively, the nearby mainline railway station
offers rail links to London, Birmingham, Manchester, and Edinburgh.
The land on which The Dome is built and surrounding areas comprise
350 acres of council owned waste land on the Southern edge of the town,
opposite the prestigious race course. The Dome can therefore be expanded
without complication, or nearby land sold to other private sector investors
attracted to the area.

The Aims of the Dome

The Dome was a Doncaster Metropolitan Borough Council (DMBC)


initiative, first conceived in 1985. It was designed, built, and opened at a cost
of £25 million, which was wholly funded by the council through the receipts
of sales of land.

The main objectives of The Dome are:


1. To offer the residents of Doncaster a dramatically different leisure
option.

89
2. To position Doncaster as the focal point for leisure and tourism
following the decline of the town’s more traditional industries of heavy
engineering and mining.
3. To act as a catalyst for the economic and qualitative regeneration of
the surrounding area and to act as an expression of confidence in the future of
the community.
4. To attract investment to the town.

The Mission Statement of The Dome is:


‘To enhance the quality of life of residents and visitors to Doncaster
and South Yorkshire by means of a wide range of well publicised, affordable
and enjoyable leisure opportunities in an attractive, healthy and safe
environment”.

The Management of The Dome

The council knew that much depended on the success of The Dome,
and as such, good management was imperative if they were to justify the
initial cost the development demanded. They wanted the Dome to not only be
a successful leisure centre, but to provide the catalyst in attracting other
developers and investors to the town. In short, successful management could
turn the initial £25 million into investment, rather than expenditure. With this
in mind, a private limited company, Dome Leisure Management, was formed
to oversee the commercial viability and day-to-day running of the project.

Doncaster Metropolitan Borough Council (DMBC) recognised that it


required the highest levels of commercial management and decided that a
’stand alone’ operation, whereby a Private Limited Company runs the concern
for the Council, provided the best opportunities for success. A similar strategy
is illustrated by the success of the council-owned, privately-run, race course
in the town.

The Marketing Strategy

When the Dome first opened the marketing of the Centre as a whole,
and of specific events, was of prime importance. Without a high company
profile and influx of customers, the Dome would fail to satisfy its aims and
objectives. Due to this, the management enlisted the specialist skills of
Colbear Dickson, an external marketing agency, to work with a group of
managers including the General Manager and the Marketing Department.
They would identify promotions and initiatives for the coming months for the
Marketing Plan.

90
Each year the Marketing Department has had a different goal to reach
in promoting The Dome. In its first year it aimed at creating a corporate
identity, in a bid to get the name of The Dome known throughout the region,
if not the country. In the second year, its task was to promote day-trip
business and the third year concentrated on promoting corporate business.

Market research is carried out periodically to ascertain the needs of the


market. Access and Visa customers are sent mail shots with information
regarding future events, but no system is set up as yet to monitor the success
of this initiative.

The role of the Marketing Department focuses very much on the


promotion of The Dome and public relations activities. In addition, several
sales methods have been constructed as a result of market research, such as
offering joint tickets to both the water and ice facilities, as well as a Kids Club
aimed at the younger, energy-packed visitor.

Now that the Leisure Park has an established track record. The Dome
Management rely to a certain extent on the name and The Dome’s reputation
to do much of the marketing and selling for them. A large amount of the
Dome’s publicity comes in the form of press releases focusing on specific
events and new initiatives being launched, in the hope and expectation that
local newspapers will use the story, thus providing the public with
information about the centre. This tactic enables the Dome to reach a large
audience at little or no cost.

Local press and radio advertising tends to focus on specific high profile
events, such as forthcoming concerts and basketball matches. Leaflets
advertising the general facilities offered by the Dome are displayed in tourist
office’s throughout Yorkshire and Humberside.

The Business Operations of the Dome

Apart from being successful in attracting customers, the Dome also


needed to be seen as having a strong corporate identity, in order to give the
confidence of potential investors in the area. After all, it is to a large extent
the Dome’s customers that feed all the other commercial developments on the
site. To this end, the Dome needed a resourceful management and competent
staff.

Senior management posts were filled largely with personnel from


outside the local community with experience of the leisure industry, whereas
positions lower down the hierarchy were filled from the large pool of labour
available locally. This enabled the Dome to find an acceptable balance

91
between experienced, specialist staff brought into the area, and personnel
from the local community.

Any senior positions becoming available now are advertised internally


in the first instance. This offers several advantages to the company, in that it
motivates staff as they believe that they have a chance to succeed in the
organisation. Also, the induction period (the first few weeks in the new job) is
made smoother as the employee is already familiar with the working
environment, its people and its policies. Disadvantages of promotion from
within are that no new blood is brought into the company which could lead to
a lack of innovative new ideas.

If internal advertising for management level positions fails to provide


suitable candidates, the Dome management prefer to ‘headhunt’ in order to
save time and expenditure involved with advertising externally. The
headhunting process involves contacting people known to the staff who are
working in, or have worked in, a similar position within the leisure industry.
They can be attracted to the Dome by offering larger salaries, additional
benefits, or better future prospects. Headhunting is particularly suited to
senior positions or ones where the post holder requires specialist skills or
knowledge.

The Dome management place great importance on the induction,


training and development of all staff. Every employee within the organisation
receives an induction period upon taking up employment. The amount of time
taken in induction will depend on the position within the organisation. An
annual appraisal system is used thereafter to assess an individual’s overall
performance. This gives employees л formal opportunity to discuss with their
managers their role within the company, where they think their job is going,
and how it could be improved to the benefit of themselves and the
organisation as a whole.

A common training theme runs throughout all levels of the hierarchy.


In 1992, for example, training concentrated on improving quality; whereas in
1993 training aimed at improving sates techniques. In addition to this themed
training, job holders also receive a training programme tailored to their needs.
Most training is carried out in-house, giving the advantages of minimal time
spent away from the workplace and avoiding the expense of hiring an external
training agency. The Dome is currently carrying out a Training Needs
Analysis, which is partly funded by the Doncaster and Barnsley Training and
Enterprise Council ‘TEC’.

Due to the dynamic nature of the leisure industry, the Dome


management need to effectively manage change in order to maintain their

92
competitive edge. most changes implemented tend to be customer led. The
ethos is that if customer demand is sufficient/the management will try and
ensure that the facility or activity is included.

It is not just current customers’ wishes that need to be met, however, in


order to sustain the growth needed to meet the council's expectations. If the
Dome is to live up to all of its original aims, it must evolve to become a
Leisure Park large enough to pull visitors from further afield. With a proposed
Channel Tunnel Terminal being sited at Doncaster, it is now feasible to expect
visitors from France and the rest of the EU. Because of this the council is
continually updating its proposed expansions of the site. Current initiatives
involve the development of an artificial lake for water sports, a business and
office complex, a holiday village, and an all-seater sports stadium. If it is to
continue to attract private sector development, it must continue to invest in,
and expand on, the current provisions offered.

Such a large scale development is obviously likely to upset some


people in the local community, due to problems such as increased traffic,
noise, litter etc. Dealing with such groups is seen largely as a public relations
exercise. If the Dome management and the council give them a fair hearing
and lay down the basis of, and advantages of their proposals, or even bow to
the wishes of local groups where this seems to be the best strategy, the
council will maintain the much needed respect and support of the local
residential and business community.

Private Sector Investment

For the Dome to provide maximum benefit for the local community,
and Doncaster as a whole, it needed to attract private sector investors to the
area. This was the best way for the DMBC to recoup their initial investment,
as they sold off land to companies attracted to the area. The revenue from land
sales far outweighs profits obtained from the operations of the Dome. This
has already paid off in the form of a 50 bedroom Campanile Hotel situated in
two acres of land. The French hotel chain has the scope to add another 50
bedroom annexe to their existing £1.2 million development. Just prior to the
official opening of The Dome, Keith Brown Properties Ltd opened a £1.5
million Ten Pin Bowling Alley covering one acre and providing 60 jobs. In
1990 an Asda Superstore opened covering 12 acres. Warner Brothers soon
followed with a multi-screen cinema development situated on a six acre site at
a cost of £6.5 million and providing 100 jobs.

The 500 full time jobs and 100 part time positions created by the £55
million worth of private sector investment in the first phase of the Park’s
development has given a boost to other commercial concerns in the local

93
economy. Unemployment has fallen, spending power has increased, and this
spending has led to further employment in other businesses.

The council are hoping that further development of the park will
transform this area of Doncaster into a role model of private and public sector
co-operation in economic revival.

Conclusion

The Doncaster Dome was never intended to be a means to an end. It


was never intended to be merely a leisure park. It was intended to trigger new
hope and investment for the town. So far it seems to have worked.

The General Manager of the Dome was right when he said “The Dome
is a household name on nil regional lips, is well known in the Leisure
industry, is admired by its rivals and is the envy of other Borough Councils”.
It is certainly that, and to the people of Doncaster, much more besides. It has
provided hope in what was otherwise a seemingly bleak future for a town
where traditional industries (e.g. mining and engineering) are in sharp decline.

Questions for discussion

1. Why do you think that the Doncaster Metropolitan Borough Council


decided that a stand alone operation, whereby a Private Limited Company
runs the concern, provided the best opportunities for success? What
alternatives were open to the Council?
2. What are the strengths and weaknesses of the Dome’s marketing
strategy? What improvements could be made in marketing both the Dome,
and the Leisure Park as a whole?
3. Explain the links between the Public and Private sector that have
emerged as a result of the Leisure Park’s development. What benefits has
each received as a result of this co-operation?
4. What benefits has the Leisure Park’s development brought to the
town of Doncaster? Are there any groups in the community that may feel
threatened by the development?
5. What were the “opportunity costs” of the Dome? How would you
justify the expense to opponents of the Dome’s development?
6. Conduct a S.W.O.T. (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and
Threats) Analysis for the Dome Leisure Park. From your findings, do you feel
that the Council were justified in investing £25 million in the project?

94
Supplementary Reading
(Дополнительное чтение)

What is management?

Unit 2 explained that managers are an important group involved in


business activity. It is difficult to define exactly what is meant by
‘management’. However, many agree that managers are responsible for
‘getting things done’ – usually through other people. The term manager may
refer to a number of different people within a business. Some job titles
include the word manager, such as personnel manager or managing director.
Other job holders may also be managers, even though their titles do not say it.
It could be argued that managers:
• act on behalf of the owners – in a company, senior management are
accountable to the shareholders;
• set objectives for the organisation, for example, they may decide that
a long term objective is to have a greater market share than all of the
company’s competitors;
• make sure that a business achieves its objectives, by managing
others;
• ensure that corporate values (the values of the organisation) are
maintained in dealings with other businesses, customers, employees and
general public.

The functions of management

Henri Fayol, the French management theorist working in the early part
of this century, listed a number of functions or ‘elements’ of management.

Planning This involves setting objectives and also the strategies,


policies, programmes and procedures for achieving them. Planning might be
done by line manners (unit 63) who will be responsible for performance.
However, advice on planning may also come from staff management who
might have expertise in that area, even if they have no line authority. For
example, a production manager may carry out human resource planning (unit
51) in the production department, but use the skills of the personnel manager
in planning recruitment for vacancies that may arise.

Organising Managers set tasks which need to be performed if the


business is to achieve its objectives. Jobs need to be organised within sections
or departments and ; authority needs to be delegated so that jobs are carried
out. For example, the goal of a manufacturing company may be to produce
quality goods that will be delivered to customers on time. The tasks, such as

95
manufacturing, packaging, administration, etc. that are part of producing and
distributing the goods, need to be organised to achieve this goal.

Commanding This involves giving instructions to subordinates to


carry out tasks. The manager has the authority to make decisions and
responsibility to see tasks are carried out.

Co-ordinating This is the bringing together of the activities of people


within the business. Individuals and groups will have their own goals, which
may be different to those of the business and each other. Management must
make sure that there is a common approach, so that the company’s goals are
achieved.

Controlling Managers measure and correct the activities of individuals


and groups, to make sure that their performance fits in with plans.

The management process

Peter Drucker worked in the 1440s and 1950а as a business adviser to


a number of US firms. He is credited with the idea of MANAGEMENT BY
OBJECTIVES (unit 50), used by some businesses today. Drucker grouped the
operations of management into five categories.
• Setting objectives for the organisation. Managers decide what the
objectives of the business should be. These objectives are then organised into
targets.
• Organising the work. The work to be done in the organisation must
be divided into manageable activities and jobs. The jobs must be integrated
into the formal organisational structure (unit 63) and people must be selected
to do the jobs (unit 53).
• Motivating employees (unit 48) and communicating information
(unit 62) to enable employees to carry out their tasks.
• Job measurement. It is the task of management to establish objectives
or yardsticks of performance for every person in the organisation. They must
also analyse actual performance and compare it with the yardstick that has
been set. Finally, they should communicate the findings and explain their
significance to others in the business.
• Developing people. The manager should bring out the talent in
people.

Every manager performs all five functions listed above, no matter how
good or bad a manager, Drucker suggests. A bad manager performs these
functions badly, whereas a good manager performs them well. He also argued
that the manager of a business has a basic function – economic performance.
In this respect the business manager is different from the manager of other
96
types of organisation. Business managers can only justify their existence and
authority by the economic results they produce.

Being a manager

In contrast with Fayol or Drucker, Charles Handy argued that any


definition of a manager is likely to be so broad it will have little or no
meaning. Instead he outlined what is likely to be involved in ‘being a
manager’.

The manager as a general practitioner Handy made an analogy between


managing and staving ‘healthy’. If there are ‘health problems’ in business, the
manager needs to identify the symptoms. These could include low
productivity, high labour turnover or industrial relations problems. Once the
symptoms have been identified, the manager needs to find the cause of trouble
and develop a strategy for ‘better health’. Strategies for health might include
changing people, through hiring and firing, reassignments, training, pay
increases or counselling. A manager might also restructure work through job
redesign, job enrichment (unit 50) and a redefinition of roles. Systems can
also be improved. These can include communication systems, reward
systems, information and reporting systems budgets and other decision
making systems, eg stock control.

Managerial dilemmas Handy argued that managers face dilemmas. One


of the reasons why managers are paid more than workers is because of the
dilemmas they face.
• The dilemma of cultures. When managers are promoted or move to
other parts o! the business, they have to behave in ways which are suitable for
the new position. For example, at the senior management level, managers may
deal more with long term strategy and delegate lower level tasks to middle
management more often. If a promoted manager maintains a ‘culture’ that she
is used to, which may mean taking responsibility for all tasks, she may not be
effective in her new position.
• The trust-control dilemma. Managers may want to control the work
for which they are responsible. However, they may have to delegate work to
subordinates, trusting them to do the work properly. The greater the trust a
manager has in subordinates, the less control she retains for herself. Retaining
control could mean a lack of trust.
• The leader’s dilemma. In many firms, junior managers often want to
work in project teams, with a clear task or objective. This can mean working
‘outside’ the normal bureaucratic structure of a larger organisation.
Unfortunately, there can be too many project groups (or ‘commando groups’)
for the good of the business- The manager must decide how many project
groups she should create to satisfy the needs of her subordinates and how

97
much bureaucratic structure to retain.

Managerial roles

Henry Mintzberg suggested that, as well as carrying out certain


functions, the manager also fulfils certain roles in a firm. He identified three
types of role which a manager must play.
• Interpersonal roles. These arise from the manager’s formal authority.
Managers have a figurehead role. For example, a large part of a chief
executive’s time is spent representing the company at dinners, conferences
etc. They also have a leader role. This involves hiring, firing and training
staff, motivating employees etc. Thirdly, they have a liaison role. Some
managers spend up to half their time meeting with other managers. They do
this because they need to know what is happening in other departments.
Senior managers spend a great deal of time with people outside the business.
Mintzberg says that these contacts build up an informal information system,
and are a moans of extending influence both within and outside the business.
• Information roles. Managers act as channels of information from one
department to another. They are in а position to do this because of their
contacts.
• Decision making roles. The manager’s formal authority and access to
information means that no one else is in a better position to take decisions
about a department’s work.

Through extensive research and observation of what managers actually


do, Mintzberg drew certain conclusions about the work of managers.
• The idea that a manager is a ‘systematic’ planner is a myth. Planning
is often carried out on a day-to-day basis, in between more urgent tasks.
• Another myth is that a manager has no regular or routine duties, as
these have been delegated to others. Mintzberg found that managers perform a
number of routine duties, particularly ‘ceremonial’ tasks.
• Mintzberg’s research showed that managers prefer verbal
communication rather than a formal system of communication (unit 62).
Information passed by word of mouth in an informal way is likely to be more
up to date and easier to grasp.

Leadership

The ability to lead within organisations is of growing interest to


businesses. This interest has resulted from the need to lead companies through
change, brought about by an increase in competition and a recessionary
climate in the late 1980s and early 1990s.
Earlier in this unit it was shown that a manager might have a leadership
role. To be a good leader in business it has been suggested that a manager
98
must know what direction needs to be taken by the business and plan how to
achieve this. Leaders will also be able to persuade others that the decisions
that they have taken are the correct ones.
Leaders are often thought to be charismatic people who have
‘something about them’ that makes them stand out from others. It has been
argued that there are certain personality traits (unit 47) that are common to
leaders. However, studies have failed to prove this is the case.
In order to identify ‘leadership’, studies have shifted to examine what
leaders, and in particular managers, do – that is, what behaviour is associated
with leadership. This is dealt with in the next sections.

The qualities of leadership

One approach to find out what makes good leaders is to identify the
qualities that they should have. A number of chагасteristics have been
suggested.
• Effective leaders have a positive self image, backed up with a
genuine ability and realistic aspirations. This is shown in the confidence they
have. An example in UK industry might be Richard Branson, in his various
pioneering business activities. Leaders also appreciate their own strengths and
weaknesses. It is argued that many managers fail to lead because they often
get bogged down in short term activity.
• Leader need to be able to get to the ‘core’ of a problem and have the
vision and commitment to suggest radical solutions. Sir John Harvey-Jones
took ICI to £1 billion profit by stirring up what had become a ‘sleeping giant’.
Many awkward questions were raised about the validity of the way things
were done, and the changes led to new and more profitable businesses on a
world-wide scale for the firm.
• Studies of leaders in business suggest that they are expert in a
particular field and well read in everything else. They tend to be ‘out of the
ordinary’, intelligent, and articulate.
• Leaders are often creative thinking and innovative. They tend to seek
new ideas to problems, make sure that important things are done and try to
improve standards. One example might have been the restructuring of BHS by
David Dworkin so that unsold stock did not remain on the shelves.
• Leaders often have the ability to sense change and can respond to it.
A leader, for example, may be able to predict a decline of sales in an
important product or the likelihood of a new production technique being
available in the future.

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Leadership styles

Another approach is to examine different styles of leadership. There are


a number of styles that managers might adopt in the work setting. Table 1
shows the different ways in which leaders can involve others in the decision
making process.

Autocratic. An AUTOCRATIC leadership style is one where the


manner sets objectives, allocates tasks, and insists on obedience. Therefore
the group become dependent on him or her. The result of this style is that
members of the group are often dissatisfied with the leader. This results in
little cohesion, the need for high levels of supervision, and poor levels of
motivation amongst employees.
Autocratic leadership may be needed in certain circumstances. For
example, in the armed forces there may be a need to move troops quickly and
for orders to be obeyed instantly.

Democratic. A DEMOCRATIC leadership style encourages


participation in decision making. Managers may consult employees or could
attempt to ‘sell’ final decisions to them. It is argued that, through participation
and consultation, employees know and believe the objectives of management
because they have had some involvement with it. This will result in
employees being more motivated and willing to work harder.
Democratic leadership styles need good communication skills. The
leaders must be able to explain ideas clearly to employees and understand
feedback they receive (unit 62). It may mean, however, that decisions take a
long time to be reached as lengthy consultation can take place.

Laissez-faire. A LAISSEZ-FAIRE type of leadership style allows


employees to carry out activities freely within broad limits. The result is a
relaxed atmosphere, but one where there are few guidelines and directions.
This can sometimes result in pool productivity and lack of motivation as
employees have little incentive to work hard.

100
Table 1
Leadership style
Autocratic Democratic Laissez-faire
Type of Autocratic Persuasive Consultative Laissez-
leadership faire
Leader Leader makes Leader There is no
makes decisions consults formal
decisions alone. with others structure to
Method alone. Others are before decision
Others are persuaded by decision is making.
informed the leader that made. There The leader
and carry out the decision is will be does not
decisions. the right one, group force his or
i.e. leader influence in her views
‘sells’ the the final on others.
decision to decision,
the group. even though
it is made by
the leader.

Factors affecting leadership styles


The type of leadership style adopted by managers will depend on
various factors.
The task. A certain task may be the result of an emergency, which
might need immediate response from a person in authority, The speed of
decision needed and action taken may require an authoritarian or autocratic
style of leadership.
• The tradition of the organisation. A business may develop its own
culture which is the result of the interactions of all employees at different
levels. This can result in one type of leadership style, because of a pattern of
behaviour that has developed in the organisation. For example, in the public
sector (unit 4) leadership is often democratic because of the need to consult
with politicians etc.
• The type of labour force. A more highly skilled workforce might be
most productive when their opinions are sought. Democratic leadership styles
may be more appropriate in this case.
• The group size. Democratic leadership styles can lead to confusion
the greater the size of the group.
• The leader’s personality. The personality of one manager may be
different to another manager and certain leadership styles might suit one but
not the other. For example, an aggressive, competitive personality may be
more suited to an authoritarian leadership style.
• Group personality. Some people prefer to be directed rather than
101
contribute, either because of lack of interest, previous experience, or because
they believe that the manager is paid to lake decisions and shoulder
responsibility. If this is the case, then an autocratic leadership style is more
likely to lead to effective decision making.
• Time. The time available to complete a task might influence the
leadership style adopted. For example, if a project has to be finished quickly,
there may be no time for discussion and an autocratic style may be adopted.

Why do leaders adopt different styles?

A number of theories have been put forward to explain the most


appropriate leadership style when dealing with certain situations or groups at
work.

Fiedler. In l976, F. Fiedler argued that it is easier to change someone’s


role or power, or to modify the job he has to do, than to change his leadership
style. From his 800 studies he found that it is difficult for people to change
leadership styles - an ‘autocrat’ will always lead in autocratic style whereas a
leader that encourages involvement will tend to be ‘democratic’. Different
leadership styles may also be effective depending on the situation. He
concluded that, as leaders are unable to adapt their style to a situation,
effectiveness can only be achieved by changing the manager to ‘fit’ the
situation or by altering the situation to fit the manager.
In business it is often difficult to change the situation. Fiedler suggested
that a business should attempt what he called leadership match – to choose a
leader to lit the situation. Leaders can be either task orientated or
relationship orientated. So, for example, a business that faced declining
sales might need a very task orientated manager to pull the business around,
even if the tradition of the firm might be for a more democratic style of
leadership.

Hersey and Blanchard. P. Hersey and K.H. Blanchard argued that a


leader’s strategy should not only lake account of the situation, but also the
maturity of those who are led. They defined maturity as the ability of people
to set targets which can be achieved and yet are demanding.
A leader will have task behaviour or relationship behaviour. Task
behaviour is the extent to which the leader has to organise what a subordinate
should do. Relationship behaviour describes how much support is needed and
how close personal contact is. Together these will decide which of the
following leadership styles will be used.

102
• Delegating leadership is where a leader allows subordinates to solve
a problem. For this type of leadership style to work, subordinates need to be
mature and require little support at work.
• Participating leadership is where a leader and subordinates work on
a problem together, supporting each other. In this situation subordinates are
slightly less mature than when a leader delegates and so need more support.
• Selling leadership is where a leader persuades others of the benefits
of an idea. Workers are likely to be only moderately mature and require a
great deal of support.
• Telling leadership is where a leader tells others what to do. Workers
are fairly immature. They are told exactly what to do and little contact or
support is needed.

Wright and Taylor. In 1984, P. Wright and D. Taylor argued that


theories which concentrate on the situation or maturity of those led ignore
how skilfully leadership is needed.
They produced a checklist designed to help leaders improve the
performance of subordinates. It included the following.

• What is the problem? An employee may, for example, be carrying


out a task inefficiently.
• Is it serious enough to spend time on? This could depend on the cost
to the business.
• What reasons may there be for the problem? How can it be solved?
• Choosing a solution and evaluating if it is the most effective one.
• Evaluation of the leader’s performance.

This can be used to identify the most suitable leadership style in a


particular situation. For example, if the problem above is caused because the
employee has been left to make his own decisions and is not able to, a more
autocratic leadership style may be needed. One the other hand, if the
employee lacks motivation or does not have the authority to make decisions,
greater discussion or delegation may be needed.

103
Key terms

Autocratic leadership – a leadership style where the leader makes all


decisions independently.
Democratic leadership – a leadership style where the leader encourages
others to participate in decision making.
Laissez.-faire leadership – a leadership style where employees are
encouraged to make their own decisions within limits.
Management by Objectives (MBO) – a management theory which suggests
that managers set goals and communicate them to subordinates.

Summary

1. State 5 functions of management.


2. Briefly explain the process of management by objectives.
3. Give 3 examples of a managerial dilemma.
4. Why might a good manager not always be a good leader?
5. Briefly explain 5 qualities of leadership.
6. Under what circumstances might an autocratic leadership style be
useful?
7. State 6 factors which might affect the choice of leadership style.
8. According to Fiedler’s theory, why should a business attempt a
leadership match?

HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT

Managing people in business

Since the mid-Eighties the term ‘Human Resource Management’


(HRM) has replaced ‘Personnel Management’ to describe the function within
business which focuses on the employment, training, use and welfare of
people. What does this signal about human relations in industry?
For people to be referred to as ‘human resources’ sounds mechanical
and yet the objectives of the approach are precisely the opposite. The
intention is to emphasise a total strategy related to a firm’s most valued
resource rather than the set of functions which a personnel management
department was commonly expected to undertake.
The process begins with effective workforce planning which links
intentions related to employees with the internal organisation and the overall
objectives of the business. This sees employees not simply as people who
perform a set o functions, narrowly contained within a job specification, nor
as groups catered for by collective agreements with unions. Rather, it stresses
the extent to which employees will have an active role within most of the
decision making which surrounds their 'job' in the firm. One of the best
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examples of this which you will be familiar with is the approach summed up
in the phrase ‘quality circles’. Employees are considered to be part of a team
and not simply individuals working for the firm.

From individual to team member

The classic texts present employees as individuals working in a firm


and devote attention to individual human needs. You will be familiar with this
approach in the work of Maslow, who describes a hierarchy of human needs
and stresses the importance of satisfying the higher needs (see Figure 1).
Herzberg takes a similar approach (see Table 1), dividing the factors
which can be identified in the work situation into those which must be there if
people are to work at all (hygiene factors) and those which might be likely to
provoke a positive response (motivating factors).

Table 1
The Herzberg model

Hygiene factors Motivators


Working environment Achievement
Supervision Responsibility
Company policy Work itself
Relationship with superiors Advancement
Relationship with Recognition
subordinates

Organisational culture

The human resource approach centres more on people working in


groups, looking at the firm as a whole and developing the idea of a ‘culture’
which the firm will evolve and to which employees will respond. The
spotlight is less on the individual employed through a job description and
tightly defined role and more on efficient working teams through which better
performance can be identified and achieved.
Where emphasis is placed on the needs of the individual and on
individual records, a wide range of indicators can be identified through which
high or low morale can be measured. These include absentee rates, lateness,
accident figures, low productivity and many others. This approach is rather
like viewing a class of A-level Business Studies students as individuals.
The alternative view of the class is as a set of sub-groups, not always
the same groups, working together to achieve learning objectives which the
teacher, as manager of the class, determines. These will be in line with overall
objectives as represented by the syllabus and the way it is assessed.
Translating this to the work situation implies an approach which allows

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considerable decision-making responsibility to be given to teams of workers.
In McGregor’s language, it is very much a Theory Y approach since it
demands much greater self-motivation and personal responsibility for
outcomes (see Table 2).

Table 2
McGregor's Theory X and Y model

X Y
Dislikes work Is satisfied by work
Avoids work Seeks work
Is lazy and selfish Works well, cooperates
Is directed, controlled, Is self-directed
threatened Seeks responsibility
Avoids responsibility Seeks satisfaction of higher
Little ambition needs
Money motivates All needs motivate

From negative to positive

Much of what is traditionally implied in personnel management


approaches centres on negative performance measures: the reduction in labour
turnover, the avoidance of industrial disputes, the minimising of lateness and
absence through such things as timeclocks and flexitime. The philosophy of
HRM, in contrast, is that members of teams have a responsibility to each other
which is a more compelling motivator than a rather generalised responsibility
to the firm.
Again I cannot resist comparison with the management of a class.
Students working in sub-groups work much more for each other than for the
class teacher. Evidence suggests that this leads to more continuous and more
positive contributions than a whole class or individual student approach
commonly produces.

The broader perspective of employment

If the philosophy of HEM is effectively practised, the view of


employment as finding people who will offer individual job skills diminishes.
The focus of workforce planning, selection, induction and training is very
much broader. Its consequence is both to require and to develop good
communication skills and a greater sense of identity with the organisation.
HRM implies a movement away from ‘us and them’ towards a cooperative
concern for the same objective based on differing but equally valued
contributions.
Some might argue that this is true 'Taylorism' in the sense that there is a

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common goal to be achieved which requires a solution-centred approach. It is
not based on different sets of objectives which have to be harmonised in a
way which is problem centred and designed to limit or prevent conflict.
Mary Parker Follett’s view that conflict is not only inevitable but is
desirable takes on a new dimension within the framework of HRM because it
is through the creative resolution of positive conflict that high performance
can be achieved. The approach does not deny the significance of individual
human needs. Rather, it sets their satisfaction in a cooperative culture which is
more likely to give scope for satisfying higher needs than any approach based
on the individual job.

Why change now?

No doubt a variety of reasons can be found for the rapid acceptance of


an HRM approach, but I want to confine my self to two reasons apparent in
the changing environment of business. The first is the rapid pace of change
itself. This is both absorbing and creating innovation at a speed which can
only be tolerable within a cooperative, creative and flexible working
environment. The second reason is linked to this process – the thrust for better
and more complete quality assurance within all aspects of organisational
behaviour.

Innovation

The environment is an ever-changing one. This tends to produce


uncertainty, fear and conflict when what is required is cooperation, flexibility
and contribution. Working within a team is more supportive, allows greater
involvement in decision making and an increased opportunity for making a
contribution.
Such a dynamic environment also needs a stable workforce – one that
can move with the changes without changing too much itself, one that can live
with a higher level of risk and greater uncertainty about the future.

Quality assurance

History has shown us that the old method of inspecting work and
rejecting where necessary is not very effective. It is better to involve workers
in the process. Most will work better if they know what the quality objective
is and by what criteria completed work is to be assessed. Motivation is futher
enhanced if workers participate in making decisions about all aspects of these
processes.
Quality is an agreed objective rather than an external standard, but the
pressures of the market place make it increasingly important that quality
assurance targets are met. The contribution HRM can make to this process is

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to develop worker involvement in deciding the goals of the organisation and
therefore far greater commitment to their achievement.

From theory to practice?

How real are these changes? Can they be seen in the way organisations
are run or is this largely the human relations writers talking to each other?
Drucker predicts that new organisations which embody HRM will
rapidly appear in the next twenty years with flatter organisation charts and
much more responsibility centred around the workers. A large, number of
individual studies, particularly of large organisations in the motor industry,
provide further evidence of such changes, but it will no doubt be some
considerable time before they are commonplace in the business and industrial
parks of our town.

David Dyer is Head of the Economics, Geography and Business


Education Department at the University of London Institute. He is Director of
the Cambridge Business Studies Project, Chief Examiner for Cambridge
Modular and Oxford & Cambridge Modular and Linear courses, and
Chairman of our Business Review editorial team.

LIFE AT THE TOP


What do top managers actually do?
Andtew Karabadse discusses the varied
nature of their work and stresses the
importance of top managers in ensuring
that an organisation functions effectively
as a team.

On being asked ‘What do you do?’, Ian Prosser, Chairman and Chief
Executive of Bass, didn’t hesitate. He stressed the contribution he makes to
the organisation’s growth and development, and provided a strategic outline
for the company. Sir Graham Day was asked a similar question about his days
at Rover. His answer emphasised the sensitivity and care needed to introduce
change effectively and grow an ailing business. Colin Sharman, UK Partner
of the global consultants and auditors Peat Marwick, responded with a smile
and a question: ‘Where do I begin?’.
So here are three top managers, each displaying a different view as to
what their job really involves. Unusual? No – this is absolutely normal.

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Prescribed work

Broadly speaking, any manager’s job can be divided into two parts –
prescribed and discretionary. The prescribed part refers to the daily structured
tasks someone needs to accomplish in order to achieve the basics. The person
has little choice but to do what is required (just as a GP’s prescription spells
out what sort of drugs the patient needs, the quantity, and over what time
period).
The job may need a low or a high level of skill. For example, routine
work is likely to involve people completing a set number of tasks, often
conducted in a particular way, on a daily basis. Strangely enough, the work of
a surgeon, although high level with respect to skills and status, is also
‘prescribed’. Surgeons specialise in particular aspects of surgery and have a
set number of units of work to fulfil.
Apply this thinking to the role of sales manager. The manager is
probably given a geographical region to cover, and sells a part or whole of the
company’s product range. There are likely to be revenue targets to achieve: a
certain volume of sales within certain periods of time. And there may equally
be cost targets: you are only allowed to spend so much in order to achieve the
target sales.
Sales managers may say their ambitious revenue targets are impossible
with the limited number of sales people they have. They need more people.
The answer is: ‘No. Sell more – but with the people you have got!’ Hence the
job of the sales manager is to a large extent prescribed.

Discretionary work

The second type of managerial work is known as discretionary. This


means you have the choice of what to do according to what you think is right.
Sales managers who stop and think about their position do have choice: ‘OK,
the targets are tough. So do I motivate my people to work longer and harder?
Or do I get my assistants to manage my people, while I focus on those valued
customers who may require personal attention?’. That is a common dilemma
for a sales manager to consider. One crucial aspect of discretion is that the
manager in question decides. No-one else can really say what is best.
Research clearly shows that in most organisations, greater degrees of
discretion accompany more senior roles. The chief executive has the most
discretion. It is up to the job holder to provide the necessary leadership and
direction. So much depends on what that person feels is the best way forward,
bearing in mind the company’s strengths and weaknesses, likely future
patterns of consumer behaviour and the impact of competition.
Where choice is so broad, vision is required, meaning the view a person
holds about the future. This is as much about beliefs as about facts. Why
should Bass, a brewing and pub business, purchase a global hotel network? So

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much depended on Ian Prosser’s belief that the Bass Group would be stronger
if it entered the hotel market. He believed it could achieve synergy by
integrating the beer and pub business with the hotel business. And Prosser’s
character and leadership style are crucial to making the new-look Bass work.

The top manager's role

A production manager would need product knowledge and an


understanding of the manufacturing processes. For a manufacturing director,
however, these skills may be useful but not vital. The crucial thing is overall
capacity for the role of director. This involves a number of different elements:
an ability to apply specialist skills, such as financial or production skills;
being able to think clearly about the issues and challenges facing the business,
and how to respond to them; and a style and sensitivity to communicate with
people in order to win their trust and confidence as their leader.
Each director/general manager is going to form a view as to how to
make the organisation successful. The chairman or chief executive officer
holds one view, but you, as a general manager or director, may not agree with
the boss. Perhaps the chairman of the company feels that the way forward is
to buy another company – as a lever to entering into a new market. The
marketing director may disagree, believing the market concerned to be too
uncertain and the extra borrowing needed to make the acquisition too risky.
The two managers may disagree, but both are rightly exercising the discretion
in their role. So what can prevent such disagreements becoming dangerous
and divisive?

Working as a team

The importance of a positive team spirit so that senior managers pull


together and yet discuss frankly all the key issues is self-evident, but this is
not easy to achieve. Why should a group of top general managers and
directors get on? They are quite likely to disagree with each other as to the
best ways forward. Even if they agree, they may not like each other's style and
personality.
A Cranfield top executive leadership survey in several countries found
that about one-third of companies report fundamental splits of vision at top
management level. Even more interesting is the fact that more than half of the
companies report personality tensions and style differences. To allow such
tensions and differences to continue unabated would be destructive. To try
and prevent disagreements would be equally counter-productive. The secret is
to achieve an openness of conversation while maintaining a positive team
spirit.
Hence an additional element of discretion is achieving good teamwork.
Where there are several different views on how to make the company

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successful, an acceptable way forward is likely to emerge from a robust
dialogue between the top managers. What does each senior manager consider
are the strengths, weaknesses and challenges the company faces? What does
each think are the appropriate steps to improve current conditions? If
disagreement exists, why is this? (There may be good reasons for differences
of view.) A good team is one where the top managers have a sound
relationship, where they can bring their disagreements to the surface.
What if the relationships among the top team members are not well
developed? What if people feel too inhibited and sensitive to talk to each
other? What if people feel that to make critical comments about one’s boss or
colleagues could lead to being sacked? What happens if top managers feel
that to speak out is inappropriate?
Knowing the nature of the company’s problems is not sufficient. Senior
managers may still not speak out. People can have all the necessary insights
as to what is wrong and what to do about it, but still end up doing nothing.
Bringing certain issues to the surface may be too uncomfortable.
Therefore the final aspect of using the discretion in one’s role
effectively is maturity. Are the top managers of the organisation sufficiently
mature to talk about sensitive issues? Nobody is born with maturity – it is a
quality that people can develop during their life if they so choose. In fact,
many people seem to be unduly lacking in this personal quality. Maturity
helps individuals cope with situations of ambiguity, disagreement and tension
by enabling them to listen, discuss and contribute with others. A piece of
sound advice for any senior manager is to leave your ego at home. That way,
others find it easier to talk to you.

The activities of top managers

Forming a broad but accurate view about the company now and in the
future is important. And speaking your mind and team work are just as
crucial. But what do top managers actually do?
The answer is that they do a great deal in little bits: attending meetings,
sometimes just to discuss and sometimes to make decisions; listening to what
staff have to say; winning the support, trust and confidence of shareholders;
meeting with and entertaining key clients; listening to advisers; reading and
digesting a large number of reports; holding confidential one-to-one
discussions. These activities are often being conducted while other demands
are being made on their time, causing interruptions and new priorities which
upset existing schedules. For many top managers, these are normal
experiences. A single error of judgement in this busy schedule could lead to
resignation. Life is demanding, precarious and constantly changing.
Top jobs require managers to address big issues and daily details almost
within the same breath. Making sense of such a demanding and diverse world
requires a rare combination of energy, maturity and vision. As Sir Graham

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Day commented about his days at Rover: ‘I abandoned the historical
documents I had inherited with the business, and started with a clean sheet of
paper. I then tried progressively to engage people in discussion about realistic
strategies for the business ...’
With the problems of Rover, this approach might not have worked. Yet
in 1993 Rover was the only car company in Europe which increased its
market share. The simple fact is that the strategy worked because Graham
Day made it work!
Andrew Kakabadse is Professor of Management Development at the
Cranfield School of Management. He recently completed a major world study
of chief executives and top executive teams.

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