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Free CCNA Tutorials Notes Free CCNA Notes Tutorials Free

CCNA Study Guides

Exam Information Topic and OSI Layer Subnetting Supernetting and VLSM
modals Subnetting Benefits of subnetting Method of
640 – 802 CCNA New Exam Syllabus List of New Subnetting Binary ANDing process
Exam Topics Variable length subnet mask Route
Advantage of Open System interface OSI Layer Summarization Example of VLSM
OSI reference model and Cisco's three-layer
hierarchical model

Cisco devices administration and Switching VLAN STP VTP DTP Ether
configuration of packet tracer Channels
How to connect cisco devices in windows packet 2960 switch overview functionality and Switch
tracer and in boson Bootup Process
IOS internetwork operating system Advantage and Basic of switching Methods of Switching
Naming Conventions EtherChannels
Router and switch Switch Interface Nomenclature Spanning Tree protocols stp and Rapid Spanning
classification Tree Protocol
Cisco devices hardware component booting How to configure Virtual lan trunk tagging dtp vtp
process vtp pruning
How to configure packet tracer step by step guide Basic Switch configurations commands Step by
Example Step guide and examples
Cisco IOS Mode User Privilege and Global Step by Step guide and examples of Switch port
Configurations mode security configurations
how to use Help Facilities of the Cisco IOS and How to configure vlan vtp stp dtp step by step
error message guide
How to configure Cisco Discovery Protocol CDP
step by step guide
Step by Step guide for Administration of cisco
Step by Step guide to configure Cisco SDM and

Routing Static Dynamics RIP OSPF IGRP EIGRP

Basic router configurations login in router examples and step by step guides
Basic router configurations show commands Step by Step guide and examples
Basic of routing distance vector protocol problems solutions
Guide tutorials notes of Basic of static routing
Step by Step guide to configure static route configurations
Guide tutorials notes of Routing Information Protocol RIP
Step by Step guide of how to configure Rip Routing Configurations
Guide tutorials notes of Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol
Step by Step guide of how to configure eigrp routing configurations
Guide tutorials notes of open shortest path first OSPF
Step by Step guide of how to configure open shortest path first OSPF Configuration
Advance example of routing configure EIGRP with RIP on same network

Network Security access lists standards and extended

Definitions Characteristics Components locations of Network
Network Security Need for Network Security and Types of Attack
Network Security Reconnaissance Attack Password attack methods
Network Security Mitigating Common Threats and their solutions
Guide tutorials notes of Access control list Configuration guidelines
Step by Step guide of how to configure standard access lists
Step by Step guide of how to configure extended access lists

IPv6 features concepts and configurations

Guide tutorials notes on ipv6 tutorials
Limitations of ipv4
ipv6 tutorials on builtin features of ipv6
ipv6 tutorials on difference between ipv4 and ipv6
ipv6 address common terms and concepts
ipv6 tutorials on types of address format
ipv6 tutorials on Special Addresses
ipv6 tutorials on Address Assignment
ipv6 tutorials on Address Autoconfiguration
ipv6 tutorials on Assigning address to Windows server 2008 and Windows vista
ipv6 tutorials on tools ipconfig ping tracert netstat pathping
ipv6 tutorials on icmp overview error messages
ipv6 tutorials on neighbor discovery
ipv6 tutorials on Transition Strategies
ipv6 tutorials on configure cisco router with IPv6
ipv6 tutorials on configure routing with IPv6

WAN protocols HDLC PPP Frame Really NAT PAT

wan terms definitions encapsulation method hdlc ppp
Step by Step guide of how to configure hdlc ppp
Guide tutorials notes of Frame Really
Step by Step guide of how to configure Frame Really
Network address Translation static nat dynamic nat pat
Step by Step guide of how to configure NAT PAT
Wireless networking on Cisco Router
Wireless Networking Basic
Guide tutorials notes of Access Modes
Wireless Networking Basic Security
Wireless Networking Types of Networks
How to configure Wireless Networking Step by step guide
the main principle of this Free CCNA Study Guides is to help you achieve the Cisco Certified
Network Associate (CCNA) certification so that you can enhance your career. I believe that the
only way you can increase your knowledge is through theoretical and practical learning. In other
words, this site provides the theoretical learning as well as basic hands-on experience that you’ll
need to pass the exam.
You can achieve CCNA certification in two ways:
• Pass the CCNA-640-802 exam.
• Pass both the ICNDv1 (640-822) and ICNDv2 (640-816)
The CCNA 640-802 exam includes the same topics covered by the ICNDv1 640-822 and
ICNDv2 640-816 exams. Cisco developed the second approach particularly for individuals who
are just beginning their journey into networking, especially for people taking the CCNA
curriculum at a Cisco Network Academy. The two-test approach is better suited for this
environment since it takes a year to two to go through Cisco’s CCNA curriculum at the Network
Academies. With this approach, you take the ICNDv1 640-822 exam halfway through the
curriculum and the ICNDv2 640-816 exam at the end of the curriculum.
Another advantage of taking and passing the ICNDv1 exam is that you have achieved Cisco’s
newest entry-level certification: CCENT (Cisco Certified Entry Networking Technician). In
August 2007, Cisco introduced this certification based on customer and employer demand for a
lower level certification demonstrating basic networking and hand-on skills with IOS devices
such as routers and switches. If you already have networking experience, especially if that
experience includes configuring Cisco devices, you are better off taking the single CCNA 640-
802 exam. The main advantage of this approach is that you have to pay for only one exam.
This CCNA Free Study Guides series are primarily written for those individuals wishing to
pass the CCNA 640-802 exam. However, this free series contains all the information that you
would need to pass both the ICNDv1 640-822 and ICNDv2 640-816 exams. Therefore, it is up to
you to determine which testing approach you take to achieve your CCNA certification.
640-802 CCNA® EXAM
Company Cisco System
Exam Number 640-802
Duration 90 minutes (45-55 questions)
Available English, Japanese, Chinese, Spanish, Russian, Korean, French,
Authorize Exam
Pearson VUE
Prerequisites None ( Basic Networking Knowledge recommended)
640-822 ICND1- Interconnecting Cisco Networking Devices Part 1
Substitute Exam
640-816 ICND2-Interconnecting Cisco Networking Devices Part 2
Validity period Three years
To recertify, pass the ICND2 exam, or pass the current CCNA
exam, or pass a CCNA Concentration exam (wireless, security,
Recertification voice), or pass the current CCDA exam, or pass any 642 - XXX
professional level or Cisco Specialist exam (excluding Sales
Specialist exams), or pass a current CCIE or CCDE written exam.

Exam Topics
The following topics are general guidelines for the content likely to be included on the Cisco
Certified Network Associate exam. However, other related topics may also appear on any
specific delivery of the exam. In order to better reflect the contents of the exam and for clarity
purposes, the guidelines below may change at any time without notice.
Describe how a network works
• Describe the purpose and functions of various network devices
• Select the components required to meet a network specification
• Use the OSI and TCP/IP models and their associated protocols to
explain how data flows in a network
• Describe common networked applications including web applications
• Describe the purpose and basic operation of the protocols in the OSI
and TCP models
• Describe the impact of applications (Voice Over IP and Video Over IP)
on a network
• Interpret network diagrams
• Determine the path between two hosts across a network
• Describe the components required for network and Internet
• Identify and correct common network problems at layers 1, 2, 3 and 7
using a layered model approach
• Differentiate between LAN/WAN operation and features
Configure, verify and troubleshoot a switch with VLANs and interswitch communications
• Select the appropriate media, cables, ports, and connectors to connect
switches to other network devices and hosts
• Explain the technology and media access control method for Ethernet
• Explain network segmentation and basic traffic management concepts
• Explain basic switching concepts and the operation of Cisco switches
• Perform and verify initial switch configuration tasks including remote
access management
• Verify network status and switch operation using basic utilities
(including: ping, traceroute, telnet, SSH, arp, ipconfig), SHOW &
DEBUG commands
• Identify, prescribe, and resolve common switched network media
issues, configuration issues, auto negotiation, and switch hardware
• Describe enhanced switching technologies (including: VTP, RSTP,
VLAN, PVSTP, 802.1q)
• Describe how VLANs create logically separate networks and the need
for routing between them
• Configure, verify, and troubleshoot VLANs
• Configure, verify, and troubleshoot trunking on Cisco switches
• Configure, verify, and troubleshoot interVLAN routing
• Configure, verify, and troubleshoot VTP
• Configure, verify, and troubleshoot RSTP operation
• Interpret the output of various show and debug commands to verify
the operational status of a Cisco switched network.
• Implement basic switch security (including: port security, trunk
access, management vlan other than vlan1, etc.)
Implement an IP addressing scheme and IP Services to meet network requirements in a medium-
size Enterprise branch office network
• Describe the operation and benefits of using private and public IP
• Explain the operation and benefits of using DHCP and DNS
• Configure, verify and troubleshoot DHCP and DNS operation on a
router.(including: CLI/SDM)
• Implement static and dynamic addressing services for hosts in a LAN
• Calculate and apply an addressing scheme including VLSM IP
addressing design to a network
• Determine the appropriate classless addressing scheme using VLSM
and summarization to satisfy addressing requirements in a LAN/WAN
• Describe the technological requirements for running IPv6 in
conjunction with IPv4 (including: protocols, dual stack, tunneling, etc).
• Describe IPv6 addresses
• Identify and correct common problems associated with IP addressing
and host configurations
Configure, verify, and troubleshoot basic router operation and routing on Cisco devices
• Describe basic routing concepts (including: packet forwarding, router
lookup process)
• Describe the operation of Cisco routers (including: router bootup
process, POST, router components)
• Select the appropriate media, cables, ports, and connectors to connect
routers to other network devices and hosts
• Configure, verify, and troubleshoot RIPv2
• Access and utilize the router to set basic parameters.(including:
• Connect, configure, and verify operation status of a device interface
• Verify device configuration and network connectivity using ping,
traceroute, telnet, SSH or other utilities
• Perform and verify routing configuration tasks for a static or default
route given specific routing requirements
• Manage IOS configuration files. (including: save, edit, upgrade,
• Manage Cisco IOS
• Compare and contrast methods of routing and routing protocols
• Configure, verify, and troubleshoot OSPF
• Configure, verify, and troubleshoot EIGRP
• Verify network connectivity (including: using ping, traceroute, and
telnet or SSH)
• Troubleshoot routing issues
• Verify router hardware and software operation using SHOW & DEBUG
• Implement basic router security
Explain and select the appropriate administrative tasks required for a WLAN
• Describe standards associated with wireless media (including: IEEE
WI-FI Alliance, ITU/FCC)
• Identify and describe the purpose of the components in a small
wireless network. (Including: SSID, BSS, ESS)
• Identify the basic parameters to configure on a wireless network to
ensure that devices connect to the correct access point
• Compare and contrast wireless security features and capabilities of
WPA security (including: open, WEP, WPA-1/2)
• Identify common issues with implementing wireless networks.
(Including: Interface, missconfiguration)
Identify security threats to a network and describe general methods to mitigate those threats
• Describe today's increasing network security threats and explain the
need to implement a comprehensive security policy to mitigate the
• Explain general methods to mitigate common security threats to
network devices, hosts, and applications
• Describe the functions of common security appliances and applications
• Describe security recommended practices including initial steps to
secure network devices
Implement, verify, and troubleshoot NAT and ACLs in a medium-size Enterprise branch office
• Describe the purpose and types of ACLs
• Configure and apply ACLs based on network filtering requirements.
(including: CLI/SDM)
• Configure and apply an ACLs to limit telnet and SSH access to the
router using (including: SDM/CLI)
• Verify and monitor ACLs in a network environment
• Troubleshoot ACL issues
• Explain the basic operation of NAT
• Configure NAT for given network requirements using (including:
• Troubleshoot NAT issues
Implement and verify WAN links
• Describe different methods for connecting to a WAN
• Configure and verify a basic WAN serial connection
• Configure and verify Frame Relay on Cisco routers
• Troubleshoot WAN implementation issues
• Describe VPN technology (including: importance, benefits, role,
impact, components)
• Configure and verify a PPP connection between Cisco routers
Cisco system could change this syllabus without any notification. We suggest you to review
Cisco’s official site before taking exam.

OSI Reference Model

The OSI reference model is the primary model for network communications. The early
development of LANs, MANs, and WANs was confused in many ways. The early 1980s saw
great increases in the number and sizes of networks. As companies realized that they could save
money and gain productivity by using networking technology, they added networks and
expanded existing networks as rapidly as new network technologies and products were
In 1984, the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) developed the OSI
Reference Model to describe how information is transferred from one networking component to
another, from the point when a user enters information using a keyboard and mouse to when that
information is converted to electrical or light signals transferred along a piece of wire (or radio
waves transferred through the air).
ISO developed the seven-layer model to help vendors and network administrators gain a better
understanding of how data is handled and transported between networking devices, as well as to
provide a guideline for the implementation of new networking standards and technologies. To
assist in this process, the OSI Reference Model separates the network communication process
into seven simple layers.
Dividing the network into these seven layers provides these advantages:
Reduces complexity:
It breaks network communication into smaller, simpler parts. It divides the network
communication process into smaller and simpler components, thus aiding component
development, design, and troubleshooting.
Standardizes interfaces:
It standardizes network components to allow multiple vendor development and support.
Facilitates modular engineering:
It allows different types of network hardware and software to communicate with each other.
Interoperability between Vendors
It allows multiple-vendor development through standardization of network components. Defines
the process for connecting two layers together, promoting interoperability between vendors It
Allows vendors to compartmentalize their design efforts to fit a modular design, which eases
implementations and simplifies troubleshooting
Ensures interoperable technology:
It prevents changes in one layer from affecting the other layers, allowing for quicker
Accelerates evolution:
It provides for effective updates and improvements to individual components without affecting
other components or having to rewrite the entire protocol.
Simplifies teaching and learning:
It breaks network communication into smaller components to make learning easier. Provides a
teaching tool to help network administrators understand the communication process used
between networking components
The OSI Reference Model
• The OSI reference model consists of seven layers: physical, data-link,
network, transport, session, presentation, and application.
• The OSI model layers usually do not correspond exactly to the protocol stack
running on an actual system.
• The data-link layer protocols often include physical layer specifications.
• The network and transport layer protocols work together to provide a
cumulative end-to-end communication service.
• The functions of the session, presentation, and application layers are often
combined into a single application layer protocol.

OSI Reference Model

Each OSI layer contains a set of functions performed by programs to enable data to travel from a
source to a destination on a network. In our pervious article I told you the advantage of OSI
advantage of OSI model
In this article I will provide brief descriptions of each layer in the OSI reference model.
Application Layer
The application layer is the OSI layer that is closest to the user. This layer provides network
services to the user's applications. It differs from the other layers in that it does not provide
services to any other OSI layer, but only to applications outside the OSI reference model.
Applications layer provide a platform to access the data of remote computer.
The application layer protocols that you should know are as follows:
• SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol)— Communicates status
and allows control of networked devices.
• TFTP (Trivial File Transfer Protocol)— Simple, lightweight file transfer.
• DNS (Domain Naming System)— Translates a website name (easy for
people) to an IP address (easy for computers).
• DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol)— Assigns IP, mask, and
DNS server (plus a bunch of other stuff) to hosts.
• Telnet— Provides a remote terminal connection to manage devices to which
you are not close enough to use a console cable.
• HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol)— Browses web pages.
• FTP (File Transfer Protocol)— Reliably sends/retrieves all file types.
• SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol)— Sends email.
• POP3 (Post Office Protocol v.3)— Retrieves email.
• NTP (Network Time Protocol)— Synchronizes networked device clocks.

presentation layer
The presentation layer is responsible for formatting data so that application-layer protocols (and
then the users) can recognize and work with it. Presentation layer format the file extensions—
such as .doc, .jpg, .txt, .avi, and so on. you realize that each of these file types is formatted for
use by a particular type of application. The presentation layer taking the application layer data
and marking it with the formatting codes so that it can be viewed reliably when accessed later. If
necessary, the presentation layer might be able to translate between multiple data formats by
using a common format.
The Session Layer
The session layer establishes, manages, and terminates sessions between two communicating
hosts. It provides its services to the presentation layer. The session layer also synchronizes
dialogue between the presentation layers of the two hosts and manages their data exchange. For
example, web servers have many users, so many communication processes are open at a given
time. Therefore, keeping track of which user communicates on which path is important.
Transport Layer
The transport layer is possibly the most important layer for exam study purposes. A lot is going
on here, and it is heavily tested.
The transport layer's main jobs
• It sets up and maintains a session connection between two devices.
• It can provide for the reliable or unreliable delivery of data across this
• It multiplexes connections, allowing multiple applications to simultaneously
send and receive data. When
• Implementing a reliable connection, sequence numbers and
acknowledgments (ACKs) are used.
• Flow control (through the use of windowing or acknowledgements)
• Reliable connections (through the use of sequence numbers and
Acknowledgement )
Transport layer use two protocols for sending data TCP and UDP.
TCP is connection oriented protocols. Connection-oriented transmission is said to be reliable.
Thinks TCP as registry AD facility available in Indian post office. For this level of service, you
have to buy extra ticket and put a bunch of extra labels on it to track where it is going and where
it has been. But, you get a receipt when it is delivered, you are guaranteed delivery, and you can
keep track of whether your shipment got to its destination. All of this costs you more—but it is
UDP is connection less protocols. Connection-less transmission is said to be unreliable. Now,
don't get too wrapped up in the term "unreliable" this doesn't mean that the data isn't going to get
there; it only means that it isn't guaranteed to get there. Think of your options when you are
sending a postcard, put it in the mailbox, and chances are good that it will get where it's
supposed to go—but there is no guarantee, and stuff does go missing once in a while. On the
other hand, it's cheap.
The transport layer can use two basic flow control methods:
• Ready/not ready signals
• Windowing
There are two problems with the use of ready/not ready signals to implement flow control.
First, the destination may respond to the source with a not ready signal when its buffer fills up.
While this message is on its way to the source, the source is still sending information to the
destination, which the destination will probably have to drop because its buffer space is full.
The second problem with the use of these signals is that once the destination is ready to receive
more information, it must first send a ready signal to the source, which must receive it before
more information can be sent.In many implementations, the window size is dynamically
negotiated up front and can be renegotiated during the lifetime of the connection.
In windowing a window size is defined between two host engaged in data transmission. And
sender host will wait for an acknowledgement signal after sending the segments equal to window
size. If any packet lost in way receiver will respond with acknowledgement for lost packet. And
sender will send lost packet again.
When reliability is necessary, it should cover these four items:
• recognizing lost packets and having them re-sent
• recognizing packets that arrive out of order and reordering them
• detecting duplicate packets and dropping the extra ones
• Avoiding congestion

Connection Multiplexing/Application Mapping

Transport layer assigns a unique set of numbers for each connection. These numbers are called
port or socket numbers. TCP, and UDP, provide a multiplexing function for a device: This
allows multiple applications to simultaneously send and receive data.
Imagine a server that performs a number of functions—for example email, web pages, FTP, and
DNS. The server has a single IP address, but can perform all these different functions for all the
hosts that want to connect to it. The transport layer (layer 4) uses port numbers to distinguish
between different types of traffic that might be headed for the same IP address.
Port numbers are divided into ranges by the IANA. Following are the current port ranges:

Well-Known—For common TCP/IP functions and


1024–49151 Registered—For applications built by companies

Dynamic/Private—For dynamic connections or unregistered


Common TCP and UDP Port Numbers


FTP 20, 21 DNS 53

Telnet 23 DHCP 67,68


DNS 53 NTP 123

HTTP 80 SNMP 161

POP 110

NNTP 119


Network Layer
The network layer provides a logical topology and layer-3 addresses. Routers function at the
network layer. This layer is responsible for three main functions:
• Defines logical addresses used at layer-3
• Finds paths, based on the network numbers of logical addresses, to reach
destination devices
• Connects different data link types together, such as Ethernet, FDDI, Serial,
and Token Ring
IP packet
Where the transport layer uses segments to transfer information between machines, the Internet
layer uses datagram's. Datagram is just another word for packet.
The IP protocol is mainly responsible for these functions:
• Connectionless data delivery: best effort delivery with no data recovery
• Hierarchical logical addressing to provide for highly scalable internetworks
IP addresses are broken into two components:
• Network component Defines on what segment, in the network, a device is
• Host component defines the specific device on a particular network segment
Two types of packets are used at the Network layer: data and route updates.
Data packets
Used to transport user data through the internetwork. Protocols used to support data traffic are
called routed protocols; examples of routed protocols are IP and IPv6.
Route update packets
Used to update neighboring routers about the networks connected to all routers within the
internetwork. Protocols that send route update packets are called routing protocols; examples of
some common ones are RIP, RIPv2, EIGRP, and OSPF. Route update packets are used to help
build and maintain routing tables on each router.
IP Classes
• Class A addresses range from 1-126: 00000001-01111111.
• Class B addresses range from 128-191: 10000000-10111111.
• Class C addresses range from 192-223: 11000000-11011111.
• Class D addresses range from 224-239: 11100000-11101111.
• Class E addresses range from 240-254:
1. 0 is reserved and represents all IP addresses;
2. 127 is a reserved address and is used for testing, like a loop back on an
3. 255 is a reserved address and is used for broadcasting purposes.
Public addresses are Class A, B, and C addresses that can be used to access devices in other
public networks, such as the Internet. Public IP address assign authority The Internet Assigned
Numbers Authority (IANA) is ultimately responsible for handing out and managing public
addresses. Normally you get public addresses directly from your ISP, which, in turn, requests
them from one of five upstream address registries:
• American Registry for Internet Numbers (ARIN)
• Reseaux IP Europeans Network Coordination Center (RIPE NCC)
• Asia Pacific Registry for Internet Numbers (APNIC)
• Latin American and Caribbean Internet Address Registry (LACNIC)
• African Network Information Centre (AfriNIC)

Private IP and ISP

Private ip address can be used to configure private network. You can use private ip to build your
network without paying a single rupees. But one biggest problem with private ip is that with
private you can not access the internet. This is the point where ISP comes from. ISP purchase a
bulk of public ip address and provide them on rent. Whatever you pay to ISP for accessing
internet is actually the charge of using public ip address.
Private ip address:- Not route able in public network
• Class A: (1 Class A network)
• Class B: (16 Class B networks)
• Class C: (256 Class C networks)
Protocol Description

IP IP of TCP/IP, featuring routable 32-bit addressing.

IPX The equivalent of IP in Novell Netware.

ICMP Internet Connection Management Protocol. Incorporates Ping and

Traceroute, which are layer 3 link-testing utilities.
OSPF, IGRP, Dynamic routing protocols that learn about remote networks and the best
ISIS paths to them from other routers running the same protocol.

Address Resolution Protocol (and Reverse ARP). ARP learns what MAC
ARP, RARP address is associated with a given IP address. Reverse ARP learns an IP
address given a MAC address.

Data link layer

Main functions of data link layer is
• Defining the Media Access Control (MAC) or hardware addresses
• Defining the physical or hardware topology for connections
• Defining how the network layer protocol is encapsulated in the data link layer
• Providing both connectionless and connection-oriented services
• Defines hardware (MAC) addresses as well as the communication process
that occurs within a media.
• The first six hexadecimal digits of a MAC address form the OUI.
• MAC addresses only need to be unique in a broadcast domain,
• You can have the same MAC address in different broadcast domains (virtual
There are two specifications of Ethernet frame Ethernet II and 802
802.2 use a SAP or SNAP field to differentiate between encapsulatedlayer-3 payloads.
With a SNAP frame, the SAP fields are set to 0xAA and the type field is used to indicate the
layer-3 protocol. One of the issues of the original SAP field in the 802.2 SAP frame is that even
though it is eight bits (one byte) in length, only the first six bits are used for identifying upper-
layer protocols, which allows up to 64 protocols.
802.2 SNAP frame support of up to 65,536 protocols
Ethernet II's Version of Ethernet
• Ethernet II does not have any sub layers, while IEEE 802.2/3 has two: LLC and
• Ethernet II has a type field instead of a length field (used in 802.3). IEEE
802.2 defines the type for IEEE Ethernet

Physical Layer
The Physical layer communicates directly with the various types of actual communication media.
Different kinds of media represent these bit values in different ways. Some use audio tones,
while others utilize state transitions—changes in voltage from high to low and low to high.
Specific protocols are needed for each type of media to explain the proper bit patterns to be used,
how data is encoded into media signals, and the various qualities of the physical media’s
attachment interface.
Fiber Cabling
Two types of fiber are used for connections: multimode and single-mode.
Multimode fiber
has a fiber thickness of either 850 or 1300 nanometers (nm), and the light signal is typically
provided by an LED. When transmitting a signal, the light source is bounced off of the inner
cladding (shielding) surrounding the fiber. Multimode fiber can achieve speeds in the hundreds
of Mbps range, and many signals can be generated per fiber.
Single-mode fiber
has a fiber thickness of 1300 or 1550 nm and uses a laser as the light source. Because lasers
provide a higher output than LEDs, single-mode fiber can span over 10 kilometers and have
speeds up to 100Gbps. With single-mode fiber, only one signal is used per fiber.
• Loss factor is used to describe any signal loss in the fiber before the light
source gets to the end of the fiber.
• Connector loss is a loss that occurs when a connector joins two pieces of
fibers: a slight signal loss is expected.
• Attenuation describe the signal loose due to distance
• Microbending is when a wrinkle in the fiber, typically where the cable is
slightly bent, causes a distortion in the light source.
• Macrobending is when there is leakage of the light source from the fiber,
typically from a bend in the fiber cable. to overcome this problem over long
distances, optical amplifiers can be used.
Two main standards are used to describe the transmission of signals across a fiber:
SONET is defined by the Exchange Carriers Standards Association (ECSA) and American
National Standards Institute (ANSI) and is typically used in North America.
SDH is an international standard used throughout most of the world (with the exception of North
America). Both of these standards define the physical layer framing used to transmit light
sources, which also includes overhead for the transmission.

Cisco's three-layer hierarchical model

Core Layer
The core provides a high-speed layer-2 switching infrastructure and typically does not
manipulate packet contents.
Distribution Layer
The distribution layer provides a boundary between the access and core layers. It contains routers
and switches. Routers are used to provide the logical boundary--broadcasts are contained within
the access layer and Filtering policies can be implemented to restrict traffic flows.
Access Layer
The access layer provides the user's initial access to the network, which is typically via switches
or hubs.
TCP/IP protocol
The TCP/IP protocol stack has four layers. Note that although some of the layers in the TCP/IP
protocol stack have the same names as layers in the OSI reference model, the layers have
different functions in each model, as is described in the following list:
Application layer:
The application layer handles high-level protocols, including issues of representation, encoding,
and dialog control. The TCP/IP model combines all application-related issues into one layer and
ensures that this data is properly packaged for the next layer.
Transport layer:
The transport layer deals with QoS issues of reliability, flow control, and error correction. One of
its protocols, TCP, provides for reliable network communications.
Internet layer:
The purpose of the Internet layer is to send source datagrams from any network on the
internetwork and have them arrive at the destination, regardless of the path they took to get there.
Network access layer:
The name of this layer is broad and somewhat confusing. It is also called the host-to-network
layer. It includes the LAN and WAN protocols and all the details in the OSI physical and data
link layers.
Benefits of subnetting

Reduced network traffic

One network will not access the data of other network without the use of router. Thus we can
reduce the amount of data remain in one network. Less data less overhead, collision, or broadcast
Optimized network performance
This is a result of reduced network traffic.
Simplified management
It's easier to identify and isolate network problems in a group of Smaller connected networks
than within one gigantic network. Facilitated spanning of large geographical distances Because
WAN links are significantly slower and more expensive than LAN links, a single large network
that spans long distances can create problems in every area earlier listed. Connecting multiple
smaller networks makes the system more efficient.
Powers of 2
Powers of 2 are important to understand and memorize for use with IP subnetting.
21 2 29 512
22 4 210 1024

23 8 211 2048

24 16 212 4096

25 32 213 8192

26 64 214 16384

27 128 215 32768

28 256 216 65536

Before we go further let’s get familiar with subnetting components

Subnet mask
A subnet mask is a 32-bit value that allows the receiver of IP packets to distinguish the network
ID portion of the IP address from the host ID portion of the IP address. Every IP address is
composed of a network component and a host component. The subnet mask has a single purpose:
to identify which part of an IP address is the network component and which part is the host
component. Subnet mask value 0 represent host ID while subnet mask value 1 to 255 represents
Network ID in ip address.
Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR)
This slash notation is sometimes called CIDR (Classless Inter-Domain Routing) notation. It’s
basically the method that ISPs (Internet service providers) use to allocate a number of Addresses
to a company, a home—a customer. The slash notation is simply the number of 1s in a row in the
subnet mask. The real reason to use CIDR notation is simply that it is easier to say and especially
to type.
Address Class and Default Mask
Subnetting happens when we extend the subnet mask past the default boundary for the address
we are working with. So it's obvious that we first need to be sure of what the default mask is
supposed to be for any given address. When faced with a subnetting question, the first thing to
do is decide what class the address belongs to. And later decide what the default subnet mask is.
One of the rules that Cisco devices follow is that a subnet mask must be a contiguous string of 1s
followed by a contiguous string of 0s. There are no exceptions to this rule: A valid mask is
always a string of 1s, followed by 0s to fill up the rest of the 32 bits. (There is no such rule in the
real world, but we will stick to the Cisco rules here—it's a Cisco exam, after all.) Therefore, the
only possible valid values in any given octet of a subnet mask are 0, 128, 192, 224, 240, 248,
252, 254, and 255. Any other value is invalid.
Block Size
The process of subnetting creates several smaller classless subnets out of one larger classful .
The spacing between these subnets, or how many IP addresses apart they are, is called the Block
Network ID and Broadcast ID
The first address in a network number is called the network address, or wire number. This
address is used to uniquely identify one segment or broadcast domain from all the other
segments in the network.
The Broadcast ID
The last address in the network number is called the directed broadcast address and is used to
represent all hosts on this network segment. it is the common address of all hosts on that
Network ID. This should not be confused with a full IP broadcast to the address of, which hits every IP host that can hear it; the Broadcast ID hits only hosts on a
common subnet. A directed broadcast is similar to a local broadcast.
The main difference is that routers will not propagate local broadcasts between segments, but
they will, by default, propagate directed broadcasts.
Host Addresses
Any address between the network address and the directed broadcast address is called a host
address for the segment. You assign these middle addresses to host devices on the segment, such
as PCs, servers, routers, and switches.
Method of Subnetting
There is several method of subnetting. Different author different approach to calculate the
subnets. You should choose the method you can understand and perform subnetting easily.
Whatever approach you choose need conversion of decimal to binary. Cram up this chart
27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20

128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1

To convert a decimal number into binary, you must turn on the bits (make them a 1) that would
add up to that number, as follows:

187 = 10111011 = 128+32+16+8+2+1

224 = 11100000 = 128+64+32
To convert a binary number into decimal, you must add the bits that have been
turned on (the 1s), as follows:

10101010 = 128+32+8+2 = 170

11110000 = 128+64+32+16 = 240
The IP address is represented in binary as

The subnet mask of is represented in binary as

Practical approach of subnetting

When faced with a subnetting question, the first thing to do is decide what class the address
belongs to. for examples:
The first octet is between 192 and 223 so it is a Class C address

Default mask for Class C: is

In exam default subnet mask is not subnetted. Now write down the given ip address as shown
here. Write down the default side of IP as it is and reset of part where actual subnetting will
perform in binary
192.168. 1 .00000001
(defaul maks)

Step 1:- calculate the CIDR value

CIDR are the on bit in subnet mask. As you can see in our example we have on bit only in
default side.
So our CIDR value is 24 + 0 = 24

Step 2:- calculate the Subnet mask

To calculate the subnet mask use the binary to decimal chart given above. Add the decimal place
value of on network bit.
<==H bit
N bit==>
In our example we are using on default mask so our subnet mask will be

Step 3:- calculate the Total Host

To calculate the total host count the H bit and use this formula
Total host = 2H
<==H bit
Total host = 28 = 256

Step 4:- calculate the Valid Host

Subtract 2 from Total host Every network or subnet has two reserved addresses that cannot be
assigned to a host. These addresses are called the Network ID and the Broadcast ID, respectively.
They are the first and last IPs in any network or subnet. We lose those two IP addresses from the
group of values that could be assigned to hosts.
Total host - 2
256 -2 = 254

Step 5:- calculate the Network

To calculate the Network count the N bit and use this formula
Network = 20
N bit==>
Network = 20 = 1

Step 6:- Find out the block Size

Finding block size is very easy just subtract the subnet mask from 256
256 – Subnet mask (only the last octal, don’t include the default subnet mask)
256 - 0 = 256

Step 7:- Write down the subnet chart

Network 1
CIDR Value /24 IP Sunetmask

Net ID

First Valid Host

Last Valid Host

Broadcast ID

Subnetting of CIDR /25

Now do the subnetting of CIDR /25 using same method
Step 1:- calculate the CIDR value CIDR = sum of all on bit in subnet mask
So our CIDR value is 24 + 1 = 25

Step 2:- calculate the Subnet mask

Add the decimal place value of on network bit.
<==H bit
N bit==>
In our example we have one on bit and as you can see in decimal chart the place
value of 1000000 is 128 so our subnet mask will be

Step 3:- calculate the Total Host

Total host = 2H
<==H bit
Total host = 27 = 128

Step 4:- calculate the Valid Host

Subtract 2 from Total host
Total host - 2
128 -2 = 126
Step 5:- calculate the Network
To calculate the Network count the N bit and use this formula
Network = 21
N bit==>
Network = 21 = 2

Step 6:- Find out the block Size

256 – Subnet mask (only the last octal, don’t include the default subnet mask)
256 - 128 = 128
With help of block size you can easy find out the network ID and broadcast ID of all possible
networks as we have 8 bits in one octal those can give maximum of 28 = 256 decimal number
We start from 0 so it will end up on 255 (Do not get confuse because we are counting from 0 not
from 1 so the last digit will be 255 not 256. It will 256 only when you count from 1 ). All
subnetting will perform between these two numbers.
Create a table of x Columns where x is the number of your network
First ip of first network will always be 0 and last ip of last network will be 255 fill its in chart
Now you have network ID of first network and broadcast ID of last network.
Now add block size in the first ip of first network to get the network ID of second network and
so on till we get the network id of last network

First network ID 0
Second Network ID 0 +128 = 128
Fill this in Chart.

As you can see from 128 next network is started so the last IP of first network will be 127 fill it
in chart. With this method you can fill the last ip of all networks.
Now you have first ip ( network ID ) of all networks and the last ip (Broadcast ID) of all
networks. At this point you can easily fill the valid ip in each network. As valid hosts are all ip
address those fall between network ip and host ip.
Step 7:- Write down the subnet chart
CIDR /25 Network 1 Network 2

Net ID

First Valid Host

Last Valid Host

Broadcast ID

Binary ANDing
Binary ANDing is the process of performing multiplication to two binary numbers. In the
decimal numbering system, ANDing is addition: 2 and 3 equals 5. In decimal, there are an
countless number of answers when ANDing two numbers together. However, in the binary
numbering system, the AND function give up only two possible outcomes, based on four
different combinations. These answers, can be displayed as a truth table:

0 and 0 = 0
1 and 0 = 0
0 and 1 = 0
1 and 1 = 1
You use ANDing most often when comparing an IP address to its subnet mask. The
end result of ANDing these two numbers together is to give up the network number
of that address.

Example Question
What is the network number of the IP address if it has a subnet mask of
Step 1 Convert both the IP address and the subnet mask to binary: = 11000000.10101000.01100100.01110011 = 11111111.11111111.11111111.11110000
Step 2 Perform the AND operation to each pair of bits—1 bit from the address
ANDed to the corresponding bit in the subnet mask. Refer to the truth table for the
possible outcomes: = 11000000.10101000.01100100.01110011 = 11111111.11111111.11111111.11110000
ANDed result = 11000000.10101000.01100100.01110000
Step 3 Convert the answer back into decimal:

11000000.10101000.01100100.01110000 =
The IP address belongs to the network when a
mask of is used.

My easy method
Conversion of decimal to binary and vice versa to get network ID is too time consuming process
in exam. So I found this easy method.
Step 1:- Decide from which class this IP belongs and what's its default subnet mask
As given IP have 192 in its first octal so it’s a class C IP. And default subnet mask of class C is
Step2:- Find out the block size. ( As we describe above)

256 -240 = 16
Step3:- Write down all possible network using block size till we do not get our host partition in
middle of two network

As our host number is 115 which fall in the network of 112 so our network ID is,
And our host's broad cast ID is as from 128 onward next network will start. Easy
as I promise
IP Subnet Practice tools
Top of Form

Click the [New Problem] button to start

. . . /
Given the IP address

Enter the information in the IP address field below.

[Check] if your answer is right or [Show] the answer

IP address Check/Show Answer OK

k . . . . . .

Host . . . . . .

Host . . . . . .

ast . . . . . .

Check or Show ALL

Variable length subnet mask

Neither RIPv1 nor IGRP routing protocols have a field for subnet information, so the subnet
information gets dropped. What this means is that if a router running RIP has a subnet mask of a
certain value, it assumes that all interfaces within the classful address space have the same subnet
mask. This is called classful routing, and RIP and IGRP are both considered classful routing
Classless routing protocols, however, do support the advertisement of subnet information.
Therefore, you can use VLSM with routing protocols such as RIPv2, EIGRP, and OSPF. The
benefit of this type of network is that you save a bunch of IP address space with it.
VLSM enables you to have more than one mask for a given class of address, albeit a class A, B,
or C network number.
VLSM, originally defined in RFC 1812, allows you to apply different subnet masks to the same
class address space Classful protocols, such as RIPv1 and IGRP, do not support VLSM. To
deploy VLSM requires a routing protocol that is classless—BGP, EIGRP, IS-IS, OSPF, or
RIPv2, for instance.
VLSM provides Two major advantages:
• more efficient use of addressing
• Ability to perform route summarization
when you perform classful subnetting, all subnets have the same number of hosts because they
all use the same subnet mask. This leads to inefficiencies. For example, if you borrow 4 bits on a
Class C network, you end up with 14 valid subnets of 14 valid hosts. A serial link to another
router only needs 2 hosts, but with classical subnetting, you end up wasting 12 of those hosts.
Even with the ability to use NAT and private addresses, where you should never run out of
addresses in a network design, you still want to ensure that the IP plan that you create is as
efficient as possible.
An efficient addressing scheme using VLSM.
1. Find the largest segment in the area—the segment with the largest
number of devices connected to it.
2. Find the appropriate subnet mask for the largest network segment.
3. Write down your subnet numbers to fit your subnet mask.
4. For your smaller segments, take one of these newly created subnets
and apply a different, more appropriate, subnet mask to it.
5. Write down your newly subnetted subnets.
6. For even smaller segments, go back to step 4.

Route Summarization
Route summarization is the ability to take a bunch of contiguous network numbers in your
routing table and advertise these contiguous routes as a single summarized route.
Route summarization, or supernetting, is needed to reduce the number of routes that a router
advertises to its neighbor. Remember that for every route you advertise, the size of your update
grows. It has been said that if there were no route summarization, the Internet backbone would
have warped from the total size of its own routing tables back in 1997.
Routing updates, whether done with a distance vector or link-state protocol, grow with the
number of routes you need to advertise. In simple terms, a router that needs to advertise ten
routes needs ten specific lines in its update packet. The more routes you have to advertise, the
bigger the packet. The bigger the packet, the more bandwidth the update takes, reducing the
bandwidth available to transfer data. But with route summarization, you can advertise many
routes with only one line in an update packet. This reduces the size of the update, allowing you
more bandwidth for data transfer.
Summarization allows you to create a more efficient routing environment by providing the
following advantages:
• It reduces the size of routing tables, requiring less memory and processing.
• It reduces the size of updates, requiring less bandwidth.
• It contains network problems

Example of VLSM

Above image shows several branch offices using subnetted Class C (/26) addresses that provide
each branch with 62 possible host IPs. The branches are connected to the central office via point-
to-point WAN links. The ideal mask to use for such a link is /30 because it provides only 2 hosts,
one for each end of the link. The problem arises when the routing protocols are configured: Prior
to VLSM, the /30 networks could not be used because the /26 networks existed in the same
system and the classful routing protocols could only advertise one mask per class of address. All
networks, including the little /30 links, had to use the same mask of /26. This wastes 60 IP
addresses on each WAN link.
With the implementation of VLSM-capable routing protocols, we can deploy a /30 mask on the
point-to-point links, and the routing protocols can advertise them as /30s along with the /26s in
the branches because the subnet mask for each network is included in the routing updates.
VLSM has allowed us to make the point-to-point link networks the ideal size (two hosts on each)
using /30 masks. This has allowed us to use a single subnetted Class C network for all the
addressing requirements in this scenario—and as you'll see, it makes a perfect opportunity to
summarize these routes. This is what is meant by "more efficient addressing"— in other
words, making networks the right size without depleting the limited address space or limiting
future growth.
Classless Interdomain Routing
Classless Interdomain Routing (CIDR), specified in RFC 2050, is an extension to
VLSM and route summarization.
With VLSM, you can summarize subnets back to the Class A, B, or C network boundary. For
example, if you have a Class C network and subnet it with a 26-bit mask, you
have created four subnets. Using VLSM and summarization, you can summarize these four
subnets back to
CIDR takes this one step further and allows you to summarize a block of contiguous class A, B,
and C network numbers. This practice is commonly referred to as supernetting. Today’s classless
protocols support supernetting. However, it is most commonly configured by ISPs on the
Internet using BGP.
Discontiguous subnets are not supported by classful protocols but are supported by
classless protocols. Classful protocols do not include the subnet mask when advertising network
and subnet numbers. When implementing route summarization, another thing you’ll need to
consider is that routing decisions, by a router, must be made on the entire destination IP address
in the IP packet header. The router always uses the longest matching prefix in the routing table.
CIDR allows you to summarize class networks together; VLSM allows you to summarize
subnets only back to the class network boundaryEach segment has a single network number and
mask. VLSM allows a class address, not a network segment, to have more than one subnet mask.

How to connect with Cisco devices in windows

In this lab scenario I will demonstrate that how can you connect with a Cisco router. To connect
physical Cisco device you need a console cable. Attach cable to com port on computer and other
end to console port of Cisco devices.

Console Port
When you first obtain a new Cisco device, it won't be configured. That is to say, it will not do
any of the customized functions you might need; it does not have any IP addresses, and it is
generally not going to do what you paid for. Routers need basic configuration to function on a
network. The console port is used for local management connections. This means that you must
be able to physically reach the console port with a cable that is typically about six feet long. The
console port looks exactly like an Ethernet port.
Once you have proper console cable follow this path
Now on computer click on stat button ==> program = = > accessories == >
communications == > hyper terminal == > location information == > cancel == >
Confirm cancel == > yes == > hyper terminal == > OK Connection Descriptions
== > Vinita == > OK == > location information == > confirm cancel == > yes ==
> hyper terminal == > connect to == > OK == > Port Settings == > Do setting as
Given Below and press OK.
If you still have problem in configuring hyper terminal or you do not have hyper terminal options
in accessories you can use this tiny software. With this software you connect with any devices
that support Telnet, SSH, Rlogin, console connections. This is ready to use software. Download
it and execute it. Select Serial sub key from Session main key and rest it will do automatically.
Download Putty
How to connect with router in Boson Simulator
If you use Boson simulator for CCNA practical then select erouter from tools menu and select
router from available list. ( Device only be available when any topology will be loaded in
simulator. Use Boson Network designer to create topology.)

How to connect with router in packet tracer

First create a desire topology by dragging devices to workspace. Once you have created topology
configurations in packet tracer is straight forward. To Configure any device double click on it
and select CLI.
Device A Cable Device B

Cisco serial DCE/DTE

Router's serial port Router's serial port

Router's Ethernet port Crossover Router's Ethernet port

Router's Ethernet port Straight-through Switch port

Router's Ethernet port Crossover Computer NIC

Console of router/switch Rollover Computer COM port

Switch port Crossover Switch port

Computer NIC Crossover Computer NIC

Computer NIC Straight-through Switch port

Advantages of the IOS:-Internetwork operating system


• Connectivity
The IOS supports a variety of data link layer technologies for the LAN and
WAN environments, including copper and fiber wiring as well as wireless.

• Scalability
The IOS supports both fixed and modular chassis platforms, enabling you to
purchase the appropriate hardware for your needs, yet still allowing you to
leverage the same IOS CLI to reduce your management costs.

• Reliability
To ensure that your critical resources are always reachable, Cisco has
developed many products and IOS features to provide network redundancy.

• Security
With the IOS, you can strictly control access to your network and networking
devices in accordance with your internal security policies.

Naming Conventions for IOS Images

c1841-advipservicesk9-mz.124-6.T7.bin ( this name is used to expalation)
• c1841
The c1841 refers to the name of the platform on which the image will run.
This is important because different router models have different processors,
and an image compiled for one processor or router model will typically not
run on a different model.
• advipservicesk9
The advipservicesk9 refers to the features included in this IOS version,
commonly referred to as the feature set. In this example, the IOS is the
advanced IP services and the k9 refers to the inclusion of encryption support.
• mz or z
The mz or z means that the image is compressed and must be uncompressed
before loading/running. If you see l (the letter l, not the number 1) here, this
indicates where the IOS image is run from. The l indicates a relocatable
image and that the image can be run from RAM. Remember that some
images can run directly from flash, depending on the router model.
• 124-6.T7
The 124-6.T7 indicates the software version number of the IOS. In this
instance, the version is 12.4(6)T7. Images names with T indicate new
features, and without the T the mainline (only bug fixes are made to it).
• .bin
The .bin at the end indicates that this is a binary image.
An IOS filename is broken down into four parts:
• Platform
• Feature set
• Run location and compression
• Version
Memory Locations
Code Location

F Image runs in flash

M Image runs in Random Access

Memory (RAM)
R Image runs in Read Only Memory
L Image will be relocated at runtime

Compression Identifiers
Code Compression

Z Image is Zip compressed

X Image is Mzip compressed
W Image is Stac compressed

Cisco's networking products support two types of external connections:
ports (referred to as lines) and interfaces.
Out-of-band management (which you do by console ports) does not affect the bandwidth flowing
through your network, while in-band management(which is doen by interface) does
Console Port
Almost every Cisco product has a console port. This port is used to establish an out of- band
connection in order to access the CLI to manage your Cisco device. Most console connections to
Cisco devices require an RJ-45 rollover cable and an RJ-45-to-DB9 terminal adapter.
The rollover cable pins are reversed on the two sides.
Com port setting

Speed 9600 bps

Data bits 8

Stop bits 1

Parity & Flow Control None

Cabling Devices
A straight-through cable is used for DTE-to-DCE connections.
• A hub to a router, PC, or file server
• A switch to a router, PC, or file server
Crossover cables should by used when you connect a DTE to another
DTE or a DCE to another DCE.
• A hub to another hub
• A switch to another switch
• A hub to a switch
• A PC, router, or file server to another PC, router, or file server

Interface of Router

The console port is used for local management connections. This means that you must be able to
physically reach the console port with a cable. The console port looks exactly like an Ethernet
port. It uses the same connector, but it has different wiring and is often identified with a light
blue label "CONSOLE."

Aux Port
The AUX port is really just another console port that is intended for use with a modem, so you
can remotely connect and administer the device by phoning it. However using aux port for
configuration create some security issues, so make sure that you get advice on addressing those
before setting this up.

Ethernet Port
An Ethernet port (which might be a FastEthernet or even a GigabitEthernet port, depending on
your router model) is intended to connect to the LAN. Some routers have more than one Ethernet
or FastEthernet port; it really depends on what you need and of course what you purchase. The
Ethernet port usually connects to the LAN switch with a straight-through cable.
Serial Port
A Cisco serial port is a proprietary design, a 60-pin D-sub. This connector can be configured for
almost any kind of serial communication. You need a cable that has the Cisco connector on one
end and the appropriate type of connector for the service you want to connect to on the other.

Other Connections
Your router may have some other port like T1 controller for wan services. Or you could have bri
and pri port. But none of these ports are tested in CCNA exam so you need to concern about
these ports.
Switch Interface Nomenclature
The Catalyst 2950 and 2960 switches support only fixed interfaces, while some of Cisco’s higher
end switches, such as the 6500s, support modular slots with interface cards.
The nomenclature of an interface is type slot_#/port_#.
The type of interface is the media type, such as ethernet, fastethernet, or gigabit.
Following this is the slot number. For all fixed interfaces on a Cisco switch, the slot number is
always 0.
The port number is the number of the port in the specified slot.
Unlike Cisco router ports, switch port numbers start at 1 and work their way up. For instance, on
a 2960, the very first port is fastethernet 0/1, the second port is fastethernet 0/2, and so on. Some
2960 switches support Gigabit Ethernet interfaces, so the nomenclature for the interface would
look like this:
gigabitethernet 0/1.

Router Interface Nomenclature

When referring to fixed interfaces, the interface numbers always begin with 0 (not 1, like the
switches) and work their way up within a particular interface type.
For routers that have only fixed interfaces, the interface nomenclature is type port_#.
For example, if a router has two fixed Ethernet interfaces and two fixed serial interfaces, they
would be called ethernet 0 and ethernet 1 and serial 0 and serial 1. The port numbers begin at 0
within each interface type. Through use of an interface type and a number, each of the interfaces
can be uniquely identified.
However, if a router has modular slots, where you can insert interface cards into these slots, the
interface nomenclature is like the Catalyst switches:
type slot_#/ port_#. Each slot has a unique slot number beginning with 0, and within each slot,
the ports begin at 0 and work their way up.
For example, if you had a modular router with two slots, the first slot would be 0 and the second
1. If the first slot had four Ethernet interfaces, the interface numbers would be 0– 3 and if the
second slot had two Ethernet interfaces, the interface numbers would be 0 and 1.
Here’s an example of a four-port serial module in the third slot of a 3640 router: serial 2/0, serial
2/1, serial 2/2, and serial 2/3. Here are some examples of routers with modular interfaces: 2600,
3600, 3700, 7000, 7200, and 7500.
The exception to this is the 1600 and 1700 routers; even though they are modular, you don’t
configure any slot number when specifying a particular interface

Cisco devices hardware component and booting process

ROM contains the necessary firmware to boot up your router and typically has the following four
• POST (power-on self-test) Performs tests on the router's hardware
• Bootstrap program Brings the router up and determines how the IOS
image and configuration files will be found and loaded.
• ROM Monitor (ROMMON mode) A mini–operating system that allows you
to perform low-level testing and troubleshooting, the password recovery
• Mini-IOS A stripped-down version of the IOS that contains only IP code. This
should be used in emergency situations where the IOS image in flash can't
be found and you want to boot up your router and load in another IOS
image. This stripped-down IOS is referred to as RXBOOT mode.

RAM is like the memory in your PC. On a router, it (in most cases) contains the running IOS
image; the active configuration file; any tables (including routing, ARP, CDP neighbor, and
other tables); and internal buffers for temporarily storing information, such as interface input and
output buffers. The IOS is responsible for managing memory. When you turn off your router,
everything in RAM is erased.
Flash is a form of nonvolatile memory in that when you turn the router off, the information
stored in flash is not lost. Routers store their IOS image in flash, but other information can also
be stored here. Note that some lower-end Cisco routers actually run the IOS directly from flash
(not RAM). Flash is slower than RAM, a fact that can create performance issues.
NVRAM is like flash in that its contents are not erased when you turn off your router. It is
slightly different, though, in that it uses a battery to maintain the information when the Cisco
device is turned off. Routers use NVRAM to store their configuration files. In newer versions of
the IOS, you can store more than one configuration file here.
Router Boot up Process
A router typically goes through five steps when booting up:
• The router loads and runs POST (located in ROM), testing its
hardware components, including memory and interfaces.
• The bootstrap program is loaded and executed.
• The bootstrap program finds and loads an IOS image: Possible
locations: - flash, a TFTP server, or the Mini-IOS in ROM.
• Once the IOS is loaded, the IOS attempts to find and load a
configuration file, stored in NVRAM
• After the configuration is loaded, you are presented with the CLI
interface. you are placed into is User EXEC mode.

Setup Mode
Cisco devices include a feature called Setup mode to help you make a basic initial configuration.
Setup mode will run only if there is no configuration file in NVRAM—either because the router
is brand-new, or because it has been erased. Setup mode will ask you a series of questions and
apply the configuration to the device based on your answers. You can abort Setup mode by
typing CTRL+C or by saying "no" either when asked if you want to enter the initial
configuration dialog or when asked if you want to save the configuration at the end of the
Configuration register
The configuration register is a special register in the router that determines many of its boot up
and running options, including how the router finds the IOS image and its configuration file. The
configuration register is a four-character hexadecimal value that can be changed to manipulate
how the router behaves at bootup. The default value is 0x2102.
The characters "0x" indicate that the characters that follow are in hexadecimal. This makes it
clear whether the value is "two thousand one hundred and two" or, as in this case, "two one zero
two hexadecimal".
The fourth character in the configuration register is known as the boot field. Changing the value
for this character will have the following effects:
• 0x2100 = Always boot to ROMMON.
• 0x2101 = Always boot to RXBOOT.
• 0x2102 through 0x210F = Load the first valid IOS in flash; values of 2
through F for the fourth character specify other IOS image files in flash.
The third character in the configuration register can modify how the router loads the
configuration file. The setting of 0x2142 causes the router to ignore the startup-config file in
NVRAM (which is where the password is stored) and proceed without a configuration—as if the
router were brand new or had its configuration erased.

How to reset Router password

The Password Recovery process is simple and takes less than five minutes depending on how
fast your router boots
1. Connect to the console port, start your terminal application, and power cycle
the router. When you see the boot process beginning, hit the Break
sequence. (This is usually Ctrl+Page Break, but it might differ for different
terminal applications.) Doing this interrupts the boot process and drops the
router into ROMMON.
2. At the ROMMON prompt, enter the command confreg 0x2142 to set the
configuration register to 0x2142.
3. Restart the router by power cycling it or by issuing the command reset.
4. When the router reloads, the configuration register setting of 0x2142
instructs the router to ignore the startup-config file in NVRAM. You will be
asked if you want to go through Setup mode because the router thinks it has
no startup-configuration file. Exit from Setup mode.
5. Press Return and enable command enable to go into privileged EXEC
command mode. No password is required because the startup config file was
not loaded.
6. Load the configuration manually by entering copy startup-config running-
7. Go into the Global Configuration mode using the command configure terminal
and change the password with the command enable password password
or enable secret password.
8. Save the new password by entering copy running-config startup-config.
9. Go to the global config prompt, and change the configuration register back to
the default setting with the command config-register 0x2102. Exit back to
the privileged exec prompt.
10.Reboot the router using the reload command. You will be asked to save your
changes; you can do so if you have made additional configuration changes.

Reset password on 1841

System Bootstrap, Version 12.3(8r)T8, RELEASE SOFTWARE (fc1)
Cisco 1841 (revision 5.0) with 114688K/16384K bytes of memory.
Self decompressing the image :
monitor: command "boot" aborted due to user interrupt
rommon 1 > confreg 0x2142
rommon 2 > reset
System Bootstrap, Version 12.3(8r)T8, RELEASE SOFTWARE (fc1)
Cisco 1841 (revision 5.0) with 114688K/16384K bytes of memory.
Self decompressing the image :
############################################################### [OK]

Cisco IOS Software, 1841 Software (C1841-ADVIPSERVICESK9-M),

Version 12.4(15)T1, RELEASE SOFTWARE (fc2)
Technical Support: http://www.cisco.com/techsupport
Copyright (c) 1986-2007 by Cisco Systems, Inc.
Compiled Wed 18-Jul-07 04:52 by pt_team
Image text-base: 0x60080608, data-base: 0x6270CD50

Cisco 1841 (revision 5.0) with 114688K/16384K bytes of memory.

Processor board ID FTX0947Z18E
M860 processor: part number 0, mask 49
2 FastEthernet/IEEE 802.3 interface(s)
191K bytes of NVRAM.
31360K bytes of ATA CompactFlash (Read/Write)
Cisco IOS Software, 1841 Software (C1841-ADVIPSERVICESK9-M),
Version 12.4(15)T1, RELEASE SOFTWARE (fc2)
Technical Support: http://www.cisco.com/techsupport
Copyright (c) 1986-2007 by Cisco Systems, Inc.
Compiled Wed 18-Jul-07 04:52 by pt_team

--- System Configuration Dialog ---

Continue with configuration dialog? [yes/no]: no

Press RETURN to get started!

Router#copy startup-config running-config
Destination filename [running-config]?
428 bytes copied in 0.416 secs (1028 bytes/sec)
Router#configure terminal
Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z.
Router(config)#enable password vinita
Router(config)#enable secret vinita
Router(config)#config-register 0x2102
Router#copy running-config startup-config
Destination filename [startup-config]?
Building configuration...
Proceed with reload? [confirm]

Packet Tracer

Packet tracer is tiny software developed by Cisco System. With packet tracer you can do
entire practical of CCNA. Beside packet tracer there are lot of simulator software are available
on internet. But most of them will cost you around 150$. In this article from our free CCNA
study guide series we will guide you that how can you install packet tracer.
Packet Tracer offers a broad range of opportunities for instructors to demonstrate networking
concepts. Although Packet Tracer is not a substitute for real equipment, it allows students to
practice using a model of the Cisco Internet work Operating System (IOS) command line
interface and provides visual, drag-and-drop problem solving using virtual networking devices.
This hands-on capability is a fundamental component of learning how to config¬ure routers and
switches from the command line. Students can see how to configure and connect networking
hardware while confirming systems design. Instructors can create their own self-evaluated
activities that present immediate feedback to students on their proficiency in completing
Packet tracer Step by Step guide
Download packet tracer from any of these location
Packet Tracer from Uploading
Packet Tracer from Deposit file
Packet Tracer from Hot file
Do right click and select extract here.

Double click on setup file to invoke installation

On welcome screen press next

On license agreement screen select I accept and click next

Now select destination path where you want install it

On select start menu screen press next

On select additional task screen click next

Press next on ready to install screen

Now packet tracer will copy necessary file on hard disk

Click on finish to complete packet tracer setup
Cisco IOS Mode User Privilege Configurations

CLI Access Modes

Each Cisco device on CLI interface supports three access modes
• User EXEC
Provides basic access to the IOS with limited command availability (basically
simple monitoring and troubleshooting commands)
• Privilege EXEC
Provides high-level management access to the IOS, including all commands
available at User EXEC mode
• Configuration
Allows configuration changes to be made to the device

User EXEC Mode

Your initial access to the CLI is via the User EXEC mode, which has only a limited number of
IOS commands you can execute. Depending on the Cisco device’s configuration, you might be
prompted for a password to access this mode.
This mode is typically used for basic troubleshooting of networking problems. You can tell that
you are in User EXEC mode by examining the prompt on the left side of the screen:
If you see a > character at the end of the information, you know that you are in User EXEC
mode. The information preceding the > is the name of the Cisco device.
For instance, the default name of all Cisco routers is Router, whereas the 2960 switch’s User
EXEC prompt looks like this: Switch>. These device names can be changed with the hostname
Privilege EXEC Mode
Once you have gained access to User EXEC mode, you can use the enable command to access
Privilege EXEC mode:
Router> enable
Once you enter the enable command, if a Privilege EXEC password has been configured on the
Cisco device, you will be prompted for it. Upon successfully authenticating, you will be in
Privilege EXEC mode. You can tell that you are in this mode by examining the CLI prompt. In
the preceding code example, notice that the > changed to a #.
When you are in Privilege EXEC mode, you have access to all of the User EXEC commands as
well as many more advanced management and troubleshooting commands. These commands
include extended ping and trace abilities, managing configuration files and IOS images, and
detailed troubleshooting using debug commands. About the only thing that you can’t do from
this mode is change the configuration of the Cisco device—this can be done only from
Configuration mode. If you wish to return to User EXEC mode from Privilege EXEC mode, use
the exit command:
Router# exit
Again, by examining the prompt, you can tell that you are now in User EXEC mode.
Configuration Modes of Cisco IOS Software
From privileged EXEC mode, you can enter global configuration mode using the
configure terminal command.
From global configuration mode, you can access specific configuration modes, which include,
but are not limited to, the following:
• Interface:
Supports commands that configure operations on a per-interface basis
• Subinterface:
Supports commands that configure multiple virtual interfaces on a single
physical interface
• Controller:
Supports commands that configure controllers (for example, E1 and T1
• Line:
Supports commands that configure the operation of a terminal line (for
example, the console or the vty ports)
• Router:
Supports commands that configure an IP routing protocol
If you enter the exit command, the router backs out one level, eventually logging out. In general,
you enter the exit command from one of the specific configuration modes to return to global
configuration mode. Press Ctrl+Z or enter end to leave configuration mode completely and
return to the privileged EXEC mode.
Commands that affect the entire device are called global commands.
The hostname and enable password commands are examples of global commands.
Commands that point to or indicate a process or interface that will be configured are called
major commands. When entered, major commands cause the CLI to enter a specific
configuration mode.
Major commands have no effect unless you immediately enter a subcommand that supplies the
configuration entry. For example, the major command interface serial 0 has no effect unless you
follow it with a subcommand that tells what is to be done to that interface.
Router Modes
Router> User mode

Router# Privileged mode (also known as EXEC-level

Router(config)# Global configuration mode
Router(config-if)# Interface mode
subif)# Subinterface mode

Router(config-line)# Line mode

router)# Router configuration mode

Help Facilities of the Cisco IOS

Cisco IOS Software uses several command-line input help facilities, among these context-
sensitive help is the most powerful feature of cisco ios.
Context-Sensitive Help
One of the more powerful features of the IOS is context-sensitive help. Context sensitive help is
supported at all modes within the IOS, including User EXEC, Privilege EXEC, and
Configuration modes. You can use this feature in a variety of ways. If you are not sure what
command you need to execute, at the prompt, type either help or ?. The Cisco device then
displays a list of commands that can be executed at the level in which you are currently located,
along with a brief description of each command.
Here is an example from a router’s CLI at User EXEC mode:
Exec commands:
<1-99> Session number to resume
connect Open a terminal connection
disconnect Disconnect an existing network connection
enable Turn on privileged commands
exit Exit from the EXEC
ipv6 ipv6
logout Exit from the EXEC
ping Send echo messages
resume Resume an active network connection
show Show running system information
ssh Open a secure shell client connection
telnet Open a telnet connection
terminal Set terminal line parameters
traceroute Trace route to destination
If you see -- More -- at the bottom of the screen, this indicates that more help information is
available than can fit on the current screen. On a Cisco device,
if you press the SPACEBAR, the IOS pages down to the next screen of help information;
if you press the ENTER key, help scrolls down one line at a time Any other keystroke breaks out
of the help text.
For more detailed help, you can follow a command or parameter with a space and a ?. This
causes the CLI to list the available options or parameters that are included for the command. For
instance, you could type copy followed by a space and a ? to see all of the parameters available
for the copy command:
Router#copy ?
running-config Copy from current system configuration
startup-config Copy from startup configuration
tftp: Copy from tftp: file system
In this example, you can see at least the first parameter necessary after the copy command.
Please note that additional parameters may appear after the first one, depending on the next
parameter that you enter.
If you’re not sure how to spell a command, you can enter the first few characters and
immediately follow these characters with a ?. Typing e?, for instance, lists all the commands that
begin with e at the current mode:
Router# e?
enable erase exit
Router# e
This example shows that three commands begin with the letter e in Privilege EXEC mode.

Console Error Messages

error messages: Identifies problems with any Cisco IOS commands that are incorrectly entered
so that you can alter or correct them.
Error:-% Invalid input detected at '^' marker.
Errors certainly creep up when you enter commands. Whenever you mistype a command, the
IOS tells you that it has encountered a problem with the previously executed command. For
instance, this message indicates a CLI input error:
Router#copy running-config stertup-config
% Invalid input detected at '^' marker.

As you can see in this example that we have typed stert on the place of startup.
You should examine the line between the command that you typed in and the error message.
Somewhere in this line, you'll see a ^ character. This is used by the IOS to indicate that an error
exists in the command line at that spot.
Error:-% Incomplete command.
This error indicates that you have not entered all the necessary parameters for the command. The
syntax of the command is correct, but more parameters are necessary.
Router#copy running-config
% Incomplete command.
Router#copy running-config ?
startup-config Copy to startup configuration
tftp: Copy to current system configuration
Router#copy running-config startup-config
Destination filename [startup-config]?
Building configuration...
In this case, you can use the context-sensitive help feature to help you figure out
what parameter or parameters you forgot.

Error:-% Ambiguous command: "show i"

You will see this error message if you do not type in enough characters to make a command or
parameter unique.
Router#show i
% Ambiguous command: "show i"
Router#show i?
interfaces ip ipv6
Router#show i
In this example, apparently, more than one parameter for the show command begins with the
letter i. As shown above you can use context-sensitive help to figure out what parameter to use.
% Unknown command or computer name, or unable to find computer address
If you enter a command that the IOS does not understand, you'll see this error message. If you
see this, use the context-sensitive help to figure out the correct command to enter.
Cisco Discovery Protocol CDP

Cisco Discovery Protocol (CDP) is a proprietary protocol designed by Cisco to help

administrators collect information about both locally attached and remote devices. By using
CDP, you can gather hardware and protocol information about neighbor devices, which is useful
info for troubleshooting the network.
CDP messages are generated every 60 seconds as multicast messages on each of its active
The information shared in a CDP packet about a Cisco device includes the following:
• Name of the device configured with the hostname command
• IOS software version
• Hardware capabilities, such as routing, switching, and/or bridging
• Hardware platform, such as 2600, 2950, or 1900
• The layer-3 address(es) of the device
• The interface the CDP update was generated on
CDP allows devices to share basic configuration information without
even configuring any protocol specific information and is enabled by
default on all interfaces.
CDP is a Datalink Protocol occurring at Layer 2 of the OSI model.
CDP is not routable and can only go over to directly connected
CDP is enabled, by default, on all Cisco devices. CDP updates are generated as multicasts every
60 seconds with a hold-down period of 180 seconds for a missing neighbor. The no cdp run
command globally disables CDP, while the no cdp enable command disables CDP on an
interface. Use show cdp neighbors to list out your directly connected Cisco neighboring devices.
Adding the detail parameter will display the layer-3 addressing configured on the neighbor.
How could CDP help you?
Manoj has just been hired as a senior network consultant at a large bank in Lucknow, Uttar
Pradesh. He is expected to be able to take care of any problem that comes up. No problem at all
here—he only has to worry about people possibly not getting the right money transaction if the
network goes down. Manoj starts his job happily.
Soon, of course, the network has some problems. He asks one of the junior administrators for a
network map so he can troubleshoot the network. This person tells him that the old senior
administrator (who just got fired) had them with him and now no one can find them. Cashiers are
calling every couple of minutes because they can’t get the necessary information they need to
take care of their customers. What should he do?
CDP to the rescue! Thank God this bank has all Cisco routers and switches and that CDP is
enabled by default on all Cisco devices. Also, luckily, the dissatisfied administrator who just got
fired didn't turn off CDP on any devices before he left. All Manoj has to do now is to use the
show cdp neighbor detail command to find all the information he needs about each device to
help draw out the bank network .
Cisco Discovery Protocols Configuration commands
Router#show cdp Displays global CDP information (such as timers)
Router#show cdp neighbors Displays information about neighbors

Router#show cdp neighbors

detail Displays more detail about the neighbor device

Router#show cdp entry

word Displays information about the device named word

Router#show cdp entry * Displays information about all devices

Router#show cdp interface Displays information about interfaces that have CDP running

Router#show cdp interface

x Displays information about specific interface x running CDP

Router#show cdp traffic Displays traffic information—packets in/out/version

holdtime x Changes the length of time to keep CDP packets

Router(config)#cdp timer x Changes how often CDP updates are sent

Router(config)#cdp run Enables CDP globally (on by default)

Router(config)#no cdp run Turns off CDP globally
enable Enables CDP on a specific interface

enable Enables CDP on a specific interface

Router(config-if)#no cdp
enable Turns off CDP on a specific interface

Router#clear cdp counters Resets traffic counters to 0

Router#clear cdp table Deletes the CDP table
Router#debug cdp
adjacency Monitors CDP neighbor information

Router#debug cdp events Monitors all CDP events

Router#debug cdp ip Monitors CDP events specifically for IP
Router#debug cdp packets Monitors CDP packet-related information

Administration of Cisco devices

In this article I will demonstrate that how can you perform basic administrative task on Cisco
Back Up and Restore IOS
You can use TFTP, FTP, or RCP to transfer an IOS image to or from a server. Only tftp server is
covered in CCNA exam so we will cover it. TFTP is the trivial file transfer protocol. Unlike
FTP, there are no means of authenticating with a username or password or navigating directories.
To back up your IOS, you will use the copy command from within privileged EXEC mode. The
syntax of this command is copy <from> <to>. Thus, if you want to copy an IOS from your IOS
to a TFTP server, the syntax would be copy tftp flash. After executing this command, you will be
prompted with a number of questions asking for such things as the IOS filename and IP address
of the TFTP server.
To restore or upgrade your IOS from a TFTP server to a router, the syntax would be copy tftp
Remember the following troubleshooting steps if you are having difficulties using TFTP:
• Verify that the TFTP server is running.
• Verify cable configurations. You should use a crossover cable between a
router and a server or, if you have a switch, use a straight-through cable from
the router to the switch and from the switch to the server.
• Verify that your router is on the same subnet as your TFTP server.
• If you are using a Linux TFTP server, make sure that you first use the touch
command to create a zero-byte file with the name of the IOS image;
otherwise, the file will not copy to the TFTP server.
Being a Cisco Associate you should be able to take back and restore of networks critical
resources. Cisco devices use Tftp server for this purpose. In real life you should keep daily back
up of Cisco IOS and running configuration. In lab we can do the same practical on packet
Step by Step Guide to Back up and Restore of Network Devices
Download this topology and load it in packet tracer

As you can see in diagram we have a TFTP server connected with router from cross cable. A pc
is connected with router from console cable. IP address on Server is and on
routers fast Ethernet port 0/0 is already configured.
Now your task is to take the back of running configuration on tftp
server. So we can retrieve it in any situations.
Double click on pc0 click on Desktop tab select terminal click on terminal
configuration ( Do not change default setting). Click on ok This will emulate
Router on screen

Now Follow these steps

R1#copy running-config tftp:
Address or name of remote host []?
Destination filename [R1-confg]?
[OK - 359 bytes]

359 bytes copied in 3.078 secs (0 bytes/sec)

Now we have taken the backup of running configuration. To verify it click on
Server and select config tab and click on TFTP and scroll down. At the end of
window you can see the backup files.

As you can see in image we have successfully taken the backup. Now open again
terminal in PC0 and remove the startup configuration. And reload the router.
R1#erase startup-config
Erasing the nvram filesystem will remove all configuration files! Continue?
Erase of nvram: complete
%SYS-7-NV_BLOCK_INIT: Initialized the geometry of nvram
Proceed with reload? [confirm]
Now router will restart and as we have already discussed in our pervious article Booting process
of Cisco devices, that router load its running configuration from NARAM. And we have deleted
the contain for NAVRAM (Startup-configuration) so it will launch default startup program.
Write No and press enter.
Now you will see default router prompt. We have to do some basic setting before
connecting the TFTP Server.
Router#configure terminal
Router(config)#interface fastethernet 0/0
Router(config-if)#ip address
Router(config-if)#no shutdown
we have done the essential configuration to connect the tftp server. Now restore
the configuration back to router
Router#copy tftp running-config
Address or name of remote host []?
Source filename []? R1-confg
Destination filename [running-config]?

Loading R1-confg from !

[OK - 359 bytes]

359 bytes copied in 0.032 secs (11218 bytes/sec)

At this point the configuration is in RAM so you will lost it on reboot so copy it in
R1#copy running-config startup-config
Destination filename [startup-config]?
Building configuration...

Step by step guide on How to update IOS

Being a CCNA certified associate you should also be capable to update the IOS of Cisco devices.
This process include the serious risk of getting defective of device. So don’t do it on live device
until you became perfect on simulator.
Download this topology and load it in packet tracer

IP and other setting is already configured on Server and Router. We have new IOS
stored on TFTP Server. Double click on pc0 click on Desktop tab select terminal
click on terminal configuration ( Do not change default setting). This will emulate
Router on screen.
First step toward the updating of IOS is to check the available space in flash
R1#sh flash

System flash directory:

File Length Name/status
1 33591768 c1841-advipservicesk9-mz.124-15.T1.bin
[33591768 bytes used, 30424616 available, 64016384 total]
63488K bytes of processor board System flash (Read/Write)
As you can see in output we have 30424616 bytes free available. We can
download new IOS in flash from TFTP Server. To load new IOS
R1#copy tftp flash
Address or name of remote host []?
Source filename []? c1841-ipbasek9-mz.124-12.bin
Destination filename [c1841-ipbasek9-mz.124-12.bin]?
Loading c1841-ipbasek9-mz.124-12.bin from !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
[OK - 16599160 bytes]

16599160 bytes copied in 5.989 secs (620180 bytes/sec)

As you can see in output we have downloaded new IOS now we can remove old IOS
R1#delete flash:c1841-advipservicesk9-mz.124-15.T1.bin
Delete filename [c1841-advipservicesk9-mz.124-15.T1.bin]?
Delete flash:/c1841-advipservicesk9-mz.124-15.T1.bin? [confirm]

R1#show flash

System flash directory:

File Length Name/status
2 16599160 c1841-ipbasek9-mz.124-12.bin
[16599160 bytes used, 47417224 available, 64016384 total]
63488K bytes of processor board System flash (Read/Write)
Now restart the router to take effect of new IOS
Proceed with reload? [confirm]

%SYS-5-RELOAD: Reload requested by console. Reload Reason: Reload Command.

System Bootstrap, Version 12.3(8r)T8, RELEASE SOFTWARE (fc1)
Cisco 1841 (revision 5.0) with 114688K/16384K bytes of memory.

Self decompressing the image :

################################################################# [OK]
Restricted Rights Legend

Cisco IOS Software, 1841 Software (C1841-IPBASEK9-M), Version 12.4(12),

Technical Support: http://www.cisco.com/techsupport
Copyright (c) 1986-2006 by Cisco Systems, Inc.
Compiled Mon 15-May-06 14:54 by pt_team
Image text-base: 0x600790EC, data-base: 0x61480000
Cisco IOS Software, 1841 Software (C1841-IPBASEK9-M), Version 12.4(12),
Technical Support: http://www.cisco.com/techsupport
Copyright (c) 1986-2006 by Cisco Systems, Inc.
Compiled Mon 15-May-06 14:54 by pt_team

--- System Configuration Dialog ---

Continue with configuration dialog? [yes/no]: no

Press RETURN to get started!

As you can see in output router is booted from new IOS. As new IOS is loaded so all pervious
configuration will also be removed load it again from TFTP Server and save it to NVRAM.
Other Useful administrative commands
no ip domain-lookup

Router(config)#no ip domain-lookup
Ever type in a command incorrectly and are left having to wait for a minute or two as the router
tries to translate your command to a domain server of The router is set by
default to try to resolve any word that is not a command to a Domain Name System (DNS)
server at address If you are not going to set up DNS, turn off this feature to
save you time as you type, especially if you are not good in typing.
logging synchronous

Router(config)#line console 0
Router(config-line)#logging synchronous
Some time it happens that you are typing a command and an informational line appears in the
middle of what you were typing? Lose your place? Do not know where you are in the command,
so you just press R and start all over? The logging synchronous command tells the router that if
any informational items get displayed on the screen, your prompt and command line should be
moved to a new line, so as not to confuse you. The informational line does not get inserted into
the middle of the command you are trying to type. If you were to continue typing, the command
would execute properly, even though it looks wrong on the screen.

Router(config)#line console 0
Router(config-line)#exec-timeout 0 0
The command exec-timeout 0 0 is great for a lab environment because the console never logs
out. This is considered to be bad security and is dangerous in the real world. The default for the
exec-timeout command is 10 minutes and zero (0) seconds (exec-timeout 10 0).
erase startup-config

Router#erase startup-config
Some time you want to reconfigure the router. Or want to sell the old one. In such a scenario you
would like to erase the start up configuration. The running configuration is still in dynamic
memory. Reload the router to clear the running configuration.
do Command

Router(config)#do show running-config

The do command is useful when you want to execute EXEC commands, such as show, clear, or
debug, while remaining in global configuration mode or in any configuration submode. You
cannot use the do command to execute the configure terminal command because it is the
configure terminal command that changes the mode to global configuration mode
Summary of Useful commands for administrations
Router(config)#boot system
Loads the Cisco IOS Software with image-name
flash imagename

Router(config)#boot system tftp Loads the Cisco IOS Software with image-name
image-name from a TFTP server

Router(config)#boot system
Loads the Cisco IOS Software from ROM.

Router(config)#exit exit from global configurations

Saves the running configuration to NVRAM. The

Router#copy running-config
router will execute commands in their order on the
next reload.

Router#copy running-config Saves the running configuration from DRAM to

startup-config NVRAM (locally).

Copies the running configuration to the remote

Router#copy running-config tftp
TFTP server

Address or name of remote

The IP address of the TFTP server. Press Enter key
host[ ]?

Destination Filename [Router- The name to use for the file saved on the TFTP
confg]? server Press Enter key

!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! Each bang symbol (!) = 1 datagram of data.

624 bytes copied in 7.05 secs

Router# File has been transferred successfully

Copies the configuration file from the TFTP server

Router#copy tftp running-config
to DRAM.
Address or name of remote
The IP address of the TFTP server.
host[ ]?

Source filename [ ]?Router-

Enter the name of the file you want to retrieve

Destination filename [running-

Press Enter key

Router# File has been transferred successfully.

Router#copy flash tftp Backup of flash to tftp

Router#copy tftp flash Restore flash from tftp server

SDM Security Device Manager

SDM is a web-based application, implemented with Java that manages the basic administration
and security features on a Cisco router. SDM is installed in the router’s flash memory and is
remotely accessed from an administrator’s desktop using a web browser with Java and Secure
Sockets Layer (SSL) (HTTPS). Originally, Cisco developed SDM for small office/home office
(SOHO) networks, where the administrator performing the configuration is probably not familiar
with Cisco's CLI.
SDM was designed by Cisco to allow you to perform basic administration functions and to
manage the security features of your router. SDM cannot perform all functions that can be
performed from the CLI, such as the configuration of complex QoS policies or the Border
Gateway Protocol (BGP) routing protocol, to name a couple. Nor are all interface types
supported within SDM, such as ISDN and dialup. However, for the features and interface types
not supported, you can still configure these from the CLI of the router.Likewise, most
troubleshooting tasks are still done from the CLI with show and debug commands.
PC Requirements
• Operating System Xp, Vista, Server 2000, ( not Advance server), Server2003
• Internet browser Internet Explorer higher then 5.6, Mozilla firefox
• Java installed. Minimally you'll need version 1.4.2(08) of Sun's Java Runtime
Environment (JRE).
• Minimum screen resolution of 1024x768.
• (a resolution lower than this will not allow you to view the entire Java-based
• On your router, you'll minimally need IOS version 12.2 for SDM to function;
and depending
• on the version of SDM, you will need between 5MB and 8MB of available flash
on your router.
The default user account and passwords in the sdmconfig-xxxx.cfg file included with SDM are
sdm and sdm—don't use these! Change them before copying and pasting the configuration from
the sdmconfig file into the router. Everyone knows these passwords, and these are the first
passwords an attacker will guess to break into the router.
SDM Security Device Manager File Descriptions
Filename Description

Support file for SDM
Cisco Secure Desktop (CSD) client software for the SSL VPN client, where xxxx
represents the version number of CSD
SSL VPN Client (SVC) tunneling software, where xxxx represents the version of
Application file for SDM
Support HTML file for SDM
Support file for SDM

sdmconfig-xxxx.cfg Default router configuration with commands necessary to access SDM, where xxxx
represents the model number of the router
Wireless application setup program for a radio module installed in the router
SDM application file

xxxx.sdf IPS signature files (some common names are attack-drop.sdf, 128MB.sdf,
256MB.sdf, and sdmips.sdf)

Necessary Router Configuration

Step 1 Enable the HTTP and HTTPS servers on your router by entering the following commands
in global configuration mode:
Router# configure terminal
Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z.
Router(config)# ip http server
Router(config)# ip http secure-server
Router(config)# ip http authentication local
Router(config)# ip http timeout-policy idle 600 life 86400 requests 10000
Step 2 Create a user account defined with privilege level 15 (enable privileges). Enter the
following command in global configuration mode, replacing username and password with the
strings that you want to use:
Router(config)# username username privilege 15 secret 0 password
For example, if you chose the username admin and the password vinita, you would enter the
Router(config)# username admin privilege 15 secret 0 vinita
You will use this username and password to log in to Cisco SDM.
Step 3 Configure SSH and Telnet for local login and privilege level 15. Use the following
Router(config)# line vty 0 4
Router(config-line)# privilege level 15
Router(config-line)# login local
Router(config-line)# transport input telnet ssh
Router(config-line)# exit
Step 4 Assign ip address to Fast Ethernet port. This will be used to access this router
Router(config)#interface fastethernet 0/0
Router(config-if)#ip address
Router(config-if)#no shutdown

Accessing SDM
Cisco SDM is stored in the router flash memory. It is invoked by executing an HTML file in the
router archive, which then loads the signed Cisco SDM Java file. To launch Cisco SDM,
complete the following steps:
Step 1 From your browser, enter the following URL:
https://<router IP address>
In our example it would be
The https:// designation specifies that SSL protocol be used for a secure connection. The http://
designation can be used if SSL is not available.
Step 2 The Cisco SDM home page will appear in the browser window. The username and
password dialog box will appear. The type and shape of the dialog box will depend on the type
of browser that you are using. Enter the username and password for the privileged (privilege
level 15) account on your router. The Cisco SDM Java applet will begin loading to your PC's
web browser.
Step 3 Cisco SDM is a signed Java applet. This can cause your browser to display a security
warning. Accept the certificate. Cisco SDM displays the Launch page.