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Before you read

Reading activity
Biology

Bio- life
Logy – study of.

E.g. of –logy

Physiology
Ecology

Objectives

Relate the seven properties of life to a living organism.


Describe seven themes that can help you organize what you learn about biology
Identify the tiny structures that make up all living organisms
Differentiate between reproduction and heredity between metabolism and
homeostasis.
Describe the stages common to scientific investigations
Distinguish between forming a hypothesis and making a prediction.
Differentiate a control group from an experimental group and an independent variable
from a dependent variable
Define the word theory as used by a scientist
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Biology
- Study of life

Themes of biology
- Cellular structure and function
All living things are made up of one or more cells
Some cells are unicellular while others are multicellular

- Reproduction
All living things reproduce
It is an essential part of living
- Metabolism
Sum of all the chemical reactions carried out in an organism
- homeostasis
The ability to maintain stable internal environment in spite of changes in external
environment.
- Heredity
The genes are coded in a large molecule called DNA
A change in the DNA of a gene is called a mutation
- Evolution
A change in the inherited characteristics of a species for generations.
A process in which organisms with favorable are more likely to survive and
reproduce are called Natural Selection.
- Interdependence
Ecology
Branch of biology that studies organisms interacting with each other and with
the environment.

Scientific processes
- Observations
Noting or perceiving objects or events through all the senses
- Asking questions
Ask questions about the problem
- Hypothesis
An educated guess based on what is already known
A possible explanation that might be true for the problem
- Confirming prediction; Experiment
A planned procedure to test a hypothesis
Control group
A group in an experiment that receives no experimental treatment
Experimental group
The factor that is changed in an experiment.
It is identical to the control group except for one factor known as variable

Independent Dependent
variable variable

Independent variable
The factor that is changed in the experiment
Dependent variable
The variable that is measured in the experiment
- Drawing conclusions
A conclusion is made as to whether the data supports the hypothesis
Was the hypothesis correct or not? Why?
- Theory
Set of related hypothesis that have been tested and confirmed many times
by many scientists
Can change as new evidence becomes available.
Key term meaning
Biology Study of life
cells Highly organized, tiny structures with their membranes
Reproduction Process by which organisms make ,ore of their own kind from one
generation to the next
Metabolism Sum of all chemical reactions carried out in an organism
Homeostasis The maintenance of stable internal conditions in spite of changes in the
external environment
Gene The basic unit of heredity
Heredity The passing of traits from parents to offspring
Mutation A change in the DNA of a gene
Evolution Change in the inherited characteristics of species over generations
Species A group of genetically similar organisms that can produce fertile
offspring
Natural The process in which organisms with favorable traits are more likely to
selection survive and reproduce
Ecology The branch of biology that studies the interactions of organisms with
one another and with the nonliving.
Observation Act of noting or perceiving objects or events using senses.
Hypothesis An explanation that might be trues—a statement that can be tested by
additional observations or experimentations.
Prediction Expected outcome of a test, assuming the hypothesis is correct.
pH A relative measure of the hydrogen ion concentration within a solution
Experiment A planned procedure to test a hypothesis
Control group A group in an experiment that receives no experimental treatment
Independent The factor that is changed in the experiment
variable
Dependent The variable that is measured in an experiment
variable
theory A set of related hypothesis that have been tested and confirmed many
times by many scientists