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c

C is often used for "system programming", including implementing operating systems


and embedded system applications, due to a combination of desirable characteristics
such as code portability and efficiency, ability to access specific hardware addresses,
ability to pun types to match externally imposed data access requirements, and low
runtime demand on system resources

C is sometimes used as an intermediate language by implementations of other


languages. This approach may be used for portability or convenience; by using C as
an intermediate language, it is not necessary to develop machine-specific code
generators. Some languages and compilers which have used C this way are BitC,
C++, Eiffel, Gambit, GHC, Squeak, and Vala. However, C was designed as a
programming language, not as a compiler target language, and is thus less than ideal
for use as an intermediate language. This has led to development of C-based
intermediate languages such as C--.

C has also been widely used to implement end-user applications, but much of that
development has shifted to newer languages.

Ô 

Main article: Operators in C and C++

C supports a rich set of operators, which are symbols used within an expression to
specify the manipulations to be performed while evaluating that expression. C has
operators for:

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(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/C_(programming_language

The advantages of C

C is one of a large number of high-level languages designed for general-purpose


programming, in other words, for writing anything from small programs for personal
amusement to complex industrial applications.

C has many advantages:

* Before C, machine-language programmers criticized high-level languages because,


with their black box approach, they shielded the user from the working details of the
computer and all its facilities. C, however, was designed to give access to any level of
the computer down to raw machine language, and because of this, it is perhaps the
most flexible high-level language.
* C has features that allow the programmer to organize programs in a clear, easy,
logical way. For example, C allows meaningful names for variables without any loss
of efficiency, yet it gives a complete freedom of programming style, including
flexible ways of making decisions, and a set of flexible commands for performing
tasks repetitively (for, while, do).
* C is succinct. It permits the creation of tidy, compact programs. This feature can be
a mixed blessing, however, and the C programmer must balance simplicity and
readability.
* C allows commands that are invalid in other languages. This is no defect, but a
powerful freedom which, when used with caution, makes many things possible. It
does mean that there are concealed difficulties in C, but if you write carefully and
thoughtfully, you can create fast, efficient programs.
* With C, you can use every resource your computer offers. C tries to link closely
with the local environment, providing facilities for gaining access to common
peripherals like disk drives and printers. When new peripherals are invented, the GNU
community quickly provides the ability to program them in C as well. In fact, most of
the GNU project is written in C (as are many other operating systems).

For the reasons outlined above, C is the preeminent high-level language. Clearly, no
language can guarantee good programs, but C can provide a framework in which it is
easy to program well.

Disadvantages of C are:
1. There is no runtime checking.

2.There is no strict type checking(for ex:we can pass an integer value for the floating
data type).

3. As the program extends it is very difficult to fix the bugs

http://en.kioskea.net/forum/affich-21243 -advantages-and-disadvantages-of-c-
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C Sharp Programming at Wikibooks

` (pronounced "see sharp")[6] is a multi-paradigm programming language


encompassing imperative, declarative, functional, generic, object-oriented (class-
based), and component-oriented programming disciplines. It was developed by
Microsoft within the .NET initiative and later approved as a standard by Ecma
(ECMA-334) and ISO (ISO/IEC 23270). C# is one of the programming languages
designed for the Common Language Infrastructure.

C# is intended to be a simple, modern, general-purpose, object-oriented programming


language.[7] Its development team is led by Anders Hejlsberg. The most recent version
is C# 4.0, which was released on April 12, 2010

]  
See also: C Sharp syntax
Note: The following description is based on the language standard and other
documents listed in the external links section.

By design, C# is the programming language that most directly reflects the underlying
Common Language Infrastructure (CLI). Most of its intrinsic types correspond to
value-types implemented by the CLI framework. However, the language specification
does not state the code generation requirements of the compiler: that is, it does not
state that a C# compiler must target a Common Language Runtime, or generate
Common Intermediate Language (CIL), or generate any other specific format.
Theoretically, a C# compiler could generate machine code like traditional compilers
of C or Fortran.

Some notable distinguishing features of C# are:

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(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/C_Sharp_(programming_language
  is a relational database management system (RDBMS)[1] that runs as a server
providing multi-user access to a number of databases. MySQL is officially
pronounced ΠΠ("My S-Q-L"),[2] but is often also pronounced
Π
Π("My Sequel"). It is named after developer Michael Widenius'
daughter, My. The SQL phrase stands for Structured Query Language.[3]

The MySQL development project has made its source code available under the terms
of the GNU General Public License, as well as under a variety of proprietary
agreements. MySQL was owned and sponsored by a single for-profit firm, the
Swedish company MySQL AB, now owned by Oracle Corporation.[4]

Members of the MySQL community have created several forks (variations) such as
Drizzle, OurDelta, Percona Server, and MariaDB. All of these forks were in progress
before the Oracle acquisition; Drizzle was announced eight months before the Sun
acquisition.

Free-software projects that require a full-featured database management system often


use MySQL. Such projects include (for example) WordPress, phpBB, Drupal and
other software built on the LAMP software stack. MySQL is also used in many high-
profile, large-scale World Wide Web products, including Wikipedia, Google[5] and
Facebook

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MySQL is a popular choice of database for use in web applications, and is a central
component of the widely-used LAMP web application software stack ² LAMP is an
acronym for "Linux, Apache, MySQL, PHP". Its popularity is closely tied to the
popularity of PHP. MySQL is used in some of the most frequently visited web sites
on the Internet, including Flickr,[7] Facebook,[8][9] Wikipedia,[10] Google ² though not
for searches,[11] Nokia.com[12] and YouTube

] 

As of April 2009, MySQL offers MySQL 5.1 in two different variants: the open
source MySQL Community Server and the commercial Enterprise Server.[20] They
have a common code base and include the following features:

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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/MySQL
The Ô
 (commonly referred to as Oracle RDBMS or simply as Oracle)
is an object-relational database management system (ORDBMS)[2] produced and
marketed by Oracle Corporation.

Larry Ellison and his friends and former co-workers Bob Miner and Ed Oates started
the consultancy Software Development Laboratories (SDL) in 1977. SDL developed
the original version of the Oracle software. The name Oracle comes from the code-
name of a CIA-funded project Ellison had worked on while previously employed by
Ampex

  

Apart from the clearly-defined database options, Oracle databases may include many
semi-autonomous software sub-systems, which Oracle Corporation sometimes refers
to as "features" in a sense subtly different from the normal usage of the word. For
example, Oracle Data Guard counts officially as a "feature", but the command-stack
within SQL*Plus,! though a usability feature, does not appear in the list of "features"
in Oracle's list.[ori inal research? ] Such "features" may include (for example):

Y Active Session History (ASH), the collection of data for immediate


monitoring of very recent database activity.[57]
Y Automatic Workload Repository (AWR), providing monitoring services to
Oracle database installations from Oracle version 10. Prior to the release of
Oracle version 10, the Statspack facility[58] provided similar functionality.
Y Clusterware
Y Data Aggregation and Consolidation
Y Data Guard for high availability
Y Generic Connectivity for connecting to non-Oracle systems.
Y Data Pump utilities, which aid in importing and exporting data and metadata
between databases[59]
Y Database Resource Manager (DRM), which controls the use of computing
resources.[60]
Y Fine-grained auditing (FGA) (in Oracle Enterprise Edition[61]) supplements
standard security-auditing features[62]
Y Flashback for selective data recovery and reconstruction[63]
Y iSQL*Plus, a web-browser-based graphical user interface (GUI) for Oracle
database data-manipulation (compare SQL*Plus)
Y Oracle Data Access Components (ODAC), tools which consist of:[64]
[65]
 Oracle Data Provider for .NET (ODP.NET)
 Oracle Developer Tools (ODT) for Visual Studio
 Oracle Providers for ASP.NET
 Oracle Database Extensions for .NET
 Oracle Provider for OLE DB
 Oracle Objects for OLE
 Oracle Services for Microsoft Transaction Server
Y Oracle-managed files (OMF) -- a feature allowing automated naming, creation
and deletion of datafiles at the operating-system level.
Y Recovery Manager (rman) for database backup, restoration and recovery
Y SQL*Plus, a program that allows users to interact with Oracle database(s) via
SQL and PL/SQL commands on a command-line. Compare iSQL*Plus.
Y Virtual Private Database[66] (VPD), an implementation of fine-grained access
control.[67]

Ohis list is incomplete; you can help by expandin" it.


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oracle_Database

  is a relational model database server produced by Microsoft.


Its primary query languages are T-SQL and ANSI SQL.

The code base for MS SQL Server (prior to version 7.0) originated in Sybase SQL
Server, and was Microsoft's entry to the enterprise-level database market, competing
against Oracle, IBM, and, later, Sybase. Microsoft, Sybase and Ashton-Tate originally
teamed up to create and market the first version named SQL Server 1.0 for OS/2
(about 1989) which was essentially the same as Sybase SQL Server 3.0 on Unix,
VMS, etc. Microsoft SQL Server 4.2 was shipped around 1992 (available bundled
with IBM OS/2 version 1.3). Later Microsoft SQL Server 4.21 for Windows NT was
released at the same time as Windows NT 3.1. Microsoft SQL Server v6.0 was the
first version designed for NT, and did not include any direction from Sybase.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microsoft_SQL_Server
  is an integrated development environment (IDE) from
Microsoft. It can be used to develop console and graphical user interface applications
along with Windows Forms applications, web sites, web applications, and web
services in both native code together with managed code for all platforms supported
by Microsoft Windows, Windows Mobile, Windows CE, .NET Framework, .NET
Compact Framework and Microsoft Silverlight.

Visual Studio includes a code editor supporting IntelliSense as well as code


refactoring. The integrated debugger works both as a source-level debugger and a
machine-level debugger. Other built-in tools include a forms designer for building
GUI applications, web designer, class designer, and database schema designer. It
accepts plug-ins that enhance the functionality at almost every level including
adding support for source-control systems (like Subversion and Visual SourceSafe)
and adding new toolsets like editors and visual designers for domain-specific
languages or toolsets for other aspects of the software development lifecycle (like the
Team Foundation Server client: Team Explorer).

Visual Studio supports different programming languages by means of language


services, which allow the code editor and debugger to support (to varying degrees)
nearly any programming language, provided a language-specific service exists. Built-
in languages include C/C (via Visual C ), VB.NET (via Visual Basic .NET), C#
(via Visual C#), and F# (as of Visual Studio 2010[2]). Support for other languages
such as M, Python, and Ruby among others is available via language services
installed separately. It also supports XML/XSLT, HTML/XHTML, JavaScript and
CSS. Individual language-specific versions of Visual Studio also exist which provide
more limited language services to the user: Microsoft Visual Basic, Visual J#, Visual
C#, and Visual C .

Microsoft provides "Express" editions of its Visual Studio 2010 components Visual
Basic, Visual C#, Visual C , and Visual Web Developer at no cost. Visual Studio
2010, 2008 and 2005 Professional Editions, along with language-specific versions
(Visual Basic, C , C#, J#) of Visual Studio 2005 are available for free to students as
downloads via Microsoft s DreamSpark program. The 90-day trial version of Visual
Studio can be downloaded by the general public at no cost

  


This section     !


Please help improve this article by adding reliable references. Unsourced material may be
challenged and removed. G 
Microsoft Visual C
Microsoft Visual C is Microsoft s implementation of the C and C
compiler and associated languages-services and specific tools for integration
with the Visual Studio IDE. It can compile either in C mode or C mode. For
C, it follows the ISO C standard with parts of C99 spec along with MS-
specific additions in the form of libraries.[35] For C++, it follows the ANSI
C++ spec along with a few C++0x features.[36] It also supports the C++/CLI
spec to write managed code, as well as mixed-mode code (a mix of native and
managed code). Microsoft positions Visual C++ for development in native
code or in code that contains both native as well as managed components.
Visual C++ supports COM as well as the MFC library. For MFC
development, it provides a set of wizards for creating and customizing MFC
boilerplate code, and creating GUI applications using MFC. Visual C++ can
also use the Visual Studio forms designer to design UI graphically. Visual
C++ can also be used with the Windows API. It also supports the use of
intrinsic unctions,[37] which are functions recognized by the compiler itself
and not implemented as a library. Intrinsic functions are used to expose the
SSE instruction set of modern CPUs. Visual C++ also includes the OpenMP
(version 2.0) spec.[38]
Microsoft Visual C#
Microsoft Visual C#, Microsoft's implementation of the C# language, targets
the .NET Framework, along with the language services that lets the Visual
Studio IDE support C# projects. While the language services are a part of
Visual Studio, the compiler is available separately as a part of the .NET
Framework. The Visual C# 2008 and 2010 compilers support versions 3.0 and
4.0 of the C# language specifications, respectively. Visual C# supports the
Visual Studio Class designer, Forms designer, and Data designer among
others.[39]
Microsoft Visual Basic
Microsoft Visual Basic is Microsoft's implementation of the VB.NET
language and associated tools and language services. It was introduced with
Visual Studio .NET (2002). Microsoft has positioned Visual Basic for Rapid
Application Development.[40][41] Visual Basic can be used to author both
console applications as well as GUI applications. Like Visual C#, Visual Basic
also supports the Visual Studio Class designer, Forms designer, and Data
designer among others. Like C#, the VB.NET compiler is also available as a
part of .NET Framework but the language services, that let VB.NET projects
be developed with Visual Studio, are available as a part of the latter.
Microsoft Visual Web Developer
Microsoft Visual Web Developer is used to create web sites, web applications
and web services using ASP.NET. Either C# or VB.NET languages can be
used. Visual Web Developer can use the Visual Studio Web Designer to
graphically design web page layouts.
Team Foundation Server
Included only with Visual Studio Team System, Team Foundation Server is
intended for collaborative software development projects and acts as the
server-side backend providing source control, data collection, reporting, and
project-tracking functionality. It also includes the Oeam Explorer, the client
tool for TFS services, which is integrated inside Visual Studio Team System.

Î    

Visual FoxPro
Visual FoxPro is a data-centric object-oriented and procedural programming
language produced by Microsoft. It derives from FoxPro (originally known as
]) which was developed by Fox Software beginning in 1984. Visual
FoxPro is tightly integrated with its own relational database engine, which
extends FoxPro's xBase capabilities to support SQL queries and data
manipulation. Visual FoxPro is a full-featured[citation needed ], dynamic
programming language that does not require the use of an additional general-
purpose programming environment. Microsoft announced in 2007 that Visual
FoxPro has been discontinued after version 9 Service Pack 2, but will remain
supported until 2015. [42]
Visual SourceSafe
Microsoft Visual SourceSafe is a source control software package oriented
towards small software-development projects. The SourceSafe database is a
multi-user, multi-process file-system database, using the Windows file system
database primitives to provide locking and sharing support. All versions are
multi-user, using SMB (file server) networking.[43][44][45] However, with Visual
SourceSafe 2005, other client±server modes were added, Lan Booster and
VSS Internet (which used HTTP/HTTPS). Visual SourceSafe 6.0 was
available as a stand-alone product[46] and was included with Visual Studio 6.0,
and other products such as Office Developer Edition. Visual SourceSafe 2005
was available as a stand-alone product and included with the 2005 Team Suite.
Team Foundation Server has superseded VSS as Microsoft's recommended
platform for source control.
Microsoft Visual J++/Microsoft Visual J#
Microsoft Visual J++ was Microsoft's implementation of the Java language
(with Microsoft-specific extensions) and associated language services. It was
discontinued as a result of litigation from Sun Microsystems, and the
technology was recycled into Visual J#, Microsoft's Java compiler for .NET
Framework. J# was available with Visual Studio 2005 but has been
discontinued in Visual Studio 2008.
Visual InterDev
Visual InterDev was used to create web applications using Microsoft Active
Server Pages (ASP) technologies. It supports code completion and includes
database server management tools. It has been replaced with Microsoft Visual
Web Developer.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Visual_Studio