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- ek CMPABOUHNK MALLIMHOCTPOUTENA B IMECTH TOMAX Tom 4 Taapnnii penaxtop toma a-p Text. wayk mpod. H.C. AYEPKAH H0anue smopoe, ucnpasAenKoe u OonoAHeHHoe ee As TOCYIAPCTBEHHOE HAYYHO-TEXHHYECKOE H3JIATEJIbCTBO MAUIMHOCTPOHTEJIbHOM JIMTEPATYPbI Mockea 1955 wes ; bores i para 3894 vm 6247 C444 ABTOPbI TOMA w 4 WM. 9. AJIBUUIMLL, kang. texx. nayx, C. M7 BABKHH, xan. rexn.| Hay, B.C, BA- JIAKUIMH, a-p Texn. uayk npod., P.. BEASEJIbMAH, uax., B. H. BEJIAEB, aun, rexn, nays, H. MW. BEPE3MHA, wu., MW. A. BUPPEP, a-p texu. nayx, M1. E. BOTY- CJIABCKUM, kann. texn. way, JI. C. BOPOBMY, kann. texn. nay, 10. M. POHMK- BEPY, aux. B..O. POPIOH, npop.,.. E. POPOMELUKUH, a-p texa. wayx npop., M. B. TPOMAH, mmx. 9. W. DAKEP, kana. tex. ways, B. B. ZOCYATOB, umx., A. T. MBAHOB, kana. texn. uayx, P. C. KAHACOUWIBMJIM, a-p Tex. uayx npod., W. 1. KPYTAKOB, kana. texa. nayx, E. M. JIEBEHCOH, mmx, HW. B. MASbIPHH, mux. A. Z. MAPTBIHOB, kana. texu. nayx, H. 9. HMBEPY, kang, texn. nayx, T. A. HAKOJIAEB, a-p texn. nayx npop., A. H. METPYCEBMY, a-p texu. nayx, C. H. MO3HHAKOB, zou,, C. 1. MOHOMAPEB, a-p texu. nayx npod., B. A. IPOHHMH, xaug, Text. Hayk, J, H, PELUETOB, m-p texu. nayx npop., 9. A. CATEJIb, a-p texu. HayK npod., &. &, CHMAKOB, kang. texn. wayx, M. C. CJIOBOUKHH, unx., H. A. CIIMLUBIH, gz-p rexu. nay npop., I. B. CTOJIBHH, kana. texn. HayK, B. A. TAMIL, a-p texn. wayx, H. A. UEPHDBILUEB, kann. texan. nayx,P. M. UIHEM- QEPOBMY, kana. text. nayx, B. A. SMMQMHOB, kang, texu. ays, Jl. B. SPJIVX, Kaw. TeX. HayK Pedaxmop uxot. M. E. Maprye Pedaxmop zpagiuteckux padom une. B. T. Kapranos Pedaxyun cnpasoinol aumepamypa Sas. pedaxyuet unne. M. E..Maprye Ampec penaxcum: Mocksa, Tpemsaxoeckull npoesd, a. 1, Mawzus x COJEP}KAHHE ‘ ‘Taasa I. BIAMMO3AMEHAEMOCTS H TEX- HMYECKME W3MEPEHMA B MALUMHO- CTPOEHMH ... . Ochopitie nonstHa H onpeneaewna 0 Bsa- 12 Hwouawenaeugers (ac, rem, AYE "POG, + HE, Popodeykull) ss ., Ockions 7eunueckux naMepeRHf » Mauritno- erpoemuu (2-p.texn. nayx pod. H. BE. o- Bodeweull m wane. Tex. nayk C. H. BaS- xu)... Otkaoneina or ‘npansiabHof ‘réomerpuae- cKOR dopaes pasuabHOro pacnozone- '* HHS tlonepxocreh (KauA. TexH. nayK + (B.S, Blidunos) ee Tpayspomureasiwe u asroMarwueckie Me- Toab HoMepenh (Mux. E. M. Jeaencon “numa. 10, M. Fonuxdepe) « ‘Meponpusras no oGecneyemino enusicroa ( JMep_p Maunnocrpoennn (Karn. TexH. Hayk {A.T. Heanos). » 2 Wie 4, 8 1) Hyczora nozepxioctt aeraaen’ wanmun (a-p Texx. uayk npod. 9. A. Cameas)... Taasa I. PA3MEPHHE WEN MX MC. TIOMbSOBAHHE B MALIMHOCTPOEHHHA (up texa. uayk npop. 5. C. Baaaiuun) . . Beememe swe Ocsonusle nonsTus, onpexeaenns 1 oGoste- HOME 2 2 wale el = oe os Pacuetasie Gopuyas |e (\ Meroas peuteima paswepmisx ueneft. : . : Banas, Pemzenne np noMoun paswep- ‘aBIX sere 5 aan ‘Hoa npumninnazsiix nanpasnenna 5 x0- CTHMEHNM TONOCTH MaMIMM. .. ss . Tioeranoaka saxaun i waxokmenne wanie- © seam pasmeprnx mene... ee ee Pacuer pagmepuux uenef. 2.2.22 Tease 111., CORMMBEHMA Settee aie Paaakhe ouamaapwueckne coeamnenua (1-p Texn. wayk npod. H. B. Fopodeyxull kann, term, mayx B. B. ocvamos) . . « Faanxne Konnveckwe coeammenua (KaHa. Fexn. uayk 8. 9. Sildux08) . . (enlia aeTaarh c rapautaposanmins watarom (B. #. Didunos) ... +++ +6 . BAJbI H OCH, HX ONOPBI “ 4 COEMMHEHMA (Taasa TV. BANE HOCH . Jak OS Tipmusie pana u ocw-(rawa.” Fexu, aye “P.M. Ulnetidepoous w wx. M. B. Ppo- PONY ey von wba ee eer t as co, Konensatwe ‘pasts (cana. Texa, nayx, “) @.@. Camaxos). oe TnGxue nposonomiwe “naas (Kant. TexH. may H. A. Yepusiues) sos eve rt 1 9 4 128 129 129 148 175 Taasa VY. MYTH (cana, texm. waye HS. Huet) ve ee eee ee ee ee 180 pexemie ese ee 19 aime eoeaunnrensuize aygptu ° 1 180 Ynpanagemue cqeamumreauuue — wycbrer ceenitie) t+ 195 eyapapanesiue ckonbxeniit =. = 209 Caled fa samen ty" : os, 2B saoxpaHutea or neperpyakw” (iain, Tern. Baye JT. B. ‘bpaus i : 216 aasa VI. MOMUIMNHKKM.... + 226 Tloauinuwkn “avenua (xp Texa. nayK npo. H. A. Crue wut. P. J. Bell sesuan) eae na erecaten: 206 TIoamMnHHKH $CKOADKeHNZ (KaHM, TeXH. nay Hf. $l. Aas). es se ee 258 MEPEJAUH BBEMEHME (x-p texa. nayk np. Z. H. Pe- ‘wemoe) . » ST 28h rafea VI. SYBUATHE TIEPEDAYH . . «291 Obume _cvenenna (ap texm. Haye Bad Fate ce a sepoaninie’uaye? lonyeiu wa ay6uarue w vepoaumsie nepe- aun (B.A. Pally) ee eee = 295 Luaunipuveckue npsmosyéue, Kocosyoue W WIeBpoMHMe Koneca (a-p TEXH. HAayK A. H. Tempycesus). ....- s .. . SUL Kounseckue sy6uatite koneca (A. 1. iTem- Pxeest ey a ee | nowanste nepesaan (A. 11. [empyceswt) 205 Tipusoacenue T. Yeasauna w cnpasounie Aauaue 10 suGopY KoapbuuneHTOD cme: menus (wax. M.B. [poman)..... Hpusoscenue Il. Tlopaaox «’ nipuaepy Pacteta reoMeTpim sanenaenua syOuaTEIx Mwepsaumbix nepeasy (Hx. H. H. Be 7 ee nr [pusocenue TIT. “Grpannyente m0 wo: aya0 B cMetitenHM HexORNOrO KouTypa (wana. texn. nays 97. H. Lunep).... Taasa VIII. YEPBAYHBE TEPEQAYM (up texe. uayx A. H. Mempycesuy).. . Ockommue nousTHa |... Teomerpuweckua pacuet samenaenua - Daementy, yeppainoro salensenna ‘BMaMeTPH YepBAKOS , . 3 8 88888 & + soafinbrx Kowee Ha AOATOBENMOCT. ‘eyGbeo YepanyHoro Komeca no npow- Wie KOCH... nuvteNT nloxestoro xeficraHs vepene- MEP oe eee eee ey ae 3 12 B Iv Pacuer ueppaof nepexayn Ha Harpes Tunopste KONCTpYKIAM vepEaUMX KOMeC « Onpexeaenne cua, xeficrayioulnx Ha Baht Cwaska vepsaunuix nepenay. . FaoGoummue yepoauubie nepenayn . . Bunronne syGvarsie nepeaaum (uuauape weckie) Taaea 1X. WEMHBIE MEPEDAYM (Kana. rexn. wayk [. 5. Cmoaun) .. +. +. + Buam npuvoamux neneA u ux Koxerpy kann Buesnounm aam ueneh. +s eee ses = Pacer nepeany aka H aKena Chnsaprate ze FURS wee TEI MenNisx repe; Taaea'X. ®PMKUMOHHBIE NEPELAYM M BAPHATOPH (a-p exe. May pop. AH. Pememos) . + see eee ee A OGumme cuenenne . 2... ee ee ee Marepuaati dpuxmiominx meperay . . Konerpyxunn (bpiixnnonnix tepenay # Ba- MaTOPOB. » es we. acxeT inis Tlaockwe cnupaabuse myn. . Purypuwe rayrie npyxHEM Tapeasiatue npyacunn. . Konbuenue (knhiarue) apysenia Jiucrosste peccops — . . aan, XIX, SNEMEHTHI METAIOKOH- CTPYKLVA B MAIUMHOCTPOEHHH OGmHe cmexenna (Kana. TexE. WayK IT. B. Boeyearasckui) . . Crapaise coenmenvn (2-p rex. “way npog. T. A. Huxoaaes) Kaenaiwe coeanrenna (I. A. Hunosaes) Kouerpyupovaine Gaaox (17. B. Boeyeaas- cxuts Konerpynpons He dena “LE. ‘Boeyeral - Kuli). : Psasa XX. CMASOUHME M_ ynorHH. TEJIbHBIE YCTPOMCTBA (ux. 1. B. Ma- suipur\ Cuasounie yerpoficrsa Ynaotawreabuste ycrpoficrsa Taasa XXI, APMATYPA WM COEDMHH- TEAbABE MACTH , TyBOmPOBOOB Guo. Af. C. Cao000KuH). ss» O6ue coenenna . Marepiaan Apmatypa . Coeamnnreasnne aac ‘tTpyGoripoponon . Taasa, XXM, CNEUMANbHBIE DETAIIMN TPYSONOMbEMHYX — MALUHH (kana. rexu. nayx H. IT. Kpymuxos)......- Llenu ukanaty. 2. oe Baoxn u GapaGant sw Tleraan aaa saxpaTupanna rpy30n . Ocrawopu- eee Topmosa ttt Xonopue koneca 222222 TIL oS Taasa XXII. MEPTEKH “B_ MAUWIHHO- CTPOEHMH (npo. B. O. Popdox) . MPEAMETHHM AMbABMTHBIM, YKA3A- ‘TEN (C. J. Xacomunckull) . + 610 610 610 612 + 613 613 613, 617 621 649, 651 65 695, 695 721 735 738 735 > 738 m8 TIABA 1 B3AMMO3AMEHAEMOCTb. WH TEXHHYECKHE H3MEPEHUS B MALIMHOCTPOEHHH OCHOBHBIE NOHATHA MW ONMPEAEJIEHHA lO. B3AMMO3AMEHAEMOCTH [1] BsaumosameHaemocth* jerasel (coot- beTeTBeHHo yssoB) — ux cBoficrBo: 1) 3a- HMMaTb CBOH MecTa B ysue (cooTBeT- CTBeHHo B MalMHe, MpHOope, coopyrKe- HHH) 6e3 Toro, TOOEI AA sTOTO NoTpe6o- Balach JONOMHTeNDHAA MeXaHHuecKan un py4nas o6pa6oTKa ux, H 2) nocse YeTaHoBKH Ha MeCTO BBINOJHATh CBO yuku c coGmioleHHem mpexnucaHHEtx TeXKHYECKHMH YCJOBHAMH TpeOoBaHHit K pa6ote faHHoro y3a (cooTBercrBeHHO MAaILHHM, MpH6opa, coopy2xeHna). Bro onpemeneive oTHocuTca K noanotl esauMosamenaeMocmi, Hapsay ¢ monvof ssaumosamense- MocTbIO B MALUHHOCTpoeHHH YacTO MpH- MennioT KenosHyro, HH oepanuXeHHyio, 630 MOSAMEHREMOCMO,, XAPAKTEPHBY IOULY 1O- ca wacTHdHBIM WIM rpynMoBEIM T1oA6o- pom geraael Ha cGopke, sonomHHTesb- Holi O6pa6orKo# B upouecce cOopounx onepaun#i ono us xeranel, Bxonamux B KOMMMeKT CoenHHeRUa, M TpHMeHe- WHeM KOHCTPYKTHBHLIX KoOMMeHCaTOpoB (cm. uMKe cTp. 61 4 72—73). B3avMo3amennemoctb OTHOCHTCA Kak k pasMepHim napamerpam (ocHoBHof pas- * B pemenuax 2-A Jlenmurparckoft onpepemumn fo p9aHMOSaMeHNeMOCTH (Maf 1950 r.) ykasaHo, 470 .BSAMMOSAMEHSEMOCTS ECTS KOMNAeKCHOe noHiTHE, OxpaTtipawulee He TOABKO BONpoce npoHsBonCTReH- Holt coGHpaeMocTH AeTaTeh H NacTeR HaxeRHR, HOH BoNpocs! NPoeKTHpoBAHNA, UsTOTOBAEHHA H 9KcHAya- ‘TaNKMM Maui H npHGopoB". exons H3 9Toro, pe- lena Kombepennun comepsKaT caeayioulee onpene- ‘AeHKe BsaMMOSaMeHTeMOCTH: »BsanMosamensemocts — csoRetso KoxeTpyxuuit YAOBACTBOPHTh MOCTABACHHEIM TpeGOBAHURM, OXBATE- BAIOMAM BEE CTOPOH BHCOKOKAYECTREHHOR paGoTit MaunHt M MipHGoPoB mM SKoHOMMYecKOrO —NpOKsBO;- cteenHoro mponecca, noerpdentoro Ha Gase HesaBH- cHMOTO ~MsTOTOBAeHHA OTAeADHDIX YacteA (aeTaaef, yao). Mep, @opMa, YHCTOTa H BOHHCTOCTb TO- BepxHocTeli, B8aHMHOe pacnonoxenHe M0- Bepxuocreii), Tak H K HepasmepHEM, HH Hereomerpuueckum, napamerpam (rsep- octb, ynpyrne cBolicraa MpyKHHHLIX CH- creM, XapakTepHcTHKH oNTHYecKHX y3.10B HT. 2): a BsauMosaMenaemocts HenocpencrBenifo caagaHa c TpeMs OcHOBHBIMH aKkTopamH— KOHCTPYKTHBHAMH TpeGoBaHuAMH (ucxXOn- ubii WH OMHHUpytomAa daKtop), TexHo- nornelt mpousBoxerBa Hu TexHHYecKHMH usMepeHHamu (KONTposteM). OcnosHoi npeanocsinkoii Bsaumosame- HACMOCTH AIBJIAETCH BHIMOMHEHMe conpsA- TaeMbiX pagmepoB xetaneli B gapanee YCTAHOBJEHHBIX Npexenax, onpenennemErx nonyckama. Beauuuua nonycKa pacmo- NOxkeHHe Moga jlonycKa Ha HeTOWHOCTb HSFOTOBNCHHA HeMOcpercTBeRHO CBAsAHEI ¢ Xapaktepom coequHeHus — noca;Koil, a TaioKe C MIpeMebHBIMH H CpeqHHMH 3Ha- MeHHAMH 3a30POB HJ HaTArOB, KoTOpBIE oMpexersiotcs KOHCTPYKTHBHEIMH Tpe6o- BaHHAMM, MIpesABaReMBIMH K padoTe AaHHOTO yaaa W.1H MexaHH3Ma. Tipu c6opKe xByx geranell, Bxossmnx oHa B Apyry10, pasaMyaior oxeameeaio- wyio 1 oxeamesaenyto nosepxnocmu. OKA 3 paSMePOB COMPHKacaloMHxca NoBepx- nocteli HOCHT HasBanHe oxeameleaioueco pa3mepa, a Apyroit — oxsambisaemozo. Jlna KPYTVIbIX UHJIMHAPHYeCKHX H KOHHYCCKHX TeI OXBATBIBAlOMaA MOBePXHOCTh HOCHT HaaBaHMe Omeepcmua, a OXBaTHIBAeMas— 6ana M cooTBeTCTRyIOMHe UM pasMepsI — duamemp omsepcmun % duamemp eaaa. PasHocrb oXBaTHIBatomero H OXBaTHI- BaeMoro pasMepoB ompemeamer xapaxrep CoeHHeHHA HAH nocadKy, T. e.6d1bmyIO HAH MeHbIy!O CBOGoLy oTHOCHTeMBHOTO nepeMemenust Retanefi HH MpowHocTh UX HeNOABAXHOTO CoeAMHeHHA. Koraa oxpatsisaiomnii pasmep Gombe OXBaTBIBAeMOTO, HX Pa3HOCTb HasHIBaeTCA 2 B3AHMO3AMEHAEMOCTb MW H3MEPEHHA B MALIMHOCTPOEHHU Sasopom, Korgza OXBaTHBAeMBIA pasMep Gombule OXxBATEBAIOMLero — HX pasHocTs HasbiBaeTCA HamseoM. OcnoBroi pacuernsifi pasmep, oOmuit ANA OxBaTbIBaoMeh H OXBaTIBAeMoOH To- BepXHOcTell, HASBIBZeTCH HOMUHAADHOLM pasmepom. pasmepom, Apyroii — naumenouum). Pas- HOCTS MAY HaKOOAbUINM HW HAaHMeCHbIHM npesenbubima pasmepamu (our. 1 u 2) HasbiBaetcn Gonyckom pasmepa. Tipeneabupie pasMephl saqawrca BenH- uHHAaMH OTKIOHeHHH OT HOMHHabHOTO pasmepa. PasHocth mexkiy HaHGobuHM ur, 2, Beauynna 3a30pa “aM HaTAra onpese- aaeTcA BENHYMHAMH OTKNOHNeHHH OxBaTEI- Baloulero H OXBATIBAeMOrO PasMepoB oT HOMHHasbHOrO. Pasmep, nosyyennuifi B pesynbrate ero Henocpencrsennoro Hamepenua (c npexe- 6perxmto Manoi 8 ycnoBHax nocta- ByeHHO saa¥H MorpeluHocrbIO HaMe- PeHHA), HasiiBaioT LeicTBHTeNbHBIM pas- Mepom. ‘a3Mepbl, MEXMY KOTOPBIMH MOXKET Ko- neGaTbcs nelicrenterbHbIh pasMep, HabI- BaloT npedeabnoimu pasmepamu oma 43 HHX HasbIBaeTcA HaUOOAbWUUM NPeACABHEIM MpelenbHBIM pasMepoM H HOMHHasIbHBIM PasMepoM HasbIBaloT sepxHUuM omKAoKe- KUeM, Pa3HOCTh M@Ky HaHMeHbIUHM TIpeqeabHBIM pasMepoM H HOMHHAABHEIM— HUDICHUM OMKAOHEHUEM. OrksoneHHe cUYHTaeTcCA nosoocumen- Hom, CCTM oMpesensemuii HM pasmep Oonbuie HOMHHANbHOrO, H_ ompuyameas- Hom, ec onpeseanembi uM pasmep MeHBile HoMUHasbHOrO. Tonyck pasmepa tae PasHOCTH MpeseMbHBIX OTKIOHE- ana. * Herowiocrs Buiomuenua _ pasmepoB OXBATHBalOMe H OXBATHBaeMo# moBepx- OCHOBHEIE NOHSATHA HM ONPEREEHHS Hocteli BbIapIBaeT KoNeOaHHA sajlaHHhx BeMHYHH Sa30poB H HaTArOB, KoOTOpHe onpemensiorca BeAHYHHAaMH JOMYCKOB pas- MepoB compsraembix MeTane H OTHOCH- TeNbABIM PatnosoxenHem None HX Jo- nYyCKoB. Hau6orcuum sasopom (pur. 1) Hasu- BaeTcH pasHOcTb HaHGosbulero Mpelenb- Horo OXBaTBIBaloillero pasMepa H HaHMeHb- mero MpenenbHoro oxpaTsiBaemoro pa3- uepa. HanGoasunh sazop pasen pastocra BepXHero OTKsOHEHHA OXBATEIBAlOM\erO pasMepa H HH2KHerO OTKNOHEHHA OXBa- TBIBaeMOTO paamepa. Haumenowun sasopom wasuiaerca pas- HOCTh HAHMeHbulero MpedesbHoro OXBa- TBaIOMero pasmMepa H HaHGoNbuUIero Mpe- febHoro oxBaTuBzemoro pasmepa. Han- MeHBWHA 3230p paBeH PasHocTH HHIKHETO OTKAOHEHHA OXBaTIBAIOMero pasMepa H BepXHero OTKAOHEHHA OXBATHIBaeMOrO pas- ‘mepa. ‘quOorowum Ramaeox (ur. 2) Hasit “paeTca PasHOCTs HauGombulero Tpenemb- Horo OXBaTBIBAeMOro pasMepa H HaHMeHb- mero MpezenbHoro oxBaTEiBaionlero pas- Mepa. HanGonpuini Hatar papen pashocru BepXHeFo OTKOHEHA OXBATHIBAEMOTO Pas- Mepa H HH2KHeTO OTKNOHEHHS OXBATEIBAIO- mero pasMepa. Haumenouwum Hamazom HaspiBaerca pas- HOCTh HaHMeHBUerO MpexenbHOTO OXBa- ‘THBaeMOro pasMepa H HAaHOoNbUerO Npe- -AenbHOrO OXBaTHBalomero pasmepa. Han- MeHBUMA HATA paBeH pasHocTH HHKHETO ‘OTKAOHEHHA OXBATbIBAeMOrO pasMepa H “BepxXHero OTKOHeHUA OXBATHIBAIOWIeTO pasmepa. Tlonyckom nocadku (cooTBeTcTBeHHO J0- MycKoM 3a30pa HIM HaTara) HasbIBaeTcA pasnocrb HaxGonbuero H HaHMeHbIeTO 3a30P0B WIM’ HaTATOB. Tlonyck nocaakn pasen ¢ymwe zony- CKOB OXBAaTHIBalomero H OXxBAaTHI3deMoro «pasMepos. Tlocanxi pasnenfiores wa tpu rpynmu. ~ K'l-A rpynne orrocstres ceobodxele HH nodeuacreie nocadku (cM. dur. 1), xapak- Teprsyomneca Hanivwem mexay conps- ‘TaemBiMH MoRepXHOCTAMH TapaHTHpoBaH- “Horo (waumenbuuero) sagopa, o6ecnemH- Baloilero BOSMOKHOCTb OTHOCHTebHOTO TlePeMeUleHHA MOCsENHHX, H cKonsseuue riocadku, pH KOTOpHX Haumensmnii sa- “30D papen Hy.m0. “Ko Q-A- rpynne orxocarea npeccostie “nocadxu (cm. pur. 2}, xapakTepusylomnecn ‘yamm4HeM Mex/y CONPAraeMBIMH MoOBepx- ‘Hoctamy fo cOoDKH raDaHTHpoBaHHoro (uameHbmero) HaTara, Ipenatcrsyomero 1" OTHOCHTeBHOMY TepemenmjeHHio AeTasel mocsie HX C6opKu. K 3-4 rpynne ornocates nepexodnne - nocadku. [ipa mocaakax stoi rpynnbt MoryT NlonyyaTbca Kak sasopnl, aTarn. Tipu rpapwyeckom H306paxennn Jony- CKOB H NOCasOK NpHHATO Ban pacnonarate B OTBePCTHH TAK, YTO HWKHHE OOpasy1w- me CoBnamaior H Ha YepTexe HaHOcATCA TONLKO BepxHHe oOpasyiomue. JInHMs, coorsercrByioulan Ha YepTexe HOMHHab- HOMY AHaMeTpy CoeqHHeHHA, HasbIBaeTCA nyscoott aunuett (cm. dar. | n 2). Mono- XKHTEAbHBIM’ OTKNOHEHHAM GyfeT COOT- BeTCTBOBaTh PacnoslorxKekHe ‘NHHHH, H30- 6parkalomux BepXuHe OOpaayiomHe BaOB H orseperuii Bue HyneBOl nUNHA, a OTpH- WaTeIbHBIM OTKMONEKHAM — pacnosioxKe- Hue HX HMxKe HyweBoH aMHHH. Tnomane Mex Ly JHHWAMH, COOTBeTCTBYIOMMMH Bepx- HeMy H HHXKHeMY OTKIOHeEHHAM, HaSbI- BaeTcCA none Gonycka; BePXHeEMy OTK.IO- HeHHIO cooTBeTcrByeT Ha MpaHke eepx- hag epaxuya noan Oonycka, a HuKHEMY — huscnaa epanuya noaa donycka. Benw4nHbl Jonyckos u3aenni perna- MenTHpylorca Kaaccama TouROcTH. B Ka- °KNOM Knacce TOYHOCTH LOMYCKH C yBedH- YCHHEM HOMHHA/bHBIX Pa3sMepoB Bo3spa- craior No OnHOf HW TOM Xe SaKoHOMepHO- CTH, MosBoamiomeh BLIPaKaTh BeNAYHHY Jonycka B ycaosnoix edunuyax donycka. B coegunenuax o6brano 60 oxBarel- Balomuh, 1H60 oxBaTHBaeMbii pasMep MpHHHMaeTCR B KAYECTBe OCHOBHOTO, T. e. Honyck ero He HSMeHReTCA ANA RaHHOTO uHTeppana pasMepoB H KMaCcca TOUHOCTH. Ecan B Kavecrse ocHoBHoro Geperca oxBa- THBaiomuit pasmep (cucmena omeepcmus), TO 21a OO6pas0BaHHA PasMMYHBIX MocazoK HSMENAIOTCA BEAMYHHE H pacnosmorxKeHnHe Nozeh monycka TObKO OXBATHBAeMEIX pasmepos. Huxnee oTKOHeEHHe OxBAaTHI- Balomlero pasMepa B STOM cuy¥de paBHO HYJ10, H HauMeHbIUHA NpeneABHEI pasmep paBeH HOMHHabHOMy pasmepy. Ecau xe B Ka¥ecrBe OCHOBHOTO BHOHpaeTCH OXBa- TeBaemBli pasmep (cucmema @ata), 70, HaoOoper, HeHSMCHHBIM A MaHHOTO uBTepBaja HM KNacca TOMHOCTH ocTaeTCR Monyck sToro pasMepa, BepxHee OTKNOHE- Hue €fO paBHO HYyslo, HaHOonbwui mpe- jenbubit pasmep paBeH HOMHHaTbHOMY pasMepy, a Ja nonyyenna pasnMaHEIx MocalokK H3MeHAIOT BeNHYHHE H pacrio- woxKeHHe Nostell LONYCKOB OxBaTHIBaIMHX Tak pasmepos. Tins noctruxenua B3aMNosaMeHseMocTH Hapaay c UpuMevenHeM TIpHHunTOB 4 B3AHMO3AMEHAEMOCTh MW M3MEPEHHA B MAIIMHOCTPOEHMA Heno.Hoii HH orpaHH4enHoll BsaHMosame- HAeMOCTH MOFYT MPHMeHATHCA cueRyIouHe .MeTOMbI Ha3HaveHHA JONyCKoB, onpesemsi0- lie YCAOBUA NPOHSBONCTBA H KOHTPOIA: a) Yeranapausaercs ToabKO cymmap- Has AOmyCTHMaa NorpewHocTh Ana jaH- Horo KOMMOHeHTa conpsxKeHHA. Orzenb- HbIe 9JeEMeHT! 9TOrO KOMMOHEHTA H HX pacnpeyeneHue B Mose cyMMapHoro Jo- nycka HHveM He orpanwunsawrca. IpH- MepaMH TaKorO. MeTowa Ha3HaveHHA ]o- NYCKOB MOryT CIYXKHTb pesbOoBEIe n3jle- JHA, [I KOTOPEIX HasHa4aiorcA JONYCKH cpesuero MaMerpa pesb6ni, Bxs0uaI0- ie norpemHocri coGcrseHHo cpeanero AuameTpa, ulara H NOJOBHHBI yr1a Mpo- ‘uns (cx. ra. XIII), mpuyem snasenne w pact pejesenHe cocTaBIOMNX B Nore cyM- MapHoro JonycKa HuYeM He orpanHan- BaloTca, H-,WHHHAPHYeCKHe U3feIHA, B Tose. JONYCKa KOTOPHIX MOryT BXO/UTD ¢ Jl0OBIM cooTHOWeHHem . NorpeuHocTH caMoro HaMérpa HM pa30H4HBIe OTKsO- venus opmnl (ecu Her creunanbHbix ykaganuii B paGounx veprexax). 6) Yeranasansaerca cymMapHas nomy- CTHMas NorpeulHocrs Jia JaHHOTO XOMMO- -HeHTa, Ho Hapagy Cc STHM OrpaHHYMBaloTca -BHAYeHHA MOFpewHOCTH OTAeTbHBIX sue MeHTOB. C TakuMH cay¥aaMn acto MpHxoaTca Berpevarbes B TsalKHX WHJMHApHYeCKHX ugyeNHAX, Kora HapAny ¢ CYMMAPHBIM AONYCKOM AHaMeTpa Safalorcn YNCTeHHBIE BHAYCHHA OTIESHBIX OTKsAOHeHUi @opMBl. B) YcranapanBaiorca omycTHMbIe Mo- PpeMIHOCTH TOMbKO WIA OTMeMbHBIX 3u1e- MeHTOB. SvayeHue, cyMMBI mlorpellHocTH STHX, 9eMEHTOB He OrpaHHYHBaeTcA MpakTHYeCKH, BOSHUKaeT B pesysbraTe UX HaKOMJIeHUA C yueTOM BeposTHocTel. Tlpemepom TaKoii cuctembl MoxeT c7y- KTS cymectBYyIOMaA (Ho NoxTexKaman lepecmorpy) CHcTeMa JomycKos Ha ayOua- THe UMAHHApHYecKHe conpaxKenna (cM. ra. VII), MocKonbKy B cooTBeTerBy!omem TOCT 1643-46 nanbi. Jonycku oTLeTbHBIX SneMeHTOB, a. NpHBeLeHHaA NorpelHocTD, BBIABAReMAA MPH KOHTPore. B OAHOMpO- /UABHOM 3auenlleHHH, He permamentupyer- ‘cn. B Kauectse upyroro mpumepa MoxHO TIpubectH HasHayeHHe AOMYCKOB Ha pesb- Gosie KanH6ps u. pesLozoli uuctpy- MeHT, Tle ycTanaBnuBaetca JonycTuMad NorpemHocTs mara, .yraa u co6cTBeHHO cpefiero AuaMeTpa, HO 6e3 persamenta- HH CyMMapHoro AonycKa cpemHero AMa- metpa. »;T). Yeranapaupaiorca gonyctuMuie -m0- TPeWHOCTH TOABKO ANA OTACMbHBIX 9.e- MEHTOB, HO HapAay C 9THM HOPMaTHBHO -OrpanHunBaetca cyMMa morpemuocteti STHX saementos. C TakHMH cayyaaMH MPHXOAUTCA BeTPeYATECA B CHeWMAaBHBIX CONPAXKEHHAX HH pH WSTOTOBNeHHH PesbOopix KasH6poB, HanpHMep, AIA YaCOBLIX pesb6, y KOTOPLIX JeliCTBHTeIb- asl cya mnorpeumocrell co6crBeHto cpeanero qHaMerpa, wara H MOOBHHBI yraa npopuia He ZomKHa MpeBLMaTe 50% TeopetuyeckH BO3MOxKHOH CyMMBI. OCHOBbI TEXHHYECKHX. M3MEPEHHA B MAWIMHOCTPOEHHH OchosHne TepmuMs u onpeneneHua OctosHsima MerposoruueckuMH noKa- SaTeIAMH HSMEPHTEAbHBIX CPefCTB. ABIA- wore [11]: Hlena derenua wxaast npubopa —sna- ueHHe HaMepsemol Benn4uHHB, coorBer crByloulee OHOMY AeNeHHIO WKAJTBI. Hnmepsaa Oenenua weaavt, wan deae- Hue WiKAAbL, — paccToAHHe MexAy OcaMH (uentpamu) 'pazom stexainux mTpuxoB. Touxocme omevema — TouHOcTb, JocTu- TaemMaa pH Mpou3boxcTBe orcuera Ha AaHHOM npuGope. TIpedeavt uamepenuit no wxane npu- Gopa u npedeam usmepenui npuGopa 6 yeaom (uanpumep, no raGapuram croii- KH)—Mpedesbl, BHYTPH KOTOPLIX Nokasa- HHA TIOMYMHAIOTCA YCTAHOBEHHEIM HOPMaM. Tlopoe «yecmeumeasxocmu — Haumenb- mee H3MeHeHHe sHaveHHs M3Mepsemoit BeIMYHHBI, CNOCOOHOE BEISBATS Maseliuee SaMeTHOe rjla3y H3MeHeHHe MoKasannii mpu6opa. Hamepumeasnoe ycuaue — ycuane, Bo3- uukalomee B Mpowecce HsMepeHHA pH KOHTaKTe H3MepHTeNbHBIX MoBepXHOCTeli npH6opa HH HHCTpyMeHTa ¢ KOHTposH- pyemsim oGvexrom. Tloepeutnocms —nokasaxuil — pa3sHocth MexKAY NOKasanHaMH MpHOopa.n AelicTBH- TeIbHBIM 3HateHHeM u3sMepseMoll BenH- MHHBI. Bapuayua uau xecma6uasnocms no- KasaHuil — HanGonbulan pasHocTs oTcHe- TOR 110 WKane npHGopa Mpu MHoroKpat- HBIX H3MepeHHAX OLHO! H TOM xe BeNH- 4HHbI B HEHSMeHHEIX BHELIHHX YCIOBHAX- Tlepedamounoe omxowenue, paBuo- 3uauioe YyBcTBHTeTbHOCTH (MO TepMUHO- aorau TOCT 3951-47), — otnomenne su- HedHoro WIM yrsioBoro Nepemeujenua yKa- saTena (HN wiKanbl NpH HenO,;BAxKHOM yKagaveuie) K H3MeHeHHIO H3MepsieMoli. Be~ AMYHHBI, BbISBABLeEMy STO NepeMeuleHne. OCHOBbI TEXHHYECKMX H3MEPEHHM B MAWIMHOCTPOEHHH oa Tlepenatounoe orHouenue K, nena ze- Jenna i u wuteppan Tenenus c cBasann 3aBHCHMOCTBIO c kas. Haunysmee paceroaune mexmy coces- HHMH IITPHXaMH WKasH, nosBoasiomee © JOcTaTONHO TONHOCTbIO OWeHHBATh Ha 1na3 JoNM HATepBaNa, AexKHT B Mpenenax 1—2,5 um. Pagamuaior noepewnocms. cobcmsenno usmepumenbkozo cpedcmea u nozpeunocmd memoda usMepenua, ocymecTaAAeMOrO C TOMOMSIO aTOro cpencTBa. Tlorpeumocts meroya uswepeuna onpe- AeametcA CoBOKynHoCTHO BAMAHHH pana akropos, v3 KoropHix naHGonee cyme- CTBEHABIMH ABARIOTCH: MOFPemHOCTh MoKa- ganuii npaGopa; norpeninocTs KOHUeBRIX Mep (aH o6pasuion), To KoTopHIM ycraHa- BuHBaeTcn MpHGop; norpemuHocTs, cBA- gaHHaa C OTKAOHeKHeM oT HOpManbHOl ‘TeMMepatyps; ‘MorpemHoctb, cBasannas © HaMepHTeTbHBIM ycusHeM NpHGopa. Tloepeunocmo,’ ceasannan c¢ omKaone- AueM OM HOPMaAbHO Memnepamyptt, BbI- SbIBAeTCA: a) HeSABeEPWeHHBIM BbIPaBHH- BaHHeM TeMMepatyp KoNTpoaupyemoro oOsekTa H H3MepHTenDHOrO cpelcTBa; 6) pasvoctbio KoxbbunuentoB aMHeHoro PacuiupeHus, MaTepHanoB KOHTpoHpye- Moro oObekTa H HS3MepHTeMbHOrO cpen- rsa. Sra norpemHocrh MoxeT OBITS BbI- Paxena dopmysoit Al = 1 (At, — pty), re 42 — ouu6Ka vamepeaua; — omu- HambHoe 3HaveHHe HSMepaeMOA BeIHIHH! @;—Koappuuuent auNeHoro pacuupenua MatepHasia HaMepaeMoro OOveKTa; a2 — Kosbbuuneut vuHelioro pacumpenun Ma- TepHana usMepuTenbHOro cpencTBa; At, = =20 — t; — pasnocrs. temneparyp Hop- Mambo (20°C) 1 Hamepsemoro oGveK- 1a; bt, = 20 — ty — pasuocte Temne- patyp HopManbuoli nm usMepHTerbHoro cpencrsa. Pasuocte Temnepatyp uamepsemoro u3- Rena H H8MePHTEABHEIX cpelcTB MOXKHO CilelaTb CKOsIb YrOAHO Masod, BbILepxKaB B TeyeHHe CooTBeTCTBYIoMero BpeMmexH HazerHe B ToMeMeHHH. npoBepouHoro nyukra. Bpema 208 BEIpaBHHBaHHA TeM- Nepatyp Moxer ObITh 3H24HTebHO yMeHb- eo myTem morpyxXewus u3feqMA B SMYABCHIO HH YKNANbIBAHMA Ha YyTyH- ‘ByIO TTY. _ Pasnocth Koadbbuunentos iwnefindro Pacuupediia” npakruyeckt ~ ngcruraes +2-10-) np waMepenun Kkann6pos no KOHWeBLIM Mepam (MaTepHamE mpaKTHye- ckH omMHaKosLi) H +4-10—-8 — npn name- pew craabHsix Hazenuh (warepwass useHA H CpelCTBa H3Mepenuii He OANHA- xossi). [pa uamepexan uanenui us apy- THX MeTa/0B NorpeuHocts onpesessioT HO pasHOCTH cpeqHHX xosdpHuHeHTOR JH- ueiinoro pacumpexaa craan (11,5 10-8) 4 MarTepHaa nszenHs. Hoepeunocms, censannan c usMepu- mesoHolm YcuauemM NpUGopa, BEISKIBAeTCA CMHHaHHeM HepoBHocteil moBepxHocTH, YNpyrumu AeopMannamy croek HIM CKOG, B KOTOPEIX SaKpenJeHb HsMepHTesbHBIE TONOBKU, CxKATHEM H3MepAeMOrO OOBEKTA, conposoxsaiommuMcs sedopmMaunsMH B Me- cre KOHTaKTa C H3MePHTebHBIM HaKo- HevHHKoM. Crenenb ciipKenua HaMmepH TenbHoro. yc NpH6opos orpanHun- BaeTCA HANeXHOCTHIO KONTAKTa HaKOHEH- HUKa MpHOopa Cc KOHTPoAUpyemsim o6veK- TOM, YCTpaHeHHeM MepTBOrO Xojla B KHHe- MaTinieckofi wen npA6opa, ymeninennem BIHAHUA BHOpAUNi Ha PeaynbTaTsL H3Me- penis np, Beauunns namepnrenbuEx yeusuit npH6opoB cM. HiDKe B TAGs. 6. HanGouee cymlectnennbie norpemocr# OT H3MepHTeNbHOrO YCHHA, CBAZAHHBIC © YNpPyrHMH Je@opMalMAMH CTOeK H CKOS, KOMMeHCHPYIOTCA TOXKACCTBEHHLIMH YCAO- BusiMH YcTaHOBKH HM 9KCIyaTauMM MpH- Gopa. Tak, zehopmauns ayrH MuKpomerpa, CBasaHHaa C HS3MepHTeIbHRM YCHJIHeNM TPeMOTKH, He BSISbIBAeT HeTOCpeseTBeHHO NorpeurocTH H3MepeHHA H3 lena, TAK Kak MPowexOAHT H-NpH YcTaHOBKe muKpoMeTpa Ha-Honb. [Ip mpopepKe n3iennii xedop- MauuH'CKasBIBaloTCa Ha pesyAbraTax H3Mer PeHua TOKO B 3ABHCHMOCTH OT KoJe- GaHus HSMepHTebHOrTO yeti = STHM OObHCHAeTCA cTpeMeHHe cTaGusmM3Hpo- BaTb M3MepHTeNbHOe YcHHe H2 BCeM AWanaacke H3MepeHHA AaHHOTO mpH6opa. Ip ompezenenun cyxmapaod nozpeu- Hwocmu memoda waMepeH4aA NO OTZeNbHBIM COCTasnRIOMNM TeAbsyFOTCA MpapyzaMy cyMMupopanns cryyaiHEIx torpeurnoctelt Ecan cocrapaatomwe eyMMapHod norpeul- HOCTH ABUIAIOTCA HeaaBACHMBIMI Hicay salt AbIMH NlorpeunocraMH H HX paccenBanHe xapakrepusyeres. BeAHNHHAaMH AKcHepcHit D(x1), .D(82)s... D(%q), TO cpeansa KBagpaTnueckan MorpelllHOCTh MeTona HaMepedun Oey. ONpemerHTCA us hopMy.mE » Seym = VD eye rae D (Xeyy)=D (1) + D (xg) 440. ED (x9)