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Disproving Islam
Edgar Morina
Copyright (C) 2020 Edgar Morina

All rights reserved. It is not allowed to copy, modify or translate this draft book. It
is allowed to distribute it for personal use. The book is for free and used for non-
commercial purposes.

Draft edition

Cover image from a website that grants free images for commercial and
noncommercial purposes. The artist is not known to the author and he did not in any
way collaborate with the production of this book.
Cover design (C) The Author, 2020. All rights reserved.

Map in chapter 3 designed by Freepik.


E.J. Gurlt, Instruments of Albucasis, 1893. Credit: Wellcome Collection.
Sushruta’s surgical instruments from 1907 book An English Translation of the Sushruta
Samhita in Three Volumes, (Volume 1) by Kaviraj Kunja Lal Bhishagratna (Public
Domain)
Earth Map Blender in chapter 1 by Siddhesh.Jadhav. The file has been edited where two
half moons got added into the image. Taken from: https://sketchfab.com/3d-models/
earth-map-blender-85bdf44f296e4edfb8ecd110d900584f

www.disprovingislam.com
Contents
Preface��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������18

Chapter 1: The archaeological evidence of early Islam�����������20


Introduction���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������21
Qibla (archaeological evidence)�������������������������������������������������������������21
Description of Mecca������������������������������������������������������������������������������26
Dialect problem����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������38
The Quran is exactly the same as the one Muhammad revealed�������40
The Quran is "eternal”, “sent down”, “completed by Uthman in 652
AD”, and “unchanged”.���������������������������������������������������������������������������49
The evidence for Islamic coins���������������������������������������������������������������57
The evidence for Muhammad����������������������������������������������������������������59
The book and the man�����������������������������������������������������������������������������62
Masjid al-Haram was built in 78 AH (697-698 AD)���������������������������62
Al-Aqsa Mosque in Jerusalem was introduced too early�������������������63
Dirhams introduced too early����������������������������������������������������������������63
Arab conquerors were not referred to as Muslims������������������������������63
The arabs, jews and the christians had a good relationship until 634-
640 AD������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������64
Summary���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������64

Chapter 2: Contradictions in the Quran���������������������������������66


Introduction���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������67
The author of the Qur’an says the Jews say, “Ezra is the son of Allah“
��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������67

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Samaritans introduced too early������������������������������������������������������������68
Iron coats mail introduced too early�����������������������������������������������������69
Crucifixion introduced too early�����������������������������������������������������������69
Coins introduced too early���������������������������������������������������������������������69
Quran is talking about the wrong Mary�����������������������������������������������70
Jesus’ death������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������75
Muhammad not mentioned in the Torah or Bible������������������������������76
The Bible and Torah are corrupt������������������������������������������������������������77
Muhammad was not born sinless����������������������������������������������������������79
People of Mecca were not warned before Muhammad�����������������������80
Quran says that Mary was a goddess�����������������������������������������������������81
Nobody before John the Baptist was given the name John����������������82
Allah prevent earthquakes����������������������������������������������������������������������82
Allah allows to marry up to four wives�������������������������������������������������83
Does Allah have limbs?���������������������������������������������������������������������������83
Can Allah stop the Quran being corrupt?��������������������������������������������84
Praying without arms and legs���������������������������������������������������������������84
How long to breastfeed?��������������������������������������������������������������������������84
Did he create the heaven or the Earth first?�����������������������������������������85
Does Allah forgive everything?��������������������������������������������������������������85
Where do disbelievers receive their record book on Judgment day?85
When was Kaaba built�����������������������������������������������������������������������������86
Is alcohol okay?����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������87
Could Allah have a son?��������������������������������������������������������������������������87
Does Allah lead people astray?���������������������������������������������������������������88
How long is Allah’s day?��������������������������������������������������������������������������88
How long did it take Allah to create heaven and earth?���������������������89

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Does evil come from Allah?�������������������������������������������������������������������89
Will Jesus burn in Hell?���������������������������������������������������������������������������89
Who takes peoples souls?������������������������������������������������������������������������90
Who was the first Muslim?���������������������������������������������������������������������90
Strength of believers��������������������������������������������������������������������������������91
How many sacred months are there?����������������������������������������������������91
What does Allah do with apostates?������������������������������������������������������92
Should Muslims have Christians for friends?��������������������������������������92
Can you marry non-Muslims?���������������������������������������������������������������93
Are all Islamic prophets equal?��������������������������������������������������������������93
Who brought the revelation to Muhammad?��������������������������������������94
Abrogation; does Allah change his words?�������������������������������������������94
How long did it take to destroy Aad tribe?�������������������������������������������95

Chapter 3: Scientific Flaws in the Quran���������������������������������96


Introduction���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������97
You have to fast between sunrise and sunset����������������������������������������97
You must face Mecca when praying������������������������������������������������������98
Praying in another solar system�������������������������������������������������������������98
Evolution���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������99
Million years or billion years is never mentioned�����������������������������101
Moon calendar on another planet�������������������������������������������������������101
Allah has created a man and a woman������������������������������������������������102
Allah made the moon a light����������������������������������������������������������������102
Required to drain all the blood from the animal�������������������������������103
Allah has created two mates�����������������������������������������������������������������103
Allah decides gender�����������������������������������������������������������������������������104

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Mountains prevent earthquakes�����������������������������������������������������������105
Mountains cast into the Earth��������������������������������������������������������������105
Communities like humans��������������������������������������������������������������������107
Animals can’t speak�������������������������������������������������������������������������������107
Types of animals mentioned in the Quran�����������������������������������������107
Types of plants mentioned in the Quran��������������������������������������������108
Milk is pure���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������109
4 witness are required to prove rape of a female��������������������������������109
Why is smoking not mentioned in the Quran when it’s very bad?�110
Why is sport not mentioned when it is that good?���������������������������110
Heaven without pillars��������������������������������������������������������������������������111
Heaven with no rifts������������������������������������������������������������������������������112
Heaven expanded�����������������������������������������������������������������������������������112
Allah has created humans in the best form����������������������������������������114
Worshipping Allah without limbs�������������������������������������������������������114
Nearest heaven with stars and their thickness�����������������������������������115
Stars fall down and shooting stars�������������������������������������������������������117
Allah makes a difference between suns and stars������������������������������117
There are seven heavens and seven earths������������������������������������������117
Sun rising from the west�����������������������������������������������������������������������119
Allah created the Earth first, then the heavens����������������������������������120
Allah sends the winds����������������������������������������������������������������������������120
Allah sends down pure water���������������������������������������������������������������121
Allah holds birds up in the air��������������������������������������������������������������122
Gender is determined after the flesh has been made������������������������123
Moon split into two�������������������������������������������������������������������������������123
The Quran and Hadith say that aliens exists��������������������������������������124

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Muhammad’s body buried in Medina and does not decompose����126
Hijab has many benefits������������������������������������������������������������������������127
Allah makes the fetus one step at a time and egg is never mentioned
������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������128
Allah predicts the tectonic plates���������������������������������������������������������129
People do not show CT-scans of people who listens to music���������130
A fly falls in the drink����������������������������������������������������������������������������131
Allah sends thunderbolts����������������������������������������������������������������������133
Fresh water and salt water don't mix due to a barrier�����������������������133
The Quran says that the earth is created by gas���������������������������������135
Yawning is from Satan���������������������������������������������������������������������������136
The sun moved to a settled place���������������������������������������������������������136
Genetics in the Quran���������������������������������������������������������������������������137
Menstruation������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������138
Cousin marriages�����������������������������������������������������������������������������������138
Allah has raised a prophet in every nation�����������������������������������������139
All the references that shows that Earth is flat with a dome heaven
������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������139
All the references that sun moves around earth��������������������������������146
All the references that our world is the center of attention while other
solar systems with planets aren’t����������������������������������������������������������147
Definitive proof that Earth is the center of the universe, aliens do not
exist according to the Quran, and Islam is not true��������������������������151
Conclusion����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������153

Chapter 4: Plagiarism by Islam����������������������������������������������154


Introduction�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������155
Quran copied fasting�����������������������������������������������������������������������������155

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Separating the heaven from earth and earth from heaven���������������155
The development of the fetus in the womb����������������������������������������156
Allah made man from clay�������������������������������������������������������������������158
Allah sent Iron����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������158
Moon reflects light���������������������������������������������������������������������������������159
Salt water and fresh water don’t mix����������������������������������������������������159
Quran reveals that every living thing comes from water������������������160
The Quran says that water comes from the clouds����������������������������161
The Quran revealed that planets move in orbits��������������������������������161
Quran prohibited alcohol and now science confirm alcohol is bad162
Allah predicted about bacteria before they were known������������������163
Breastfeeding for 2 years was known before science said it�������������164
The alaqah and mudghah in embryology�������������������������������������������165
Created man from sperm����������������������������������������������������������������������165
Allah predicted elements that are smaller than atoms����������������������166
Allah predicted that in high altitude your chest constricts��������������167
Allah predicts that west is left and east is right����������������������������������169
Allah proved water cycle�����������������������������������������������������������������������170
Miracle of rain and hail�������������������������������������������������������������������������172
Allah predicted that sweet water comes from the mountains����������172
Made the earth egg-shaped�������������������������������������������������������������������173
Islam was the first to encourage to seek knowledge��������������������������174
Islam encourages to participate in sport���������������������������������������������174
Eye for eye, tooth for tooth�������������������������������������������������������������������175
Buraq�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������175
The 5 prayers in Islam���������������������������������������������������������������������������176
Praying while kneeling and falling on one’s face�������������������������������177

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Muhammad stole the Kaaba�����������������������������������������������������������������178
Muhammad stole the Black Stone�������������������������������������������������������179
Muhammad copied the qibla���������������������������������������������������������������179
Islam copied the mihrab�����������������������������������������������������������������������180
Islam copied the crescent moon����������������������������������������������������������180
Muhammad copied the name Allah����������������������������������������������������181
Muhammad copied circumambulation ���������������������������������������������181
Sa'ee between Safa and Marwa�������������������������������������������������������������181
Ihram�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������182
Quran copies a talmud��������������������������������������������������������������������������182
There is no God but Allah���������������������������������������������������������������������183
Muhammad copied the moon calendar����������������������������������������������183
Muhammad copied ramadan���������������������������������������������������������������183
Fasting on the 10th of Muharram��������������������������������������������������������184
Dhul-Qarnayn����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������184
The Jinns��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������187
Beads��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������188

Chapter 5: The truth about Golden Age of Islam inventions190


Introduction�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������191
The Arabs have invented university�����������������������������������������������������191
They invented modern chemistry��������������������������������������������������������192
The numbers came from the Arabs�����������������������������������������������������192
Arabs invented the camera obscura����������������������������������������������������193
Arabs invented pharmacopoeia�����������������������������������������������������������198
The Arabs created the modern pharmacy������������������������������������������199
The Arabs made the first hospital��������������������������������������������������������200

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The Arabs were the first who proposed evolution�����������������������������201
The Arabs made the first world map���������������������������������������������������204
The Arabs were the first to calculate the circumference of the earth
������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������205
The Arabs were the first to calculate the axial tilt������������������������������206
The Arabs calculated pi�������������������������������������������������������������������������206
The Arabs invented the Guitar�������������������������������������������������������������206
The arabs invented chess�����������������������������������������������������������������������207
The Arabs invented ethanol������������������������������������������������������������������207
The arabs invented perfumes����������������������������������������������������������������210
The arabs first got the idea of alchemy������������������������������������������������210
They discovered pharmacology�����������������������������������������������������������211
The Arabs discovered heliocentrism���������������������������������������������������211
The Arabs discovered the milky way���������������������������������������������������212
The arabs proposed the continent of America�����������������������������������213
The arabs made the biggest library in Baghdad���������������������������������214
The arabs invented the surgical instruments��������������������������������������216
The arabs were the first to describe diabetes��������������������������������������216
The arabs drew the eye nerves in the brain����������������������������������������216
The arabs were the first to describe the blood circulation����������������218
The arabs discovered coffee������������������������������������������������������������������218
The arabs invented the toothbrush������������������������������������������������������219
The arabs invented paper money���������������������������������������������������������220
The arabs invented the modern cheque����������������������������������������������220
The arabs invented the clock����������������������������������������������������������������220
They discovered sulfuric acid and nitric acid�������������������������������������220
They invented geometry������������������������������������������������������������������������221

8
The arabs invented the flying machine������������������������������������������������222
The arabs invented optics����������������������������������������������������������������������225
The earliest recorded windmill design������������������������������������������������226
The muslims invented robotics������������������������������������������������������������226
The muslims in medieval Islam were polymaths�������������������������������227
Architecture in medieval Islam������������������������������������������������������������228
The arabs invented the muslim carpet������������������������������������������������230
Homosexuality in Medieval Islam�������������������������������������������������������230
Islamic Golden Age consisted of arabs and muslims who invented all
of these inventions and discoveries�����������������������������������������������������231
Scientists were called Kafirs and books were burned down�������������234
Stealing Christian children�������������������������������������������������������������������235
Reasons the Islamic empire rose����������������������������������������������������������235
Al-Khwarizmi invented Algebra and Algorithms.����������������������������236

Chapter 6: Discoveries and inventions of the modern world238


Introduction�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������239
The list�����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������239
Conclusion����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������328

Chapter 7: Myths about Islam������������������������������������������������330


Introduction�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������331
Celebrities and famous people converting to Islam��������������������������331
If Islam were an evil religion, all non-mulims would be dead by now
������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������331
Whoever kills an innocent person it is as thought he has killed all
mankind, and whoever saves a life it is though as he has saved all
mankind. – Quran 5:32�������������������������������������������������������������������������331
Quran tells you to mind your own business���������������������������������������333

9
Islam gave women rights�����������������������������������������������������������������������334
1,8 billion believers in Islam makes Islam the true and right one���336
Islam is spreading faster than any other religions�����������������������������336
So many western people are converting to Islam������������������������������337
Islam is 1400 years old, it’s so old it makes it true�����������������������������337
Look how beautiful Islam has made UAE, Dubai, Saudi Arabia�����337
Only one person has written the Quran, and there were 40 author
who write the Bible��������������������������������������������������������������������������������337
The Quran was written by Muhammad����������������������������������������������338
The oldest complete bible is from 700 AD������������������������������������������338
Being referred as a logic person�����������������������������������������������������������339
What do you have to lose to be a Muslim?�����������������������������������������339
Islam has nothing against Buddhism��������������������������������������������������340
He made the earth egg-shaped.������������������������������������������������������������340
Being called Islamophobic and racist��������������������������������������������������340
The Quran and Bible are fundamentally the same����������������������������342
The Bibles God and the Qurans God are the same���������������������������344
All the previous prophets in history are in the Quran. No other
books has that. ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������344
The Golden Age of Science happened in 850-1258 AD.�������������������345
When you don’t accept Islam, then you are either an atheist, Jew
lover or Christian or against Islam������������������������������������������������������345
Western laws are build from the Bible������������������������������������������������345
Islam means peace���������������������������������������������������������������������������������345
Radical means extremism���������������������������������������������������������������������349
Criticising Muhammad�������������������������������������������������������������������������352
Muhammad was a clean person�����������������������������������������������������������355
Multiculturalism is the true way for a peaceful world����������������������356

10
"We don’t talk bad about Jesus, why are you talking bad about
Muhammad?"�����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������356
Western people are arrogant�����������������������������������������������������������������356
“Allah says”����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������358
Those who reject Islam or leave Islam are called “ignorant”������������358
Muslims are being attacked in the West, we are the victims������������358
Aisha was not child when she married and had sex with Muhammad
rather 14, 16, or even 18 years old. �����������������������������������������������������359
Muhammad encouraged to lie to non-muslims��������������������������������360
Muhammad gave gifts in order for people to convert to Islam�������361
The Quran is absolute and Science is not�������������������������������������������362
Of all the 4200 religions, I was born as a muslim������������������������������362
Allah says "Whoever hurts a non-muslim I shall be adversay to him,
on the day of resurrection"�������������������������������������������������������������������362
You need to know Arabic to understand the Quran�������������������������365
Muslims wants Islam to be as great as Islamic Golden Age�������������366
Islam has ruled the world before����������������������������������������������������������368
"You don’t know anything about Islamic inventions"������������������������368
Teaching children Islam before they get adults����������������������������������368
Muhammad Ali changed his name because his former name was for
white people��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������369
Believing in Allah makes you a moral person������������������������������������370
The signs of the Quran��������������������������������������������������������������������������370
Muslims greeting non-muslims�����������������������������������������������������������370
Most muslims live in North Africa and Middle East������������������������371
Muhammad was illiterate���������������������������������������������������������������������371
The first arabic book is the Quran�������������������������������������������������������372
Muhammad encouraged his followers to suck on each other's fingers

11
������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������373
Muslims don't like when the Quran is burned����������������������������������373
Birds do not fly over the Kaaba������������������������������������������������������������374
Islam cares about animals���������������������������������������������������������������������374
One of the first words in the Quran is "Read"������������������������������������376
The true origin of veiling����������������������������������������������������������������������376
The origin of slaves in America������������������������������������������������������������376
Muslims think that USA deserved the 9/11 attack����������������������������377
Islam's ultimate goal and end goal is to make world peace��������������377
Islam creates fear������������������������������������������������������������������������������������379
Making mistakes in learning����������������������������������������������������������������380
The philoshopical card��������������������������������������������������������������������������382
Wisdom from Muhammads in the hadiths����������������������������������������383
Science in photography�������������������������������������������������������������������������383
Listening to Quranic recitation������������������������������������������������������������383
Female with burka teaching in school�������������������������������������������������383
Hijab is a choice�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������384
Raping is allowed in Islam��������������������������������������������������������������������384
Americanization is the same as Islamization�������������������������������������385
Terrorists are not muslims��������������������������������������������������������������������385
Radical Islam destroying ancient archaeological artifacts����������������386
Homosexuality in Islam������������������������������������������������������������������������386
Islam can be reformed���������������������������������������������������������������������������387
Islam encourages you to think�������������������������������������������������������������388
Considering of signs in the Quran������������������������������������������������������389
Muhammad was first persecuted and then he defended himself with
violence����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������389

12
Islam accepts disowning their own family for Islam�������������������������390
Muhammad beheaded 800-900 males who surrendered and took the
female slaves�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������390
Muhammad killed people for committing adultery��������������������������391

Chapter 8: Islam against The Universal Declaration of Human


Rights��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������398
Introduction�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������399
Article 1���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������399
Article 2���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������405
Article 3���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������406
Article 4���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������406
Article 5���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������412
Article 6���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������416
Article 7���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������416
Article 8���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������416
Article 9���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������416
Article 10�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������417
Article 11:������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������419
Article 12�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������419
Article 13:������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������419
Article 14:������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������419
Article 15:������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������420
Article 16: �����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������420
Article 17�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������427
Article 18�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������428
Article 19�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������435
Article 20�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������435

13
Article 20�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������435
Article 21�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������435
Article 22�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������436
Article 23�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������436
Article 24�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������437
Article 25�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������437
Article 26�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������437
Article 27�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������438
Article 28�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������438
Article 29�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������438
Article 30�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������438
Conclusion����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������439

Chapter 9: Islam in democratic countries�����������������������������440


Introduction�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������441
Losing democracy����������������������������������������������������������������������������������441
Freedom of speech will be suppressed������������������������������������������������441
Freedom of religion won’t be a choice any longer�����������������������������441
Arranged marriage will be allowed�����������������������������������������������������442
Death penalty will be allowed��������������������������������������������������������������442
Shia-Muslims vs. sunny-Muslims civil wars will occur��������������������442
Kurds vs turks civil wars will occur�����������������������������������������������������442
Honor killings will be more frequently�����������������������������������������������442
Movies, TV, or any other media will no longer be allowed to show
women in bikini ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������442
LGBT-community will be persecuted�������������������������������������������������443
Mosques would be build everywhere��������������������������������������������������443
Churches will be demolished���������������������������������������������������������������443

14
Corruption will be much more frequently�����������������������������������������443
Extremism will occur even more���������������������������������������������������������443
Women will be seen as inferior to men�����������������������������������������������444
Beating wife will occur much more frequently����������������������������������444
Beating children will occur even more�����������������������������������������������444
Community divisions will occur and create an us vs. them mentality
������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������444
No-Go zones will increase��������������������������������������������������������������������444
Local Sharia Laws will increase������������������������������������������������������������444
They begin to tell you don’t speak with western people�������������������445
Criticism of Islam will be strictly prohibited, but criticism of other
religions would be allowed�������������������������������������������������������������������445
Women would gradually be forced to wear hijabs����������������������������445
Alcohol will gradually be prohibited���������������������������������������������������445
Your valentine day would be prohibited���������������������������������������������446
Secret relationships will only cause big problems �����������������������������446
Bacon will be prohibited�����������������������������������������������������������������������446
Pranks will be prohibited����������������������������������������������������������������������446
Helloween will be prohibited����������������������������������������������������������������446
Celebration days will be prohibited�����������������������������������������������������446
Casinos and playing lotto will be prohibited��������������������������������������447
Swimming pools will be divided into girls and boys�������������������������447
Classrooms will be divided into girls and boys����������������������������������447
Mosques are already divided����������������������������������������������������������������447
School and religion will be one entity�������������������������������������������������447
Open science as we know will be suppressed�������������������������������������447
Jews especially will be persecuted��������������������������������������������������������448
Adultery which is not even punishable in the West, will become

15
punishable�����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������448
Slavery will be allowed��������������������������������������������������������������������������448
Marriage with an underage would be normalized����������������������������448
Stealing will be punishable with physical harm���������������������������������449
You will be judged on your strength of belief rather than your
character and skills��������������������������������������������������������������������������������449
Politicians can no longer express themselves freely and give their
public opinions, death threats will therefore be a common thing���449
If the government becomes extreme, you can’t criticize it���������������449
Music will be banned�����������������������������������������������������������������������������449
Clubs will be banned�����������������������������������������������������������������������������449
Porn will be banned�������������������������������������������������������������������������������450
Individualism will be suppressed���������������������������������������������������������450
Basically The Universal Declaration of Human Rights will be
destroyed�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������450
Other considerations�����������������������������������������������������������������������������450

Chapter 10: Memorable quotes����������������������������������������������452


Introduction�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������453
Quotes�����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������453

References�������������������������������������������������������������������������������459

16
“Islam exists only because people fear being murdered
if they leave. If they had gotten rid of the apostasy
punishment, Islam wouldn’t exist today. Opposing apostasy
is what kept Islam to this day”

Yusuf al-Qaradawi,
head of the Muslim Brotherhood
Preface
This book first started as a small document and its purpose was only to show
minor facts to disprove Islam, and that it was completely wrong about statements
regarding the science of the Quran, as well as plagiarism, contradictions, Golden
Age of Islam and more. It eventually became such a large work that it had to be
converted into a book, a non-commercial draft book. The reasons this book been
written are many, and one of the major reasons is that helping defenceless people
who are being dragged into this belief by false statements. Not only is the purpose
of this book to inform you the truth about Islam, the Quran and its history, but
also for you to have a handbook that is easily used as a simple guide to disprove
anyone once and for all. This has a couple of benefits, like not using your time on
religion, but instead using it to something else which enhances your productivity
and even creativity. By using this Guide you have the tools to disprove any
religious people in any field. The book should be used as following;

First chapter starts with the archaeological and historical evidence of early
Islam, especially in the 7th and 8th century. This includes the earliest Quranic
manuscripts, early qiblas, Islamic coins, the evidence for Mecca and others.
Second chapter introduces the contradictions, which you’ll find plenty of them.
It is often claimed that there is not one single contradiction, and this guide
guarantees you that you’ll find at least one.
Chapter three is about the scientific miracles which is proclaimed is science, but
it is obviously not. In this chapter you’ll find the science which is inconsistent with
the developed science we have in 21th century.
Chapter four is about plagiarism in science and in general. If chapter one doesn’t
convince that the Quran is wrong, then chapter two guides you to show that these
scientific miracles have been known before Muhammad’s time, and even in a
more precise extent.
Chapter five explains the truth about the Golden Age of Islam. While there are
many who uses the Islamic Age to justify the truthfulness of Islam, this chapter
debunks many of them.
Chapter six explains all the science, technology and engineering advancement
that has happened in the World since the Renaissance. This chapter shows that
the Golden Age of Islam is not even one percentage of the Golden Age of the West
and East we have had in the last 400 years.
Chapter seven introduces the myths about Islam in general, for example that
Islam gave women rights, which is not the case.
Chapter eight is an important chapter to understand that the Quran and Hadith
together are against half of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. These
human rights are basically fundamental and universal, and the chapter includes
the relevant verses from the Quran, Hadith, Tafsir and scholars to explain that
extremists are actually not interpreting the Quran wrong.
Chapter nine is connected with the previous chapter seven and explains what
would happen if the West becomes Islamic due to the migration of muslims into the
West.
Chapter ten includes relevant and memorable quotes from people all over
the world about Islam and religion in general which will you give a wonderful
perspective.

As you see the chapters are very well connected to each other, and each chapter is
systematically built from the previous ones. They take you through as a step ladder
one step and a time and gives you an understanding of one topic before moving on
to the next. This way you are all covered from alpha to omega in a simple guide.

Note, that this book is only a draft, for free and used for non-commercial purposes.
It is not allowed to copy it, modify it, translate it or anything similar. To fund this
project, visit www.disprovingislam.com.
Chapter 1: The archaeological evidence
of early Islam
Introduction
The historical evidence of early Islam. If you haven't yet researched the true
history of the Quran, this chapter will definitely amaze you, some which only in
recent years have emerged.

Qibla (archaeological evidence)


Creswell and Fehervari went to middle-east in 1905 to look for evidence for the
earliest mosques from 600th AD – early 800th AD and where their qibla pointed
at. They found out the following:

• Wassit mosque (706 AD, Iraq) – Qibla facing Jerusalem (But in truth facing
between Petra and Mecca)
It does not face Mecca
• Kufa mosque (Iraq) – Qibla facing to Jerusalem (in truth west to PETRA)
It does not face south to Mecca
• Fustat mosque (641 AD, Cairo) – Qibla facing Jerusalem (in truth PETRA)
It does not face south to Mecca

They concluded they all face to Jerusalem, but in reality they faced to Petra, and
Wassit mosque faced between Petra and Mecca, but closer to Petra.
Dan Gibson used satellite images to determine the direction of earliest mosques
because it became forbidden to visit them. The conclusion is as follows:

• Great Mosque of Guangzhou (627 AD, China) – Qibla facing PETRA


It does not face Mecca
• Humeima mosque (Jordan) – Qibla facing PETRA
It does not face Mecca
• Great Mosque of Ba’albek (701 AD, Lebanon) – Qibla facing PETRA
It does not face Mecca
• Amman Citadel (701 AD, Jordan) - Qibla facing PETRA
It does not face Mecca
• Great Mosque of Sana’a (705 AD, Yemen) – Qibla facing PETRA
It does not face Mecca
• Al Aqsa Mosque (706 AD, Jerusalem) – Qibla facing PETRA
It does not face Mecca
• Dome of the Rock (691 AD, Jerusalem) – Qibla facing PETRA
It does not face Mecca

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• Damascus Mosque (709 AD, Syria) – Qibla facing PETRA
It does not face Mecca
• Anjar Mosque (724 AD, Lebanon) – Qibla facing PETRA
It does not face Mecca
• Mosque of Umar (720 AD, Syria) – Qibla facing PETRA
It does not face Mecca

Also there are other more mosques which has not been investigated Creswell and
Fehervary, but several other researchers including Dan Gibson. The examples are
written below. There are even additional examples which are neither facing Mecca
or Petra but in between, for example the Yamana mosque in Saudi Arabia.

• Quba Mosque (622 AD, Saudi Arabia) - Original qibla facing PETRA
It was rebuilt to face Mecca in 1043 AD
• Masjid al-Qiblatayn (623 AD, Saudi Arabia) - Original qibla faced PETRA
It was rebuilt to face Mecca
• Hama Great Mosque (637 AD, Syria) - Qibla facing PETRA
It does not face Mecca
• Aqaba Umayyad Mosque (600-699 AD, Jordan) - Qibla facing PETRA
It does not face Mecca
• Qasr Mushash (600-699 AD, Jordan) - Qibla facing PETRA
It does not face Mecca
• Jerash Umayyad Mosque (700 AD, Jordan) - Qibla facing PETRA
It does not face Mecca
• Khirbit al Minya (706 AD, Israel) - Qibla facing PETRA
It does not face Mecca
• Masjid al-Tarik Khana (708 AD, Israel) - Qibla facing PETRA
It does not face Mecca
• Um Walid (712 AD, Israel) - Qibla facing PETRA
It does not face Mecca
• Qasr Qastal (720 AD, Israel) - Qibla facing PETRA
It does not face Mecca
• Khirbat al Mafjar (724 AD, Israel) - Qibla facing PETRA
It does not face Mecca
• Sahi Ramdah Mosque (700-799, Oman) - Qibla facing PETRA
It does not face Mecca
• Qiblatain Mosque (700-799, Oman) - Qibla facing PETRA
It does not face Mecca
• Al-Sawaf Mosque Grounds (700-799, Iraq) - Qibla facing PETRA
It does not face Mecca

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• Bibi-Khanym Mosque (700-799, Uzbekistan) - Qibla facing PETRA
It does not face Mecca

All Qiblas which were newly build were facing Petra until 727 AD. The first one
to be build which was facing Mecca was in Banbhore, Pakistan that same year,
finally after 105 years after it was revealed in Surah 2:143-145. In the chapter
Myths About Islam, it is mention that Mecca was not even referenced until 740
AD in historical documents. That is 109 years after Muhammad died. There is
no historical evidence that shows that Mecca was mentioned before 740 AD in
Continuatio Byzantia Arabica. Furthermore there are no maps where Mecca was
mapped in until much later in 900 AD, that means you cannot find any map with
Mecca on it until about 300 years after Muhammad’s death. New evidence from
different researchers, including Patricia Crone, emerged that Mecca was not even
in the trade route, but Petra was the center of that. In a 7th century Byzantine
trade route map, Mecca is not even mentioned there. Even in a 7th century arab
trade route Mecca is not mentioned. It is funny that in the Quran Adam and Eve
were sent to Mecca and yet it wasn't that important. Even the first reference for
Islam is from 691 AD.

The sanctuary in Petra was destroyed by an earthquake in 713 AD, and this might
be a reason by they changed the center of Islam to Mecca, because God wouldn't
create an earthquake in the center of Islam.

Sahih al-Bukhari 23:432 - The Prophet said, "Allah has made Mecca a sanctuary
(sacred place) and it was a sanctuary before me and will be so after me.

The problem is that to date there are no ancient trees that have ever existed
in Mecca. In the construction industry, you have to have archaeologists when
you have to dig up a foundation for new buildings, and very often there are
archaeological evidence. However in Mecca no ruins of ancient cities was ever
found

The accuracy of the direction of the Qiblas


Before Dan Gibson determined over 100 of the earliest mosques, it was believed
that those few known Qiblas actually showed that they are just inaccurate
directions made during the beginning of the Islamic era. Thus it would seem that
there should be many mosque which pointed in many directions, possibly 100
different directions. However, this is not the case, as all those early mosques only
pointed at 4 different Qiblas: Petra, between Petra and Mecca, parallel and finally
Mecca. The timeline can be seen below

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What is interesting is that the accuracy of the Qiblas for the first three are more
accurate than for Mecca, as shown below:

City Number of early mosques Accuracy (degrees)


Petra 20 2,9 degrees
Between 20 0,98 degrees
Parallel 6 3,5 degrees
Mecca 10 4,78 degrees

If one takes out two of the worst Mosques from Petra, leaving 18 behind, the
accuracy goes to 1,9 degrees. With only 4 Qiblas total, and all the other cities
(Petra, between, parallel) are more accurate than Mecca, proves that people
during 7th, 8th and 9th century were sophisticated enough to know how to
calculate the direction, thus proving it was intentional. Furthermore, there is
Humeima and Aqaba mosque, which are so close to Petra that calculating the
direction with the help of the sun and stars are not needed. If it points to Petra, it
is because it was intentional

Rahat Mosque found in july 2019


In july 2019 a new small mosque was found in the city of Rahat dated to be built
in 636 CE. The position of the mosque is directly in line with Petra and Mecca, so
it's qibla faces both of them directly in a line. However, considering all the other
mosque's mentioned, also in Israel, they all point to Petra from other parts of the
lands which confirms that the intention of the Qibla of the Rahat mosque was not
to face Mecca but Petra.

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Jacob of Odessa, a Christian writer and traveller, was a contemporary eye-witness
writing in Egypt around 705 AD. His letter in the British Museum maintains the
‘Mahgraye’ (Greek term for Arabs) in Egypt prayed facing east, towards their
Ka’ba, the place of their patriarchal origin- in other words towards Palestine, not
Mecca.

For further study, read When Did the Qibla Change (2017) by Dan Gibson

Description of Mecca
In this section it will be discussed the problems with the description of Mecca
which doesn't fit to the actual Mecca in history or today. There are many topics to
cover, so is therefore important to separate them in parts.

The Qibla was changed from unknown to Mecca


Muhammad changed the Qibla in 624 AD, according to Quran 2:143-144 and
Quran 2:149-150. It was at this time Muhammad waged war on the Jews and
Christians, because they couldn't get along.

"And thus we have made you a just community that you will be witnesses over
the people and the Messenger will be a witness over you. And We did not make
the qiblah which you used to face except that We might make evident who would
follow the Messenger from who would turn back on his heels. And indeed, it is
difficult except for those whom Allah has guided. And never would Allah have
caused you to lose your faith. Indeed Allah is, to the people, Kind and Merciful." -
Quran 2:143

"We have certainly seen the turning of your face, [O Muhammad], toward the
heaven, and We will surely turn you to a qiblah with which you will be pleased. So
turn your face toward al-Masjid al-Haram. And wherever you [believers] are, turn
your faces toward it [in prayer]. Indeed, those who have been given the Scripture
well know that it is the truth from their Lord. And Allah is not unaware of what
they do." - Quran 2:144

"So from wherever you go out [for prayer, O Muhammad] turn your face toward
al- Masjid al-Haram, and indeed, it is the truth from your Lord. And Allah is not
unaware of what you do." - Quran 2:149

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"And from wherever you go out [for prayer], turn your face toward al-Masjid al-
Haram. And wherever you [believers] may be, turn your faces toward it in order
that the people will not have any argument against you, except for those of them
who commit wrong; so fear them not but fear Me. And [it is] so I may complete
My favor upon you and that you may be guided." - Quran 2:150

"While some people were offering morning prayer at Quba' a man came to them
and said, "A Quranic Order has been revealed to Allah's Apostle tonight that he
should face the Ka'ba at Mecca (in prayer), so you too should turn your faces
towards it." At that moment their faces were towards Sham (i.e. Jerusalem) (and
on hearing that) they turned towards the Ka'ba (at Mecca)." - Sahih Bukhari 6:17

However, the non-muslim sources, Doctrina Iacobi (written between 634-640


AD) and the Armenian Chronicle, also called the Armenian History (written in
660 AD) states otherwise. The arabs, jews and christians had a good relationship
with each other until years after Muhammad died.

Adam was the first to place the black stone


According to muslim tradition Adam placed the black stone in the original Kaaba,
while Abraham and Ishmael rebuilt the Meccan Ka’ba centuries later. Adam and
Eve had their first glance on the Black Stone when it fell from Jannah, showing
where to build an altar. According to islamic tradition, this is the world's first
temple. The muslims also believe that the stone has turned black because people's
sins, of those who touched it. It was originally pure and dazzling white, according
to them.

"And [mention] when We made the House a place of return for the people and [a
place of] security. And take, [O believers], from the standing place of Abraham
a place of prayer. And We charged Abraham and Ishmael, [saying], "Purify
My House for those who perform Tawaf and those who are staying [there] for
worship and those who bow and prostrate [in prayer]." And [mention] when
Abraham said, "My Lord, make this a secure city and provide its people with
fruits - whoever of them believes in Allah and the Last Day." [ Allah ] said. "And
whoever disbelieves - I will grant him enjoyment for a little; then I will force him
to the punishment of the Fire, and wretched is the destination." And [mention]
when Abraham was raising the foundations of the House and [with him] Ishmael,
[saying], "Our Lord, accept [this] from us. Indeed You are the Hearing, the
Knowing." - Quran 2:125-127

Since Adam and Eve were the first people on Earth, that means that Mecca is the

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oldest city on the planet, according to the Quran and Islamic traditions.

Mecca is described as the “mother of cities”


According to the Quran, and the Islamic traditions, Mecca (or Bakkah) is called
the mother of cities.

"And thus We have revealed to you an Arabic Qur'an that you may warn the
Mother of Cities [Makkah] and those around it and warn of the Day of Assembly,
about which there is no doubt. A party will be in Paradise and a party in the
Blaze." - Quran 42:7

"And this is a Book which We have sent down, blessed and confirming what was
before it, that you may warn the Mother of Cities and those around it. Those who
believe in the Hereafter believe in it, and they are maintaining their prayers." -
Quran 6:92

"In his hands lay all the dignities of Mecca; he divided the town into quarters
among his people and he settled all the Quraysh into their houses in Mecca which
they held" - The Life of Muhammad - A Translation of Ishaq's Sirat Rasul Allah
(A. Guillaume), page 53

The problem with that is that there are no archaeological evidence of any ancient
cities when excavating Mecca. In the construction industry, when a new building
has to be built, archaeologists first have to check for any archaeological finds
before constructing the foundation of a building - and this happens often in the
Middle-East when new buildings have to be build, where something new has been
recovered from the ground. This also happens in Saudi Arabia where developers
are digging over all putting up great buildings. In Mecca, of all the buildings
which were built there, none has come up with an archaeological find. No
evidence for ruins of a great ancient city. This would make it very strange because
any other city - older according to islamic tradition - has artefacts and buildings
dug up. The older a city is, the more likely there are many things to uncover. And
yet, nothing has come up from the city's ground.

Mecca is described as the center of the trade route


Since Adam and Eve were the first people, and it is called the mother of all cities,
and now the center of trade center of the trade route, it is puzzling why there is no
evidence for that.

"The Prophet said, "Allah has made Mecca a sanctuary (sacred place) and it was a

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sanctuary before me and will be so after me." - Sahih al-Bukhari 23:432

In Isaq, page 79, caravans are mentioned going in and out of the Holy City, and
same with Muhammad's uncle Abu Talib ibn Abd al-Muttalib, regularly sent
caravans on trading missions. In Isaq, page 82, Muhammad married Khadija bint
Khuwaylid who managed caravans of camels

According to Dr. Patricia Crone, Mecca was a barren place, and barren places do
not make natural halts. She had written books about the trading route of early
Islam which are worth reading. Many academics agree that the "center of the trade
route" was further north in North Africa or close to Jerusalem, and not at Mecca
which was not even a stopping place on the caravan routes.

Mecca missing on early maps


What is fascinating about it, is that if Mecca was such an important city, the
mother of cities and the center of trading routes, then it is problematic because
it does not appear in Arab maps in the 6th, 7th, 8th or 9th century AD. It also
began to appear at around 900 AD in Arabian maps, which is about 270 years
after Muhammad had died.

Dan Gibson had gathered many different ancient maps of Arabia, translated
and transcribed, but not even once did he find Mecca on the maps. It doesn't
even appear on Ptolomy's maps of Arabia. The mention of Mecca first appears in
literature 740 AD (122 years after the Hijra) in the Continuatio Byzantia Arabica.

The Meccan valley


The Quran and the hadiths described Mecca as being in a valley

While they were in this state Abu- Jandal bin Suhail bin 'Amr came from the
valley of Mecca staggering with his fetters and fell down amongst the Muslims -
Sahih al-Bukhari 3:891

"And He it is Who hath withheld men's hands from you, and hath withheld your
hands from them, in the valley of Mecca, after He had made you victors over
them. Allah is Seer of what ye do." - Quran 48:24 (Pickthall)

""O Abraham! Where are you going, leaving us in this valley where there is no
person whose company we may enjoy, nor is there anything (to enjoy)?" She
repeated that to him many times, but he did not look back at her Then she asked
him, "Has Allah ordered you to do so?" He said, "Yes." She said, "Then He will not

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neglect us," and returned while Abraham proceeded onwards, and on reaching
the Thaniya where they could not see him, he faced the Ka'ba, and raising both
hands, invoked Allah saying the following prayers: 'O our Lord! I have made
some of my offspring dwell in a valley without cultivation, by Your Sacred House
(Kaba at Mecca) in order, O our Lord, that they may offer prayer perfectly." -
Sahih al-Bukhari 4:583 (part 1)

"Then she descended from Safa and when she reached the valley, she tucked up
her robe and ran in the valley like a person in distress and trouble, till she crossed
the valley and reached the Marwa mountain where she stood and started looking,
expecting to see somebody, but she could not see anybody." - Sahih al-Bukhari
4:583 (part 2)

"When the Prophet performed the Tawaf of the Ka`ba, he did Ramal during the
first three rounds and in the last four rounds he used to walk and while doing
Tawaf between Safa and Marwa, he used to run in the midst of the rain water
passage." - Sahih al-Bukhari 2:26:685

Firstly there are no valleys in Mecca, but there are in Petra. In the complete
4:583 and 2:26:685, it furthermore mentions the Zam-zam water and rainwater
passage, but there was no natural flow of water at that time in Mecca. This is
an important hadith about the rain water passage between two mountains.
Normally a water rain passage runs between two mountains, but according to
hadith 685 above, there is a rain water passage between the mountains. Not only
does it not exist in Mecca, but it is a rare phenomenon in the world, and there is
one rain water passage in Petra. The Nabatean built a colonnaded street from one
side of the mountain to the other side (which people can visit), for following the
course of the water to follow a straight line. In Islam, a muslims duty is to walk
between the two mountains called Marwah and Safa. The problem is that these
are not mountains in Mecca, only two small rocks They are so small that they are
inside a building. In one of the earliest drawings Mecca and the Kaaba, one can
see that there are no water passage between Marwah and Safa rocks.

There is scarce rainfall in Mecca


Today the city of Mecca, with high desert temperatures, only averages about 10
cm of rain per year, and. This is almost nothing to be able to grow any vegetation

The original Holy City had trees and bushes


"Once when I was with the Prophet in Mecca and we went out into one of its
districts in the neighbourhood, not a mountain or tree which confronted him

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failed to say, "Peace be upon you, Messenger of Allah." Tirmidhi and Darimi
transmitted it." - Al-Tirmidhi hadith 1535

"When they came to Mecca they saw a town blessed with water and trees and,
delighted with it, they settled there" - The Life of Muhammad - A Translation of
Ishaq's Sirat Rasul Allah (A. Guillaume), page 46

"People assert that the Quraysh were afraid to cut down the trees of the sanctuary
in their quarters" - The Life of Muhammad - A Translation of Ishaq's Sirat Rasul
Allah (A. Guillaume), page 53

"On the Day of the Conquest of Mecca, Allah's Apostle said, "Allah has made this
town a sanctuary. Its thorny bushes should not be cut, its game should not be
chased, and its fallen things should not be picked up except by one who would
announce it publicly."" - Sahih al-Bukhari 2:657

These are important references of trees and thorny bushes in Mecca. Dan Gibson
has researched and tried to find ancient trees in Mecca in decades, by testing the
presence of spores and pollens in undisturbed ancient soil. So far he has found no
evidence that trees ever existed in ancient times in the city of Mecca. However in
Petra there were and are plenty of trees.

The original Holy City had grapes and fruits growing in it


"By Allah, I never saw a prisoner better than Khubaib. By Allah, one day I saw
him eating of a bunch of grapes in his hand while he was chained in irons, and
there was no fruit at that time in Mecca." - Sahih al-Bukhari 4:281

"And [mention] when Abraham said, "My Lord, make this a secure city and
provide its people with fruits - whoever of them believes in Allah and the Last
Day." [ Allah ] said. "And whoever disbelieves - I will grant him enjoyment for
a little; then I will force him to the punishment of the Fire, and wretched is the
destination."" - Quran 2:126

A reference of grapes in Mecca. Again without trees as previously stated, there can
be no grapes. But in Petra it is possible

Grass grew in the original Holy City valley


"..His grace upon him and endow him with prophethood would go forth for his
affair and journey far afield until he reached the glens of Mecca and beds of its
valleys where no house was in sight" - The Life of Muhammad - A Translation of

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Ishaq's Sirat Rasul Allah (A. Guillaume), page 105

"One night the Prophet was unable to sleep and said, "Would that a righteous
man from my companions guarded me tonight." Suddenly we heard the clatter of
arms, whereupon the Prophet said, "Who is it?" It was said, "I am Sa'd, O Allah's
Apostle! I have come to guard you." The Prophet then slept so soundly that we
heard him snoring. Abu 'Abdullah said: 'Aisha said: Bilal said, "Would that I but
stayed overnight in a valley with Idhkhir and Jalil (two kinds of grass) around me
(i.e., in Mecca)." Then I told that to the Prophet" - Sahih al-Bukhari 9:337

"when the Jurhum came to Mecca “they saw a town blessed with water and trees
and, delighted with it, they settled there." - Ibn Hashim 23

The area around Mecca is completely sand and desert, and no natural grass grows.
Furthermore there is no evidence to support that the area could have supported
grass before.

The cave of Hira


Now al-Khattāb had so harassed Zayd that he forced him to withdraw to the
upper part of Mecca, and he stopped in the mountain of Hirā’, facing the town -
Ibn Hisham 49

In reality mount Hira is not facing the town of Mecca, but is on the opposite side
of Mecca, facing towards the horizon and other cities. But one special holy cave
in Petra exists, where the entrance faces the center of Petra. Inside the cave, wall
statues with the crescent moon symbol exists.

The original Holy City had clay and loam


"My father Ishaq b. Yasar told me that he was told that 'Abdullah went in to a
woman that he had beside Amina d. Wahb when he had been working in clay and
the marks of the clay were on him" - The Life of Muhammad - A Translation of
Ishaq's Sirat Rasul Allah (A. Guillaume), page 69

From Al-labar's The History of Al-labar, Volume VI, 1079, page 6, he relates how
Abdullah, the father of Muhammad, had been working in the soil, and then traces
of soil were still on his hands when he wanted to lie with her in the bed. Because
of the dirt, he went and washed off the clay, and then went to his wife, Aminah, to
lie with her. This is how they conceived Muhammad.
In Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, xxi, 1958, pages 1-14, R.
B. Serjeant commented on the translation of Alfred Guillaume’s of the same story

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in the Sirah (which can be read above), and is confused by the Arabic word which
means cultivated plot or field, which means clay and loam. He writes that there
are no cultivable land in Mecca or near Mecca. This is not the description of what
archeologists have found

Mecca’s mountains does not fit with the descriptions


In The Life of Muhammad - A Translation of Ishaq's Sirat Rasul Allah (A.
Guillaume), page 25-26, it describes that people could look down from mountains
surrounding the Holy City, seeing Yemeni elephant attacking the Kaaba. This
indicates that mountains were close enough to the Kaaba to see the details. In
Mecca there are small outcropping of rocks about 500 meter away. These are
the closest, and the second closest are 3 km or further away. It is hard to see an
elephant that far. The two mountains called Marwar and Bafa are so small, that
they are enclosed inside a mosque. In the mosque there is a long hallway to leads
directly between those two rocks. What is strange is that there is no water passage
between them, as shown below

"The Apostle of Allāh (peace be upon him) came and entered Mecca, and after the
Apostle of Allāh (peace be upon him) had gone forward to the stone, and touched
it, he went round the house (the Ka'ba ). He then went to as-Safa and climbed it
so that he could look down at the house. Then he raised his hands began to make
mention of Allāh as much as he wished and make supplication. The narrator
said: The Ansārwere beneath him. The narrator Hashim said: He prayed and
praisedAllāh and asked him for what he wished to ask." - Sunan of Abū Dawood
750

"Ar-Rabi’ibn Saburah said on the authority of his father (Saburah): We went


out along with the Apostle of Allāh (peace be upon him) till we reached Usfan,
Suraqah ibn Mālik al-Mudlaji said to him: Apostle of Allāh , explain to us like
the people as if they were born today. He said: Allāh , the exalted, hasincluded
this umrah in your Hajj. When you come (to Mecca), and he who goes round
the house (the Ka'ba), and runs between as-Safa and al-Marwah, is allowed
to take off Ihrām except he who has brought the sacrificial animals with him." -
Sunan of Abū Dawood 727

"And when he (Muhammad) reached Mecca on the 4th of Dhūal-Hijja he


performed the tawāf round the Ka'ba and performed á'awaf between Safa and
Marwa." - Sahih al-Bukhari 2:617

"When the Prophet performed the tawāf of the Ka'ba, he did Ramal during the

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first three rounds and in the last four rounds he used to walk and while doing
tawāf between Safa and Marwa, he used to run in the midst of the rain water
passage." - Sahih al-Bukarhi 2:685

What is interesting here is that Bafa and Marwa are not described as two little
hillocks within a shallow valley, but rather mountains on both sides of a large
valley. This is however not the case with Mecca, but again it fits the description
with Petra. Now what is interesting after in the next hadith, it that Hagar struggled
to cross the valley between the two mountains:

"Hagar sat under the tree with her baby next to her. She drank from her water
container hanging nearby, and nursed her baby, until all the water she had was
gone, her milk dried out. Her son grew hungrier and hungrier. She could hardly
bear to look at him. She went and stood at bafa - the mountain nearest to her. She
looked down the valley to see if there was someone around to help. She could
see no one. So, she climbed down bafa and reached the valley. She struggled
hard, crossed the valley and reached Marwah. She stood on Marwah, and looked
around. Still she could see no one around. She repeated this seven times. Ibn ’Abbs
added, “The Prophet (peace be upon him) said: ’It is (to commemorate this walk)
that pilgrims walk between bafa and Marwah.’”" - Fiqh us-Sunnah 5:85

In the description above it sounds like they are large mountains, but in reality,
they are very small. In the next hadith, it described that the Bafa mountain is used
as a defence lockout position.

“When the Verse: 'And warn your tribe of near kindred.' (26:214) was revealed.
Allah's Apostle went out, and when he had ascended As-Safa mountain, he
shouted, "O Sabahah!" The people said, "Who is that?" "Then they gathered
around him, whereupon he said, "Do you see? If I inform you that cavalrymen
are proceeding up the side of this mountain, will you believe me?" They said, "We
have never heard you telling a lie." Then he said, "I am a plain warner to you of a
coming severe punishment." Abu Lahab said, "May you perish! You gathered us
only for this reason? " Then Abu Lahab went away. So the "Surat: ul-Lahab" 'Perish
the hands of Abu Lahab!' (111:1) was revealed." - Sahih al-Bukhari 6:495

In the next focus, it is written that there were idols on Bafa and Marwah.

"bafa and Marwah as they used to do in the days of Jahiliyya while two idols were
set on top of bafa and Marwah." - Fiqh us-Sunnah 5:86

34
"’Amr set up an image on al-bafa called Nahlik Mujawid al-Rih and one on al-
Marwa called Mut’im al-Tayr." - Isaq 56, page 30

Today no evidence on the mountains are there to support this.

The walk between the two mountains was hard, that they could not do that in one
day:

"Ahmad says there is no harm in delaying the Sa’i after performing tawāf until
one is rested, or postponing it until evening. ‘Ataand al-Hasan also see no harm
in someone making tawāf early in the day and postponing the Sa’i between Safa
and Marwah until evening. Al-Qāsim and Sa'īd bin Jubair followed this, because
the continuity of Sa’i is, as such, nota condition, much less the continuity of tawāf
and Sa’i. Sa'īd bin Mansūr reported that Saudah, the wife of ‘Urwah bin al-Zubair
performed Sa’iin between Safa and Marwah and because she was a big and heavy
woman, she completed it in three days." - Fiqh us-Sunnah 5:88a

"Climbing bafa and Marwah and making supplications for one’s material and
spiritual well being and welfare is encouraged. During the supplications one
should face the Ka’ba. It is well known that the Prophet (peace be upon him)
went through the bafa Gate, and on approaching bafa he recited the Qur'nic verse
2.158 “Verily, bafa and Marwah are among the symbols of Allh” and then saying
“I begin with what Allh himself began” he climbed bafa until he could see the
Ka’ba from where he stood. He faced the Ka’ba, thrice proclaimed Allh’s oneness,
glorified him, praised him, and then said, “There is no deity worthy of worship
except Allh. He has no partners. To him belongs the kingdom and all praise. He
alone grants life and causes death, he has power over all things. There is no God
but he. He has fulfilled his promise, given victory to his servant, and he alone
defeated the confederates.” Thrice he made similar supplications. Then he walked
toward Marwah and climbed it, until he could see the Ka’ba. There he made
supplications as he had at bafa." - Fiqh us-Sannah 5:90

What is interesting with 5:90 above is that it tells that there is a Bafa gate. Now this
is very strange, because there are no gates in the two rocks.

Mecca has a high and low side, together with a road from either side
"During the year of the Conquest (of Mecca), the Prophet entered Mecca through
its upper part through Kada." - Sahih al-Bukhari 5:586

"Allah's Apostle used to enter Mecca from the high Thaniya and used to leave

35
Mecca from the low Thaniya." - Sahih al-Bukhari 2:645

"The Prophet went on advancing till he reached the Thaniyya (i.e. a mountainous
way) through which one would go to them (i.e. people of Quraish)." - Sahih al-
Bukhari 3:891

A thaniya is a narrow mountain pass.

"When the Prophet came to Mecca he entered from its higher side and left from
its lower side." - Sahih al-Bukhari 2:647

"We set out with the Prophet with the intention of performing Hajj only. The
Prophet reached Mecca and performed Tawaf of the Ka'ba and between Safa
and Marwa and did not finish the Ihram, because he had the Hadi with him. His
companions and his wives performed Tawaf (of the Ka'ba and between Safa and
Marwa), and those who had no Hadi with them finished their Ihram. I got the
menses and performed all the ceremonies of Hajj. So, when the Night of Hasba
(night of departure) came, I said, "O Allah's Apostle! All your companions are
returning with Hajj and 'Umra except me." He asked me, "Didn't you perform
Tawaf of the Ka'ba (Umra) when you reached Mecca?" I said, "No." He said, "Go to
Tan'im with your brother 'Abdur-Rahman, and assume Ihram for 'Umra and I will
wait for you at such and such a place." So I went with 'Abdur-Rahman to Tan'im
and assumed Ihram for 'Umra. Then Safiya bint Huyay got menses. The Prophet
said, " 'Aqra Halqa! You will detain us! Didn't you perform Tawaf-al-Ifada on
the Day of Nahr (slaughtering)?" She said, "Yes, I did." He said, "Then there is no
harm, depart." So I met the Prophet when he was ascending the heights towards
Mecca and I was descending, or vice-versa." - Sahih al-Bukhari 2:815

"Ibn Umar used to spend the night at Dhi-Tuwa in between the two Thaniyas and
then he would enter Mecca through the Thaniya which is at the higher region
of Mecca, and whenever he came to Mecca for Hajj or Umra, he never made his
she camel kneel down except near the gate of the Masjid (Sacred Mosque) and
then he would enter (it) and go to the Black (stone) Corner and start from there
circumambulating the Kaaba seven times: hastening in the first three rounds
(Ramal) and walking in the last four. On finishing, he would offer two Rakat
prayer and set out to perform Tawaf between Safa and Marwa before returning to
his dwelling place. On returning (to Medina) from Hajj or Umra, he used to make
his camel kneel down at Al-Batha which is at Dhu-l-Hulaifa, the place where the
Prophet used to make his camel kneel down." - Sahih al-Bukhari 2:820

36
"During the year of the Conquest (of Mecca), the Prophet entered Mecca through
its upper part through Kada." - Sahih al-Bukhari 5:586

"Ibn `Umar used to spend the night at Dhi-Tuwa in between the two Thaniyas
and then he would enter Mecca through the Thaniya which is at the higher region
of Mecca" - Sahih al-Bukhari 1767

Allah’s Apostle came to Mecca through its higher region on the day of the
conquest (of Mecca) riding his she-camel on which Usma was riding behind him.
Sahih al-Bukhari 4:231

See also Isaq 148, page 102 and Qur'anic Geograpgy, page 226

The city of Mecca is located in a large area. It has only low rocky mountains rising
from the sand. All these descriptions about Mecca's upper and lower part does
not fit into Mecca, rather it fits perfectly into Petra. Petra has two thanya entrance
into the city, which one of them is the famous one that tourists pass through in
order for them to enter the city. The other side of the colonnaded street leads into
a maze of canyons that empty out into wadi araba. One side of Petra's passing is
the higher side and the other is the lower side.

The walls of Mecca


"...they surrounded him as he was at the side of one of the walls of Mecca" - Ibn
Ishaq, 823, page 554

No archaeological evidence has ever proved that Mecca had walls. Petra on the
other side had two walls, one on the high side of the city and the other from the
low side of the city.

Some say that it refers to wall on a building, but this is not the case since Ibn Ishaq
specifically writes "the walls OF Mecca".

The forbidden gathering place


According to the Quran and Islamic traditions, Bakkah (Mecca) is also called
Masjid al-Haraam, where masjid = mosque = gathering. It is an area surrounded
by signs, which is a strong sign to those who enter that it is the forbidden city.
Behind those signs no killing was allowed. What is interesting is that if one looks
at Mecca today, there are no special boundary stones. Petra on the other hand has
these large square cut stones called gjin rocks, that are maybe 5 times taller than
humans. There are more than 20 of them surrounding the entrances of Petra.

37
There are no signs of a Kaaba in Petra. This may have been destroyed by Ibn al-
Zubayr during the civil war of Hajjaj Yusuf.

"Al Tabarī tells us:According to Muhammad ibn ’Umar al-Wāqidī - Ibrāhīm ibn
Mūsā Ikrimah ibn Khālid: Ibn al-Zubayr demolished the sanctuary (Ka’ba) until
he had leveled it to the ground, and he dug out its foundation .... He placed the
Black Cornerstone by it in an ark [tabut] in a strip of silk" - Tabarī XX, page 123,
64 AH

The people of 'Aid, Midian and Thamud (Nabateans)


There are 23 references to the people from 'Aid in the Quran, which is the Biblical
version of 'Uz. There are seven references to the people from Midian. Most
importantly, there are 24 references to the people of Thamud, which is the other
name for the Nabateans. The Nabateans cut dwellings into mountains, which is
typically seen in Petra, and never in Mecca. Strangly enough, those three people
lived around 1000 kilometres away from Mecca, and there are no references that
they lived there.

The strange Qibla sentence from Al-Tabari


"When the armies of Kufa met ibn Zubayr, Bujayr ibn 'Abdallah al Musli spoke:
Praise be to God who has tested us with shackles and has tested you by your
forgiving us. Ibn Zubayr, we are people who turn to the same Qibla as you." -
Tabari 21:112

The part which says "to the same Qibla as you" is an interesting and strange
statement.

Conclusion
Pretty much almost anything referred to in the Quran and Islamic traditions does
not make sense with the description of Mecca. In the next page the points has
been summerized in a table.

For further study, read Supporting Evidence that Petra was the original Holy City
of Mecca by Dan Gibson, Qur’ānic Geography by Dan Gibson and The Mecca
Question by Jeremy Smith.

Dialect problem

38
39
“Uthman then ordered Zaid bin Thabit, ‘Abdullah bin AzZubair, Said bin Al-As
and ‘AbdurRahman bin Harith bin Hisham to rewrite the manuscripts in perfect
copies. ‘Uthman said to the three Quraishi men, “In case you disagree with Zaid
bin Thabit on any point in the Qur’an, then write it in the dialect of Quraish, the
Qur’an was revealed in their tongue.” – Sahih al-Bukhari, Vol 6. Hadith 510

When the Quran was written about 652 AD, there was no dialect - it only came
into existence in 8th century and the 9th century. The arabic skeletal script is
without the diacritical marks and vowelization:

Fathah = ah
Dhammah = oo
Kasrah = ii

None of the above dialect marks existed in the time of the prophet or Uthman in
652 AD. That means nobody in the world has the original Quran with the original
language without diacritical marks and vowelizations - except only one exists
which is the Sana manuscript. It is the only Quran that exists without the dialect
marks, but it has tons of deviations, is very different compared to today's Quran,
and about half of the book is missing. Furthermore with the help of X-ray it has
been found that people have erased older writings and replaced them with new.

The issue with not having the written dialect is that words can have more
meanings, in many situations complete opposite meanings. According to the
theologian Jay smith which also speaks, the difference in the dialects are not just
minor ones, but they change the whole meaning of the verses. Therefore the first
Quran must not include diacritical marks or vowelization, because at the time of
Muhammad and Uthman, it didn't exists at that time.

The real question is why would Allah choose the Arabic language which had a
lack of dialects in 600 AD, and would result in thousands of different meanings?
Even Allah can’t create a natural language that’s perfect if for no other reason than
the fact that languages keep changing. For example kafir used to mean “planter”
(someone who plants seeds) and the Quran even uses it to mean that in one place.
Now it no longer means that.

The Quran is exactly the same as the one Muhammad


revealed

40
This is one of the most important sections in this whole book, together with the
section which comes next about the 6 earliest Qurans. It is very important to
read this and understand what they mean. Basically every devoted muslim and
scholar says that the Quran is exactly the same as the one made by Muhammad or
Uthman. Muslim scholar Fethullah stated:

the Qur'an exists in Arabic, its original language and one that is still widely spoken
today. Second, its text is entirely reliable. It has not been altered, edited, or tampered
with since it was revealed.
- Fethullah Gulen

Suzanne Haneef has stated:

the Holy Qur’an is the only divinely revealed scripture in the history of mankind
which has been preserved to the present time in its exact original form…
- Suzanne Hannef

Abdullah Yusuf Ali has stated:

So well has it been preserved, both in memory and in writing, that the Arabic text
we have today is identical to the text as it was revealed to the Prophet. Not even a
single letter has yielded to corruption during the passage of the centuries.
- Abdullah Yusuf Ali

Now keep in mind that muslims claim that not one single letter has been changed.
This is going to change by reading this section which is taking directly by hadiths,
most importantly the most reliable hadith, Sahih al-Bukhari. The first claim
they make that it is written by Muhammad, which is not true. According to the
following hadith, it was Abu Bakr who ordered the Quran to be written from
people who had memorized it, but many had been killed:

"Abu Bakr As-Siddiq sent for me when the people! of Yamama had been killed
(i.e., a number of the Prophet’s Companions who fought against Musailama). (I
went to him) and found ‘Umar bin Al-Khattab sitting with him. Abu Bakr then
said (to me), “Umar has come to me and said: “Casualties were heavy among the
Qurra’ of the! Qur’an (i.e. those who knew the Quran by heart) on the day of the
Battle of Yalmama, and I am afraid that more heavy casualties may take place
among the Qurra’ on other battlefields, whereby a large part of the Qur’an may
be lost. Therefore I suggest, you (Abu Bakr) order that the Qur’an be collected.” –
Sahih Bukhari 6:61:509 + Sahih Bukhari 8:81:817.

41
Explanation: In this first example above it is stated that between 632-634 AD,
the first Caliph Abu Bakr did not have the Quran written down and neither did
Muhammad. He admits that people who had memorized parts of it had died and
says a large part of the Quran may be lost.

“During the battle of Yamama, 450 reciters of the Qur'an were killed.” - The True
Guidance - An Introduction To Qur'anic Studies, published by Light of Life, P.O.
BOX 13, A-9503 Villach, Austria, part 4, p. 47– citing Ibn Kathir’s Al-Bidaya wa
al-Nihaya, chapter on Battle of Yamama

Explanation: The number of memorizers that died was 450.

"Many (of the passages) of the Qur’an that were sent down were known by those
who died on the day of Yamama… but they were not known (by those who)
survived them, nor were they written down, nor had Abu Bakr, Umar or Uthman
(by that time) collected the Qur’an, nor were they found with even one (person)
after them." - Hadith Ibn Abi Dawud + Kitab Kitab al-Masahif, p. 23

Explanation: This hadith above clearly states that Quranic verses had been lost by
those who had died with them. And those who survived did not know them.

“So I started looking for the Qur’an and collecting it from (what was written on)
palme stalks, thin white stones and also from the men who knew it by heart,
till I found the last Verse of Surat at-Tauba (Repentance) with Abi Khuzaima
Al-Ansari, and I did not find it with anybody other than him” – Sahih Bukhari
6:61:509

Explanation: So Zayd Ibn Thabit agreed and looked for verses collect on palm
stalks, thin white stones and also from men who knew it by heart. He only found
one person who had memorized the Quran.

"'Abdullah bin 'Amr mentioned 'Abdullah bin Masud and said, "I shall ever love
that man, for I heard the Prophet saying, 'Take (learn) the Qur'an from four:
'Abdullah bin Masud, Salim, Mu'adh and Ubai bin Ka'b.' "" - Sahih al-Bukhari
6:61:521 (see also Sahih al-Bukhari 5:57:103 + Sahih al-Bukhari 5:58:150)

Explanation: Zayd Ibn Thabit is not one of the best reciters and compilers
according to Muhammad. Salim in the other hand was one of those killed in
Yamama.

42
"Narrated Ibn 'Abbas: 'Umar said, Ubai was the best of us in the recitation (of the
Qur'an) yet we leave some of what he recites.' Ubai says, 'PI have taken it from
the mouth of Allah's Apostle and will not leave for anything whatever." But Allah
said" - Sahih al-Bukhari 6:61:527

Explanation: Ubai was the best in the recitation, yet they leaved out some of
which he recited.

"Affan Ibn Muslim informed us; (he said): 'Abd al-Wahid Ibn Ziyad informed
us; (he said): Sulayman al-A'mash informed us on the authority of Shaqiq Ibn
Salamah; he said: 'Abd Allah Ibn Mas'ud delivered a sermon to us when the
order concerning uniform reading of the Qur'an was issued, as it was indeed. He
(Shaqiq) said: He mentioned about deceit and said: Who so deceived, will bring
his deceit on the Day of Resurrection. The people have been guilty of deceit in the
reading of the Qur'an. I like it to read according to the recitation of him (Prophet)
whom I love more than that of Zayd Ibn Thabit. By Him besides whom there is
no god! I learnt more than seventy surahs from the lips of the Apostle of Allah,
may Allah bless him, while Zayd Ibn Thabit was a youth, having two locks and
playing with the youth. Then he said: By Him besides Whom there is no other
god! If I know any one to be more conversant with the Book of Allah than me,
and if the camels could carry me to him, I shall surely go to him. Then ‘Abd Allah
went away. Shaqiq said: Subsequently I sat in the circles of the Companions of
the Apostle of Allah and others but none contradicted his statement." - Ibn Sa’d’s
Kitab al-Tabaqat, Volume 2, p. 444

Explanation: Ibn Masud, who was Muhammad's top teacher, declared that reading
the Quran from Zayd Ibn Thabit is like being guilty of deceit. Zayd Ibn Thabit was
also just a youth playing with other children during the lifetime of Muhammad.

""'Ubaidullah bin 'Abdullah bin 'Utbah informed me that 'Abdullah bin Mas'ud
disliked Zaid bin Thabit copying the Musahif, and he said: 'O you Muslims
people! Avoid copying the Mushaf and the recitation of this man. By Allah! When
I accepted Islam he was but in the loins of a disbelieving man' - meaning Zaid bin
Thabit - and it was regarding this that 'Abdullah bin Mas'ud said: 'O people of Al-
'Iraq! Keep the Musahif that are with you, and conceal them." - Jami` at-Tirmidhi
3104

Explanation: Abdullah bin Masud said to avoid copying the Quran by Zaid bin
Thabit, which is the modern day Quran.

43
"The people have been guilty of deceit in the reading of the quran. I like it better
to read according to the recitation of him (Prophet) whom I love more than that
of Zayd Ibn Thabit. By Him besides whom there is no god! I learnt more than
seventy surahs from the lips of the Apostle of Allah, may Allah bless him, while
Zayd ibn Thabit was a youth, having two locks and playing with the youth." - Ibn
sad Saÿd, Kitab al-Tabaqat al-Kabir, Vol.2, p.444

Explanation: Ibn Masud Masÿud regarded the codex compiled by Zaid and
standardised by Uthman as the sole text to be used throughout the Muslim world
thereafter as less authentic than his own.

"We used to read a verse of the Qur'an revealed in their connection, but later the
verse was cancelled. It was: "convey to our people on our behalf the information
that we have met our Lord, and He is pleased with us, and has made us pleased.""
- Sahih al-Bukhari 5:59:416

Explanation: The hadith above states that a verse has been cancelled.

“Allah sent Muhammad with the Truth and revealed the Holy Book to him, and
among what Allah revealed, was the Verse of the Rajam (the stoning of married
person (male & female) who commits illegal sexual intercourse, and we did recite
this Verse and understood and memorized it. Allah’s Apostle did carry out the
punishment of stoning and so did we after him. I am afraid that after a long time
has passed, somebody will say, ‘By Allah, we do not find the Verse of the Rajam in
Allah’s Book, and thus they will go astray by leaving an obligation which Allah has
revealed. ‘” – Sahih Bukhari 8:817

Explanation: The hadith above states that a verse is missing.

"Khuzaimah ibn Thabit said: "I see you have overlooked (two) verses and have
not written them". They said "And which are they?" He replied "I had it directly
(tilqiyya - 'automatically, spontaneously') from the messenger of Allah (saw)
(Surah 9, ayah 128): 'There has come to you a messenger from yourselves. It
grieves him that you should perish, he is very concerned about you : to the
believers he is kind and merciful', to the end of the surah". Uthman said "I bear
witness that these verses are from Allah"." - Ibn Abi Dawud, Kitab al-Masahif,
p.11

Explanation: The hadith above states that two verses got overlooked.

44
"Aishah ordered me to transcribe the Holy quran and asked me to let her know
when I should arrive at the verse Hafidhuu alaas-salaati waas-salaatil wustaa wa
quumuu lillaahi qaanitiin (2.238). When I arrived at the verse I informed her and
she ordered: Write it in this way, Hafidhuu alaas-salaati waas-salaatil wustaa wa
salaatil asri salaatil-ÿasri wa quumuu lillaahi qaanitiin. She added that she had
heard it so from the Apostle of Allah (saw)." - Muwatta Imam Malik, p.64

Explanation: The hadith above states that a verse got changed.

Altogether al-Hajjaj ibn Yusuf made eleven modifications in the reading of the
`Uthmanic text. .. In al-Baqarah (Surah 2.259) it originally read Lam yatasanna
waandhur, but it was altered to Lam yatassanah ... In maida al-Maÿida (Surah
5.48) it read Shar yaatan yaÿatan wa minhaajaan but it was altered to shir `atawwa
minhaajaan. (Ibn Abi Dawud, Kitab al-Masahif, p.117).

Explanation: The hadith above states that verses got modified.

‘Umar said, Ubai was the best of us in the recitation (of the Qur’an) yet we leave
some of what he recites.’ Ubai says, ‘PI have taken it from the mouth of Allah’s
Apostle and will not leave for anything whatever.” But Allah said “None of Our
Revelations do We abrogate or cause to be forgotten but We substitute something
better or similar.” – Sahih Bukhari Vol 6, 527

Explanation: The hadith above states that verses got substituted for better or
similar.

'A'isha reported that the Apostle of Allah ‫ ﷺ‬listened to the recitation of the Qur'an
by a man in the mosque. Thereupon he said: May Allah have mercy upon him;
be reminded me of the verse which I had been made to forget. - Sahih Muslim
2:1721

Explanation: In the hadith above, Muhammad forgot verses.

“A man got up (for prayer) at night, he read the Qur’an and raised his voice in
reading. When the morning came, the Apostle of Allah (peace_be_upon_him)
said: May Allah have mercy in so-an-so! Last night he reminded me a number of
verses which I was about to forget. ” - Sunan Abu-Dawud 25:3959

Explanation: In the hadith above, Muhammad forgot verses.

45
"It is reported from Ismail ibn Ibrahim from Ayyub from Naafi from Ibn Umar
who said: “Let none of you say ‘I have acquired the whole of the Qur’an‘. How does
he know what all of it is when much of the Qur’an has disappeared? Rather let
him say ‘I have acquired what has survived.’” - Al-Itqan, p. 524

Explanation: In the hadith above it is stated to be optimistic what has survived


and not focus on what has been lost.

"We used to recite a surah which resembled in length and severity to (Surah)
Bara’at. I have, however, forgotten it with the exception of this which I remember
out of it:” If there were two valleys full of riches, for the son of Adam, he would
long for a third valley, and nothing would fill the stomach of the son of Adam but
dust.” – Sahih Muslim Book 5, Hadith 2286

Explanation: In the hadith above some verses got forgotten.

“The Verse of stoning and of breastfeeding an adult ten times was revealed, and
the paper was with me under my pillow. When the Messenger of Allah died, we
were preoccupied with his death, and a tame sheep came in and ate it.” – Sunan
Ibn Majah Book 9, Hadith 2020

Explanation: In the hadith above a goat ate a verse. Furthermore the verse of
stoning is not in the Quran.

"Zaid bin Thabit said, “When the Quran was compiled from various written
manuscripts, one of the Verses of Surat Al-Ahzab was missing which I used to
hear Allah’s Apostle reciting. I could not find it except with Khuzaima bin Thabjt
Al-Ansari, whose witness Allah’s Apostle regarded as equal to the witness of two
men. And the Verse was:– “Among the believers are men who have been true to
what they covenanted with Allah.” (33.23)" – Sahih Bukhari 4:52:62

Explanation: In the hadith above people forgot verses.

"Allah sent Muhammad (saw) with the Truth and revealed the Holy Book to
him, and among what Allah revealed, was the Verse of the Rajam (the stoning of
married persons, male and female, who commit adultery) and we did recite this
verse and understood and memorized it. Allah's Apostle (saw) did carry out the
punishment of stoning and so did we after him. I am afraid that after a long time
has passed, somebody will say, "By Allah, we do not find the verse of the Rajam in

46
Allah's Book", and thus they will go astray by leaving an obligation which Allah
has revealed." - Sahih al-Bukhari, Vol.8, p.539

Explanation: The verse of stoning, even though Muhammad revealed it, does
not exists in the Quran. There are other hadith record that Muhammad ordered
stoning, like Muwatta Imam Malik, p.350.

"Ibn Abi Maryam related to us from Ibn Luhai'a from Abu'l-Aswad from 'Urwa
b. az-Zubair from 'A'isha who said, "Surat al-Ahzab (Surah 33) used to be recited
in the time of the prophet with two hundred verses, but when 'Uthman wrote out
the codices he was unable to procure more of it than there is in it today" - Abu
Ubaid's Kitab Fada'il al-Quran

Explanation: Surah 33 contains today 73 verses, which means that 127 verses has
been lost when Uthman wrote out the manuscript in ca. 652 AD

"Abu Harb b. Abu al-Aswad reported on the authority of his father that Abu
Musa al-Ash'ari sent for the reciters of Basra. They came to him and they were
three hundred in number. They recited the Qur'an and he said: You are the best
among the inhabitants of Basra, for you are the reciters among them. So continue
to recite it. (But bear in mind) that your reciting for a long time may not harden
your hearts as were hardened the hearts of those before you. We used to recite a
surah which resembled in length and severity to (Surah) Bara'at. I have, however,
forgotten it with the exception of this which I remember out of it:" If there were
two valleys full of riches, for the son of Adam, he would long for a third valley,
and nothing would fill the stomach of the son of Adam but dust." And we used
so recite a slirah which resembled one of the surahs of Musabbihat, and I have
forgotten it, but remember (this much) out of it:" Oh people who believe, why
do you say that which you do not practise" (lxi 2.) and" that is recorded in your
necks as a witness (against you) and you would be asked about it on the Day of
Resurrection" (xvii. 13)." - Sahih Muslim 2286

Explanation: Two surahs (chapters) are missing

So the verses were: lost, disappeared, forgotten, cancelled, missing, overlooked,


modified, substituted, eaten by a sheep, and excluded. Now comes the second part
which happened in around 650-652 AD.

"Hudhaifa bin Al-Yaman came to Uthman at the time when the people of Sham
and the people of Iraq were Waging war to conquer Arminya and Adharbijan.

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Hudhaifa was afraid of their (the people of Sham and Iraq) differences in the
recitation of the Qur'an, so he said to 'Uthman, "O chief of the Believers! Save this
nation before they differ about the Book (Quran) as Jews and the Christians did
before." So 'Uthman sent a message to Hafsa saying, "Send us the manuscripts of
the Qur'an so that we may compile the Qur'anic materials in perfect copies and
return the manuscripts to you." Hafsa sent it to 'Uthman. 'Uthman then ordered
Zaid bin Thabit, 'Abdullah bin AzZubair, Said bin Al-As and 'AbdurRahman
bin Harith bin Hisham to rewrite the manuscripts in perfect copies. 'Uthman
said to the three Quraishi men, "In case you disagree with Zaid bin Thabit on
any point in the Qur'an, then write it in the dialect of Quraish, the Qur'an was
revealed in their tongue." They did so, and when they had written many copies,
'Uthman returned the original manuscripts to Hafsa. 'Uthman sent to every
Muslim province one copy of what they had copied, and ordered that all the other
Qur'anic materials, whether written in fragmentary manuscripts or whole copies,
be burnt. Said bin Thabit added, "A Verse from Surat Ahzab was missed by me
when we copied the Qur'an and I used to hear Allah's Apostle reciting it. So we
searched for it and found it with Khuzaima bin Thabit Al-Ansari. (That Verse
was): 'Among the Believers are men who have been true in their covenant with
Allah.' (33.23)" – Sahih al-Bukhari 6:61:510

Explanation: Hudhaifa was afraid that the people of Iraq and Syria had different
recitations, so Uthman then ordered these four compilers to write a second
version in the Quraish dialect, and send those 9 copies to the provinces which
were: Basra. Baghdad, Damascus, Jerusalem, Cairo, Alexandria, Aden, Herat and
Nishapur. Take a note that the ordered the previous copies to be burned. Why
would you want to burn previous copies? This can only mean that the Quran
today is not the same as the one muslims claimed is to be from Muhammad, since
the previous and different copies were burned. Remember that if all the previous
Qurans had to be burned, that means none of them were the correct ones.
Strangely enough Zaid Ibn Thabit is again one of the compilers.

"By Allah, he did not act or do anything in respect of the manuscripts (masahif)
except in full consultation with us, for he said, "What is your opinion in this
matter of qiraat qiraÿat (reading)? It has been reported to me that some are
saying `My reading is superior to your reading'. That is a perversion of the
truth". We asked him, "What is your view (on this)?" He answered, "My view is
that we should unite the people on a single text (mushaf wahid), then there will
be no further division or disagreement". We replied "What a wonderful idea!"
Someone from the gathering there asked, "Whose is the purest (Arabic) among
the people and whose reading (is the best)?" They said the purest (Arabic) among

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the people was that of said Saÿid ibn as al-ÿAs and the (best) reader among them
was Zaid ibn Thabit. He (`Uthman) said, "Let the one write and the other dictate".
Thereafter they performed their task and he united the people on a (single) text." -
Ibn Abi Dawud, Kitab al-Masahif, p.22

Explanation: Uniting people on a new single text means all the existing Qurans at
that time were different.

"He transcribed the texts (suhuf) into a single codex (mushaf waahid), he
arranged the suras, and he restricted the dialect to the vernacular (lugaat) of the
Quraysh on the plea that it (quran) had been sent down in their tongue." - As-
Suyuti, Al-Itqan fii `Ulum quran al-QurŸan, p.140

Explanation: Uthman even arranged the Suras compared to the old ones.

So Uthman burned previous copies and made a new single one in 9 copies with
a new dialect. The Quran was not even written down until after the death of
Muhammad. Now does this sound like a book that was completely Allah’s words
and the exact revelation of him, words by words? They give an idea that that the
Quran that we have today is absoutely not the same Quran Muhammad revealed.
In the next section it will be discussed that Muslims don't even have the original
copies of the Quran from Uthman, and the ones they do have from 8th and 9th
century are completely different from the one today.

Furthermore Ibn Mujahid introduced 7 new Qurans in 934 AD with different


dialects, due to the fact that dialects evovled in the arabic language, and he
ordered the previous Quranic manuscripts to be illegitimate, without burning
them. In the year 1924, after the Islamic caliphate ended, the Quran (specifically
the Hafs) was again edited that year and republished, however it is not known
how and in what extent it was edited. On the next page, the chronology of the
Quran is illustrated.

The Quran is "eternal”, “sent down”, “completed by


Uthman in 652 AD”, and “unchanged”.
It only requires two words for non-muslims to say: Prove it. It is not possible to
prove that the Quran is uncreated and exists eternally in clay tablets in heaven as
revealed in the Quran:

49
50
"[Inscribed] in a Preserved Slate." - Quran 85:22

It is not possible to prove that the Quran has been sent down to Muhammad
either:

“AlifLaamRa. We have sent down to you (this Book) in order that you bring
mankind from darkness to the light by the permission of your Lord, to the Path of
the Almighty, the Praised.” - Quran 14:1

The more important part of the equation are the two other statements which
people continually claim that the Quran is completed by Muhammad in 632
AD or Uthman in 652 AD, and it is unchanged since then. To this there is this
Quranic verse:

"Indeed, it is We who sent down the Qur'an and indeed, We will be its guardian." -
Quran 15:9

The Quranic verse above implies that the Quran is protected on Earth to any
changes. No muslims have ever proved that it was completed by Uthman in 652
AD and is unchanged. No muslims has ever come with only one copy of the
Quran from 652 AD. There is not a single Quran that has been presented from
that era, not even a single one.

“‘Uthman then ordered Zaid bin Thabit, ‘Abdullah bin AzZubair, Said bin Al-As
and ‘AbdurRahman bin Harith bin Hisham to rewrite the manuscripts in perfect
copies. ‘Uthman said to the three Quraishi men, “In case you disagree with Zaid
bin Thabit on any point in the Qur’an, then write it in the dialect of Quraish, the
Qur’an was revealed in their tongue.” They did so, and when they had written
many copies, ‘Uthman returned the original manuscripts to Hafsa. ‘Uthman sent
to every Muslim province one copy of what they had copied, and ordered that
all the other Qur’anic materials, whether written in fragmentary manuscripts or
whole copies, be burnt.” - Sahih al-Bukhari, Hadith 510

According to the Sahih Bukhari hadith above there should be 9 exact copies of
the same Quran from the Uthman era. It is important to remember from previous
section that they are not even the original from Muhammad since Uthman in 652
AD ordered to burn the previous versions. No one from around the world has
come up with only a single copy of that Quran. Below are the six oldest Quranic
manuscripts known, and it is those manuscripts many have used to justify the

51
claim that the Quran is unchanged but also complete:

• Topkapi
• Sammarqand
• Ma’il
• Houseini
• Petropolitanus
• San’AA

The two turkish muslim scholars Prof. Dr. Ekmeleddin Ihsanoglu and Dr. Tayyar
Altikulaq had access to the Qurans for a complete five years term from 2002-2007
which was called the al Mushaf al Sharif investigation. Ekmeleddin İhsanoğlu
concluded:

"We have non of Uthman’s Mushafs"


"Nor do we have any copies from those Mushafs"
"These Mushafs date from the later Umayyad period"

Mushafs means manuscripts and the Umayyad period is from 661-749 AD which
is mostly 8th century and definitely not a part of the Uthmanic era where the
Quran should have been written in 652 AD. Dr. Tayyar Altikulaq made also an
individual statement saying:

"No serious scholarly work has been done on them"


"These Mushafs date from the early - mid 8th century"
"They are not Uthmanic, nor copies sent by him"

"Even though we would like to publish this sacred text as the Mushaf of Caliph
'Uthman, our research indicated that it was neither the private Mushaf of Caliph
'Uthman, nor one of the Mushafs he sent to various centers"

Remember that not only are these six manuscripts not from Uthman, they are
neither copies of them. So let's see what exactly is known about these manuscripts
is proves that they are neither the Uthmanic nor to the one the world currently
uses:

• Topkapi:
Dates between 672 AD to 772 AD (because of vowelling and dotting)
They found 2270 deviations from the Quran we have today.
Deviations in grammatical rules

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Spelling mistakes
7 folios in the manuscript were copied in later
They also found out that only 78% of it can be read due to damage, holes
• Samarqand:
Dated to early to mid 8th century
Undisciplined spelling, different writing styles, scribal mistakes, copyist
mistakes, written by someone with very little experience to Arabic
Later additions
Only goes to Sura 43 (there are 114 Suras in the Quran)
Only 1 surah is complete, 24 surahs are partial complete and 18 surahs do
not exists
• Ma’il:
Dates to early 8th century to late 8th century
Written in the Hijazi script
Only goes to Sura 43
Includes only 53% of the Quran
Also varies in manuscript
Disagrees with Caireen Mushafs 93 times
• Al Husseini:
Dates to early 8th century and up to 9th century (Francois Deroche)
It is not Uthmanic
Coverings over the text, signifying hiding, censoring original text
• Petropolitanus
Early 8th century
It disagrees with 1924 Cairene Quran 93 times
Five different copyists
Variations in script
There are corrections to the text
Later modified with eraser and additions
• Sana'A:
Earliest Quran, 705 AD
1000 variations compared to 1924 Cairene manuscript
Different in surah arrangements
Jumps from surah 19 to surah 22
Different in scripts
Later additions (up to 60-70 years later)
Only Quran known in the world with no diacritical and vowelization
Ultraviolet light photograph of the Sana'A revealed lower text (dated 671
AD - 705 AD) and upper text (dated 705 AD and later).
Lower text is not similar to any Qurans

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In 63 verses in the lower text there are 70 variants from today’s Quran (16
of them are entire sentences)

Islamic apologists: cannot say it is eternal, cannot say it is sent down, cannot say
it is completed by Uthman, cannot say it is unchanged. Because they all disagree
with each other and they all disagree with the Quran today! So why does this all
matter that they were all especially written in the 8th century? The Bible was not
translated into Arabic until 8th century, so at this time they might had copied it
into the Quran.

Examples of variations from the six manuscripts compared to the Cairene


manuscript (Fahd Mushaf) which is the modern day Quran.

Topkapi vs. todays Quran

Surah and Topkapi 1924 Cairene Quran


verse
14:38 "You know what we conceal and what he "You know what we conceal and
revealed" what we reveal"
3:158 "If you should die or be slain, you shall not "If you should die or be slain, before
be gathered" Him you shall undoubtedly be
gathered"
66:8 "O ye who believe! Repent until you give by " O ye who believe! Turn unto Allah
it sincerely" in sincere repentance!"
23:86 "Say, Who is the Lord of the heavens and "Say, Who is the Seven heavens and
the earth?" Lord of the Great Throne?"
(seven was added later)
73:20 "..two thirds (ERASED WORD) of the "..two thirds of the night.."
night.."

Petropolitanus vs. todays Quran

Surah and Petropolitanus 1924 Cairene Quran


verse
14:37 "Our lord, I have settled some of my "Our lord, I have settled some of
descendants in an uncultivated valley near my descendants in an uncultivated
Your sacred House, our Lord, that they valley near Your sacred House, our
may establish prayer, and make hearts Lord, that they may establish prayer,
among the people incline towards them" so make hearts among the people
incline towards them"

Sana'A vs. todays Quran

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Surah and Petropolitanus 1924 Cairene Quran
verse
49:15 "They believe.." "The believers.."
mu minu got changed to mu minun
centuries later
2:88 And they said, "Our hearts are wrapped." And they said, "Our hearts are
But, [in fact], Allah has cursed them for wrapped." But, [in fact], Allah has
their unjustice, so little is it that they cursed them for their disbelief, so
believe. little is it that they believe.
8:74 "But those who have believed and "But those who have believed
emigrated and fought in the cause of Allah and emigrated and fought in the
with their money and themselves and cause of Allah and those who gave
those who gave shelter and aided - it is they shelter and aided - it is they who
who are the believers, truly. For them is are the believers, truly. For them is
forgiveness and noble provision." forgiveness and noble provision."
9:2 "So travel freely, [O disbelievers], "So travel freely, [O disbelievers],
throughout the land [during] four months throughout the land [during] four
but know that they do do not escape months but know that you cannot
Allah and his prophet and that Allah will cause failure to Allah and that Allah
disgrace the disbelievers." will disgrace the disbelievers."
9:9 "They have exchanged the signs of Allah They have exchanged the signs of
and their oath for a small price and averted Allah for a small price and averted
[people] from the way of Allah. Indeed, it [people] from His way. Indeed, it
was evil that they were doing." was evil that they were doing.
9:13 "And why don't you fight a people who "Would you not fight a people who
broke their oaths and they were the first broke their oaths and determined to
to start (aggression) and they intended to expel the Messenger, and they had
drive out the prophet? Do you fear them? begun [the attack upon] you the first
But Allah has more right that you should time? Do you fear them? But Allah
fear Him, if you are [truly] believers." has more right that you should fear
Him, if you are [truly] believers."
9:18 "The mosques of Allah are only to be "The mosques of Allah are only
maintained by those who believe in to be maintained by those who
Allah and the Last Day and he did jihad believe in Allah and the Last Day
(struggled) in the name of Allah, and and establish prayer and give zakah
did not fear (anyone) but Allah, for it is and do not fear except Allah, for it
expected that those who are succesful will is expected that those will be of the
be of the [rightly] guided." [rightly] guided."

55
9:80 "Ask forgiveness for them, [O "Ask forgiveness for them, [O
Muhammad], or do not ask forgiveness Muhammad], or do not ask
for them. If you should ask forgiveness for forgiveness for them. If you
them seventy times - Allah does not forgive should ask forgiveness for them
them, indeed Allah does not guide the seventy times - never will Allah
defiantly disobedient people." forgive them. That is because
they disbelieved in Allah and His
Messenger, and Allah does not
guide the defiantly disobedient
people."

The reason why many examples are taken for the Sana'A manuscript is because it
is the oldest manuscript and is the only manuscript which has no diacritical marks
or vowelization. This means if apologists have to use one manuscript to prove
that the Quran hasn't been changed, then the Sana'A is the only manuscript they
are allowed to do so, because diacritical marks and vowelization came in 8th and
9th century. What is special about this, is that not only is it the oldest Quranic
manuscript, but also because the manuscript is a direct evidence of evolution
since todays Quranic verses are not present in the text which was erased, but came
into the new text written over it. The below table shows which ones:

The Birmingham folios only consist of surah 18, surah 19 and surah 20 on only
two papers. The Carbon-14 dating was determined to be between 568-645 AD in
at the University of Oxford. Just because the papers were made 100 years before,
Uthman could have written the Quran from those papers. There is however a
problem with the radiometric dating: There has been made 7 carbon-dating
test on the Sanaa manuscript, which was dated to be 661-705 AD by analyzing
the text. Four of those seven tests, in Lyon (France), Kiel (Germany), Zurich
(Switzerland), and Oxford (England), was determined to be 390 - 550 AD, even
though the text was analyzed to be around 661-705 AD, which is a difference of
up to 315 years later. Three others fall under the life of Muhammad, and only one
falls under the Uthamic rule. Because of this diverse of C14-dating, it is hard to
determine what really happened, and you cannot know for sure if the Arabs used
old papers which were 50 years old, 100 years old, or up to 315 years, which is
why the only way to look at these folios is to look at what it consist of.

Surah 18
This chapter includes the People of the Cave (The Seven Sleepers) who hide
in a cave in hundreds of years from prosecution. The second main story is the
story of the rich and the poor. The third story is about Moses who travels to gain
knowledge with Al-Khidr. The final main story is about a man named Dhul-

56
Qarnayn who traveled and reached the east and the west of the earth.

Surah 19
There are three main segments of surah 19. The first main part is about the
prophet Zachariah and the birth of his son John. It also consists of the story of
Mary and the birth of her son Jesus, and lastly the identity that Jesus is not God's
son. The second main part consists of Abraham's departure but also includes
many other prophets. The third main part is about resurrection and the Day of
Judgment alongside depictions of Abraham's life.

Surah 20
Surah 20 includes how great God is, the story of Moses and the story of Adam,
where each of them are broken into smaller segments.

Neither surah 18, surah 19 or surah 20 has anything to do with Muhammad, his
life or conquest. They could have been written before Muhammad and it wouldn't
make any difference.

So by reading the sections "The Quran is exactly the same as the one Muhammad
revealed" and this section here "The Quran is "eternal”, “sent down”, “completed by
Uthman in 652 AD”, and “unchanged”." It is clear where the modern day, todays
Quran comes from, naimly the 1924 Cairene Mushaf which is revised from the
Hafs (Asim) manuscript. That means the earliest manuscript one can find of the
same Quran today is from the 1924 version, not earlier. So for those people who
uses miracles of numbers, you cannot find the same miracles in earlier versions,
let alone in the six earliest manuscripts which are totally different than those
today. In the next page an illustration of the development of the Quran has been
summarized from these two sections.

The earliest quranic writings on coins and on the Dome of the Rock do not
coincide with the current quranic text

The evidence for Islamic coins


The problem during Muhammad and between 624 AD till 660s AD, is that there
is no evidence for Islam, Muhammad, Mecca or anything related.

• Byzantine emperor Heaclius (ruled between 610-641 AD) had his own coins,
where on his front side, is depicting him and his to sons, Constatine III and

57
Heraklonas, holding crosses. This is the coin that was used until 660 AD.
• The arab coins contained a cross in front and back until 660 AD

Now this is a problem because according to Islam, crosses are forbidden.

"I never used to leave in the Prophet (saw) house anything carrying images or
crosses but he obliterated it." - Sahih al-Bukhari 5952

"The Messenger of Allah (saw) never left in his house anything containing the
figure of a cross without destroying it." - Sunan Abi Dawud 4151

"A man from among the people of the Cross will raise the Cross and will say: ‘The
Cross has prevailed.’ Then a man among the Muslims will become angry and will
go and break the Cross. Then the Romans will prove treacherous (breaking the
treaty) (and will gather) for the fierce battle.”" - Sunan Ibn Majah 4089

During the Umayyad Caliphate (661-750 AD):

• Mu'awiyah introduced a new coin in 661 AD, but without a cross. In this
coin there is an image of the christian byzantine emperor Heraclius, who
ruled between 610-641 AD, with his son Constantine III. This coin is still not
Islamic.
• Mu'awiyah introduced a new copper coin in 661 AD, which contains a cross
over his head and a cross on his hand. Mu'awiyah died in 680 AD, so even
though the Islamic calendar started in 624 AD (56 years later), the coins still
not represented Islam at the time he died.
• Another coin in the western part was introduced in 661 AD, which stated: la
hukm illa lillah. Lillah means "Unto Allah". On the back side there is an image
of a typical Sassanid (persian) fire altar which is a part of the zoroastrian
religion. This means the coin is not meant for the Islamic god named Allah,
but the Zoroastrian god Al-ilah. It was the Nabateans who invented this words
before Islam. Even though this would be a reference to Islam, it still is 57 years
later than Islams beginning.
• Mu'awiyah introduced another coin in 663 AD, and for the first time ever the
Bismillah (In the name of Allah) is introduced, and is the first reference to
anything related to Islam. But again the back side has an image of the typical
Sassanid (persian) fire altar which is a part of the zoroastrian religion. But
the problem here is that Bismillah is not the same as the Quranic Bismillah al
Rahman al Rahim.
• Mu'awiyah introduced another coin in 667 AD, but here it says Bismillah

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Al-Malik (In the name of Allah - The King). There is still no reference to
Muhammad or anything Islamic.
• Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan (ruled between 680 - 705 AD) built the Dome of
the Rock in Jerusalem in 691 AD, and finally introduced in 692 AD a coin
which contained "Bismillah La Illah Illa-Allah Muhammad Rasul Allah"
(In the name of God there is no God but God alone and Muhammad is his
messenger)

In 692 AD is the first reference to Islam. There are cases where coins are dated
to 685 AD which contains Muhammad, but on the other side of the coins is the
fire altar of the Zoroastrian religion. Other similar coins are dated between 685-
695 AD. Regardless if this would be the case, they were still introduced by Abd
al-Malik, and therefore a complete 61-75 years after the beginning of the Islamic
calendar.

Now the problem with all those coins is that they all contain images, and therefore
are not 100% Islamic. The first ever real Islamic coin with no images was made
in 696 AD, which is 73 years after the beginning of the Islamic calendar. It is
forbidden to image people, and this is the reason why there is no images on coins
in Islamic countries. Now what is interesting is what the coin says:

"Muhammad is the messenger of Allah, he sent him with guidance and true
religion to make victorious over every religion, even if the associates are averse" -
Islamic coin by Abd al-Malik, 696 AD

This reminds of surah 9:33:

"It is He who has sent His Messenger with guidance and the religion of truth to
manifest it over all religion, although they who associate others with Allah dislike
it." - Quran 9:33

The problem is that it is not the same, even in the origical arabic language. This
may be an evidence that the coin predates the Quran.

The evidence for Muhammad


570: Muhammad was born
610: Met Jibril in the Hira Cave
610-622: Received revelations in Mecca

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621: Mi'raj to the seventh heaven
622: Hijra from Mecca to medina
622-632: Received revelations in Medina
624: Muhammad began waging war on Medina
632: Muhammad died
632-634: Abu Bakr became the new leader
634-644: Umar ruled
644-656: Uthman ruled
656-661: Ali (adobted son of Muhammad) ruled

From 624-661 the period is called Rashidun period. From 685-705 it is called the
Umayyd dynasty which was ruled by Abd A-Malick.

The sira which is the biography of Muhammad, the hadiths which is the life of
Muhammad based on his companions, and the tafsir which are the commentaries
- none of them were written during Muhammad's life. They weren't even
written down under the Rashidun or Umaydd dynasty, but later than that. It is
actually very strange that every single human being who lived during the time
of Muhammad were dead long before when the hadiths, sira, and tafsirs were
written. Th first person to write about Muhammad’s biography was Ibn Ishaq
in 765 CE, which is 133 years after Muhammad’s death. That material is not
available. The next material which is based on Muhammad’s life was written
by Ibn Hisham until he died in 833 CE which is 201 years after Muhammad.
The hadiths by Al-Bukhari which is the most reliable hadith was written in
870 CE which is about 240 years after Muhammad died. The tafsir which are
the commentaries were written in 923 CE, which is almost 300 years after
Muhammad died.

That it took centuries to start writing about Muhammad’s life should make
everyone wonder about the reliability of these. To make a good comparison, the
Bible has been taken as an example:

33: Jesus died


48-64: Paul's letters (commentaries)
50-66: Gospels of Mathew, Mark and Luke
52-62: Acts
92: Gospels of John (the last written down)

Everything about Jesus was finished 59 years after Jesus had died and many of
the eyewitnesses could have still lived in the year of 92 CE. Two of them who

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wrote them were eyewitnesses and two of them got the information from the
eyewitnesses. To compare this to the biographies of Muhammad, nobody who
wrote the tafsirs, hadiths r siras knew Muhammad or knew someone who knew
Muhammad because they were long dead.

The first arabic inscription of Muhammad was not till 691 when the mosque in
Jerusalem was build. The first coin with the name of Muhammad was made 692
CE, even though they had the opportunities to make them before in the 650s
or 660s. The first arabic reference to muslims was first in 690s. Before they were
called muslims, they were called saracen, hagarene, ishmaelite, maghraye or
muhajiroun. Even the first reference to Mecca was in 741 which is 109 years after
the death of Muhammad. A confusing fact is that the name of Muhammad is only
mentioned 4 times in the Quran and Jesus is mentioned 93 times.

What is strange is that the Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem was build because
Muhammad had his journey to the seventh heaven. This is the reason why the
mosque was built and yet there are scriptures on the walls in that mosque which
states this.

The late Yehuda Nevo from Jerusalem University extensively surveyed Arabic rock
inscriptions, scattered over the Negev and Syro-Jordanian deserts. His research
gives a useful picture of the historical Muhammad from contemporary non-
Muslim sources.

In the Arab religious texts from the earliest Sufyani period (661-684 AD) there is
a monotheistic creed but a complete absence of any reference to Muhammad. His
name is only found on Arab inscriptions after 690 AD. The formula Muhammad
rasul Allah (Muhammad is God’s prophet) occurs first on an Arab-Sassanian coin
from 690 AD, struck in Damascus. More importantly, the first appearance of the
Triple Confession of Faith including the Tawhid (God is one), Muhammad rasul
Allah (Muhammad is his prophet) and rasul Allah wa-’abduhu (the human nature
of Jesus) is in ‘Abd al-Malik’s inscription at the Dome of the Rock, dated 691 AD.
Before this the Muslim confession of faith cannot be substantiated.

Hence, for a full 60 years after the death of Muhammad, the official Arab religious
confession did not include Muhammad in its set formulae. Instead it revealed a
monotheistic belief, developing Judaeo-Christian concepts in a particular literary
style. When the Muhammadan creed is introduced, during the Marwanid period
(after 684 AD) it appears almost overnight as the only form of official religious
declaration in formal documents. It seems that Muhammad’s elevation to the

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status of universal prophet did not occur until the late 7th century, long after his
death.

The book and the man


If the Quran and the life of Muhammad (hadith/sira/tafsir) didn't exists, there are
no other evidence that supports Muhammad's activity ever existed during 570-
632. The first reference that Muhammad lived was after the Uthmanic ruling (660
AD)

Masjid al-Haram was built in 78 AH (697-698 AD)


An inscription dating from 78 AH (697-98 CE) was recently found on a rock in
the region of Huma al-Numoor, north west of Ta'if, Saudi Arabia. The translation
of the inscription is:

1. Al-Rayyān b. 'Abdullāh testifies that there is no god but God


2. and he testifies that Muhammad is the Messenger of God.
3. then reiterates to those to come to testify to
4. that, God have mercy on al-Rayyān.
5. May He forgive him and cause him to be guided to the path of Paradise
6. and I ask him for marytrdom in his path. A-
7. -men. This was written in
8. the year the Masjid al-Harām was built
9. in the seventy eighth year.

It is an inscription stating that Masjid al-Haram, the mosque that surrounds the
Kaaba was built in 78 AH in Islamic calendar, which is converted to 697-698 AD.

Masjid al-Haram is mentioned in Quran 2:144, 2:149, 2:150, 2:191, 2:196, 2:217,
5:2, 8:34, 9:7, 9:19, 9:28, 17:1, 22:25, 48:25, and 48:27. It is mentioned 15 times
before Muhammad died in 632 AD, and yet it was build in 697-698 AD, which is
65-66 years after Muhammad died.

Some people claim that the inscription says rebuilt instead of built, but the Arabic
word BNY on the inscription clearly means built and not rebuilt. Keep in mind
that the mosque was according to the hadiths below the first mosque ever built,
which contradicts with the inscriptions:

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Narrated Abu Dhaar: I said, “O Allah’s Apostle! Which mosque was built first?”
He replied, “Al-Masjid-ul-Haram.” I asked, “Which (was built) next?” He replied,
“Al-Masjid-ul-Aqs-a (i.e. Jerusalem).” I asked, “What was the period in between
them? He replied, forty years. - Sahih al-Bukhari 4:55:636 + Sahih Muslim 520 a

Al-Aqsa Mosque in Jerusalem was introduced too


early
“Exalted is He who took His Servant by night from al-Masjid al-Haram to al-
Masjid al-Aqsa” – Quran 17:1

Al-Aqsa Mosque in Jerusalem was build in 705 AD which is 73 years after


Muhammad’s death. If the Quran was talking about Dome of the Rock, then it
was build in 691 AD, about 60 years after the death of Muhammad. In addition to
that there weren’t Muslims in Jerusalem during the lifetime of Muhammad, but
first in 636 AD when the first Muslim army reached Jerusalem and conquered
it six months later in 637 AD. It was during this time the second caliph, Umar
(ruled 634-644 AD), build a small prayer house during the Rashidun Caliphate
(632-661 AD) which was then later build into the larger Al-Aqsa Mosque. The
construction of mosque didn't start until the late 7th century by Abd al-Malik and
and finished by his son al-Walid.

Dirhams introduced too early


"And they sold him for a reduced price - a few dirhams - and they were,
concerning him, of those content with little." - Quran 12:20

The coins called dirhams were introduced by the Sufyani family after 661 AD,
during the Umayyad Caliphate (661-750 AD).

The pre-Islamic romance poetry of 'Antara


The poetry of 'Antara which mentions dirham is claimed to be written in pre-
Islamic era. However, the 'Antara was only passed down orally, until it was first
written down in 1820 AD. Thus it could have been well incorporated into the
account since the dirham was well kown in the 19th century.

Arab conquerors were not referred to as Muslims


Khosrow II (570-628 AD) was the last great Sasanian king (shah) of Iran, and was
killed in 628 AD. Thereafter the Sassanian Empire began to decline and the arabs
took over by 651 AD. The names for the arabs used were saracen, muhajirun,
maghrave, hagarene and ishmaelite - but never muslims. By the time of Abd al-
Malik (ruled 685-705 AD), they controlled from Tripoli in Libya, and all the way
to Afghanistan, but they were not reffered to as muslims anywhere in litteratur
until Abd al-Malik introduced Islam, Allah and Muhammad in the protocols, in
the Dome of the Rock in 691 AD, and in the coins in 692 AD.

The arabs, jews and the christians had a good


relationship until 634-640 AD
The non-muslim sources Doctrina Iacobi which was written between 634-640
AD, and the Armenian Chronicle which was written in 660 AD by Sebeos, states
that the arabs, the Jews and the Christians had a good relationship with each other
until around 634-640 AD, at the time where Palestine was conquered. This is up
to 16 years after Muhammad waged war on Medina which was in 624 AD.

Summary
The complete summary of all the points have been illustrated in the next page.
What is interesting is that they all confirm each other: You cannot find anything
islamic between 632 AD (when Muhammad died) until 661 AD, whether it is
Quranic manuscripts, coins, Mecca, qibla, internal sources, external sources,
inscriptions - or anything related to Islam. The only piece of evidence which is still
debatable is the Birmimgham folios, but it only consists of 2 papers with surah 18,
surah 19 and surah 20 - and exactly those chapters have nothing to do with Islam,
Muhammad or Mecca.

Islam falls if the Quran is not true


- Jay Smith
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Chapter 2: Contradictions in the
Quran
Introduction
This chapter will reveal many different contradictions in the Quran which are
important to know. Although there are many more which has not been included,
the problem with those are that people will always try to find anything unrelated
to prove them right, even if they have nothing to do it the verse in question. Many
times the verses they extract approves something and contradicts something,
which leads to even more verses to extract. It is therefore a common experience
that the more you discuss about Quranic verses, the lower your productivity in
your daily life drops.

The author of the Qur’an says the Jews say, “Ezra is the
son of Allah“
"The Jews say, “Ezra is the son of Allah “; and the Christians say, “The Messiah
is the son of Allah .” That is their statement from their mouths; they imitate the
saying of those who disbelieved [before them]. May Allah destroy them; how are
they deluded?" – Quran 9:30

The Quranic verse is also supported by Sahih Bukhari:

“What did you worship? They will say: We worshipped ‘Uzair (Ezra), son of Allah.
It would be said to them: You tell a lie;” – Sahih Bukhari” 1:352

This is not a contradiction, rather a mistake about the Jewish scripture. It says The
Jews say, “Ezra is the son of Allah”, which is not a part of any Jewish scriptures,
nor the Torah or Talmuds. The only son mentioned as God's son in the Jewish
scriptures is Israel.

"Who has ascended into heaven and descended? Who has gathered the wind in
His fists? Who has wrapped the waters in His garment? Who has established all
the ends of the earth? What is His name or His son’s name? Surely you know!" -
Proverbs 30:4

Ezra was just a priest and said to be very skilled in law. The first claim people
make is that the verse doesn’t say Ezra but Uzair. This statement is still wrong,
because Ezra or not, the Jews only mentioned Israel as the son of God and nobody
else. It is worth remembering that Israel is mentioned 93 times as Isra’il/Israeel
in the Quran, and never as Uzair. Furthermore there is also the Angel of Death

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named Azrael. The description that fits Uzair and Ezra is from the tafsir of Ibn
Kathir which is the most reliable tafsir. The pronunciation between the names
Ezra and Uzair are very close indeed.

Many people claim that only some Jews at the time of Muhammad said this by
referring to al-Jahiz and al-Tabari (d. 923), but this sect has died out. Ibn Hazm
(d. 1064) also wrote that there was a group of Jews in Yemen who believed it.
Their statement is irrelevant because God would not make a revelation about
some few tribes who believed that Ezra was the son of God, when in fact the
majority of Jews, together with the Torah and Talmud all confirms that Ezra
was just a priest. Why make a revelation about some tribes who didn't had any
big voices in the Jewish majority? Keep in mind that these sources are not very
reliable since the ony sources are the muslims themselves, and they all mentioned
those Jewish tribes 200-400 years after Muhammad died. There are no Jewish
sources which claimed any tribes said this.

People claim that the verse refers to these small tribes Muhammad had an
encounter with, and if that is the case, then clearly Allah would have known they
didn’t represent the entire Judaism and hadn’t made that revelation to him. It is a
clear indication that Muhammad had a lack of understanding of the very primary
source, namely the old testament, the Torah. If he had read it thoroughly even
though the local Jews said that Ezra is the son of God, he would have spotted the
mistake very quickly. people and scholars also like to claim that Jews didn’t protest
to this verse, therefore it is accurately. By saying this they admit that the Quran is
not true, because it was Allah himself who gave Muhammad the revelations so
Allah would have known that Jews generally didn’t believed that and it was never
written in the Torah or any other Jewish Canon.

People also use the book called The Fourth Book of Ezra which was composed
around first century CE. The problem with this is that it is not a part of Jewish
Canon. It might be relevant to study it academically from scholars around the
world, but religiously, it is not more interesting than a science fiction book.

Samaritans introduced too early


[Allah] said, “But indeed, We have tried your people after you [departed], and
the Samiri has led them astray.”…”So Moses returned to his people, angry and
grieved”. Quran – 20:85-86

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[Moses] said, “And what is your case, O Samiri?” – Quran 20:95-97

The problem is that the Samaritans did not exist in the time of Moses (1400 BC),
but only from 722 BC.

Iron coats mail introduced too early


And We certainly gave David from Us bounty. [We said], “O mountains, repeat
[Our] praises with him, and the birds [as well].” And We made pliable for him
iron,[Commanding him], “Make full coats of mail and calculate [precisely] the
links,” – Quran 34:10-11

David lived in 1000 BC, and coats of chain mail was invented in 200 BC, which is
800 years after.

Crucifixion introduced too early


"The Lord of Moses and Aaron.” Said Pharaoh, “You believed in him before I gave
you permission. Indeed, this is a conspiracy which you conspired in the city to
expel therefrom its people. But you are going to know. I will surely cut off your
hands and your feet on opposite sides; then I will surely crucify you all.” – Quran
7:122-124. See also 20:71 + 26:49.

Crucifixion came into existence in 400 BC, and the Pharaoh of Moses lived in
1447 BC, which is a difference of roughly 1000 years.

Coins introduced too early


“And they sold him for a reduced price – a few dirhams (for Joseph) – and they
were, concerning him, of those content with little.” – Quran 12:20

Joseph lived in 1800 BC, and coins were first invented in 600 BC by Lydians. That
is a difference of 1200 years.

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Quran is talking about the wrong Mary
"And mention, [O Muhammad], in the Book [the story of] Mary, when she
withdrew from her family to a place toward the east..... He said, “I am only the
messenger of your Lord to give you [news of] a pure boy.”" - Quran 19:16-19

"Then she brought him to her people, carrying him. They said, “O Mary, you have
certainly done a thing unprecedented. O sister of Aaron, your father was not a
man of evil, nor was your mother unchaste.”" - Quran 19:27-28

The problem here is that it says O sister of Aaron. The next verse below says that
Imran is her father.

“And [the example of] Mary, the daughter of ‘Imran, who guarded her chastity, so
We blew into [her garment] through Our angel, and she believed in the words of
her Lord and His scriptures and was of the devoutly obedient.” - Quran 66:12
So Mary did not have a brother named Aaron, and she neither had a father named
Imran. But when you look back 1300 years earlier, Miriam had a brother named
Aaron and a father named Amram (Arabic = Imran). In fact the only Aaron
mentioned is the brother of Moses, there are no other Aarons. So according to the
Quran, Mary who had a child named Jesus, had also a brother named Aaron, and
a father named Imran - which is completely false. But if the Quran talks about
Miriam, then the problem is that Miriam did not had a child named Jesus, so no
matter what, it really is a mistake. The image below explains the dilemma.

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Many Muslims try to explain this by saying Mary was a descendant of Amram
and Aaron, and use this Tafsir:

“(O sister of Harun!) referring to the brother of Musa, because she was of his
descendants. This is similar to the saying, `O brother of Tamim,’ to one who is
from the Tamimi tribe, and `O brother of Mudar,’ to one who is from the Mudari
tribe. It has also been said that she was related to a righteous man among them
whose name was Harun and she was comparable to him in her abstinence and
worship.” - Tafsir Ibn Kathir

But this is totally false because Amram and Aaron were from the tribe of Levi and
Mary was from the tribe of Judah. See image to the left. The bible says the same:

"He will be great and will be called the Son of the Most High. The Lord God will
give him the throne of his father David." - Luke 1: 32

"For it is clear that our Lord descended from Judah, and in regard to that tribe
Moses said nothing about priests" - Hebrew 7:14

Other important points:


• There are no historical or biblical evidence that proves that Virgin Mary
had a brother named Aaron. If her brother is so important that the Quran
had to mention him with Mary’s name, why don’t we hear more about him?
Especially when he is nowhere to be found except in Islam 600 years after in a
single verse?
• There are no historical or biblical evidence that proves that Mary had a father
named Imran. The name Imran is the arabic version of Amram.
• Is Mary’s lineage in the Gospels accurately preserved? If it weren’t why did the
Quran not explained this? There is no reason to assume that the Quran had
preserved Mary's lineage after 600 years better than the Gospels which are
under 50 years old when Jesus died.
• There are no other Aarons whose father’s name is Amran/Imran in the Jewish
text or in the Christian text, other than the family of Moses.
• Mary is never mentioned in the Jewish texts or jewish history, except a totally
different Mary which was a hairdresser.
• A significant question would be why the Quran itself would honor Mary, the
mother of Jesus, by comparing her to Aaron and Imran, two minor important
and second-tier prophets in the Quran?

People will especially use this hadith:

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"Mughira b. Shu’ba reported: When I came to Najran, they (the Christians of
Najran) asked me: You read “O sister of Harun” (i. e. Hadrat Maryam) in the
Qur’an, whereas Moses was born much before Jesus. When I came back to Allah’s
Messenger I asked him about that, whereupon he said: The (people of the old
age) used to give names (to their persons) after the names of Apostles and pious
persons who had gone before them." - Sahih Muslim 28:13

This was as a matter of fact answered with Ibn Kathir, who is the father of all
tafsir, where he explains that when saying Sister of X, it implies that she is a
descendant of the Tribe of X. Ibn Kathir explicitly uses the word tribe and also
explains the meaning of it. Since Mary was from the tribe of Judah and not the
tribe of Levi, the Quran is not correct. The last card people will use is that Mary
was the cousin of Elizabeth who was a descendant of Aaron.

"And, behold, thy cousin Elisabeth, she hath also conceived a son in her old age:
and this is the sixth month with her, who was called barren." - Luke 1:36

To begin with, it is important to mention that the King James translation of the
term syngenis as cousin is not accurate. This greek term simply means relative,
hence Mary and Elizabeth may have been first cousins or even third cousins.

It is worth noting that Judah was the kingly tribe and Levi was the priestly tribe.
The husband of Elizabeths who's name was Zechariah was a Levitical priest,
and we know for sure that Elizabeth was also a Levite since it was required for
all priests who was Levite to marry within their tribes. We can know for sure
that since Elizabeth was from the tribe of Levi, so was her father too since tribal
affiliation was through the father and not mother. A small problem arises since we
do not know that her father was a priest or not. This would mean that it cannot be
determined if the mother of Elizabeth was 100% Levite or non-Levite, which the
mother of Mary could have been related to. There are these possibilities:

• Mary's mother could be the sister of either Zachariah's mother or father


• Mary's mother could be the sister of either Elisabeth’s mother or father

We know that the father of Mary whose name is Joachim was from the Judah tribe
according to the Gospel of James and the Gospel of the Nativity of Mary. Tribal
affiliation was through the male line in ancient Israel, so it wouldn’t matter if
Mary’s mother was sister to Elizabeth and was a Levite or not.
The only thing that matters is that her father Joachim was from the Judah tribe,

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which means that Mary also was. Regarding the tribe of Jesus, these further
evidence supports that Jesus is not from the Levitical tribe:

1. Jesus could not have been a priest because his earthly foster father Joseph was
clearly from the Judah tribe, and the father of Mary, Joachim, was also from
the Judah tribe.
2. Jesus did not come to Earth to be a priest as Levitical tribe was, but rather as a
prophet (as prophesied).
3. The most important is that the priesthood of Jesus was not that of the Levitical
priesthood (Aaron), but the priesthood of Melchizedek. This is very important
to note, because ists would say that he was a priest according to the order of
Levi which will put him in the tribe of Aaron, but this is not the case since it is
the priesthood of Melchizedek.

Joseph was biologically the son of Jacob but legally the son of Heli. Jacob and
Heli were half-brothers. When Heli died childless, Jacob married his widow and
fathered Joseph. So either Jacob or Heli was the father of Joseph and they both are
from the Judah tribe. Luke 3:23 below explains that Heli was the father of Joseph.

“And Jesus himself began to be about thirty years of age, being (as was supposed)
the son of Joseph, which was the son of Heli” - Luke 3:23

Below it is explained that daughters must marry within the same tribe.

"6 This is the thing which the Lord doth command concerning the daughters
of Zelophehad, saying, Let them †marry to whom they think best; gonly to the
family of the tribe of their father shall they †marry. 7 So shall not the inheritance
of the children of Israel remove from tribe to tribe: for every one of the children
of Israel shall †hkeep himself to the inheritance of the tribe of his fathers. 8
And ievery daughter, that possesseth an inheritance in any tribe of the children
of Israel, shall be wife unto one of the family of the tribe of her father, that the
children of Israel may enjoy every man the inheritance of his fathers. 9 Neither
shall the inheritance remove from one tribe to another tribe; but every one of
the tribes of the children of Israel shall keep himself to his own inheritance." -
Numbers 36:6–9

If the relative of Zachariah and Elisabeth was Joachim then that would make
Mary a full-blood Levite. So because we know Joseph was from the Judah tribe,
Mary also had to be of the same tribe, because only then would she meet the
requirement of marrying within the same tribe, according to Numbers 36:6-9

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above. This will put Joachim out of the question from being a Levite.

Both the lineages of foster father (Joseph) and the legal grandfather (Heli) of Jesus
meet King David. Joseph which is the legal descent of Jesus comes through King
Solomon, David’s son (Matthew 1:6-7). Heli which was the grandfather (not blood
related) lineage of Jesus came through Nathan, another son of David (Luke 3:31).
David is the son of Judah and not Levi. To summarize the whole points:

• Joachim and Anna are the parents of Mary. Joachim is according to the Gospel
of James, a descendant of King David. Joachim is mentioned in the Gospel of
James and the Gospel of the Nativity of Mary
• Jacob and Heli were half brothers, and when Heli died childless, Jacob married
his widow and got his son Joseph. Jacob is Josephs biological father, but Heli
is his legal father. Both Jacob and Heli were of the Judah tribe - one through
Solomon and the other through Nathan. Regardless what Joseph is from the
Judah tribe whether legally or biologically.
• Jesus was a high priest according to the order of Melchizedek, and not that of
Levi. This confuses some that he may be from Levi tribe, which is not true.
• It doesn’t matter if Mary’s mother is from the tribe of Levi or not due to being
related to Elizabeth, since Joachim is from the tribe of Judah and that makes
Mary and Jesus biologically from the tribe of Judah. Tribal affiliation was
through the male line in ancient Israel.
• Numbers 36:6–9 explains that daughters must marry within the same tribe.
Joseph was for sure according to the bible from the Judah tribe, and that
means that Mary also must have been that in order for her to marry him.

This concludes the heritage of Mary that she indeed is from the tribe of Judah and
not Levi.

The origin of the misconception


According an article by Guillaume Dye, there is a short but unknown text called
Lection of Jeremiah, which is dated to be around 610 AD. It was used in liturgical
celebrations in Jerusalem. In one place of the text it says:

"And the prophet (Jeremiah) said: "His coming will be a sign for you, and for
other children at the end of the world. And nobody will bring forth the hidden
Ark from the rock, except the priest Aaron, the brother of Mary" - Lection of
Jeremiah

There were also some Jews who believed that the Messiah would be from the

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lineage of Aaron and not from David. This evidence can be found in the Dead Sea
Scrolls of Qumran, probably was used by the Essenes, which is a sect that lived
during the time of Jesus. However these would only be an idea and a belief that the
Messiah was from the lineage of Aaron, but not in terms of reality.

Jesus’ death
“And [for] their saying, “Indeed, we have killed the Messiah, Jesus, the son of Mary,
the messenger of Allah .” And they did not kill him, nor did they crucify him;
but [another] was made to resemble him to them. And indeed, those who differ
over it are in doubt about it. They have no knowledge of it except the following of
assumption. And they did not kill him, for certain.” - Quran 4:157

There are many historical evidences, from the Greeks, from the jews, from the
Romans, who have documented that Jesus was indeed crucified, excluding the
Bible. Even John and Mary knew it was Jesus from the crowds. The only evidence
he wasn’t crucified comes from the Quran. Many respective new testament
scholar, regardless of theological background, agrees that the Islamic view of the
crucifixion is wrong.

“Jesus’ death as a consequence of crucifixion is indisputable.” - Atheist scholar


Gerd Lüdemann

“The most certain fact about the historical Jesus is his execution as a political
rebel.” - New testament scholar Marcus Borg

“Jesus’ death by crucifixion is historically certain” - Jewish scholar Pinchas Lapide

“The single most solid fact about Jesus’ life is his death: he was executed by the
Roman prefect Pilate, on or around Passover, in the manner Rome reserved
particularly for political insurrectionists, namely, crucifixion.” Paula Fredriksen

“One of the most certain facts of history is that Jesus was crucified on orders of the
Roman prefect of Judea, Ponitus Pilate.” - New testament scholar Bart Ehrman

“The passion of Jesus is part of history.” - Geza Vermes

“That he was crucified is as sure as anything historical can ever be.” - J.D. Crossan

Mark 15:37, Mathew 27:50, Luke 23:46, John 19:30, Isaiah 53:5, Mark 9:39,

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Matthew 17:22, Matthew 28:5-7 all confirms that Jesus died or or the prophecy
that he will die.

Muhammad not mentioned in the Torah or Bible


“Those who follow the Messenger, the unlettered prophet, whom they find written
in what they have of the Torah and the Gospel” - Quran 7:157

In the Quranic verse above, it is revealed that Muhammad was mentioned in the
Torah and Bible. The only problem is that he is nowhere to be found. There is this
Biblical verse people use to justify this:

“If you love Me, 4keep My commandments. And I will pray the Father, and He
will give you another Helper, that He may abide with you forever - John 14:15-16

The problem is that it needs to include John 14:17 too:

"the Spirit of truth, whom the world cannot receive, because it neither sees Him
nor knows Him; but you know Him, for He dwells with you wand will be in you."
- John 14:17

This means that the helper is the Spirit of truth, and he cannot be seen. It also says
that they knew him, because he dwells with them. However what is interesting
is that in the Book of Deuteronomy, which is the fifth book of the Torah, it is
mentioned not to worship Islam in the form of the crescent moon nor bow down
to a stone:

"And when you look up to the sky and see the sun, the moon and the stars—all
the heavenly array—do not be enticed into bowing down to them and worshiping
things the Lord your God has apportioned to all the nations under heaven." -
Deuteronomy 4:19

" and contrary to my command has worshiped other gods, bowing down to them
or to the sun or the moon or the stars in the sky," - Deuteronomy 17:3

It is also mentioned in the Bible:

"Ye shall make you no idols nor graven image, neither rear you up a standing
image, neither shall ye set up any image of stone in your land, to bow down unto

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it: for I am the Lord your God." - Leviticus 26:1

However, from the standpoint of the Bible, Muhammad is mentioned in Matthew


24:24 as a false prohpet:

"For false messiahs and false prophets will appear and perform great signs and
wonders to deceive, if possible, even the elect." - Matthew 24:24

The Bible and Torah are corrupt


“So woe to those who write the “scripture” with their own hands, then say, “This is
from Allah,” in order to exchange it for a small price. Woe to them for what their
hands have written and woe to them for what they earn.” - Quran 2:79, and also
2:59, 2:77, 2:140, 3:78, 3:79, 3:187, 4:46, 5:13, 5:15, 5:41

It is claimed by muslims that the Bible and Torah are corrupt, and above are most
of the Quranic verses mentioned which they believe state this claim. But the
contradictions lies in the following verses:

“And let the People of the Gospel judge by what Allah has revealed therein. And
whoever does not judge by what Allah has revealed - then it is those who are the
defiantly disobedient.” - Quran 5:47

“Say, “O People of the Scripture, you are [standing] on nothing until you uphold
[the law of] the Torah, the Gospel, and what has been revealed to you from
your Lord.” And that which has been revealed to you from your Lord will surely
increase many of them in transgression and disbelief. So do not grieve over the
disbelieving people.” - Quran 5:68

“So if you are in doubt, [O Muhammad], about that which We have revealed to
you, then ask those who have been reading the Scripture before you. The truth has
certainly come to you from your Lord, so never be among the doubters.” - Quran
10:94

"He has revealed to you the Book with truth, verifying that which is before it, and
He revealed the Tavrat and the Injeel aforetime, a guidance for the people, and He
sent the Furqan." - Quran 3:3

“And before this Quran the Book of Moses was revealed as a guide and mercy.

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And this Book is a confirmation, in the Arabic tongue, to warn those who do
wrong, and as good news to those who do good.” - Quran 46:12

"And they say, "Why does he not bring us a sign from his Lord?" Has there not
come to them evidence of what was in the former scriptures?" - 20:133

The verses mentioned above all clearly states that the Bible and Torah are not
corrupt. The more important thing is that the Quran was not revealed because
previous scriptures were corrupt, it was because the Arabs did not have any
excuse on the day of judgement since they couldn’t read other languages than
Arabic. The following verse confirms it:

"And this [Qur’an] is a Book We have revealed [which is] blessed, so follow it and
fear Allah that you may receive mercy. [We revealed it] lest you say, “The Scripture
was only sent down to two groups before us, but we were of their study unaware,”
Or lest you say, “If only the Scripture had been revealed to us, we would have been
better guided than they.” So there has [now] come to you a clear evidence from
your Lord and a guidance and mercy. Then who is more unjust than one who
denies the verses of Allah and turns away from them? We will recompense those
who turn away from Our verses with the worst of punishment for their having
turned away.” - Quran 6:155-157

It is clear from the verses above that Allah did not reveal the Quran because the
previous scriptures were corrupted, but rather because the Arabs did not have any
excuses in the day of judgement. All these verses mentioned proves that none of
the two previous scriptures are corrupt. So these two possibilities exists:
• If the Torah and the Bible are the words of God, then Islam is false, because
they contradict Islam.
• If the Torah and Bible are not the words of God, then Islam is also false,
because Allah affirms the authenticity and preservation of the Torah and the
Bible which are is not true.

If the Torah and Bible really were corrupt then it contradict the verses Quran
6:155-157. What makes this verse very strange is that there have been a bible
translated into Arabic in about 6th-8th century, so obviously there was no need
for a Quran if Allah wanted a revelation for a people who could only speak and
read in Arabic. If a bible was translated into Arabic in 8th century, 100 years after
Muhammad’s death, then Allah would have known this detail and not use time
and energy for a new prophet.

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Muhammad was not born sinless
"And He found you lost and guided [you]" - Quran 93:7

"Gabriel then said: (Did He not find thee) O Muhammad (wandering) among
people in error (and direct (thee)) and guided you by means of prophethood? The
Prophet (pbuh) said: "Yes, O Gabriel!" - Ibn Abbas tafsir

"So know, [O Muhammad], that there is no deity except Allah and ask forgiveness
for your sin and for the believing men and believing women. And Allah knows of
your movement and your resting place." - Quran 47:19

According to the Quran, Muhammad was born with errors, and It is clear from
these verses and tafsir that Muhammad made mistakes, and there are additional
Quranic verses to support it. However, comparing it with Jesus in the Bible:

"God made him who had no sin to be sin for us, so that in him we might become
the righteousness of God." - 2 Corinthians 5:21

“He committed no sin, and no deceit was found in his mouth.” - 1 Peter 2:22

"For we do not have a high priest who is unable to empathize with our
weaknesses, but we have one who has been tempted in every way, just as we are—
yet he did not sin." - Hebrews 4:15

If the prophet of Islam came to guide mankind, how come that he needed to be
guided himself? Many people also claim he was perfect, but these verses, and the
explaining tafsir clearly shows that he was not. Now what is interesting is that not
only is Jesus mentioned as being sinless in the Bible, but also in the Quran:

"He said, "I am only the messenger of your Lord to give you [news of] a pure
boy."" - Quran 19:19

"He said: I am only a messenger of thy Lord, that I may bestow on thee a faultless
son." - Ibn Abbas tafsir

The question is, why this prophet, Jesus of Christianity was sinless, and the model
of Islam, Muhammad is supposedly the model of humanity and is considered to
be perfect?

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People of Mecca were not warned before Muhammad
“By the wise Qur’an. Indeed you, [O Muhammad], are from among the
messengers, On a straight path. [This is] a revelation of the Exalted in Might, the
Merciful, That you may warn a people whose forefathers were not warned, so they
are unaware.” - 36:2-6

“And when our verses are recited to them as clear evidences, they say, “This
is not but a man who wishes to avert you from that which your fathers were
worshipping.” And they say, “This is not except a lie invented.” And those who
disbelieve say of the truth when it has come to them, “This is not but obvious
magic.” And We had not given them any scriptures which they could study, and
We had not sent to them before you, [O Muhammad], any warner.” - Quran
34:43-44

“Or do they say, “He invented it”? Rather, it is the truth from your Lord, [O
Muhammad], that you may warn a people to whom no warner has come before
you [so] perhaps they will be guided.” - Quran 32:3

Indeed, We have sent you with the truth as a bringer of good tidings and a warner.
And there was no nation but that there had passed within it a warner. - Quran
35:24

“And thus We have revealed to you an Arabic Qur’an that you may warn the
Mother of Cities [Makkah] and those around it and warn of the Day of Assembly,
about which there is no doubt. A party will be in Paradise and a party in the
Blaze.” - 42:7

All these verses above states that the arabs were not warned until Muhammad.
The question is why did Abraham and Ismai’il then built the Kaaba in the Quranic
verse 2:125?

"Remember We made the House a place of assembly for men and a place of safety;
and take ye the station of Abraham as a place of prayer; and We covenanted with
Abraham and Isma’il, that they should sanctify My House for those who compass
it round, or use it as a retreat, or bow, or prostrate themselves (therein in prayer)."
Quran 2:125

Since there were Jews and Christians in Arabian peninsula, the arabs had the
opportunity to just listen to them and be warned from the Torah and the Bible.

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The obvious reason to this is that ists claim that the previous scriptures are
corrupt, but according to the Quran, Allah repeatedly mentions in Surah 3:3-4,
5:47, 5:68, 7:157, 10:94, 18:27 and 46:12 that they are not.

The Quran is a confirmation in Arabic language


“And before this Quran the Book of Moses was revealed as a guide and mercy.
And this Book is a confirmation, in the Arabic tongue, to warn those who do
wrong, and as good news to those who do good.” - Quran 46:12

This means that the Quran confirms the previous scriptures, and the purpose of it
is to give it in Arabic language, so Arabs have no excuse in the day of judgement.
The next verse makes it even more clear:

“And this [Qur’an] is a Book We have revealed [which is] blessed, so follow it and
fear Allah that you may receive mercy. [We revealed it] lest you say, “The Scripture
was only sent down to two groups before us, but we were of their study unaware,”
Or lest you say, “If only the Scripture had been revealed to us, we would have been
better guided than they.” So there has [now] come to you a clear evidence from
your Lord and a guidance and mercy. Then who is more unjust than one who
denies the verses of Allah and turns away from them? We will recompense those
who turn away from Our verses with the worst of punishment for their having
turned away.” - Quran 6:155-157

So according to the verses above, the Quran was not revealed because the
previous scriptures were corrupted, but because then the Arabs had no excuses in
the day of judgement because they couldn't read in other languages.

Quran says that Mary was a goddess


"The Messiah, son of Mary, was not but a messenger; [other] messengers have
passed on before him. And his mother was a supporter of truth. They both used
to eat food. Look how We make clear to them the signs; then look how they are
deluded." - Quran 5:75

“..did you say to the people, ‘Take me and my mother as deities besides Allah?’” –
Quran 5:116

“So they were two slaves of Allah, like all other people, and they were not gods as
the ignorant Christians claim.” – Tafseer Ibn Katheer (3/159).

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“This is concerning their (Christians) making the Messiah and his mother into 2
gods with Allah” – Tafsir Al-Suddi al-Kabir

According to the Quranic verses and tafsirs, mother Mary is a goddess. This is
not true. Christians never believed that was God or any part of the Trinity which
comprises of The Father, The Son, and The Holy Spirit. People use the excuse to
say that the Christians had changed this, but there are not a single supportive
evidence. There are even Bibles who are older than the time of Muhammad, and
none of them claims that mother Mary was a goddes. Other apologists like to say
that only some Christians said it. They have no proof to support their claims. In
the end, why would Allah mentioned that only some Christians said this when he
knew that it is not the truth?

Nobody before John the Baptist was given the name


John

"(It was said unto him): O Zachariah! Lo! We bring thee tidings of a son whose
name is John; we have given the same name to none before (him)." - Quran 19:7

John the Baptist was born around the first decade BC and died around 28-36 CE.
There were at least two people from the old testament who were given the name
John. The first example in the old testament is the ruler named John Hyrcanus
who died in 104 BC, around a hundred years before John the Baptist. Since John
originates from the hebrew name Yohanan, the other example is the high priest
named Johanan who lived during the 3rd century BC.

Allah prevent earthquakes


“He has created the heavens without any pillars that you can see, and He has
placed in the earth firm mountains that it may not quake with you..” - Quran
31:10

Indeed just the idea that he needs to do anything to prevent anything is contrary
to ashariyya theology since supposedly Allah causes everything to happen.
Therefore all he should have to do is just not cause something to happen. He
shouldn’t have to do anything to prevent anything because that would mean
things have external causes and that Allah doesn’t actually cause everything to

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happen.

Allah allows to marry up to four wives


"And if you fear that you will not deal justly with the orphan girls, then marry
those that please you of [other] women, two or three or four. But if you fear that
you will not be just, then [marry only] one or those your right hand possesses.
That is more suitable that you may not incline [to injustice]." - Quran

In the above verse it is stated that Allah allows to marry up to four wives. The
problem with this verse is, as explained in the next chapter, is that there is
about 51% males and 49% females in the world. Thus, the ratio is about 1:1, and
therefore men must only marry one female in order for the entire population of
men to have a female available for them.

Does Allah have limbs?


No
"Nor is there to Him any equivalent." - Quran 112:4

Yes
They have not appraised Allah with true appraisal, while the earth entirely will
be [within] His grip on the Day of Resurrection, and the heavens will be folded
in His right hand. Exalted is He and high above what they associate with Him. -
Quran 39:67

Yes
Indeed, those who pledge allegiance to you, [O Muhammad] - they are actually
pledging allegiance to Allah . The hand of Allah is over their hands. So he who
breaks his word only breaks it to the detriment of himself. And he who fulfills that
which he has promised Allah - He will give him a great reward. - 48:10

Yes
Allah’s Apostle said, “On the Day of Resurrection, Allah will grasp the whole
Earth by His Hand, and all the Heavens in His Right, and then He will say, ‘I am
the King.” Abu Huraira said, “Allah’s Apostle said,” Allah will grasp the Earth…’ ”
- Sahih Bukhari, Volume 9, Book 93, Number 509

Yes

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The Prophet said, “The Right (Hand) of Allah Is full, and (Its fullness) is not
affected by the continuous spending night and day. Do you see what He has spent
since He created the Heavens and the Earth? Yet all that has not decreased what
is in His Right Hand. His Throne is over the water and in His other Hand is the
Bounty or the Power to bring about death, and He raises some people and brings
others down.” - Sahih Bukhari, Volume 9, Book 93, Number 515:

Can Allah stop the Quran being corrupt?


If Allah could not stop the previous scriptures to be corrupt, then what are the
evidence to support that he accomplished the goal with Muhammad?

Praying without arms and legs


“And I did not create the jinn and mankind except to worship Me” - Quran 51:56

“and formed you and perfected your forms;“ - Quran 64:3

There are many people around the world who are born completely without arms
and legs while it is necessary to pray and worship Allah with hands. This goes
against his goal why he created mankind.

How long to breastfeed?


30 months
"We have enjoined on man kindness to his parents: In pain did his mother bear
him, and in pain did she give him birth. The carrying of the (child) to his weaning
is (a period of) thirty months. At length, when he reaches the age of full strength
and attains forty years, he says, “O my Lord! Grant me that I may be grateful for
Thy favour which Thou has bestowed upon me, and upon both my parents, and
that I may work righteousness such as Thou mayest approve; and be gracious to
me in my issue. Truly have I turned to Thee and truly do I bow (to Thee) in Islam.”
– Quran 46:15

24 months
"And We have enjoined upon man concerning his partners – His mother beareth
him in weakness upon weakness, and his weaning is in two years – Give thanks
unto Me and unto thy parents. Unto Me is the journeying" – Quran 31:14

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Did he create the heaven or the Earth first?
The earth
He it is Who created for you all that is in the earth. Then turned He to the heaven,
and fashioned it as seven heavens. And He is knower of all things. – Quran 2:29

The heaven
Are ye the harder to create, or is the heaven that He built? He raised the height
thereof and ordered it; And He made dark the night thereof, and He brought forth
the morn thereof. And after that He spread the earth. He extracted from it its
water and its pasture, And the mountains He set firmly As provision for you and
your grazing livestock. – Quran 79:27-33

Does Allah forgive everything?


Yes
Say: “O my Servants who have transgressed against their souls! Despair not of the
Mercy of Allah: for Allah forgives all sins: for He is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.
– Quran 39:53

No
Allah forgiveth not (The sin of) joining other gods with Him; but He forgiveth
whom He pleaseth other sins than this: one who joins other gods with Allah, Hath
strayed far, far away (from the right) – Quran 4:116

No
Allah forgiveth not that partners should be set up with Him; but He forgiveth
anything else, to whom He pleaseth; to set up partners with Allah is to devise a sin
Most heinous indeed. – Quran 4:48

Where do disbelievers receive their record book on


Judgment day?
On their back
But he who is given his Record behind his back – Quran 84:10

On the left hand

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And he that will be given his Record in his left hand, will say: “Ah! Would that my
Record had not been given to me! – Quran 69:25

When was Kaaba built


Abraham and Isma'il build the Kaaba
Remember We made the House a place of assembly for men and a place of safety;
and take ye the station of Abraham as a place of prayer; and We covenanted with
Abraham and Isma’il, that they should sanctify My House for those who compass
it round, or use it as a retreat, or bow, or prostrate themselves (therein in prayer).
Quran 2:125

Al-Masjid-ul-Haram (Kaaba) was built 40 years before Al-Aqsa


Narrated Abu Dhaar: I said, “O Allah’s Apostle! Which mosque was built first?”
He replied, “Al-Masjid-ul-Haram.” I asked, “Which (was built) next?” He replied,
“Al-Masjid-ul-Aqs-a (i.e. Jerusalem).” I asked, “What was the period in between
them? He replied, forty years.

The temple at Jerusalem was built by Solomon around 958-951 BC, so the Kaaba
must have been built 40 years before which makes it between 998-991 BC. But the
Quran says Abraham built it, and he lived about 2000 BC. In the Bukhari hadith
below it is stated that Muhammad wanted to destroy the Kaaba:

"Narrated Aswad: Ibn Az-Zubair said to me, “Aisha used to tell you secretly a
number of things. What did she tell you about the Ka’ba?” I replied, “She told me
that once the Prophet said, ‘O ‘Aisha! Had not your people been still close to the
pre-Islamic period of ignorance (infidelity)! I would have dismantled the Ka’ba
and would have made two doors in it; one for entrance and the other for exit.”
Later on Ibn Az-Zubair did the same." - Sahih al-Bukhari 126

If the Kaaba was build from the order of Allah, why would Muhammad want
it to destroy it? The truth is that the Kaaba has nothing to do with Abraham
or Ishmael, but was a wholly pagan heritage. Egyptian Professor and foremost
authority on Arabic literature, Dr. Taha Husayn stated the following:

"The case for this episode is very obvious because it is of recent date and came
into vogue just before the rise of Islam. Islam exploited it for religious reasons." –
Mizan al-Islam by Anwar al-Jundi, p. 170

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Is alcohol okay?
Yes
"Surely the pious will be in bliss … their thirst will be slaked with pure wine
sealed." – Quran 83:22

Yes
"A similitude of the Garden which those who keep their duty (to Allah) are
promised: Therein are rivers of water unpolluted … and rivers of wine delicious to
the drinkers." – Quran 47:15

Yes
"And from the fruit of the date-palm and the vine, ye get out wholesome drink
and food: behold, in this also is a sign for those who are wise" – Quran 16:67

Yes, as long as you’re not praying


"O ye who believe! Draw not near unto prayer when ye are drunken, till ye know
that which ye utter, nor when ye are polluted, save when journeying upon the
road, till ye have bathed. And if ye be ill, or on a journey, or one of you cometh
from the closet, or ye have touched women, and ye find not water, then go to high
clean soil and rub your faces and your hands (therewith). Lo! Allah is Benign,
Forgiving." – Quran 4:43

No
"O you who believe! Strong drink and games of chance and idols and divine
arrows are only an infamy of Satan’s handiwork. Leave it aside that you may
succeed." – Quran 5:90

No
"They question thee about strong drink and games of chance. Say: In both is
great sin, and (some) utility for men; but the sin of them is greater than their
usefulness. And they ask thee what they ought to spend. Say: that which is
superfluous. Thus Allah maketh plain to you (His) revelations, that haply ye may
reflect." – Quran 2:219

Could Allah have a son?


Yes
"If Allah had willed to choose a son, He could have chosen what He would of that

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which He hath created. Be He Glorified! He is Allah, the One, the Absolute." –
Quran 39:4

No
"Wonderful Originator of the heavens and the earth; How can He have a son
when He has no consort? He created all things, and He hath full knowledge of all
things" – Quran 6:101

Does Allah lead people astray?


No
"And Allah will not mislead a people after He hath guided them, in order that He
may make clear to them what to fear (and avoid)- for Allah hath knowledge of all
things." – Quran 9:115

Yes
"Of them there are some who (pretend to) listen to thee; but We have thrown
veils on their hearts, So they understand it not, and deafness in their ears; if they
saw every one of the signs, not they will believe in them; in so much that when
they come to thee, they (but) dispute with thee; the Unbelievers say: “These are
nothing but tales of the ancients.”" – Quran 6:2

How long is Allah’s day?


1000 years
"Yet they ask thee to hasten on the Punishment! But Allah will not fail in His
Promise. Verily a Day in the sight of thy Lord is like a thousand years of your
reckoning" – Quran 22:47

50.000 years
"The angels and the spirit ascend unto him in a Day the measure whereof is (as)
fifty thousand years" – Quran 70:4

People usually use a hadith to make sure one of them is true. The fact remains
that both still exists in the Quran. Another explanation they frequently use is that
yawm means period so therefore Quran 22:47 can mean thousands of years. This
is incorrect. The arabian dictionary says that al-yawn is the time from sunrise to
sunset. In astronomy al-yawn is defined when earth revovles around its axis one
time, which is twenty four hours. Even in the Quran yawn is referred to as one

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day. Therefore al-yawm (day) cannot mean just an indefinite period of time, it
means specifically a day. If Allah wanted to say period in his clear book he would
have said fatra, moda or hikba.

How long did it take Allah to create heaven and earth?


6 days
"Verily your Lord is Allah, who created the heavens and the earth in six days,
and is firmly established on the throne (of authority), regulating and governing
all things. No intercessor (can plead with Him) except after His leave (hath been
obtained). This is Allah your Lord; Him therefore serve ye: will ye not receive
admonition?" – Quran 10:3

8 days
"Say: Is it that ye deny Him Who created the earth in two Days? And do ye join
equals with Him? He is the Lord of (all) the Worlds. He placed therein firm
hills rising above it, and blessed it and measured therein its sustenance in four
Days, alike for (all) who ask; Then He ordained them seven heavens in two Days
and inspired in each heaven its mandate; and We decked the nether heaven
with lamps, and rendered it inviolable. That is the measuring of the Mighty, the
Knower" – Quran 41:9-12

Does evil come from Allah?


Yes
"…. If some good befalls them, they say “This is from Allah”. But if evil, they say
“This is from thee” (O prophet). Say: “All things are from Allah…." – Quran 4:78

No
"Whatever good, (O man!) happens to thee, is from Allah. But whatever evil
happens to thee, is from thyself. But what has come to these people. That they fail
to understand a single fact" – Quran 4:79

Will Jesus burn in Hell?


Yes, because he is worshipped as God by Christians (As Trinity)
"Lo! ye (idolaters) and that which ye worship beside Allah are fuel of hell.
Thereunto ye will come. If these had been gods they would not have come thither,

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but all will abide therein" – Quran 21:98-99

No
"Behold! the angels said: “O Mary! Allah giveth thee glad tidings of a Word from
Him: his name will be Christ Jesus, the son of Mary, held in honour in this world
and the Hereafter and of (the company of) those nearest to Allah;" – Quran 3:45

Who takes peoples souls?


One angel
"Say: “The Angel of Death, put in charge of you, will (duly) take your souls: then
shall ye be brought back to your Lord.”" – Quran 32:11

Many angels
"But how (will it be) when the angels take their souls at death, and smite their
faces and their backs?" – Quran 47:27

Allah
"It is Allah that takes the souls (of men) at death; and those that die not (He takes)
during their sleep: those on whom He has passed the decree of death, He keeps
back (from returning to life), but the rest He sends (to their bodies) for a term
appointed verily in this are Signs for those who reflect." – Quran 39:42

Who was the first Muslim?


Muhammed
"Say: “Shall I take for my protector any other than Allah, the Maker of the heavens
and the earth? And He it is that feedeth but is not fed.” Say: “Nay! but I am
commanded to be the first of those who bow to Allah (in Islam), and be not thou
of the company of those who join gods with Allah.”" – Quran 6:14

Muhammad
"No partner hath He: this am I commanded, and I am the first of those who bow
to His will." – Quran 6:163

Muhammad
“And I am commanded to be the first of those who bow to Allah in Islam.” –
Quran 39:12

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Moses
"When Moses came to the place appointed by Us, and his Lord addressed him, He
said: “O my Lord! show (Thyself) to me, that I may look upon thee.” Allah said:
“By no means canst thou see Me (direct); But look upon the mount; if it abide
in its place, then shalt thou see Me.” When his Lord manifested His glory on the
Mount, He made it as dust. And Moses fell down in a swoon. When he recovered
his senses he said: “Glory be to Thee! to Thee I turn in repentance, and I am the
first to believe.”" – Quran 7:143

Abraham
"And this was the legacy that Abraham left to his sons, and so did Jacob; “Oh
my sons! Allah hath chosen the Faith for you; then die not except in the Faith of
Islam.”" – Quran 2:132

Abraham
"Abraham was not a Jew nor yet a Christian; but he was true in Faith, and bowed
his will to Allah’s, and he joined not gods with Allah." – Quran 3:67

Egyptians
"Lo! we ardently hope that our Lord will forgive us our sins because we are the
first of the believers" – Quran 26:51

Strength of believers
A strength of 10 non-muslims
"One Muslim is more powerful than 10 non-Muslims – If there be of you twenty
steadfast they shall overcome two hundred, and if there be of you a hundred
(steadfast) they shall overcome a thousand of those who disbelieve" – Quran 8:65

A strength of two non-muslims


"One Muslim can overcome two non-Muslims – So if there be of you a steadfast
hundred they shall overcome two hundred, and if there be of you a thousand
(steadfast) they shall overcome two thousand by permission of Allah." – Quran
8:66

How many sacred months are there?


Four
"The number of months in the sight of Allah is twelve (in a year)- so ordained

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by Him the day He created the heavens and the earth; of them four are sacred:
that is the straight usage. So wrong not yourselves therein, and fight the Pagans
all together as they fight you all together. But know that Allah is with those who
restrain themselves." – Quran 9:36

One
"O ye who believe! Violate not the sanctity of the symbols of Allah, nor of the
sacred month, nor of the animals brought for sacrifice, nor the garlands that
mark out such animals, nor the people resorting to the sacred house, seeking of
the bounty and good pleasure of their Lord. But when ye are clear of the sacred
precincts and of pilgrim garb, ye may hunt and let not the hatred of some people
in (once) shutting you out of the Sacred Mosque lead you to transgression (and
hostility on your part). Help ye one another in righteousness and piety, but help ye
not one another in sin and rancour: fear Allah: for Allah is strict in punishment."
– Quran 5:2

What does Allah do with apostates?


Punishes them
"But if any turn away and reject Allah,- Allah will punish him with a mighty
Punishment" – Quran 88:23-24

Accepts it
"There was indeed in them an excellent example for you to follow,- for those
whose hope is in Allah and in the Last Day. But if any turn away, truly Allah is
Free of all Wants, Worthy of all Praise." – Quran 60:6

Should Muslims have Christians for friends?


Yea
"Strongest among men in enmity to the believers wilt thou find the Jews and
Pagans; and nearest among them in love to the believers wilt thou find those who
say, “We are Christians”: because amongst these are men devoted to learning and
men who have renounced the world, and they are not arrogant." – Quran 5:82

Yes
"We sent after them Jesus the son of Mary, and bestowed on him the Gospel; and
we ordained in the hearts of those who followed him compassion and mercy." –
Quran 57:27

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No
"O ye who believe! Take not the Jews and the Christians for friends. They are
friends one to another. He among you who taketh them for friends is (one) of
them. Lo! Allah guideth not wrongdoing folk." - Quran 5:51

Can you marry non-Muslims?


No
"Do not marry unbelieving women (idolaters), until they believe: A slave woman
who believes is better than an unbelieving woman, even though she allures you.
Nor marry (your girls) to unbelievers until they believe: A man slave who believes
is better than an unbeliever, even though he allures you. Unbelievers do (but)
beckon you to the Fire. But Allah beckons by His Grace to the Garden (of bliss)
and forgiveness, and makes His Signs clear to mankind: That they may celebrate
His praise." – Quran 2:221

Yes (even though Quran 9:29 calls Christians idolaters)


"This day are (all) good things made lawful for you. The food of those who have
received the Scripture is lawful for you, and your food is lawful for them. And
so are the virtuous women of the believers and the virtuous women of those
who received the Scripture before you (lawful for you) when ye give them their
marriage portions and live with them in honour, not in fornication, nor taking
them as secret concubines. Whoso denieth the faith, his work is vain and he will
be among the losers in the Hereafter." – Quran 5:5

Are all Islamic prophets equal?


Yes
"The Messenger believeth in what hath been revealed to him from his Lord, as do
the men of faith. Each one (of them) believeth in Allah, His angels, His books,
and His messengers. We make no distinction between any of His messengers. And
they say: “We hear, and we obey: (We seek) Thy forgiveness, our Lord, and to Thee
is the end of all journeys.”" – Quran 2:285

No
"Those messengers We endowed with gifts, some above others: To one of them
Allah spoke; others He raised to degrees (of honour); to Jesus the son of Mary
We gave clear (Signs), and strengthened him with the holy spirit. If Allah had so

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willed, succeeding generations would not have fought among each other, after
clear (Signs) had come to them, but they (chose) to wrangle, some believing and
others rejecting. If Allah had so willed, they would not have fought each other;
but Allah Fulfilleth His plan." – Quran 2:253

Who brought the revelation to Muhammad?


Holy Spirit
"Say, the Holy Spirit has brought the revelation from thy Lord in Truth, in order
to strengthen those who believe, and as a Guide and Glad Tidings to Muslims" –
Quran 16:102

Angel jibreel
"Say (O Muhammad, to mankind): Who is an enemy to Gabriel! For he it is who
hath revealed (this Scripture) to thy heart by Allah’s leave, confirming that which
was (revealed) before it, and a guidance and glad tidings to believers;" – Quran
2:97

Abrogation; does Allah change his words?


No
"The word of thy Lord doth find its fulfilment in truth and in justice: None can
change His words: for He is the one who heareth and knoweth all." – Quran 6:115

No
"For them are glad tidings, in the life of the present and in the Hereafter; no
change can there be in the words of Allah. This is indeed the supreme felicity." –
Quran 10:64

Yes
"None of Our revelations do We abrogate or cause to be forgotten, but We
substitute something better or similar: Knowest thou not that Allah Hath power
over all things?" – Quran 2:106

Yes
"When We substitute one revelation for another,- and Allah knows best what He
reveals (in stages),- they say, “Thou art but a forger”: but most of them understand
not". – Quran 16:101

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Another example is that Muhammad negotiated the number of daily prayers from
50 to 5 prayers.

How long did it take to destroy Aad tribe?


One day
"For We sent against them a furious wind, on a Day of violent Disaster" – Quran
54:19

Several days
"So We sent against them a furious Wind through days of disaster, that We might
give them a taste of a Penalty of humiliation in this life; but the Penalty of a
Hereafter will be more humiliating still: and they will find no help." – Quran 41:16

A week
"He made it rage against them seven nights and eight days in succession: so that
thou couldst see the (whole) people lying prostrate in its (path), as they had been
roots of hollow palm-trees tumbled down!" – Quran 69:7

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Chapter 3: Scientific Flaws in the
Quran
Introduction
Before looking into the scientific claims about the science, it is important to
come with an important general point: The Quran is not a book of science - and
neither the hadiths. They are completely imaginary; this is not how science works.
Science is mostly about the focus on the “how” and the “why” and the Quran tells
you basically different things without explaining it deep enough to call it science
or specific for that matter. In fact, these scientific miracles, as people like to call
them have been known since ancient times and even in more detailed than before
Muhammad’s time, but this is exclusively been explained in chapter two. Whether
you interpret these scientific miracles be correct or wrong, it really doesn’t matter,
they are mostly things which everyone could have observed at that time and
are mostly superficial. Even if they were true, it’s only micro-size of what is really
known today in science, engineering and technology. In this chapter you will get
a list with some satisfying explanations of how many of these so-called “scientific
miracles” are pure wrong, not useful and absolutely not comprehensive to call it a
science.

You have to fast between sunrise and sunset

“And eat and drink until the white thread of dawn becomes distinct to you from
the black thread [of night]. Then complete the fast until the sunset” - Quran 2:187

Then what exactly should the people in the North Pole and South Pole do? The
Earth is round and it’s rotational axis is not perfectly vertical according to the sun,
but has the tilt of 23,5 degrees. This results in an area in the Arctic and Antarctic
poles, called the arctic circle and antarctic circle respectively, having a 6 months
straight daylight and 6 months straight night-time. So do the Muslims have to fast
6 months straight? Or what should the astronauts do in space, flying through the
emptiness of space where sunlight is not blocked by any planet?

This clearly shows that the authors of the Quran had absolutely no idea of arctic
circle or the physics of space which planets are resting to. International Space
Station has a speed of 27000 km/h around the Earth, which means that there
is a sunrise and sunset every 92 minutes, and therefore one must pray every 18
minutes. Furthermore, what if the ISS is on the other side of the earth of where
Mecca is? None of these dilemmas has been mentioned in the Quran or Hadith
and nothing was taking into consideration. This is one of these science mistakes
that proves that the authors of the Quran were human. There is a reason why

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there has been created “A Guideline of Performing Ibadah (worship) at the
International Space Station (ISS)”, which is a human-made invention to help
astronauts pray to Mecca, which even though this would be a human solution to
praying, there is still no solution to the Arctic and Antarctic dilemma. This clearly
shows that the Quran is not perfect for not mentioning this detail, in South Pole,
North Pole or in interplanetary travels.

You must face Mecca when praying


Within the next decade, probably before 2030, major space agencies have plans
to send humans to Mars, and colonize it permanently. In the Islamic world this
arises some issues regarding the praying towards the Kaaba in Mecca. How do you
expect people facing Mecca from there Mars? There are three things to consider for
muslims living on Mars:

1. Facing the small earth is very hard, because you have to have the right angle
horizontally and vertically, which means you have to elevate your carpet into the
right angle.
2. Obviously, the rotation of Mars makes it even harder, so Mecca's direction
moves fast.
3. What happens when Earth is on the other side of Mars during prayer time, how
do you face Mecca from there?

Point 3 is obviously the most problematic, this is one people have no answer you to
you. This problem will make the Saudis scratch their heads, because there are just
no solutions to it and will always remain so. Unless of course you dig a hole on Mars
and try to point yourself down. This is an issue that won’t take much long time for
devoted muslims to realize.

Another dilemma is astronauts travelling to a tidal planet, which is a planet that


always faces one side to the sun, and the other side to space and being dark, thus
the sun never moves in the sky.

Praying in another solar system


This is a small issue but rather an important one. What if devoted muslims travels
interstellar and inhabit another planet in another solar system - which sun should
they follow to fast and pray? The sun in the same solar system where the Kaaba is,
or the sun which they currently have landed on?

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What if the sun around the new planet takes 3 earthly days from the time it has
set up till it has set down? Not a lot of people can survive 72 hours without water
continuously for a month. It would also be weird to face Mecca on Earth for
praying, which is in another solar system, and yet at the same not following the sun
which the Quran specifically mentions in our current solar system. The question
is, if the Quran is perfect, how come there are no instructions on how to pray in
space?

Evolution
“O mankind, fear your Lord, who created you from one soul and created from it
its mate and dispersed from both of them many men and women. And fear Allah
, through whom you ask one another, and the wombs. Indeed Allah is ever, over
you, an Observer.” - Quran 4:1

“He created him from dust, then said to him, ‘Be,’ and he was.” - Quran 3:59

“Indeed, I am going to create a human being from clay." - Quran 38:71

It is stated many times in the Quran and Hadith that evolution is not compatible
with Islam. For example, he created Adam and Eve which is stated above. The
family tree of the prophets in the Quran is a strong indication that Earth is only
a couple of thousands of years old. This is a rather strong indication that Islam
is not the true religion because using Uranium-Lead dating and calculating the
age of the universe due to it’s expansion speed, science has found out that Earth
is in the billion-scale of age. Because many people think that “we look like apes,
therefore come from them” is the evolutionary theory today, below it is explained
in a very small paragraph of what real evolution is today compared to the age of
Darwin.

The theory of evolution is definitely not the same as before in the time of Darwin
and before that. The modern evolutionary theory works through many different
angles: First of all, scientist discover the bones of humans or fossils of ancient
animals which Medieval Islam or civilizations before didn’t do. Scientists then use
uranium-lead dating to find out how old these bones are. The DNA is collected,
analysed and saved into a computer database. They put them in a timeline
according to age determined by dating and by doing this they see that humans
who lived 40.000 years ago looks like us, and humans who lived 120.000 ago
looked like the ones for 40.000 year ago, but no longer like us, and finally humans

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who lived for 2.000.000 looked like the ones from 120.000, and no longer like
those from 40.000 years ago or us. For each of these generations, the previous
starts to die off, and the next has emerged for the first time ever (uranium-lead
dating helps to determine that). And the DNA confirms exactly their similarity
and difference for each generation of species in both genes and proteins. The
physical appearance (skull, jaw, nose etc) confirms all the above. So, there are
these to consider:

1. Finding the bones. The recent species are buried higher on the ground (ex.
those who are 100.000 years old) while older species which are millions of
years old are buried deeper into the ground.
2. Dating the bones how old they are (uranium-lead dating) and put them in a
timeline
3. DNA and proteins confirm similarities through the different evolutionary
species that they are indeed on the same family
4. Analysing the physical appearance in accordance to age confirms their change
of anatomy, like jaw, skull, nose and so on and so forth.
5. One human species starts to die off, while another emerges (with the help of
uranium-lead dating this is possible to determine).
6. Geneticist today see mutations on their daily basis on humans and animals
all over the world by analysing their DNA and proteins. By looking at their
DNA they can see what has caused an abnormality or a new feature from
the parents. Doctors use this to determine if a child has developed a genetic
disease.
7. And finally, the ecology of the world is a clear indication that evolution is
happening right in front of our eyes, especially when we are talking about
survival of the fittest. Evolution has always been an observed fact. We can
observe that there are no more mammoths or dinosaurs alive anymore, we
observe breeding different species of dogs and wolves, we observe micro-
evolution, and we observe the macro-evolution too, where some species
migrate and spreads to other continents and changes the ecology. This is the
theory of evolution by Darwin, but indeed it gets verified every single time in
every possible way.

All these factors contributed so the theory of evolution became... fact. The best
way to understand how evolution works is to be a synthetic organic chemist -
especially in the pre-biotic phase, and not a biologist as people think, although
they are as much as important to the macro-evolution. In the Quran and hadith
there are many verses that says creationism was the cause and not evolution.
People who defend Islam usually come with verses like

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“He designed you then made your design better.“ - Quran 64:3

The problem with this one is because it is not true. The actual verse says:

“and formed you and perfected your forms;“ - Quran 64:3

This verse actually did strengthen that Quran is against evolution rather than
proving people that they are right. Perfected means that humans won’t evolve
anymore which is untrue. Human DNA is changing every day and mutations
are happening every generation from parents to children, which biologists are
observing on their daily basis. Some humans receive negative mutations while
other positive mutations. Even in the last 20 small years the general public have
come across thousands of articles where children got a new and rare mutation
compared to their parents, imagine what 5000 years can do or even 30.000 years.
There are dozens of other verses people try to use to convince you but each time
they use one, they are either against the creationism of the Quran or not fulfilling
the criteria for evolution, like the above one. Islam is clearly against evolution
which the theory in the recent decades has become more like a fact, compared to
Darwin’s method which was only a theory at that time based only on observations
and fossils. If people come with verses to justify evolution, then what they are
really doing is manufacturing contradictions to the above verses.

Just remember, your DNA is unique. It has never existed and will never exist
again. This is a clear indication that evolution is happening right in front of our
eyes, maybe slowly, but it is happening.

Million years or billion years is never mentioned


The longest period mentioned in the Quran and hadiths is 50.000 years, never
millions or billions of years. This is a clear indication that the Quran is not
compatible with the age of the universe and evolution.

Moon calendar on another planet


What if we move to a new solar system into a habitable exoplanet, and there are
two moons instead of just one? Or maybe zero moons? So what kind of calendar
would you choose then? People claim it would be the largest moon, which actually
is a human choice rather than it is written in the Quran. But that still doesn’t

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answer the dilemma with zero moons. Of course the Quran doesn’t mention this
dilemma. The Quran repeatedly tells that this moon is our moon and is the only
moon ever created and the only one ever referred to. While there are probably
trillions of other moons, the Quran never mentions other moons than this one
hanging around the Earth. Everything regarding this dilemma points to that Earth
is the center of the universe, and the center of attention.

Allah has created a man and a woman


The definition of a male is having XY-chromosomes and female having XX-
chromosomes. But this is not the case, in fact there are people born with XXY-
chromosome and XYY-chromosome, who are part of men and part of women.
That means they both have a penis and a vagina and other characteristics such
as having a penis but having breasts. There is also the third possibility with only
one functional X-chromosome (Turners Syndrome). Genetically this means there
are really 5 different genders! It is funny how the Quran never mentions that this
dilemma.

Allah made the moon a light


“He made the sun a shining light and the moon a light” - Quran 10:5

The moon is not a light, it just reflects sunlight in the same direction where
the sun is. This verse is clearly wrong. Sahih International has corrupted the
international translation by adding the word “derived”, so it becomes Nur =
derived light.

“It is He who made the sun a shining light and the moon a derived light” - Quran
10:5, Sahih International

This is clearly a corruption of the translation to make it more trustworthy. When


you look into the following verse

“Allah is the light (Nur) of the heavens and the Earth.” - Quran 24:35

So does that mean that Allah is a derived light? No, Nur only means light.

The verse makes sense when looking at it from above; the sun is very bright and
shiny, and therefore it calls it “shining light”, while the moon only is an object with

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a weak light, therefore it is only a light.

Required to drain all the blood from the animal


“He has only forbidden you what dies of itself, and blood, and flesh of swine, and
that over which any other (name) than (that of)” - Quran 2:173

“Forbidden to you (for food) are: dead meat, blood, the flesh of swine” - Quran
5:3

Every cardiovascular doctor or scientist knows that it is impossible to drain all


the blood from every arteries, venes, venous, arterioles, and capillaries, regardless
how much you pressure it out. It is impossible. There will be traces of blood,
regardless of how much you drain it out. The blood plasma contains all sorts of
molecules, proteins and cells, and they will stick to the capillaries even though the
water becomes evaporated after roasting it.

Allah has created two mates

“And of all things We created two mates” – Quran 51:49

This is incorrect. There are countless animals, fish, fungi or plants that are
asexual in nature and doesn’t need a mate survive and reproduce. Examples are
hammerhead sharks, whitetail lizard, komodo dragon, marble crayfish, amazon
molly etc.

Many people's answer is usually a famous one where they state that this verse
does not refer to just “living things” but to everything. Their view is that it’s
understandable why people use the male and female interpretation, and shift
the focus on other things while still not having answered the male and female
example of an asexual animal. By doing this they go away and talk about other
things like protons and electrons, while still not having answered the question of
what is the pair of an asexual animal, plant or fungi are. This they can’t answer
you. If you ask them what the mate of the human male is, they’ll tell you it is the
female. If you ask them what the mate of a hammerhead shark is, they fail to say a
female or a male hammerhead shark, rather they talk about that “it does not just
refer to living just”. They just don’t know what the mate of an asexual plant, fungi
or animal is.

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Allah decides gender
“To Allah belongs the dominion of the heavens and the earth; He creates what
he wills. He gives to whom He wills female [children], and He gives to whom He
wills males.” - Quran 42:49

According to this verse it is Allah who decides the gender of a fetus. While it may
seem this is the case, most people have not the knowledge of science about the
fertilization process, which will be explained very briefly: First it is important to
remember that the sex-chromosomes for a female is XX, and for the male it is XY.
The egg cells in a female only has 23 chromosomes, and the sex-chromosome is
an X-chromosome in every single case (because both of her sex-chromosomes are
2 X’s. In a mans semen there are sperm cells, and the sperm cells in an ejaculation
are divided, half of the sperm cells has the X-chromosomes, and the other half
have the Y-chromosomes. Because the amount is equally divided there is also
about 50/50 percent chance that it will either be a male or a female. This means
that if the sperm cells containing the X-chromosomes reaches the egg first, it
merges with the X-chromosome of the egg and the resulting gender of the baby
is a XX-female. If the sperm cell with the Y-chromosome reaches the egg first, it
merges with the X-chromosome of the egg and the resulting gender of the baby is
a male.

This is important to know because there is a technique called “Sperm sorting”,


where the X-sperm cells and Y-sperm cells are separated - and then you can
decide which gender you want. So obviously it is not God's will to determine
gender. There are also endocrine disrupters which in fish has been proved to
change the sex ratio, so in a lake the fishes produces more females than males due
to these endocrine compounds. People use this verse to show that Allah knew that
we can choose gender:

“For, whenever any of them is given the glad tiding of [the birth of] a girl, his
face darkens, and he is filled with suppressed anger. With shame does he hide
himself from his people, because of the bad news he has had! Shall he retain it in
contempt, or bury it in the dust? Ah! what an evil (choice) they decide on! (16:58-
59)” - Quran 16:68

The problem is that it says once the baby girl has been born and the gender is
known. It literally says that the husband considers if he should kill the female

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baby because of shame. It doesn’t say that we can choose before the fertilization
which gender we want.

This is also a definitive mistake.

Mountains prevent earthquakes


“He has created the heavens without any pillars that you can see, and He has
placed in the earth firm mountains that it may not quake with you..” - Quran
31:10

There is just one problem with this statement. Most places on earth where
there are mountains, there are the most earthquakes. And most places on earth
where there are no mountains, there are actually least earthquakes. This is easily
demonstrated in a map where the mountain distribution and earthquake activity
are shown. Most of the activity of earthquakes are specifically on the same place
as the edges of tectonic plates. Preventing earthquakes is not the mountains job,
and even if it were, it didn’t do a good job. Furthermore there are also mountains
in the sub-oceanic, it’s been observed, measured and proven that they are
responsible for creating tsunamis. Even if this statement of the Quran was true,
just ask yourself, if Allah mentioned that he made the mountains to prevent
earthquakes, why didn’t he in the first place not mentioned that he made the
tectonic plates to cause them? Or that the tectonic plates causes continental drift?

This is an obvious example how much scientific facts are missing.

Mountains cast into the Earth


“And He has cast into the earth firmly set mountains, lest it shift with you, and
[made] rivers and roads, that you may be guided” – Quran 16:15

Mountains are definitely not cast into the earth, they come from the earth.
Volcanoes which is a type of mountain, are not really made by casting them,
rather by the magma from within the Earth’s upper mantle which works its way
to the surface, from a process called subduction. It is very well understood how
volcanoes are made, and definitely not by casting them.

Mountains are made by the tectonic plates gliding against each other through a
process called thrust. Those parts that has been elevated look like the buttom of

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the sea, because they are fossils, but has been elevated thousands of meters high.
Religous people dismiss this tectonic theory, but there are in fact many evidence
to support it. First by looking at earth of South America and west of Africa, it
is clearly they fit together. But what is important is that the same kind of rocks
and fossils found on west Africa, has also been found on the east side of South
America. There is also strike-slip tectonics which is the lateral movement of
parts of the crust or the lithosphere, and can be seen at San Andreas Fault on the
Carrizo Plain. By using laser ranging surveys in San Andreas transform fault, it
is possible to measure the few cm a year movement. Another method to measure
the movement of the continents is by using Very Long Baseline Interferomentry
(VLBI) from a space satellite, which can measure the distane between two
radiotelescopes on Earth precisely wihin 2 cm range, and which shows that they
are moving a few cm a year. Two other ways to determine the movement of the
continents is with the use of High Precision GPS, and Satellite Laser Ranging
(SLR). Now what is interesting is that not only do they all confirm the movements
of the tectonic plates differently, but also in which direction the continents are
move towards. What is interesting is that the data shows that the South American
Plate and African Plate are indeed moving the opposite direction. Another
example is the Indian Plate and the Euroasian Plate, which has been measured
that they are moving against each other. What is the result of this? The process of
subduction, which has caused Mount Everest.

Focusing on the mountains again, another a major issue with geology and the
Quranic verse above is about the sedimentary rock mountains. They have been
created on the buttom of the sea, and yet now they are mountains above sea level,
even though the Quran says they have been cast.

The second part Allah mentions are the rivers, but they are known to be created
naturally and automatically. The creation of the rivers is a very well known
phenomena within biology, ecology, and meteorology and just general earth
science. The science behind how water evaporates across the globe, and how the
clouds moves is a very well understood field and rather also a large field which
is too big to be addressed in this guide. Very briefly rain falls different places
and earth and mountains which results in rivers that floods down the mountain
due to gravity. This is not just scientific, it’s a fact and everyone can come to that
conclusion, even uneducated people. Furthermore, it has been observed that
rivers changes shapes and direction, all due to natural causes which is very well
understood. There are even rivers who are disappearing due natural causes or to
global warming, and rivers who are created, which Earth scientists are observing
every single year – and has nothing to do with God. The verse clearly refers

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to rivers as they are absolute, that means he has created a number of amount
of rivers, and that amount is not changed. Remember that most rivers which
existed for 1400 years ago unlikely exists today, and for those who still exists have
changed the direction or shape.

God doesn’t need to create river, everything happens naturally.

Communities like humans


“All creatures create communities like humans” - Quran 6:38

This is not true. Examples of animals which basically never creates communities
like humans are bears, pandas, tigers, jaguars, leopard geckos, badgers, foxes,
koalas, owls. Even if some did in some specific areas, this doesn’t account for that
99% still don’t.

Animals can’t speak


The Messenger of Allah (the Prophet Muhammad, peace be upon him) once
passed by a camel that was so emaciated that its back had almost reached its
stomach. He said, “Fear Allah in these beasts who cannot speak.” (Abu Dawud)

If he only referred to camels, that it might be true. If he referred to all animals


then it is untrue. Koko the gorilla mastered sign language and communicate with
people. The gorilla got Robin Williams attention and he came to visit the gorilla.
And what about parrots and songbirds? There is a parrot named Tika Bonika,
which basically speaks human language and understands what to say. Many
animals also have that instinct to show signs signs how they feel.

Types of animals mentioned in the Quran


The only animals mentioned in the Quran are: Bee, camel, cow, pig, locust, snake,
whale, crow, donkey, elephant, dog, ant, termite, hoopoe, fly, horse, lion, manna,
spider, gecko, salamanders, kites, mice, scorpions and the winged buraq.

There are an estimated 8.7 million different species in the world, and those
animals mentioned in the Quran were pretty common in the desert of Arabia.
There are many animals that are missing, like kangaroo, koala, frog, goanna,

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dingoes, Hawaiian monk seal, pronghorn, alligator, bison and eagle. The
animals can only be found in Australia, America and Hawaii - and exactly those
animals are not mentioned in the Quran which gives an idea that the Quran is
geographical based. Another good example is penguins from Antarctica, and yet
neither the Quran or hadiths never mentions penguins from a continent which at
that time wasn't known to mankind.

Types of plants mentioned in the Quran


The following plants are mentioned in the Quran:
manna, date-palm, olive, grapes, pomegranate, fig, lote-tree, tamarisk, tooth
brush tree, henna/ camphor, ginger, lentil, onion, garlic, cucumber, acacia, gourd,
mustard, sweet basil, euphorbia, bitter thorn, blessed tree.

There are of course plants mentioned in the hadith, but the hadiths were written
hundreds of years after, so obviously those are not included. However looking
at those plants, you realize all these plants are found in the Middle-East area, or
the surrounding areas. Below are some examples of plants America and Australia
which were not known in Arabia during Muhammads life and are not mentioned
in the Quran or hadiths. Asia and Europe also has thousands of different native
plants, which are not included in the Quran or hadiths, but are not included in the
list.

North America
Lobelia, white sage, wintergreen, iris setosa, gaillardia, maidenhair fern, coral
bells, oakleaf hydrangea, wild columbine, red twig dogwood, ‘sunshine superman’
coreopsis, winterberry, virginia sweetspire, creeping phlox, rhododendron, black-
eyed susan, elderberry, trumpet vine - and thousands of other plants which was
only native to North America.

South America
Heliconia Flower, Rubber Tree, Orchids, Cacao, Giant Water Lilies, Passion Fruit
Flower, Bromeliads, Monkey Brush Vine, Savannas and thousands of other plants.
Obviously one of the most important is cacao.

Australia
Bull Kauri, Palm Valley Myrtle, Dallachy's Banksia, Sturt's Desert Rose, Hillgrove
Spotted Gum, Eucalypts, Acacia (Wattles), Proteaceae, Wildflowers, Melaleuca,
Haemodoraceae, Eremophila - and thousands of other plant species.

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None of these native plants outside of the Arabian area are mentioned in the
Quran or hadiths. This further supports the evidence that the authors of the
Quran is geographical based.

Milk is pure

“Milk from livestock is pure and agreeable” – Quran 16:66

This is incorrect. Then why do people have natural milk intolerance and why do
people have the missing gene for lactase to split up lactose sugar in milk? There
is lactose intolerance, milk allergy which includes casein and lactoglobulin, and
the condition called villous atrophy in the intestines. All these conditions proves
that milk is definitely not agreeable. The fact that is says pure is not true either,
because the milk may contain pathogens which is the reason why the milk gets
pasteurized. It is a process where the milk gets heated up and kills the pathogens.

4 witness are required to prove rape of a female


Why did they [who slandered] not produce for it four witnesses? And when they
do not produce the witnesses, then it is they, in the sight of Allah, who are the
liars. - Quran 24:13

In the Quran and hadiths it is clearly stated that in order for a female to prove a
rape, there has to be 4 witnesses. Since the Quran is meant to work in all ages of
time, then what about cameras? Do they count? What about 10 cameras with 10
different angles? What about an extra 8K camera that zooms into the reproductive
parts, and the rapists faces to see their pimples? What about extra infrared
cameras, and a high quality sound recorder too, preferably a microphone from a
news channel? Of course not. The Quran says 4 witnesses, not cameras or sound
recorders. But what about fingerprints then? Or what about a DNA test from the
sperm? Or hair? Every person has a unique DNA sequence with 6 billion base-
pairs, so it is actually one of the strongest evidences. Why doesn’t the Quran
say anything about proving rape with DNA? DNA from sperm, together with a
camera and a sound recorder, is better than 100 witnesses. It’s also much more
efficient in a society. Another way to prove the rape is if the woman gets pregnant,
and this way it would be very easy to compare the DNA of the child with the
rapist. However this is not mentioned in the Quran.

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Why is smoking not mentioned in the Quran when it’s
very bad?
People's standard answer is “smoking did not exist in the time of the Prophet, but
the Quran says don’t destroy your body, therefore smoking is haram”. That’s is not
a convincing answer. First of all, Allah knows everything, past, present and future,
so he would definitely have mentioned smoking. The following verse confirms his
knowledge about the future:

“He is God besides whom there is none worthy of worship the all Knower of the
seen and the unseen. He is the Most Gracious the Most Merciful.” - Quran 59:22

Second of all, smoking actually existed in the time of the prophet, just on the other
side of the earth: In America. This is a humorous how Allah doesn’t even mention
that part of the world (and neither Australia or Antarctica). That smoking
actually existed in the time of Muhammad, and it isn’t mentioned in the Quran,
just proves that the author of the Quran is a human being living in the desert of
Arabia, because he didn’t had the capacity or knowledge about the other side of
the world.

Why is sport not mentioned when it is that good?

This is the same dilemma as the previous one and also an odd example. The
benefits of sport are improved cardiovascular health, lowers risk of heart disease,
stroke, lowers risk of diabetes, helps manage weight, reduced blood pressure,
enhanced aerobic fitness, improved muscular strength and endurance, improved
joint flexibility and range of motion, stress relief, control cholesterol, ward off
osteoporosis, strengthens immune system, improved sleep, mental health benefits,
prolonged life, reduces risk of injury, prevents certain cancers, increases range of
motion, increases insulin sensitivity, increases dopamine, improves balance and
coordination, gastrointestinal tract benefits, strengthens your bones, improves
focus and concentration, prevents Alzheimer’s and much more.

According to a new study sedentary behaviour increases the risk of certain


cancers. This means for people who don't do sports, they have higher probability
to develop certain cancers compared to those who do sport. Another study from
2017 found in a group of nearly 6000 adults that high levels of physical activity

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equate to a nine-year biological aging advantage. In the study the researchers
found that the telomeres were longere in those participants who engaged in a
minimum of 30 to 40 minutes of running, five days a week. It is worth mentioning
that soccer has been named a sport which brings world peace. Sport has also that
tendency to teach people how to accept the differences and find out how to help
people improve.

Sports are such a great teacher. I think of everything they've taught me: camaraderie,
humility, how to resolve differences
- Kobe Bryant

The Quran is meant to be absolute, and one of the most important things in the
world is not mentioned how it dramatically improves life in every aspect. It would
not be fair to mention that it really does mentions exercise, just in the form of
Jihad.

Heaven without pillars


“He has created the heavens without any pillars that you can see” Quran 31:10

Every scientists, whether it is a chemist, physicist, mathematician, biologist,


pharmacist, chemical engineer, meteorologist, geologist, astrophysicist or others,
have an idea that the Quran is not the true religon by just reading this phrase. It is
clear by just reading it, it shows that the author of the Quran was a human being
in the 7th century.

Heaven doesn’t need pillars, because we are already surrounded by the heaven
– mainly oxygen and nitrogen. In fact by measuring these molecules in the
air, you’ll find that there is more oxygen on sea level than on higher altitude,
therefore it is more blue close to the ground than on higher altitude. This is
easily demonstrated from photos taken close to space, where the lower part of
the atmosphere is more bluish and the upper part gradually becomes darker and
thinner. The part which says “that you can see” is a senseless statement, just as it
is so obvious to see that you don’t need the Quran to come to that conclusion that
the heaven has no pillars. In the next verse it is even better confirmed that the sky
is solid:

“God holds back the sky from falling on the earth unless by His leave (22:65)”

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Again this implies that the sky is a solid roof when in reality it is more like a
gradient gas, dense in lower altitude and thinner in higher altitude. This is an
obvious observation. There are even experiments showing that oxygen emits blue
light, hence the blue colour. The emission and absorption is of course not limited
to only oxygen, but all atoms and molecules. One might ask, is the Quran talking
about outer space? That would be a wrong assumption because space is not like a
roof to a planet, but the planet exists in space.

Heaven with no rifts


Have they not then observed the sky above them, how We have constructed it and
beautified it, and how there are no rifts therein? – 50:6

This is clearly a statement to prove how Allah is almighty and has made the
heaven so smooth with no rifts. This is a nonsensical verse proving how people
back then viewed the sky. It clearly state that the sky is a solid roof, and not a gas
of oxygen who emits blue light. How can there be a crack in a gas? To give an
example how wrong this verse is, think of the biggest fart you have ever made, and
then you try to point out a rift in the smelling atmosphere, but you can’t find one.
It’s because there are no rifts in gasses, gas is just gas. Below are additional verses
that proves the Quran implies that the sky is a solid roof:

“..and the sky a ceiling..” – Quran 2:22

“..And We made the sky a protected ceiling/canopy..” - Quran 21:32

“he made the heavens without pillars..” - Quran 31:10 + 13:2

“..And if they saw a portion of the sky fall down” - Quran 52:44.

This is clearly the same view that has existed for thousands of years prior to
Muhammad, every single verse points to a solid and rigid blue sky. If so, how
come space shuttles can fly through it? And how come meteorites coming from
outside our solar system or maybe galaxy can crash through it?

Heaven expanded
“And the heaven We created with might, and indeed we are (its) expander.” –
Quran 51:47 and “Have those who disbelieved not considered that the heavens

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and the earth were a joined entity, and We separated them and made from water
every living thing? Then will they not believe?” – Quran 21:30

This is probably the most famous scientific miracle to ever be used as a tool to
convince non-muslims to convert to Islam. Take a note that when the heavens
expanded, the earth already existed. This is where the whole “expanding universe”
miracle falls down. This verse talks about that heavens or space got separated out
of earth, which implies that earth existed for 13 billion years ago, which is not the
case. If people claim it is talking about space, then this also implies that earth is
the centre of the universe, since the separation and expansion of the heavens from
the spherical earth results in expanding space from 360 degrees around the globe.
Planet Earth is not even the center of our galaxy, or the center of our solar system.
If people interpret these heavens as space, and simultaneously earth as matter in
the Big Bang era, then it’s also incorrect, because matter didn’t exist in pre-Big
Bang. In verse 21:31 below it is clearly stated that earth is not the matter in the Big
Bang era which people tries to justify, because it is mentioning that mountains are
being set firmly on that same Earth.

And We placed within the earth firmly set mountains, lest it should shift with
them, and We made therein [mountain] passes [as] roads that they might be
guided. - Quran 21:31

Unless Muslims wants us to believe that mountains existed for 13 billion years
ago when matter began forming. Since the earth only began existing 9 billion
years after the Big Bang, therefore 21:30 clearly doesn’t refers to big bang. But here
comes the interesting part. And last thing is if people wants us to convince us
that this is talking about big bang, then they must accept evolution. Because the
expansion of the universe and evolution is essentially the same. They go hand in
hand. Also the next verse confirms that the Earth was made before the heaven:

Is it that ye deny Him Who created the earth in two Days? And do ye join equals
with Him? He is the Lord of (all) the Worlds. He placed therein firm hills rising
above it, and blessed it and measured therein its sustenance in four Days, alike for
(all) who ask; Then He ordained them seven heavens in two Days and inspired
in each heaven its mandate; and We decked the nether heaven with lamps, and
rendered it inviolable. That is the measuring of the Mighty, the Knower – Quran
41:9-12

Everything in the Quran points to that earth was made before heavens or space,
but in reality the earth, and all other planets were made after the beginning of the

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expansion of the universe and space.

Allah has created humans in the best form


“Indeed, We created humans in the best form” – Quran 95.4

This is again against evolution. The problem with this verse is it doesn’t mention
anything about the gradual evolution, and it certainly doesn’t agree that humans
are still evolving, which is a fact. It clearly states that this is against evolution. If
Allah has created humans in the best form, then what about genetic disorders?
There are probably hundreds or thousands of genetic disorders, and one example
is people who are born with thyroid problems that results in dwarfism. Another
example is people who are born with epilepsy - that’s not a perfect human being.

The purpose of this point is that modern human beings, also known as homo
sapiens existed for around 200.000 years ago, and Adam, the first human being
was created by Allah for a couple of thousands of years ago. So 194.000 years
before the time of Adam, nobody had access to any holy scriptures and none of
them went to heaven. It is also strange that the aborigines from Australia and
America didn’t have access to the Quran, at least until after the 16th century,
only 400 years ago? In all those years none of them had access to the Quran, and
none of them went to heaven. The Quran mentions that Allah sent prophets to all
nations, but never mentioned that they never reached America and Australia - or
the Chinese and Japanese people. It only mentions Jews, Christians and Muslims,
and it only mentions the cities around Middle East. The truth is that when the
Quran state that it has formed the humans perfectly, it does not match with the
reality. Humans have evolved throughout the ages, and we are still evolving and
will never stop evolving. Remember that your DNA has never existed before and
will never exist again, this is a proof in itself that evolution is happening.

Worshipping Allah without limbs


“and formed you and perfected your forms;“ - Quran 64:3

There are many people who are born completely without arms and legs while the
Quran tells you how to use your hands and pray with them in order to worship
Allah. It needs to be clarified that many are completely born without arms and
legs, not even small 10 cm length of legs or arms. It’s odd that the Qurn never
mentioned this detail.

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“And I did not create the jinn and mankind except to worship Me” - Quran 51:56

The verse above states that he only created human beings except to worship him.
How can you worship a God without a single inch of arms and legs? This goes
against his plan and the entire purpose of the human creation, namely to worship
Allah.

Nearest heaven with stars and their thickness


“We have adorned the nearest heaven with stars” – Quran 37:6, 67:5, 41:12

“One heaven has the thickness of 500 years of marching” – Kitab al-Tawheed 594,
Tafsir ibn Kathir 65:12.

This verse is completely wrong in many aspects. The simplest way to demonstrate
the ridiculousness of this verse is explaining it into steps:

• A normal distance of a march for a person in one day is about 120 km without
sleeping.
• This means a total of 21.900.000 km (21,9 million km) for a 500 years of
marching.
• The nearest star, Alpha Centuari is 24.000.000.000 km away, where 21,9
million km is only 0,000091% the distance of that closest star.
• That means if you want to reach the nearest star by marching, it will take you
2.747.252.747 years (2,7 billion years) and not 500 years.

The astronomical problem with this verse is that it implies that stars are in one
layer with a length of 500 years of marching. This means if you want to reach
the second layer of heaven you have to march 21,9 million km according to the
Quran. A light year is 9.4 trillion km, and the nearest star is 4.3 light years away,
about four times that distance. With the fastest space shuttle at 40.000 km/h, it
will take about 100.000 years to reach the nearest star!

By understanding how far the nearest star is, it is important to understand the
length from the closest star to the farthest star is, which is 5 billion light years
away; The closest star (except of course the sun) is Alpha Centauri which is 4.3
small light years away, and the farthest star is 5.000.000.000 light years (not to
be confused with km, but light years) away. That means you have to multiply

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5.000.000.000 x 9.460730.472.580 to get the distance in km in order for you to get
the distance from the start of the first heaven until the start of the second heaven
where there are no more stars.

This means that the thickness of one heaven is absolutely not a 500 years of
marching. Remember that Muhammad took his Buraq into the last heaven with
only wings, not only is it impossible with that slow speed, but also impossible
because you need oxygen to survive. The quran never mentioned that space is
very cold and the radiation would kill you. The Quran also never mentioned
that in order for anything to fly with wings, you need an atmosphere to cause
an action-reaction in order for a bird-like creature to fly. There is a reason why
helicopters can't fly on the moon; because there are no gas molecules. A very
famous experiment on the moon, the Galileo moon experiment, proved that
feathers fall down at the same speed as a hammer.

Summary points

• Muhammad flew with the Buraq to the seventh heaven


• The first heaven is where the stars are, a length of 5 billion light years
• Marching 5 km/h hours in 500 years won’t even take you 1 light year, let alone
5.000.000.000.
• Flying with wings in space is not possible since there is no air. This is
demonstrated in the Galileo feather and hammer experiment on the moon
where wings are useless without an atmosphere
• There is no oxygen in space to survive
• Radiation from the sun can kill you
• Outer space has a temperature of about -270 degrees Celsius

The hadith below confirms the previous statements from the Quran and Tafsir:

“He said: And muzn? They said: And muzn. He said: And anan? They said: And
anan. AbuDawud said: I am not quite confident about the word anan. He asked:
Do you know the distance between Heaven and Earth? They replied: We do not
know. He then said: The distance between them is seventy-one, seventy-two, or
seventy-three years. The heaven which is above it is at a similar distance (going
on till he counted seven heavens). Above the seventh heaven there is a sea, the
distance between whose surface and bottom is like that between one heaven and
the next. Above that there are eight mountain goats the distance between whose
hoofs and haunches is like the distance between one heaven and the next. Then
Allah, the Blessed and the Exalted, is above that.” – Sunan Abu Dawud 2:475

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It is so clear to see that it has nothing to do with reality.

Stars fall down and shooting stars


“And when the stars fall” – Quran 81:2

And We have certainly beautified the nearest heaven with stars and have made
[from] them what is thrown at the devils and have prepared for them the
punishment of the Blaze. – Quran 67:5

Clearly this is a sign of the Ancient beliefs that the shining stars in space are the
same as meteors. In the previous section, it was written that the stars are just
too far away from Earth in any manner, the closest being about 25 trillion km
away. In addition a sun cannot fall on earth, because most stars in the universe
are 10 times bigger for the smallest ones, and to billions of times bigger for the
biggest ones. Falling implies that a star falls on Earth; it is actually the reverse that
happens.
The verse implies that there are more than one star that falls down; so is it possible
for two suns which are millions or billions of times larger fall on the same Earth?
It’s not possible, the Earth would only fall on one star.

Allah makes a difference between suns and stars


“..command He has made the night and day, the sun, moon, and stars all of benefit
to you.” – Quran 16:12

This is also a clear indication that Allah suggest that stars are different from a sun.
He clearly distinguishes between those two like they are two different celestial
bodies, when in fact they are the same. The only difference is that our sun, which
is a star, is close to us and is the center of our solar system, while the other stars
are light years away and have their own solar systems.

There are seven heavens and seven earths


Seven heavens in layers.
“[And] who created seven heavens in layers. You do not see in the creation of the
Most Merciful any inconsistency. So return [your] vision [to the sky]; do you see

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any breaks?” – Quran 67:3, also 37:6, 41:12, 71:15, 78:12, 23:86, 23:17, 17:14 and
2:29, 65:12

Seven heavens and seven earths.


“It is Allah Who has created seven heavens, and earths as many ...” - Quran 65:12

Seven earths.
‘Any person who takes even a span of land unjustly, his neck shall be encircled
with it down seven earths.’” - Sahih Al-Bukhari Volume 4, Book 54, Number 417;
see also Numbers 418, 420; Volume 3, Book 43, Numbers 632-634)

Seven earths
“for Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) said: He who usurps even a span
of land would be made to wear around his neck seven earths. (Book 010, Number
3925; see also Numbers 3920-3924)

Seven earths
“Muhammad b. Ibrahim said that Abu Salama reported to him that there was
between him and his people dispute over a piece of land, and he came to ‘A’isha
and mentioned that to her, whereupon she said: Abu Salama, abstain from getting
this land, for Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) said: He who usurps
even a span of land would be made to wear around his neck seven earths.” - Sahih
Muslim (Book 010, Number 3925; see also Numbers 3920-3924)

These Quranic verses and hadiths are not the only evidence that Islam only
mentioned seven Earths, but also for example Al-Tirmidhi does it too. In any
matter, this is not the case and it’s completely wrong and inconsistent with reality.
It is guaranteed that there are more than seven earths, in fact as of 2019 there has
been found 4031 exoplanets which can hold living life. This excludes the billions
of more planets which have not been categorized or looked into yet.

Many people say that these seven heavens refer to the layers of the earth's
atmosphere, which is completely false, because as it is stated in the previous
sections, Quran says that there are stars in the lowest heaven, and the lowest
atmosphere is the troposphere with a height of 12 km. Other people refer these
seven heavens as the planets in our solar system, which is not true because there
2 planets between the sun and the earth, and another 6 planets farther than the
earth, and including the earth it becomes a total of 9 planets, not just seven earths.

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Sun rising from the west
“Abraham said, “Indeed, Allah brings up the sun from the east, so bring it up from
the west.” So the disbeliever was overwhelmed [by astonishment]” – 2:258

This is a verse that clearly says that Earth is the center of the universe, and the sun
orbits earth, when in reality this isn’t the case. The sun is stationary in our solar
system, and the Earth orbits itself around the sun while also rotation around its
axis.

People's answer to this is “it’s because from our point of view it looks like the
sun is moving”. It is an amazement that every single time people has to look at a
scientific verse from a different view that the direct view. There is not one single
verse that refers that the earth is orbiting the sun. Not one. Below is a hadith from
Sahih Muslim, which is one of the two most reliable hadith:

“Do you know where the sun goes? They replied: Allah and His Apostle know
best. He (the Holy Prophet) observed: Verily it (the sun) glides till it reaches its
resting place under the Throne. Then it falls prostrate and remains there until
it is asked: Rise up and go to the place whence you came, and it goes back and
continues emerging out from its rising place and then glides till it reaches its
place of rest under the Throne and falls prostrate and remains in that state until
it is asked: Rise up and return to the place whence you came, and it returns and
emerges out from it rising place and the it glides (in such a normal way) that
the people do not discern anything ( unusual in it) till it reaches its resting place
under the Throne. Then it would be said to it: Rise up and emerge out from the
place of your setting, and it will rise from the place of its setting. The Messenger
of Allah said. Do you know when it would happen? It would happen at the time
when faith will not benefit one who has not previously believed or has derived no
good from the faith.” - Sahih Muslim 159 a,

The problem with this verse is that there are satellites which are constantly
observing the sun in space. In the modern world we have found out it never
goes under Allah’s throne and awaits permission to rise up again. The excuse?
This hadith has to be taken as a metaphor. This is their excuse even though it is
consistent with everything else in the Quran and other hadiths.

There is another problem with this too. Making the sun rise from the west
requires the earth to stop and rotate in reverse. Any person with an understanding
of Newton's law, will understand that stopping the earth and reversing it will

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either take an enormous amount of times by during it very slowly, or if it is done
fast, everything on the surface of the earth would be destroyed. Furthermore,
nobody in the history of the world has documented that the sun rose from the
west, except the Quran and hadiths.

Allah created the Earth first, then the heavens


It is He who created for you all of that which is on the earth. Then He directed
Himself to the heaven, [His being above all creation], and made them seven
heavens, and He is Knowing of all things – Quran 2:29 and 41:10 (also supported
by several hadiths)

People like to claim that the heavens is in fact space that is expanding, and tries
to justify that the Quran knew about the Big Bang before anyone else. The only
problem is that in this verse, and others too, it is stated that the Earth was made
before the heavens. The Big Bang in Quran falls completely down.

It is clear that it was just a desert man in 600 AD who just looked up in the sky
and made up all of this by trying to make some small guesses, but not with too
many details in fear of being mistaken.

Allah sends the winds


“And it is He who sends the winds” – Quran 25:48

Allah doesn’t send winds. A meteorologist, biologist and a physical chemist will
guarantee that it is not the case. The Earth science regarding winds is a very well
known phenomena, and the silly thing is that winds have a constant direction and
cycle everywhere in the world. Winds have many different causes, which some of
them are mentioned below:

• Winds are due to the sun heating the atmosphere


• The temperature-difference between one place and another
• The pressure-difference between one place and another
• The rotation of the earth
• The distance and angle to the sun
• Depends your position in accordance to the latitude
• and other small factors

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The surprising thing is that the winds are in a constant cycle, and it is very well
understood how the rotation of the earth, pressure- and temperature difference
has an impact on that.

Allah sends down pure water


“..and We send down from the sky pure water” – Quran 25:48

Allah doesn’t send pure water down, it happens naturally and automatically. It has
to do with these different causes:

• The pressure
• The temperature
• The density of H2O in the clouds

It has nothing to do with God's will. If having doubt a meteorologist or earth


scientist can easily answer this question with a great explanation. There are
probably hundreds or maybe thousands of experiments demonstrating that rain is
naturally and automated. A great example is how NASA has also created a shuttle
fuel tank which they test at Stennis Space Center in Bay St. Louis, Mississippi, the
RS-25. It burns hydrogen and liquid oxygen, and the resulting effect is that clouds
are created, and shortly after the beginning it starts to rain from these artificial
clouds. In Sahih al-Bukhari it is further written that nobody knows when it will
rain:

"Allah's Messenger (‫( )ﷺ‬p.b.u.h) said, "Keys of the unseen knowledge are five
which nobody knows but Allah . . . nobody knows what will happen tomorrow;
nobody knows what is in the womb; nobody knows what he will gain tomorrow;
nobody knows at what place he will die; and nobody knows when it will rain." -
Sahih al-Bukhari 1039

This is not true since we can know the forecast up to around one week later
Additionally rain is not pure. Pure water means only H2O which in modern
term is called demineralized water. Rain always contains dissolved gases from
the atmosphere, and there is also a term called acid rain. Pure H2O can only be
made in laboratories, but also via evaporation and condensation. Even rainwater
in a bucket is not pure, because each drop precipitates around a speck of dust or
bacterium. As far as it is known to date, bacteria is never mentioned in the Quran
or hadiths, and neither are ions, like magnesium ions or calcium ions.

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Allah holds birds up in the air
“Do they not see the birds suspended in mid-air up in the sky? Nothing holds
them there except Allah – Quran 16:79

It’s a funny thing that Allah doesn’t mention that he also holds up planes,
helicopters, spaceships, missiles and balloons. Why does he only mention birds?
Planes in the early stages of development couldn’t hold themselves up for a
very long time, and thanks to engineering, physics and human intelligence the
planes got a better hand crib at holding themselves up in the air, but not because
of Allah. Why is it that every decade since the late 1800s, planes have become
better and better at being held up`without the use of praying but instead of
experimenting? Maybe due to engineering?

This verse clearly demonstrates that the authors of the Quran in 600 AD only had
the ability to observe birds with wings flying, but never mentioned space shuttles
which have no wings but instead an action reaction fuel tank. The same goes for a
helicopter.

It is not Allah who holds up the birds in the air, it is the gas molecules, nitrogen
and oxygen especially that is responsible for an action-reaction making them
drift up. There is a reason why birds and planes cannot fly in vacuum or on the
moon. The difference between the moon and earth are the atmospheric gasses
which allow for an action-reaction and therefore a drift. A famous experiment
is the Hammer and Feather Drop on the Moon experiment which demonstrates
that without air, the wings are useless. Since the Quran obviously doesn’t mention
that birds cannot fly in a vacuum, which is the key difference between having the
ability to fly and not fly with the wings, the Quran is not perfect regarding this
statement. Below is a statement from Aristotle in pre-Islamic age about flying in
thin air:

“That mountain of Macedonia which is called Olympus is said to be of such


height that on its summit no wind is felt and no clouds gather, because it exceeds
in its height all that vaporous air in which birds fly, and therefore it is arrived that
no birds fly there.” – Aristotle, 384-322 BC from High Life: A History of High-
Altitude Physiology and Medicine

It is obvious that the authors of the Quran has not taking anything into

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consideration regarding flying with wings.

Gender is determined after the flesh has been made


“At every womb Allah appoints an angel who says, ‘O Lord! A drop of semen, O
Lord! A clot. O Lord! A little lump of flesh.” Then if Allah wishes (to complete)
its creation, the angel asks, (O Lord!) Will it be a male or female, a wretched or a
blessed, and how much will his provision be? And what will his age be?’ So all that
is written while the child is still in the mother’s womb.” – Sahih al-Bukhari 318

This is probably one of these people can’t run from although it is not the Quran
but in the most reliable hadith, Sahih al-Bukhari hadith. This statement is
absolutely and completely wrong without any further consideration. It has been
previously explained in this chapter that in a man's sperm, half of the sperm
cells in an ejaculation have the X-chromosome, and the other half has the
Y-chromosome. Sperm cells do not contain 46 chromosomes, but they are split
in half in X-chromosomes and Y-chromosomes. If the X-chromosome sperm
reaches the egg first, it will become a girl, if the Y-chromosome sperm reaches
the egg before Y-chromosome, it will become a boy. This means it has been
determined before any flesh has been created. This is called conception. There
is also a technique called sperm sorting, where the X-sperms and Y-sperms are
separated and parents can choose which gender they want.

Moon split into two


"The Hour has come near, and the moon has split [in two]." - Quran 54:1

"During the lifetime of Allah's Apostle the moon was split into two parts; one part
remained over the mountain, and the other part went beyond the mountain. On
that, Allah's Apostle said, "Witness this miracle.". The moon was cleft asunder
while we were in the company of the Prophet, and it became two parts. The
Prophet said, Witness, witness (this miracle)." - Sahih Bukhari 6:60:387-388

Splitting the moon into two is not something that won't go unnoticed. Nobody
has ever documented the moon split into two during the life of Muhammad in the
years of 570 AD - 632 AD. Nobody. Below is an actual representation scale of the

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moon being split into two above the earth:

Keep in mind that cutting the moon and hovering it above the atmosphere, it will
block and fill out the entire Arabian peninsula. When the most reliable hadith
says that one part is over a mountain and the other part beyond that mountain,
is simply not true. Only one part can be in the Arabian peninsula and since there
are no more room, the other part can be in North Africa, just like illustrated
above. The half moons above the Arabian peninsula and Africa are so big that the
whole of Europe can see it, even Norway. Nobody has ever documented anything,
neither the Greeks, Egyptians, Romans, Byzantine, Danish people, Spanish
people, Jews, Christians. Absolutely nobody has ever documented this event even
though the whole middle east, Europe and Africa are able to see this event. In
the next page, it is more clear that even in the Northern Europe, like Denmark or
Sweden, you will be able to see the moon from there.

The Quran and Hadith say that aliens exists


The reason they state this is because the Quran says “worlds”, but this is already
covered in the previous sections of this chapter where the Quran and Hadiths
together and repeatedly mentions that there are a total of seven earths, while in
reality there are probably trillions out there

There are many references that points out that this is not the case. For example,
the Torah, the Bible and the Quran were all revealed in the Middle-East, and God
only sent prophets to this area. One thing is that the Quran doesn’t even mention
America, Australia, Antarctica or even Greenland. But more importantly, do

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The moon cut in the middle where one of them blocks the entire Arabian peninsula,
while the other almost blocks North Africa. Note that the height of the half moons are so
large that it is completely possible to be seen all the way from the northeren Europe, like
Sweden and Norway. The size ratios are exactly the same as in reality.

This Illustration is from the book Handbook for Disproving Islamic Apologists by Egzon
Morina.
aliens from other planets need to come to earth in order for them to learn about
the Quran for them to go to heaven?
What about all the thousands or millions of years which they are ahead of us, they
haven’t ever heard of Muhammad? The Quran also specifically says “seven earths”,
which is again wrong, because human civilization has already detected over 4000
exoplanets in habitable zones out of millions or billions – and you expect that it’s
only seven worlds?

There is nothing about the existence of other planets in other solar systems in the
Quran or Hadith, let alone life on other planets.

Muhammad’s body buried in Medina and does not


decompose
“The Prophet said: Among the most excellent of your days is Friday; on it Adam
was created, on it he died, on it the last trumpet will be blown, and on it the shout
will be made, so invoke more blessings on me that day, for your blessings will be
submitted to me. The people asked: Messenger of Allah, how can it be that our
blessings will be submitted to you while your body is decayed? He replied: Allah,
the Exalted, has prohibited the earth from consuming the bodies of Prophets.” -
Sunan Abi Dawud 1047, also supported by Da’if (Darussalam) Hadith 1637

Before the late 90’s it it was actually allowed to go inside and kiss the tomb of
Muhammad, but this has been outlawed since then. The question is why has the
Saudi government has not opened the tomb to verify the claim of this verse that
the prophets body hasn’t decayed? Below are some points why it hasn’t happened
yet and probably will never happen:

• It is a holy tomb, so it must never be opened


• Opening the tomb and realizing that Muhammad’s body has actually decayed
• Opening the tomb and realizing that there is no body
• Opening the tomb and performing C14-dating and realizing that the bones
does not originate from the 600 AD

If his body survives 1400 years after burial without mummification or any other
methods of preservation, the whole world would be converting to whatever
religion Muhammad wanted them to. Surely this must be of Saudi Arabia's
interest.

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Furthermore when Allah says that he prohibited the earth from consuming the
bodies, it isn’t true. Bacteria and microorganism are not a part of earth.

Hijab has many benefits


“And tell the believing women to reduce [some] of their vision and guard their
private parts and not expose their adornment except that which [necessarily]
appears thereof and to wrap [a portion of] their headcovers over their chests and
not expose their adornment” - Quran 24:31, 24:60, 33:59, 33:53, al-Bukhaari,
4481, Abu Dawood (4102), al-Bukhaari, 365; Muslim, 645 (and other hadiths)

The hijab has many disadvantages in a female's daily life. Firstly, it is not easy to
become a professional athletics or just be a good athletic in school while wearing
it due to the movements not being flexible and dynamic. Not only does it affect
the wearer, but it also affects the non-muslim females and males for always
trying to take into account to not accidentally pull the hijab off, which has a great
impact on the efficiency of peoples performance and focus. As of 2020 there has
been issued a total of about 9000 medals to women, this includes gold, silver and
bronze. Only four females with hijab have won a medal, and they only received a
bronze. One of them defected from their Islamic country in 2020.

Wearing a hijab means that you have to live in a house with the curtains on 24/7,
and that is psychology not healthy. The curtains are of course meant for hiding
the females hair and body, but this will also impact the psychological health of
the males too. It should be noted that being raised as children since the age of
basically zero in the environment of a dark home is really harmful. A considerable
problem with the covering of the female body is that it results in obesity. Muslim
countries in Middle-East and north Africa has among the highest obesity for
women in the world.
Until 1930’s muslim women had a considerable disadvantage regarding vitamin
D. Covering herself fully results in low D-vitamin and people back then had
no idea that this chemical even existed, let alone how important it is for energy
and calcium absorption. It is clear that Allah didn’t knew about this and never
mentioned it anywhere. Claiming that vitamin pills are a solution to this problem
is not a satisfying answer. Because the Quran is absolute and should work in all
ages of time, this answer is very troubling. What was the solution for the people
from 600 AD to 1930 AD till vitamin D was commercialized? Until the 20th
century people had no idea how important this was, so 1300 years prior not
many females ate the necessary fruits and vegetables to get the necessary amount.

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Furthermore in Islamic countries doctors are used for treating females with bone
dieases, since it is Vitamin D that is responsible for calcium absorption from the
intestines.

Many people claim that females can take a seat inside the house and get sunlight
through the window. This may seem like a solution, but the problem is that only
UV-A rays get through window glass while almost 100% of the UV-B and UV-C is
blocked. You need UV-B rays for the production of vitamin D. Second of all, how
should one expect about 1 billion female muslims to do that without being seen
from passers or people from other buildings on higher floors? In other examples
people like to claim that females have the option to sit on top of a building roof,
which again is an absurd idea. Satellites and helicopters are good at picking the
images of the exposed women.

Additionally If women need to cover their body due to sexual reasons, why
won’t the men do it too? Women have the same sexual lust as men. Keep also
in mind that the of the revelation why the hijab became mandatory is because
Muhammad’s close friend Umar constantly begged Muhammad to view his wives,
and he refused to do so.

One important aspect has not been covered, that is that the more women are
covered, the more are men to be turned on when they finally see it. For example
Brazlian men wouldn't care about seeing women in the street with females
showing their butts, because they grew up with it. Whereas a muslim man in a
muslim country has far less control when he finally see women naked. Basically
Islam created a problem it was intended to prevent. In germany an experiment
performed by muslims girls to make the native german girls and teachers to wear
hijab. With the hijab on, they felt like as they were being watched, because the
hijab creates an attention or curiosity what's underneath the coat.

Allah makes the fetus one step at a time and egg is


never mentioned
“Then We made the sperm-drop into a clinging clot, and We made the clot into a
lump [of flesh], and We made [from] the lump, bones, and We covered the bones
with flesh; then We developed him into another creation. So blessed is Allah, the
best of creators.” – Quran 23:14

This is wrong. Bones and flesh are simultaneously created in a fetus. The modern

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science regarding embryology has thousands of more details instead of this
superficial explanation which cannot be used for anything.

In the Quranic verses 23:13-14, it literally and specifically says that it is the sperm
that becomes human, and not the egg. There is evidently no mentioning of the
egg. This is understandable because nobody at that time had an idea how to
see a human egg, let alone that it exists. The only details the Quran and hadiths
mentions regarding the human embryology is: sperm, bones, flesh and blood.
This is exactly what you would need to expect a 12 year old child can see in
the medieval age and even back in ancient Greece. There is no mentioning of
enzymes, macro molecules, the 200 different human cells, receptors, collagen,
hormones, glands; none of it but only those objects which you can see with your
naked eye. This is clearly a manipulative trick many people use, but in truth a
teenager has realized that sperm somehow creates a baby which consist of flesh,
blood and bones. The following Quranic verses and hadith clearly states that it is
the sperm who transforms to a human being:

“Then we made the sperm into a clinging clot” – (23:14)

“created man from a clot of blood”, “clot of thick blood” – (96:2)

“Allah’s Apostle, the true and truly inspired said, “(The matter of the Creation of)
a human being is put together in the womb of the mother in forty days, and then
he becomes a clot of thick blood for a similar period, and then a piece of flesh for
a similar period. (Sahih al-Bukhari 4:53:430)

This is without doubt incorrect. Not a single mentioning of either the egg or that
both blood, flesh and bones are created simultaneously. It is wrong regarding the
process, and they don’t even mention sperm cells, rather only the fluidness of
sperm, which anyone can see. In the next chapter it is explained that it was known
by the Greeks in even better details.

Allah predicts the tectonic plates


“And you see the mountains thinking that they are standing still when they are
moving just like the movement of the clouds.“ - Quran 27:88

People use this verse to justify that Allah knew about the tectonic plates which are
the causes of the continental drifts.

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The problem with this verse is that it only says that the mountains are the only
objects on Earth that moves, but this is not the case since everything moves.
Denmark is one of the flattest countries in the world, and there are almost no
noticeable mountains, and yet the whole country moves in any case. Below are the
top 10 most flat places on Earth, and even though they are not mountains and do
not contain ones, they do move anyway.

1. Schleswig-Holstein mudflats, Germany


2. Salar de Uyuni
3. Danakil Desert
4. Everglades, Florida
5. Lake Baikal, Siberia
6. Cloncurry, Australia
7. Bonneville Salt Flats
8. Makgadikgadi Salt Pans, Botswana
9. Wadi Rum, Jordan
10. The Maldives

The interpretation about the continental drifts is purely false, and use only being
used as manipulation from ignorant people who wants to make it seem more
special than it is.

People do not show CT-scans of people who listens to


music
“And of the people is he who buys the amusement of speech to mislead [others]
from the way of Allah without knowledge and who takes it in ridicule. Those will
have a humiliating punishment.” - Quran 31:6. Also see Tafseer al-Tabari, 21/40,
Tafseer Ibn Katheer, 3/451, Tafseer al-Sa’di, 6/150, Ighaathat al-Lahfaan, 1/258-259
and more

Religious folks are masters in showing off scanning images of the brain after
fasting and how it improves the brain. Obviously it was not Allah who invented
fasting, but was known to mankind thousands of years before. The real question is
how come they don’t show images of the brain of people who listens to music, but
instead only fasting? Maybe because music is prohibited? The benefits of music
has been very well documented, including the improvement of health benefits,
psychologically and physically. It is especially classical music that has been shown

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to alter the brain.

A fly falls in the drink


The Prophet said “If a house fly falls in the drink of anyone of you, he should dip
it (in the drink), for one of its wings has a disease and the other has the cure for
the disease.” (Sahih Al-Bukhari: Volume 4, Book 54, Number 537)

Why get a disease and then cure it, when you can avoid the problem in the first
place? According to many who defend Islam, the action equals the reaction, so
there is no problem with that and Muhammad knew best. Clearly Muhammad
didn’t knew anything, in fact the total opposite of reality. The problem arises that
Muhammad thinks that diseases can only be in the wings, but what from the
stomach or from the legs? There are many bacteria, virus and parasites that infest
a fly on those areas.

There are well over 110.000 different species of two-winged flies throughout the
world. The two-winged fly or any of its relative is certainly not called harmless
as a fly for a reason. These species carry diseases like malaria, dysentery,
sleeping sickness, onchocerciasis, elephantiasis, and transmitted to man by these
bloodsucking dipterous flies. Many other diseases are carried by them by sucking
the feces or any other decaying organic matter and then spitting the pathogens out
of the food you’re eating. The feet of these flies are equipped with sticky pads and
its proboscis (nose) is also hairy. From their feet which consist of hollow hairs,
comes a sticky liquid out which allows them to walk upside down and on glass,
etc. The fly’s digestive tract is also a good breeding place for many germs. Below
are some examples of diseases which can be obtained from two-winged flies.

Leishmaniasis
This disease is caused by a parasitic protozoan which is transmitted by a bit of
a sand fly. Many different symptoms are caused by it, including fever, weakness,
swollen spleen, and skin sores. One of the more severe symptoms is that this
pathogen eats your skin where the flesh can be seen, and no treatment is cures
exists against it. This disease is found in Africa, South America, Europe and the
Indian Subcontinent.

Onchocerciasis
This disease is caused by the nematode worm and is spread by the Simulium black
fly. It is also known as River Blindness and is an infectious cause of blindness. This

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disease is commonly found in Africa and South America, and it only requires a
single bite to transmit the worm to its victim. Treatment is available with the drug
ivermectin, but it is not a cure.

African Trypanosomiasis
This disease is caused by a protozoan blood parasite called trypanosoma, and is
also a sleeping sickness. Transmission to humans occurs by the salivary glands
of tsetse flies in Africa which are infected by this parasite. Many symptoms are
associated with this diseases, including a boil-like sore at the site of the bite, fever,
headache and severe illness.

Bartonellosis
This disease is caused by the rickettsia organism which is transmitted to humans
by the bite of a sand fly. The human who gets this disease transmitted usually is
exhausted by anaemia, high fever and a wart-like eruptions on the skin. It is found
in South America and treatment is available.

Myiasis
This disease is frequently carried by the cheese skipper fly, but occurs mostly
on animals such as dogs, sheep and cows although on humans may happen too.
The mechanism is transmission is that the fly lays its eggs on the skin of another
organism, and it can penetrate itself into an open wounds. There are many severe
symptoms, including violent abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhoea
with bloody discharge. No available treatment exists for this except for the larvae
to grow and thereby leave by itself, or by enticing it.

Typhoid
This disease is caused by the bacteria known as Salmonella Typhi. It is found in
many parts of the world, including the United States, Western Europe and Japan.
Symptoms are fever like symptoms which includes a body temperature of as
high as 39° C to 40° C, weakness, stomach pains, headaches, and loss of appetite.
Treatment is available with the drugs chloromycetin or ampicillin

Dysentery
This disease is caused by a parasite called Entamoeba histolytica, and it is a
chronic disease that affects the large intestine in humans. It can be found in
uncooked meats, and may be transported by flies. Symptoms include severe
diarrhoea and severe stomach cramps. Treatment is available with the drugs
metronidazole and ementine.

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Leprosy
This disease is chronic and mainly affects the skin. Also known as Hansen’s
Disease, it is caused by the bacillus Mycobacterium leprae which can be carried
by flies from rotted foods. Symptoms include anaesthesia (numbness) of a patch
of skin, and muscles may be paralyzed. Because the skin is paralyzed, the injuries
to the area is not easily noticed by the victim. It is a rare disease and a vaccine is
currently being developed against it.

These are some few examples of diseases which flies can transmit to its human
victim, and it clearly shows that Muhammad and the Quran had absolutely no
idea of the existence of bacteria, vira and parasites. How do you expect to believe
anything else in the most reliable hadith when this is wrong?

Allah sends thunderbolts


"Allah sends thunderbolts and strikes therewith whom he wills" - Quran 13:13

Lightning comes from clouds, not god. In 600 AD it was clearly known that
the only source of lighting were the clouds, but why is it that we can produce
lightning ourselves then? This is another scientific thing the authors of the Quran
excluded. People would in this situation say “this verse says that Allah sends, but
Allah has given us the opportunity to create them”. It is exactly the point, this
verse only mentions what was observed by a child in 600 AD, but never even
mentioned the opportunity of creating lighting by oneself.

Fresh water and salt water don't mix due to a barrier


"It is He Who has let free the two bodies of flowing water: One palatable and
sweet, and the other salt and bitter; yet has He made a barrier between them, a
partition that is forbidden to be passed." - Quran 25:53

It is clear from every different translation of this Quranic verse that Allah has
made a barrier between the ocean which is salty and the water from rivers - and
the barrier is forbidden to be passed. This is not true, there is no barrier in this
phenomena called estuary. In fact, the ocean and the fresh water actually mixes
with each other, it only does it very slowly. The process is called diffusion.
If rain would cease to exist, it would probably take a couple of years for the salt to
diffuse all the way to the starting point of the river. It is the continuous adding of
new rainwater that keeps the existence of this transition It is happening in a

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process called diffusion. In this transition of the fresh water into the ocean slowly
increases in salt concentration in a gradient. Below is a picture that demonstrates
the difference.

Besides that it is wrong and there is no barrier between them, all people in every
continent is aware of this phenomenon, and it is relatively easy to spot. People
back then knew that water from rivers was drinkable, people back then knew that
the ocean was not drinkable, and it isn't that hard to come to the conclusion that
at some point these two types of waters must have met somewhere.

Red sea and Arabian sea


Classical scholars are interpreting it as being the red and the Arabian sea. The
Red Sea has a high evaporation rate which is therefore the concentration of salt is
increased. This is of course because the place where the red sea is, is right beside
the Sahara desert and the Arabian desert, and because of the temperature of the
water surface reaches 30 degrees. The Strait of Bab Al-Mandeb also works like a
gate. Since no other gates exists to the Red Sea, the only way water can come in
and out is through that gate - and therefore the red sea is what is known as a semi-
enclosed marginal sea. The classical scholars have also completely misunderstood
the difference between freshwater and saltwater: in this case they are both salt

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water. The red sea is even more salty than the Arabian sea, but in the end they are
both saltwaters.

The umbrella experiment


Like mentioned above, the truth is that they do mix via diffusion of water from
the river to the sea, and salt from the sea to the river, but in a very, very slow.
The reason why they do exist is because there is still continuous rain to the
mountains and river which increases the fresh water and therefore this boundary
called estuary always will exist. An experiment to disprove this Quranic verse can
actually be performed:

In a place where fresh water meets sea water, people can set up large umbrellas
or canopy all the way through the river and to the top of the mountains. This will
ensure that no extra fresh water will be added. Slowly in maybe months, years or
decades, the saltwater and freshwater will be totally mixed

This can also be applied to the Red Sea. Since the cause of the high concentration
of salt is the result of the hot sun evaporating the water, one set up canopies in the
total area of the Red Sea. This is possible by creating floating objects which don't
sink, but also can hold up units of thick canopies which are connected which each
other throughout the whole Red Sea. Since the red seas circulation is very poor,
it will take many years, at least decades if not centuries for the Arabian sea to mix
with the red sea. But it will happen.

The Quran says that the earth is created by gas


“Then He directed Himself to the heaven while it was smoke” – 41:11

People like to claim that this verse proves that Earth has been created by smoke.
So let’s take it step by step:

41:9: Say, “Do you indeed disbelieve in He who created the earth in two days and
attribute to Him equals? That is the Lord of the worlds.”

41:10: And He placed on the earth firmly set mountains over its surface, and He
blessed it and determined therein its [creatures’] sustenance in four days without
distinction – for [the information] of those who ask.

41:11: Then He directed Himself to the heaven while it was smoke and said to it

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and to the earth, “Come [into being], willingly or by compulsion.” They said, “We
have come willingly.”

The realization is that the smoke scene was after the creation of the earth right,
not before. There is a difference between gas and smoke. Gas is a state of matter,
smoke is a collection of particles.

Yawning is from Satan


Abu Hurayrah reported that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon
him) said: “Yawning is from the Shaytaan. If any of you feels the urge to yawn, let
him resist it as much as possible, for if any of you says Ha (makes a noise when
yawning), the Shaytaan laughs.” - al-Bukhari no. 3289, also supported by al-
Bukhari, Fath, no. 6226, Muslim, 2994, Sunan al-Tirmidhi, 2747 and others

This is probably one of these major scientific mistakes from these many confirmed
hadiths. In the view of anatomical structure, yawning stretches your mouth to
the fullest and the normal respiration stops with a full inspiration fuelling your
lungs with a puff of cool air. The resulting effect from the relaxation and stretching
of these anatomical structures is that blood supply increases and afterwards the
blood supply to the brain increases. The carotid body which lies just above the
bifurcation of the common carotid artery on both sides of the brain compresses,
releases adrenaline and noradrenaline which makes you feel aroused for a small
amount of time. As mentioned the brain gets a shot of increased blood due to
the relaxation of the neck, but it is also cooled down by the page of cold air to the
lungs. Experiments on rats has shown that the brain gets cooled down.

Yawning helps with empathy, cooling down the brain, increasing blood flow to the
brain, flushing out toxins and more. It has also been shown that in children at age
4 with autistic behaviour have a lack of yawning.

This one is clearly wrong on the hadiths..

The sun moved to a settled place


“The sun runs its coarse to a settled place. That is the decree of the Almighty, the
All Knowing.” Quran 36:38

People are interpreting this verse as as the sun moving has its own course to a

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resting place called the Solar Apex, and how remarkable it is that it was known
before by a man in 600 AD. This is not true. Our sun is moving in an orbit
around the galaxy of approximately 230 million years a circuit, it is not a place
where the sun is going to settle. Astronomers call the sun’s direction of motion
through the Milky Way the solar apex or the apex of the sun’s way. The Solar Apex
is the direction of motion with respect to the local standard of rest. It is not a
destination where it is going to stop. Just like the Earth is orbiting the sun non-
stop, the sun is also orbiting the galaxy the same way - and certainly the solar apex
is not a bus station.

Genetics in the Quran


Many religious people like to claim that Quran 18:65 (written in Arabic) refers to
DNA, since it says A NE DE, reading backwards. They also claim it was in the
year 1865 when the science of genetics began due to it being surah 18 and verse
65.

There are many problems with this statement. Firstly the origins of genetics lie
in the development of theories of evolution, first was observed and proved by
Charles Darwin, and he published his book in 1859. It was during this period.
Gregor Mendel discovered the basic principles of genetics, without even knowing
that there is a nucleus in the cells which contain DNA, and he published his paper
in 1866. It was between 1856 and 1863 he conducted the experiments on plea
plants to cross-breed them. People claim this is about the DNA, but the DNA
molecule itself was first discovered with X-Ray in 1900s. Mendel had nothing
to do with the DNA itself, only cross-breeding and proving that offspring have
variants from their parents. The science of genetics began between 1856-1863 and
not 1865 as some claim. He only made two presentations in 1865 to present his
paper, but was ignored by the scientific community, but he published the paper in
1866 anyway.

Since many literally extract the word DNA out of the verse, the DNA molecule
was first discovered in 1900s where started with the proposed Chromosomal
Theory of Inheritance in early 1900s and then the chemical structure of
the DNA between 1920-1953. DNA is furthermore only an abbreviation of
deoxyribonucleic acid, why didn’t the Quran say deoxyribonucleic acid instead?
It is just a name, the discovery of the molecule with X-ray is more important,
together with it’s chemical structure and how different mechanism works, like
splicing.

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Since the numbering of the verses 18:65 is what keeps this miracle alive, then all
people need to do is to prove that these verses are the same as the 9 Qurans made
by Uthman in 652 AD. They can’t, because the oldest Qurans known are from the
8th century (Topkapi, sammarqand, Ma’il, Housini, Petropolitanus, San’AA). None
of these Qurans are original, none of these quran are the same as the Qurans
today, all these qurans has mistakes in grammar and language, and some of the
have missed words, missed pages. Dr Shabir Ally which supposedly found his
“miracle of the numbers 7 and 19” and bragged about a lot found out that they
can only found in the 1924 Al-Azhar compiled canonical text, put together in
Egypt that same year. After he realized he couldn’t find his numerology miracles
earlier than 1924, he stopped mentioning these numbers. All people have to do is
to find the 18:65 verse in a 12th century Quran or older.

Menstruation
“Narrated Grandfather of Adi ibn Thabit: Allah’s Messenger (peace be upon him)
said: Sneezing, drowsing, yawning in prayer, also menstruation, vomiting and
nose-bleeding are from (the acts of) Satan.” - Tirmidhi Hadith, Number 315

Thinking about it, the Quran only talks about menstruation but never, ever
mentions what it is good for. Even the Quran doesn’t mention anything good
about menstruation, but looking at the hadith above, saying that menstruation
is from Satan just proves how much guesswork they did and how little did they
know about anatomy, physiology and ovulation. In the menstruation cycle,
ovulation happens where eggs are released and sperm cells need to fertilize the
cell and make the woman pregnant. So having the ability to be pregnant is from
Satan?

Cousin marriages
“Prohibited to you [for marriage] are your mothers, your daughters, your sisters,
your father’s sisters, your mother’s sisters, your brother’s daughters, your sister’s
daughters, your [milk] mothers who nursed you, your sisters through nursing,
your wives’ mothers, and your step-daughters under your guardianship [born] of
your wives unto whom you have gone in. But if you have not gone in unto them,
there is no sin upon you. And [also prohibited are] the wives of your sons who are
from your [own] loins, and that you take [in marriage] two sisters simultaneously,
except for what has already occurred. Indeed, Allah is ever Forgiving and

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Merciful.” - Quran 4:23

The above verse from the Quran mentions which relatives you are allowed to
marry and have children with and cousins is one of them. Apparently it hasn’t
taking any consideration about increased chance of sharing genes for recessive
traits which can hold genetic disorders.
The only thing a person has to do is look at the science and statistics regarding
cousin marriages, and you’ll find that for example that pakistanian couples who
are cousin married in UK has 13x times more likely than the general public to
produce children with genetic disorders, and also the childbirth mortality rate
increases compared to non-cousin marriage. If Allah really knew about science,
he would not have allowed this, and he would also have explained the chemical,
biochemical and molecular biological science behind it.

Allah has raised a prophet in every nation


“And We certainly sent into every nation a messenger, [saying], “Worship Allah
and avoid Taghut.” - Quran 16:36

This is a clear indication that geography wasn’t the best side of the authors of the
Quran. America, Australia, Greenland and probably not even Asia never received
a prophet and are still waiting. Nothing of the Torah, Christianity or Islam existed
there until after 15th century, as a matter of fact much later than that. Quran and
hadiths repeatedly mentions which prophets were sent and where, but it never
mentioned anything about the aborigines in Australia, the native Americans in
America, the Inuit of Greenland, which by the way have totally different beliefs.
Until the time of Muhammad, they never received any prophets, where were they
when this revelation was given to Muhammad?

All the references that shows that Earth is flat with a


dome heaven
Ibn Kathir is the mother of all tafsir, and the most reliable
“The heaven is like a dome over the earth” – Tafsir ibn Kathir for Qur’an 13:2

Spread out like a carpet


“And the earth We have spread out (like a carpet); set thereon mountains firm and
immovable; and produced therein all kinds of things in due balance.” – Quran

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15:19

Like a carpet spread out


“He Who has, made for you the earth like a carpet spread out; has enabled you to
go about therein by roads (and channels); and has sent down water from the sky.”
With it have We produced diverse pairs of plants each separate from the others. –
Quran 20:53

Like a carpet
“(Yea, the same that) has made for you the earth (like a carpet) spread out, and
has made for you roads (and channels) therein, in order that ye may find guidance
(on the way);” – Quran 43:10

Spread it out
And the earth – We have spread it out, and set thereon mountains standing firm,
and produced therein every kind of beautiful growth (in pairs) – Quran 50:7

Spread out the earth


And We have spread out the (spacious) earth: How excellently We do spread out!
– Quran 51:48

Spread the earth


"And after that He spread the earth." - Quran 79:30

Spread the earth


"And it is He who spread the earth and placed therein firmly set mountains and
rivers; and from all of the fruits He made therein two mates; He causes the night
to cover the day. Indeed in that are signs for a people who give thought." - Quran
13:3

Earth a bed (spread out)


"[He] who made for you the earth a bed [spread out] and the sky a ceiling and
sent down from the sky, rain and brought forth thereby fruits as provision for you.
So do not attribute to Allah equals while you know [that there is nothing similar
to Him]."- Quran 2:22

Earth a bed
"[The one] who has made for you the earth a bed and made for you upon it roads
that you might be guided" - Quran 41:10

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Earth as a bed
"[It is He] who has made for you the earth as a bed [spread out] and inserted
therein for you roadways and sent down from the sky, rain and produced thereby
categories of various plants." - Quran 20:53

Seven earths below


Narrated AbuHurayrah: While Allah’s Prophet (peace be upon him) and his
companions were sitting clouds came over them and Allah’s Prophet (peace be
upon him) asked […] “Do you know what is below you?” On their replying that
Allah and His Messenger (peace be upon him) knew best, he said, “It is the earth.”
He then asked, “Do you know what is under that?” On their replying that Allah
and His Messenger (peace be upon him) knew best, he said, “Under it there is
another Earth with a journey of five hundred years between them,” and so on till
he had counted seven earths with a journey of five hundred years between each
pair. He then said, “By Him in Whose hand Muhammad’s soul is, if you were to
drop a rope to the lowest earth it would not pass out of Allah’s knowledge.” – Al
Tirmidhi 5735

Seven heavens with 71, 72 or 73 years of distance


He said: And muzn? They said: And muzn. He said: And anan? They said: And
anan. AbuDawud said: I am not quite confident about the word anan. He asked:
Do you know the distance between Heaven and Earth? They replied: We do not
know. He then said: The distance between them is seventy-one, seventy-two, or
seventy-three years. The heaven which is above it is at a similar distance (going
on till he counted seven heavens). Above the seventh heaven there is a sea, the
distance between whose surface and bottom is like that between one heaven and
the next. Above that there are eight mountain goats the distance between whose
hoofs and haunches is like the distance between one heaven and the next. Then
Allah, the Blessed and the Exalted, is above that. – Sunan Abu Dawud 2:475

Lowest heaven with stars


We have indeed decked the lower heaven with beauty (in) the stars. – Quran 37:6

Lowest heaven with stars


So He completed them as seven firmaments in two Days, and He assigned to each
heaven its duty and command. And We adorned the lower heaven with lights, and
(provided it) with guard. Such is the Decree of (Him) the Exalted in Might, Full of
Knowledge. – Quran 41:12

Moon in the middle

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And made the moon a light in their midst, and made the sun as a (Glorious)
Lamp? - Quran 71:16

Reaching to the setting place of the sun


Until, when he reached the setting of the sun, he found it set in a spring of murky
water: Near it he found a People: We said: “O Zul-qarnain! (thou hast authority,)
either to punish them, or to treat them with kindness.” - Quran 18:86

Tafsirs that confirms the flat earth interpretation


People claim that spreading out like a carpet means that we can walk normally on
land. But the tafsir below states otherwise:

"And at the earth – how it is spread out? (88:20)’ meaning it was laid flat, and
from that the power of Allah is inferred. This was linked to camels (in 88:17)
because they are the animal most connected to Earth. And His usage of the
‘spread out’ literally suggests that the Earth is flat, and such is the opinion of the
scholars of Islam, not a ball like astronomers claim, though claiming so is not a
grave sin.” - Tafsir Jalalayn 88:20

The tafsir from Jalalayn is very clear by saying "not a ball like astronomers claim".
A printed copy version in English have leaved out the flat part. It rather says:

"...and at the earth, - how it was smoothed out? All these things are cited as
evidence of the power and oneness of Allah. Camles are mentioned first because
the Arabs had closer contact with them than any other animals. "Smoothed out"
is used of the Earth because it has the appearance of being level." - Tafsir Jalalayn
88:20 (printed version of English translation)

The above translation on a printed version has been clearly corrupted. Firstly it
has leaved out that "not a ball like astronomers claim", and the second is that it
uses the word "smoothed" rather than "flat". Below are other tafsirs confirming
that the interpretation is a flat earth:

Regarding Quran 13:3: “Allah said: “And it is He who spread the Earth” which
means that he spread it so that things may lie flat on it, which is a counter
argument against those who claim that it is round like a ball.” - Tafsir Mawardi
13:3

Regarding the meaning of the word bisatan in Quran 71:19: “the obvious meaning
is that the Earth is not spherical, but flat.” - Tafsir Abu Hayyan 71:19

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Allah said ‘And it is He who spread the earth’ meaning that he spread it over the
water … according to astronomers the Earth is a ball and it can be said that if the
ball is large enough then every piece of it can be seen as a large flat expanse…
Even so Allah has told us that He expanded the Earth and that He spread it and
flattened it, which all indicate that the Earth is flat, and Allah is more truthful and
has better evidence than astronomers.” - Tafsir Al-Khazin Al-Baghdadi

The opinion that the Earth is round is a false one, but believing that it is flat is the
obvious meaning taken from the book of Allah, of which there is no falsehood.
Ibn Mujahid proved the correctness of this by using the water of sea around
elevated areas. He said: if the Earth were round then the water would not lie still. -
Tafsir Ibn Attiyah 71:19

Explanation: Ibn Mujahid is known to have created the seven canonical Quranic
readings (Qira'at).

Musa ibn Harun narrated and said that Amru ibn Hammad narrated and said that
Asbath narrated from al-Suddi in the report mentioned, from Abu Malik, and
from Abu Salih, from ibn ‘Abbas and from Murrah, from ibn Masud and from
people of the companions of the prophet (peace and blessings be upon him): “…
and the sky a building…” The canopy of the sky over the earth is in the form of a
dome, and it is a roof over the earth. And Bishr bin Mu’az narrated and said from
Yazid from Sa’id from Qatada in the words of Allah “…and the sky a building…”
He says he makes the sky your roof. - Tafsir al-Tabari 2:22

Allah said next, (..without any pillars that you can see.) meaning, `there are
pillars, but you cannot see them,’ according to Ibn `Abbas, Mujahid, Al-Hasan,
Qatadah, and several other scholars. Iyas bin Mu`awiyah said, “The heaven is
like a dome over the earth,” meaning, without pillars. Similar was reported from
Qatadah, and this meaning is better for this part of the Ayah, especially since
Allah said in another Ayah, (He withholds the heaven from falling on the earth
except by His permission.) 22:65 Therefore, Allah’s statement, (..that you can see),
affirms that there are no pillars. Rather, the heaven is elevated (above the earth)
without pillars, as you see. This meaning best affirms Allah’s ability and power. -
Tafsir Ibn Kathir 13:2

Now how many verses says that the earth is round? Zero, except the verse

“He made the earth egg-shaped.” – 79:30

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Claiming that “dahaha” means “egg-shaped” is an atrocious mistranslation of the
Arabic word. It is Udhi'ya or Udhu'wa which means ostrich egg. Some people
claim that it is a metaphor that one side of earth is smaller than the other side due
to the rotation of the earth which is still not true regarding the reality. Below are
three problems about the comparison of the Earth with an ostrich egg.

• Radius of Earth:
Center to north: 6356 km
Center to equator: 6378 km
Difference in percent: 0,34%. That’s not even one percent.
• An egg is more or less a prolate spheroid, and the Earth is an oblate spheroid,
which is the opposite. See images on the left. This means even if you flip it, it
won’t match each other.
• One end of an egg is more pointy, and the other end is more thick – which is
absolutely not an image of the earth.

The difference in percentage which is only 0,34% is so low, it still looks like a
perfect round ball with the naked eye. There are many other fruits or object
the authors of the Quran could have chosen like oranges, peaches, honeydew,
lanzones, and why not the sun or the full moon itself? All these fruits are more
accurate to the earth than an egg. To do the comparison visually, it has been
designed and demonstrated with Photoshop where 1 pixel is 1 km radius. The
results can be seen on the next page.
Looking at the spheres, the one to the left is a perfect sphere with radius
6378x6378 px horizontally and vertically, and the one in the middle is the actual
dimensions of the earth with 6378x6356 pixels. It has been designed in pixels, but
the result is the same as the only important aspect is the ratio. To the right is the
Ostrich egg. It can be clearly seen the shape of the earth is much more similar to a
perfect sphere than to an ostrich egg ever will be.
Regardless about the dimensions, the problem is still that dahaha doesn’t mean
egg-shaped, it means spread out.

People usually use the excuse you don’t even consider the fact that there are many
egg shapes, depending on which animal the egg came from: birds, reptiles, amphibia
and fish. The Quran doesn’t specify that, and usually the term egg is referred to
a bird’s or a chicken egg in it’s natural sense first. In the desert of the cities of
Medina and Mecca there are not a lot of fish. In the end it really doesn’t matter
what kind of egg, because the basis of the Quran 79:30 saying egg-shaped is a
mistranslation of dahaha. Also the tafsir comment confirms it:

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“At the earth how it is spread out(*) (Arabic: sutihat): meaning it was stretched, so
they can see in it a sign for the power of Allah ... and his saying sutihat makes it
obvious that the earth is flat, and this is certified by Ulama’ ash-shar’a (the shari’a
theologians), not a globe as it is said by ahlul-hay’a (the laymen).” - Tafseer Al-
Jalalayn. printed in Damascus 1964. Al-Mallah Printshop and Bookstore)

How do you stretch a round earth? The authors should just have written that the
round earth has been made so big that the curvature can’t be seen from sea level.
But it doesn’t say that.

All the references that sun moves around earth


Sun and moon floats in its orbit
“It is not for the sun to catch up with the moon, nor does the night surpass the
day; and each one of them floats in its orbit.” - Quran 36:40

The night and the day are determined by the orbiting of the moon and sun
“And it is He Who created the night and the day, and the sun and the moon; each
one floats in an orbit.” - Quran 21.33

Heavens are in layers. It specifically also says that we can see it, which we can’t
“See ye not how Allah has created the seven heavens one above another, and made
the moon a light in their midst (Luminous), and made the sun as a (Glorious)
Lamp?” - Quran 71:15–16

Setting place of the sun found in a globe


“Until, when he reached the setting of the sun, he found it set in a spring of murky
water: Near it he found a People: We said: “O Zul-qarnain! (thou hast authority,)
either to punish them, or to treat them with kindness.” - Quran 18:86

Resting place of the sun in a globe


“And the sun runneth on unto a resting-place for him. That is the measuring of
the Mighty, the Wise.” – Quran 36:38

Sun goes underneath the throne and gets permission to rise again
“Narrated Abu Dhar: The Prophet asked me at sunset, “Do you know where the
sun goes (at the time of sunset)?” I replied, “Allah and His Apostle know better.”
He said, “It goes (i.e. travels) till it prostrates Itself underneath the Throne and

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takes the permission to rise again, and it is permitted and then (a time will come
when) it will be about to prostrate itself but its prostration will not be accepted,
and it will ask permission to go on its course but it will not be permitted, but it
will be ordered to return whence it has come and so it will rise in the west.” –
Sahih Bukhari 4:54:421

Rising place found in a globe


“Until, when he came to the rising of the sun, he found it rising on a people for
whom We had provided no covering protection against the sun.” - Quran 18:90

Night and day are determined by the orbiting sun and moon
“And He hath made subject to you the sun and the moon, both diligently pursuing
their courses; and the night and the day hath he (also) made subject to you.” -
Quran 14:33

Sun and moon orbiting earth


“Hast thou not seen how Allah causeth the night to pass into the day and causeth
the day to pass into the night, and hath subdued the sun and the moon (to do
their work), each running unto an appointed term; and that Allah is Informed of
what ye do?” – Quran 31:29

The sun had to be bring up from the west, when in fact it is caused by the rotation
of the earth
“Abraham said, “Indeed, Allah brings up the sun from the east, so bring it up from
the west.” So the disbeliever was overwhelmed [by astonishment]” – Quran 2:258

All the references that our world is the center of


attention while other solar systems with planets aren’t
Earth which is a very small object compared to space was one entity
“Do not the Unbelievers see that the heavens and the earth were joined together
(as one unit of creation), before we clove them asunder? We made from water
every living thing. Will they not then believe?” - Quran 21:30

Only one Earth exists


“O our Lord! truly Thou dost know what we conceal and what we reveal: for
nothing whatever is hidden from Allah, whether on earth or in heaven.” Quran -
14:38

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Only one Earth exists
“Say: “My Lord knoweth (every) word (spoken) in the heavens and on earth: He is
the One that heareth and knoweth (all things)” Quran - 21:4

Only one Earth exists


“Knowest thou not that Allah knows all that is in heaven and on earth? Indeed it
is all in a Record, and that is easy for Allah” - Quran 22:70

Only one Earth exists


“To Allah belong all things in heaven and earth: verily Allah is He (that is) free of
all wants, worthy of all praise.” Quran 31:26

Only one Earth exists


“Not for (idle) sport did We create the heavens and the earth and all that is
between!” - Quran 21:16

Only one Earth exists


“It is He Who hath created for you all things that are on earth; Moreover His
design comprehended the heavens, for He gave order and perfection to the seven
firmaments; and of all things He hath perfect knowledge.” – 2:29

Only one Earth exists


“He it is Who created the heavens and the earth in six Days – and His Throne
was over the waters – that He might try you, which of you is best in conduct.
But if thou wert to say to them, “Ye shall indeed be raised up after death”, the
Unbelievers would be sure to say, “This is nothing but obvious sorcery!” - Quran
11:7

Only one Earth exists


Behold! in the creation of the heavens and the earth, and the alternation of night
and day,- there are indeed Signs for men of understanding.

Only one Earth exists


“Allah is the light of the heavens and the Earth” – Quran 24:35

Only seven Earths exist


“It is Allah Who has created seven heavens, and earths as many ...” - Quran 65:12

Only seven Earths exist (hadith)


‘Any person who takes even a span of land unjustly, his neck shall be encircled

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with it down seven earths.’” - Sahih Al-Bukhari Volume 4, Book 54, Number 417;
see also Numbers 418, 420; Volume 3, Book 43, Numbers 632-634)

Only seven Earths exist (hadith)


“for Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) said: He who usurps even a span
of land would be made to wear around his neck seven earths. (Book 010, Number
3925; see also Numbers 3920-3924)

Only seven Earths exist (hadith)


“Muhammad b. Ibrahim said that Abu Salama reported to him that there was
between him and his people dispute over a piece of land, and he came to ‘A’isha
and mentioned that to her, whereupon she said: Abu Salama, abstain from getting
this land, for Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) said: He who usurps
even a span of land would be made to wear around his neck seven earths.” - Sahih
Muslim (Book 010, Number 3925; see also Numbers 3920-3924)

Allah created the Earth first, then the heavens


“Say (O Muhammad, unto the idolaters): Disbelieve ye verily in Him Who created
the earth in two Days, and ascribe ye unto Him rivals? He (and none else) is the
Lord of the Worlds. He placed therein firm hills rising above it, and blessed it and
measured therein its sustenance in four Days, alike for (all) who ask; Then turned
He to the heaven when it was smoke, and said unto it and unto the earth: Come
both of you, willingly or loth. They said: We come, obedient.” – Quran 41:9-11

Allah created the Earth first, then the heavens


“He it is Who created for you all that is in the earth. Then turned He to the
heaven, and fashioned it as seven heavens. And He is knower of all things” –
Quran 2:29

Heavens in layers
“So He completed them as seven firmaments in two Days, and He assigned to
each heaven its duty and command” – Quran 41:12

Heaven like a canopy for earth


“And We have made the heavens as a canopy well guarded: yet do they turn away
from the Signs which these things (point to)!” – Quran 21:32

The sky is solid


“See they not what is before them and behind them, of the sky and the earth? If
We wished, We could cause the earth to swallow them up, or cause a piece of the

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sky to fall upon them. Verily in this is a Sign for every devotee that turns to Allah
(in repentance)” – Quran 34:9

Heavens without pillars floating, when in fact it’s just a reflecting gas
“Allah is He Who raised the heavens without any pillars that ye can see; is firmly
established on the throne (of authority); He has subjected the sun and the moon
(to his Law)! Each one runs (its course) for a term appointed. He doth regulate
all affairs, explaining the signs in detail, that ye may believe with certainty in the
meeting with your Lord.” - Quran 13:2

The sun, the moon and the earth is the center of the universe
“Lo! your Lord is Allah Who created the heavens and the earth in six Days, then
mounted He the Throne. He covereth the night with the day, which is in haste to
follow it, and hath made the sun and the moon and the stars subservient by His
command. His verily is all creation and commandment. Blessed be Allah, the
Lord of the Worlds!” – Quran 7:54

The course of the sun and moon determines night and day
“And He hath made subject to you the sun and the moon, both diligently pursuing
their courses; and the night and the day hath he (also) made subject to you.” -
Quran 14:33

The course of the sun and moon determines night and day
“He created the heavens and the earth in true (proportions): He makes the Night
overlap the Day, and the Day overlap the Night: He has subjected the sun and the
moon (to His law): Each one follows a course for a time appointed.” – Quran 39:5

Our sun and moon is the only sun and moon ever mentioned
“He it is that cleaveth the day-break (from the dark): He makes the night for rest
and tranquillity, and the sun and moon for the reckoning (of time): Such is the
judgment and ordering of (Him), the Exalted in Power, the Omniscient.” – Quran
6:96

Our sun and moon is the only sun and moon ever mentioned. Furthermore the
moon is not a light
“It is He Who made the sun to be a shining glory and the moon to be a light
(of beauty), and measured out stages for her; that ye might know the number
of years and the count (of time). Nowise did Allah create this but in truth
and righteousness. (Thus) doth He explain His Signs in detail, for those who
understand.” - Quran 10:5

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Definitive proof that Earth is the center of the
universe, aliens do not exist according to the Quran,
and Islam is not true
“And We certainly sent into every nation a messenger, [saying], “Worship Allah
and avoid Taghut.”” - Quran 16:36

In the verse above we know for sure that he has sent a messenger to every nation.
In the below verse we find out how many nations:

“And this [Qur’an] is a Book We have revealed [which is] blessed, so follow it and
fear Allah that you may receive mercy. [We revealed it] lest you say, “The Scripture
was only sent down to two groups before us, but we were of their study unaware,”
Or lest you say, “If only the Scripture had been revealed to us, we would have been
better guided than they.” So there has [now] come to you a clear evidence from
your Lord and a guidance and mercy. Then who is more unjust than one who
denies the verses of Allah and turns away from them? We will recompense those
who turn away from Our verses with the worst of punishment for their having
turned away.” - Quran 6:155-157

So Allah has sent a messenger to every nation, and that is a total number of three:
The Jews, the Christians and now the Arabs. Not even the native Indians? Not
even the aborigines? Not even the Greenland people? How do you expect it to
even be aliens?
He says that he sent a messenger to every nation, therefore the messengers of the
Jews, Christians and now Muslims do not count, since they were the messengers
of the Middle-East, and not America or Australia. And the second Quranic
verse confirms it conclusively that there were a total of three groups, the Jews,
Christians and now muslims, where the books have been revealed.

People can refute that Allah has sent a messenger to every nation, but not all
nations received a scripture. To this following bullet proof argument can be used:

Messenger sent to every nation


"And for every nation is a messenger. So when their messenger comes, it will be
judged between them in justice, and they will not be wronged" - Quran 10:47

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"And We certainly sent into every nation a messenger, [saying], "Worship Allah
and avoid Taghut." And among them were those whom Allah guided, and among
them were those upon whom error was [deservedly] decreed. So proceed through
the earth and observe how was the end of the deniers." - 16:36

Messengers were sent with book and scriptures


"We have already sent Our messengers with clear evidences and sent down with
them the Scripture and the balance that the people may maintain [their affairs]
in justice. And We sent down iron, wherein is great military might and benefits
for the people, and so that Allah may make evident those who support Him and
His messengers unseen. Indeed, Allah is Powerful and Exalted in Might." - Quran
57:25

"Then if they deny you, [O Muhammad] - so were messengers denied before you,
who brought clear proofs and written ordinances and the enlightening Scripture."
- Quran 3:184

"And We have already sent messengers before you and assigned to them wives
and descendants. And it was not for a messenger to come with a sign except by
permission of Allah . For every term is a decree." - Quran 13:38

"And if they deny you - then already have those before them denied. Their
messengers came to them with clear proofs and written ordinances and with the
enlightening Scripture." - Quran 35:25

Conclusion: With these four verses, books were sent to all nations, which in turn
contradicts with Quran 6:155-157, that it was only sent down to three groups
total.

Another evidence to support that not all nations received a scripture


“And this [Qur’an] is a Book We have revealed [which is] blessed, so follow it and
fear Allah that you may receive mercy. [We revealed it] lest you say, “The Scripture
was only sent down to two groups before us, but we were of their study unaware,”
- Quran 6:155-156

The scripture to the arabian peninsula was sent to the arab-speaking people, so
they did not have any excuses. But what about America and Australia? Should they
just accept that they will come with excuses? Allah specifically didn't want the
arabs not to come with excuses, why not the native Indians or Aborigines too?
Furthermore nowhere is it mentioned in the Quran or hadiths about America and

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Australia. The next verse confirms it was sent down for the arab-speaking people
because of the language:

“And before this Quran the Book of Moses was revealed as a guide and mercy.
And this Book is a confirmation, in the Arabic tongue, to warn those who do
wrong, and as good news to those who do good.” - Quran 46:12

The proof that earth is the center of the universe and Aliens do not exist
Notice also that the Quran only mentions that Allah has sent a messenger to
every nation, but doesn't say every world or every planet. Even if it were correct
that he sent messengers to other planets, it still wouldn't make sense because he
only sent the scriptures to the Jews, Christians and Arabs, which is on our planet
- and therefore the Messengers on other planets would be useless without any
scriptures.

There is no way to interpret it away, this, ladies and gentlemen, is the golden
scientific mistake you all were looking for. Let it be known that this scientific
mistake mistakes was found and for the first time mentioned in this book,
Disproving Islam (2020) by the author. This is an entirely new scientific mistake,
which is wrong, and undoubtedly cannot be interpreted otherwise.

Conclusion
This chapter has presented various scientific mistakes, and a complete new one,
first described in this book.

Nevertheless all these scientific verses (which are not science), whether true or
not, is only 0,000001% of all science knowledge compared to today. The next
chapter is exclusively showing that these scientific miracles have been known
before Muhammad by mankind. This chapter was about that these are wrong and
not satisfactory, and it doesn’t work, then the next chapter will prove that these
scientific statements were known before.
Chapter 4: Plagiarism by Islam
Introduction
This chapter is a follow-up of chapter one and deals with proving that scientific
miracles from the Quran, and presents evidence that were in fact known before
Muhammad’s time. It is separated into two main parts, the first part dealing with
the scientific plagiarism and the second part dealing with plagiarism regarding
rituals, rules, wordings, events etc.

PART 1
Quran copied fasting
It is typically seen that people share CT scans or MRI scans of the brain, showing
how fasting improves and alters the brain, and justifying how Islam is the true
religion because of this. While there is no doubt that fasting has benefits, the
benefits of fasting has been known for at least 1100 years before Muhammad, and
this is independently from the Torah and the Bible.

Pythagoras (570 BC - 495 BC) in ancient Greece was among many who talk about
its advantages. It was one of the most widespread healing traditions in the ancient
world.
Hippocrates (460 BC - 370 BC) was one of the greatest geniuses in the antique
and is widely considered the father of modern medicine. He commonly
prescribed the practice of fasting and the consumption of apple cider vinegar. He
wrote to eat when you are sick, is to feed your illness.
Another ancient Greek was Plutarch (46 AD - 120 AD) who was a Greek writer
and historian who also made similar statements. He wrote Instead of using
medicine, better fast today. Even Plato (424 BC - 348 BC) and his student Aristotle
were also truth worthy supporters of fasting. Generally the ancient Greeks
believed that humans, like most animals, do not eat when they become sick. This
is the reason why fasting has been called the physician within.

There is surely no doubt that fasting was known before the time of Muhammad.

Separating the heaven from earth and earth from

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heaven
In the Quran and hadiths it is stated multiple times Allah had separated earth
from the heavens and heavens from the earth. Below is a scripture which was
written 2700 years before Muhammad with the same statement:

“Not only did the lord make the world appear in its correct form, the lord who
never changes the destinies which he determines – Enlil – who will make the
human seed of the Land come forth from the earth – and not only did he hasten
to separate heaven from earth, and hasten to separate earth from heaven..” - Song
of the Hoe, Creation of the Myth, 2100 BC

"When the Heavens had been separated from the Earth" - Enuma Elish,
Babylonian creation myth, 700 BC

""What did the ancient classic "Zhou Shu" mean by the sentence that Zhong
and Li caused the heaven and earth to disconnect from each other?" - Guoyu
(Discourses of the States), 771–476 BC

Separating earth from heaven was indeed said almost 3000 years before
Muhammad.

The development of the fetus in the womb


People like to claim that it was a miracle how Muhammad in 600 AD could have
known how a fetus is made. As it has been described in chapter one, it is actually
not that hard to come to the conclusion that sperm goes into the women, and
somehow becomes a baby which consists of bones, flesh and blood. Even a 15
years old could have that imagination at that time or even thousands of years
before that. Nevertheless it was known by numerous people before Muhammad,
and one of them is Hippocrates (460-370 BC) which lived 1000 years before
Muhammad. He wrote:

"Sperm is a product which comes from the whole body of each parent, weak
sperm coming from the weak parts, and strong sperm from the strong parts....The
seed (embryo), then, is contained in a membrane … Moreover, it grows because
of its mother’s blood, which descends to the womb. For once a woman conceives,
she ceases to menstruate... At this stage, with the descent and coagulation of the
mother’s blood, flesh begins to be formed, with the umbilicus...As the flesh grows

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it is formed into distinct members by breath... The bones grow hard … moreover
they send out branches like a tree …” - Hippocrates 1978, page 321-322

Aristotle also wrote about the embryology, 900 years before Muhammad:

“When the material secreted by the female in the uterus has been fixed by the
semen of the male…the more solid part comes together, the liquid is separated off
from it, and as the earthy parts solidify membranes form all around it…Some of
these are called membranes and others choria…” and “So nature has first designed
the two blood vessels from the heart, and from these smaller vessels branch off
to the uterus, forming what is called the umbilicus…Round these is a skin-like
integument, because the weakness of the vessels needs protection and shelter. The
vessels join to the uterus like the roots of plants, and through them the embryo
receives its nourishment”. - Aristotle, De Generatione Animalium, Book II,
740a28-740a35, as per Barnes, opere citato, p. 1148-1149

Claudius Galenus from the Roman Empire also wrote about embryology, 500
years before Muhammad:

“let us divide the creation of the foetus overall into four periods of time. The first
is that in which. as is seen both in abortions and in dissection, the form of the
semen prevails [Arabic nutfah]. At this time, Hippocrates too, the all-marvelous,
does not yet call the conformation of the animal a foetus; as we heard just now
in the case of semen voided in the sixth day, he still calls it semen. But when
it has been filled with blood [Arabic alaqa], and heart, brain and liver are still
unarticulated and unshaped yet have by now a certain solidarity and considerable
size, this is the second period; the substance of the foetus has the form of flesh
and no longer the form of semen. Accordingly you would find that Hippocrates
too no longer calls such a form semen but, as was said, foetus. The third period
follows on this, when, as was said, it is possible to see the three ruling parts
clearly and a kind of outline, a silhouette, as it were, of all the other parts [Arabic
mudghah]. You will see the conformation of the three ruling parts more clearly,
that of the parts of the stomach more dimly, and much more still, that of the
limbs. Later on they form “twigs”, as Hippocrates expressed it, indicating by the
term their similarity to branches. The fourth and final period is at the stage when
all the parts in the limbs have been differentiated; and at this part Hippocrates
the marvelous no longer calls the foetus an embryo only, but already a child, too
when he says that it jerks and moves as an animal now fully formed.” “… The
time has come for nature to articulate the organs precisely and to bring all the
parts to completion. Thus it caused flesh to grow on and around all the bones,

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and at the same time … it made at the ends of the bones ligaments that bind them
to each other, and along their entire length it placed around them on all sides
thin membranes, called periosteal, on which it caused flesh to grow.” - Corpus
Medicorum Graecorum: Galeni de Semine (Galen: On Semen) (Greek text with
English trans. Phillip de Lacy, Akademic Verlag, 1992) section I:9:1-10 pp. 92-95,
101

People already knew a lot about the fetus, many of them were even more precise
than Muhammad and the Quran.

Allah made man from clay


"Who perfected everything which He created and began the creation of man from
clay." - Quran 32:7

Man created from clay was stated 1600 years before Muhammad:

"Your hands formed me and made me - will you now absorb me? Remember that
you formed me as if with clay - will you return me to dust? You poured me out
like milk, and pulled me together like cheese. You clothed me with skin and flesh,
and [inside me] did you interweave bones and sinews." - Book of Job, Job 10:8-11

Allah sent Iron


"And We sent down iron, wherein is great military might and benefits for the
people" – 57:25

Some people claim that it was a miracle how a man in 600 AD in the desert could
have known that meteorites contain iron. They just forgot to mention that it was
known before.

According to professor Hamed A. Ead, the Egyptians called iron the metal of
heaven or ba-en-pet.

According to Keith Squires, not only were the ancient Egyptians aware of
meteoritic iron, but archaeological evidence suggests that they were sophisticated
enough to differentiate between different types of iron. In ancient Egypt lead-
stones were called res mehit ba, which means north south iron. Plutarch which
quoted Manetho, called lead-stones as Bone of Osiris, and non-magnetic iron as

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Bone of Typhon.

Even the Sumerians had a clue about this. According to Alan F. Alford, the
supreme God Anu personified a planet which had exploded, which is the reason
that his name Anu meant Heaven, and meteoritic iron was known as the essence of
Anu.

In conclusion it was known before Muhammad that meteorites contained iron.

Moon reflects light


“It is He who made the sun a shining light and the moon a light” - Quran 10:5

Firstly is a very clear observation that the moon is reflecting the light of the sun
at the exact same side the light touches the moon. It is not an exaggeration to
say that a teenager in the ancient world could have come to that conclusion. The
correct translated verse is mentioned above, but Sahih International has corrupted
the translation which says:

“It is He who made the sun a shining light and the moon a derived light” - Quran
10:5, Sahih International

As mentioned in chapter one stating that the moon is a light is wrong, but the
Sahih International added the word derived for the translation of the arabic word
nur. In Quran 24:35 it says Allah is the light (Nur) of the heavens and Earth, so
does that mean that Allah is a derived light? Of course not. Regardless of the
outcome this was known before by many people.

Anaxagoras (428 BC) correctly determined that the rocky moon reflects light
from the sun which made it possible for him to explain lunar phases and eclipses.
Not only was he correct that the moon reflected the light from the sun, he also
stated that it contained mountains and believed it was inhabited. He lived 1000
years before Muhammad.

It is not that difficult to realize that it is a reflection when half moons only are
lightened up by the side which the sun is.

Salt water and fresh water don’t mix

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And it is He who has released [simultaneously] the two seas, one fresh and sweet
and one salty and bitter, and He placed between them a barrier and prohibiting
partition. - Quran 25:53

In chapter one it has been described why this verse is incorrect. Shortly the
fresh water and salt water mixes, but very slowly. There is also no barrier but a
transition with a gradient. Nevertheless Aristotle (350 BC) had a similar statement
that salt water and fresh water don't mix, 900 years before Muhammad:

“The drinkable, sweet water, then, is light and is all of it drawn up: the salt water is
heavy and remains behind” - Meteorology by Aristotle (350 BC) Book II.

Quran reveals that every living thing comes from


water
Have those who disbelieved not considered that the heavens and the earth were
a joined entity, and We separated them and made from water every living thing?
Then will they not believe? - Quran 21:30

That humans were made from water or that we come from the sea has been
known before human. It is worth mentioning that it doesn't take a person with
an IQ higher than 70 (which is low) to get an idea that the essence of life is water.
In the desert it is even easier to understand that without water, you die. When a
soldier dies, he usually loses a lot of blood which is evident.
But the more important question is, why doesn't Allah mention carbon? Life does
not from water; water is just water - life comes from different atoms which the
most important is carbon. That's why carbon is called the essence of biological
life. It is through a discipline called organic chemistry students learn that without
carbon there is no life. That’s why when something is organic or living, it contains
carbon. Our DNA which is the essence of all biological life consist of carbon.

Saying that he made living things from water is like saying “I made that cake from
milk” without adding anything else, like flour. Regardless of what, it was known
before that living things came from water.

Thales the Milesian, 639-544 BC (1200 years before Muhammad) made


contributions in many fields and his observation was that water was the most
abundant material on Earth and all animals and plants needed it for life. He came
with the theory that life originated from water and if an organism had a lack of it,

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it died.

Anaximander, 610 – 546 BC (1200 years before Muhammad) said that lif came
from the sea.

Empedocles, 494 - 434 BC (1100 years before Muhammad) that all matter were
made up of four elements: water, earth, air and fire.

The Quran says that water comes from the clouds


Realizing that water comes from the clouds and clouds from the sea is actually
not that hard to achieve. Anyone can see that evaporation from the ground causes
clouds, and these clouds then has the effect to cause rain, which again repeats the
cycle. It was known by many people before.

Anaximander, 610 – 546 BC (1200 years before Muhammad) was one of the
people in ancient Greece. He postulated that the sea evaporates under the
sun's action and the clouds would be attracted to places where water was more
abundant, and then rain would happen.

The Quran revealed that planets move in orbits


This is a statement that some people claim but there are absolutely no verses that
says that. As mentioned in chapter one, there are around 20-30 verses from the
Quran and Hadith together which says that the earth is flat, has heaven like a
dome, the moon and sun orbits the earth – and finally it is the center of attention
in the universe, while not even mentioning other solar systems or galaxies. In the
end it doesn’t matter regarding it, because it was known before.

Yajnavalkya (9th–8th century BC) who is the author of Shatapatha Brahmana


recognized that the Earth is spherical and also expounded a heliocentric concept.
He wrote in his book:

“The sun strings these worlds – the earth, the planets, the atmosphere – to himself
on a thread.” - Shatapatha Brahmana 8.7.3.10, by Yajnavalkya

Anaxagoras who lived 1100 years before Muhammad proposed that the milky way
is a concentration of distant stars like our own.

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“The Milky Way (Via Lactea) as a concentration of distant stars”– Aristotle,
Meteorologica 342b.

Aristarchus of Samos in ancient Greece, lived 900 years before Muhammad, was
an astronomer and mathematician who was influenced by Philolaus of Croton.
He is probably the first person in ancient Greece who first proposed heliocentric,
where he placed the Sun at the center while Earth revolving around it. He
understood the central fire with the sun, and he managed to put the planets in
our solar system in the correct order according to the distance to the sun. Just like
Anaxagoras 200 years before him, he also suspected that the stars also were suns
just like our own, but much further away.

There is no doubt that the ancient Greeks were very well away about
heliocentrism and that planets revolve around the sun.

Quran prohibited alcohol and now science confirm


alcohol is bad
They ask you about wine and gambling. Say, “In them is great sin and [yet, some]
benefit for people. But their sin is greater than their benefit.” And they ask you
what they should spend. Say, “The excess [beyond needs].” Thus Allah makes clear
to you the verses [of revelation] that you might give thought. - Quran 2:219, also
4:43, 5:90-91

It only takes a child in the ancient world to realize that alcohol is bad, in regard
to physical health, psychologically and also have an impact socially. The first
example blow is the Roman Aulus, 500 years before Muhammad. His made an
accurate statement looking it superficial without going into the toxicological
aspect.

“if a drunken man get a childe, it will never likely have a good braine” - Aulus
Gellius, born 125 AD

The second example is Plato.

“The first is a reference to a Carthaginian law ‘which ordains that no soldier on


the march should ever taste of this potion [wine], but confine himself for the
whole of the time to water drinking only" - Plato, reprinted 1952, 2, 674

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"it is not right that procreation should be the work of bodies dissolved by excess of
wine, but rather that the embryo should be compacted firmly, steadily and quietly
in the womb’" - Plato, reprinted 1952, 6, 775c–d

Plato (Laws II, 655 d ss.) admitted that wine could lead to uncontrollable manner
and bad habits. Drunken people were always likely to lose their temper and
become crazy, which is the reason why Dyonisiac festivals were forbidden in
Sparta. In their view the festivals were irreverent and made the men who were
drunk to become crazy.

The third example is from the ancient Carthage (700-300 BC), 900-1300 years
before Muhammad. They had a ritual against drinking by newly married in their
wedding nights, and it was a percolation against alcohol induced birth defects.

For further study, it is recommended to read Alcohol, Other Drugs, and Behavior:
Psychological Research Perspectives by John Jung and Beer And Wine In Antiquity:
Beneficial Remedy Or Punishment Imposed By The Gods? by Rosso AM.

Allah predicted about bacteria before they were


known
“I am your Lord. Take off your shoes. You are in the sacred valley of Tuwa.” -
Quran 20:12

A statement by some people to this is that God ordered Moses to take off his
shoes in order for not making the place dirty. They use this to justify that it proves
bacteria.

This is one of these preposterous miracle statements that one might ask oneself
who fell down the steps and claimed it. The quran literally doesn't mention
anything about bacteria but only the dirt which is under the shoes. There are
different college textbooks about microbiology, immunology and bacteriology
which can highly be recommend to read. From there it is easy to come to the
realization that the verse has no meaning to anything. Regardless of what, this was
known before and in a much greater detail.

Marcus Terentius Varro, 116-27 BC (700 years before Muhammad) wrote:

“Precautions must also be taken in neighborhood swamps . . . because certain

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minute creatures [animalia minuta] grow there which cannot be seen by the
eye, which float in the air and enter the body through the mouth and nose and
there cause serious diseases.” - Plinio Prioreschi. A History of Medicine: Roman
Medicine. Lewiston, NY: Edwin Mellen Press, 1998: p. 215

Thucydides, 460–395 BC (1000 years before Muhammad) has many contributions


to science which one of this most important was his observations regarding the
Athenian plague between 430-410 BC, that killed one-third of the population in
Athen. He survived the epidemic himself, and observed that the survivors did
not get reinfected by the disease even though they took care of the actively sick
people. This is one of the earliest observations that the ancient Greeks were aware
of the concept of immunity.

Both Marcus and Thucydides were completely right about bacteria and their
existence, but not all bacteria travels in the air.

Breastfeeding for 2 years was known before science


said it
Mothers may nurse their infants for two whole years, for those who desire to
complete the nursing-period… [Quran 2.233]

People state how a man for 1400 years ago could have known this detail for
how long to breastfeed. Some people try to justify WHO’s statement about
breastfeeding for 1,5 years.

Firstly knowing how long to breastfeed a child is the easiest task in the world
and it is usually between 1-2 years, rarely up to 3 years. It is literally a very easy
observation from all different cultures that when a baby becomes a maximum of 2
years, probably around 98% of mothers stop breastfeeding them naturally due to
the size of the child. This verse has nothing to do with a miracle, it is just common
sense. Nevertheless it was known before the time of Muhammad.

Compared to today, the duration of breastfeeding in the ancient world were


generally longer. Aristotle stated that it should continue between 12-18 months or
when the menses restarted in the nursing mother.
In the world of ancient Palestine for 4000 years ago, breastfeeding was a religious
obligation and a blessing. The duration of breastfeeding used to last up to two
years or maybe three years, which provided the child a protection from different

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diseases, one which was fatal called dysentery.
In a Talmud from 536 BC, the newborns were placed immediately on the breast of
the mothers and breastfeed for about 24 months.
Between 300 BC - 400 AD, contracts were written with wet nurses to breastfeed
abandoned infants. The infants were usually unwanted females thrown onto the
trash. The duration of breastfeeding were up to three years.

Looking at the different durations in the ancient world, Aristotle statement about
12-18 months falls under the 1,5 years of recommendation from WHO which
is more accurate than the Quran. Either way, there are definitely many more
civilizations than in this list that probably stated that breastfeeding should be
between 1-2 years.

For further study about the history of breastfeeding, it is recommended to read


the published article Breastfeeding in the Course of History from the year 2015 by
Nicoletta Iacovidou.

The alaqah and mudghah in embryology


"Then We made the drop into an alaqah, then We made the alaqah into a
mudghah" - Quran, 23:14

The statement by some people is that it is impossible to know this in 600 AD.

The truth is that in week 3, the structure of this “leech” can actually be seen with a
naked eye and has a size of a plump watermelon.
At week 8, it has a size of 1,6 cm – which can definitely be seen with the naked
eye, and anyone is able to determine its shape and even details.

What the muslims during the lifetime of Muhammad did was killing captive
people or taking them as slaves. In regard to this, they had the opportunity to kill
the women and open up their placenta and see the shape of the of the fetus as
early as week 3. Although there aren't any historical evidence that supports that
earlier civilizations have done this, it would be achievable for them anyway since
it is completely possible without using a microscope. All it needs is having sex
with a captive sex slave, wait the weeks needed and then take the placenta out.

Created man from sperm

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"He created man from a sperm-drop;" - Quran 16:4

This is similar to:

"Who creates people from sperm;" - Excerpts from Great Hymn to the Aten- tomb
of Ay, no. 25 at Amarna

Allah predicted elements that are smaller than atoms


"Not even an atom’s weight escapes Him, be it in the heavens or the earth, nor
what is smaller than that or larger; all are in a clear Record." - Quran 34:3

To begin with, it is clear that the Quran does not refer to subatomic components,
the verse only says "smaller or larger" than atoms which can be anything. In
addition, the Arabic word for atom can also mean a corn grain, speck or particle,
just like the expression speck of dust. In arabic it it is used to mean something
significantly small, it does not refer to the model of the atom.

Most people are confused about what the word atom originally meant. It only
means the smallest constituent of matter. The particle we call an atom today is
not the smallest constituent of matter, but we called it atom by borrowing it from
Greek vocabulary because we didn't know subatomic particles existed when we
discovered it. So the original meaning of the word atom that occurs in ancient
texts of Greeks and Indians is actually referring to subatomic particles. It wasn't a
scientific term; it just meant something that cannot be broken down into smaller
parts. As you already know, what we call atoms today can indeed be broken
down into smaller parts. So by that definition, today's atom is not the same as the
historical atom. They are completely different words. Aristotle postulated that you
can break matter into an infinite degree which we now know it's wrong, and later
it was hypothesized by Democritus that you can only break matter to a certain
limit. Democritus definition of the historical atom is actually what we today call
subatomic or elementary particles.

There are other people who came with the theory of atoms and molecules. The
first reference were made by the Jains in ancient India in 6th century BC (1200
years before Muhammad) in the Ajiva sanskrit It is also supposed that Ionians
postulated about the elementary partcles. Other civilizations include the ancient
Greeks such as Leuicippus, Democritus (as mentioned before) and Epicurus and
the ancient hindus such as Kanada, Dignaga and Dharmakirti.

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Allah predicted that in high altitude your chest
constricts
"Whomever God wishes to guide, He renders his chest receptive to Islam, and
whomever He wishes to send astray, He renders his chest tight and constricted as
if he is ascending into the sky." - Quran [6:125]

With this verse some people claim that high altitudes in air flight causes
constriction and tightness of the chest, and no one at the time would have known
that flying into the sky has this effect. They claim that it only become common
knowledge when fly machines were invented.

The explanation for this is actually even more simple than expected: You don’t
need to fly in order for you to feel the effect of tightness in the chest. Altitude
sickness commonly happens at around 2,500 meters or above. It can result in
high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) or high altitude cerebral edema (HACE),
which are potentially fatal. The truth is that there are many mountains in the
Middle-East which are taller than this threshold, and some of them are mentioned
below:

• Mount Damavand, Iran (5610 meters)


• Jabal an Nabi Shu’ayb, Yemen (3,666 meters)
• Cheekha Dar, Iraq (3,611 meters)
• Qurnat as Sawda’, Lebanon (3,088 meters)
• Possibly Jabal Sawda, Saudi Arabia (3,000 meters)
• Mount Hermon (Jabal el-Sheikh), Syria (2,814 meters)

Since they were desert people, one can imagine that they had the opportunity to
climb any of these mountains and experience the mountain sickness themselves.
All it would need is 2500 meters altitude and above which there are many places
to choose from.

This is clearly not any miracle since it is possible for people to experience it by
themselves. NASA has a big vacuum room at their center which they use for
experimentation. It is completely plausible to test a person inside the big room
and feel the tightness of chest on earth instead of ascending up to the sky. The
real question is, does Allah mentions that you can artificially create vacuum and
a tightness of chest on the ground? No, he doesn't. In Sahih International it says

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“as though he were climbing into the sky.” Climbing, not ascending. This means
climbing a mountain, not flying up to the sky as some people claim. Difficulty
in breathing due to the air being thinner at high altitudes has been recognized
since ancient times. There are many examples where people have mentioned the
symptoms of high altitude sickness.

Aristotle (384-322 BC) describes a trip to Mount Olympus in Macedonia.

‘Also, because the rarity of the air which was there did not fill them with
breath, they were not able to survive there unless they applied moist sponges to
their noses’”. – West J. High Life. A History of High Altitude Physiology and
Medicine. Oxford University Press;1998

In high altitude there is actually an extreme dryness of the air which is the reason
they used wet sponges, although it didn't help with the thin air. Titus Livius (59
BC - 19 AD) cited by Francis Bacon (1561-1626), author of History of Ancient
Rome, noted that Aristotle knew that those climbing the mountain had to breath
through sponges wetted in water and vinegar, because the air in such a high
altitude was very dry and not fit for breathing.
The next example is from the ancient Chinese West Han Dynasty from 30 BC.
Too Kin advised Emperor Chung ti who was the emperor between 37-32 BC to
not send his people to Afghanistan across Tibetan mountains.

“Next, one comes to Big Headache and Little Headache Mountains, as well as Red
Earth and Swelter Hills. They make a man so hot that his face turns pale, his head
aches, and he begins to vomit. Even the donkeys and swine react this way’..’ The
walkers and riders hold on to each other and are led forward by ropes for some
2000 Ii [1000 km or 600 miles] before they reach Hsientu [Hindu Kush]. By then,
half of the animals have fallen to their death in the gorges. If a man falls, it is
impossible to save him. It is so difficult and dangerous that words cannot describe
it” – Too Kin (37-32 BC)

It is clear from this part of the document that the mountain has been named
headache because of the low oxygen which causes many symptoms including
tightness of chest, low oxygen to the brain, breathing problems and oedema
Although tightness of chest is not directly mentioned, it is definitely one of the
common symptoms of high altitude sickness.

Another example is a Chinese man (403 AD) crossing into Kashmir who was a
companion of the monk Fa Hsien. During the journey through the mountains he

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died with difficulty breathing and foam at his mouth, now known as high-altitude
pulmonary oedema.

It is clear from the presented historical events that high altitude was known to
cause breathing problems, apart from it is relatively easy to find out for anyone.
The reason why it hasn't commonly knowledge was because in the era of Ancient
Greece, there weren’t many people on the planet and most people lived close to
the sea. They saw the mountains as such places where Gods lived and didn’t dare
to climb up.

For further study about the historical evidence about high altitude sickness, it
is recommended to read High Life: A History of High-Altitude Physiology and
Medicine by Andrew P. White (2001), the article The first documented report of
mountain sickness: the China or Headache Mountain story by Gilbert DL (1983),
Hypoxia and Health: From first historical documents to prevention and treatment
(2001), and Mountain sickness: neurologic aspects by K K Jain MD (1999).

Allah predicts that west is left and east is right


"You would see the sun, when it rose it shone into their cave from the right, and
when it set it shone from the left, as they lay in the midst of the cave. That was
one of Allah’s wonders. He whom Allah guides is truly guided; but he whom He
misguides, for him you will find no directing friend." – Quran 18:17

People claim that this verse demonstrates the direction of where the sun rises is to
the right hand side, the direction where the sun sets is to the left hand side, and in
this case you will be facing North and not south. They claim that this convention
has determined the and shaped the modem maps.
Firstly the North star has been a central point for as long as the Egyptians
civilization, if not longer. In the Giza pyramids there is a hole that points directly
to the north star. It must have been obvious from the earliest civilizations that
when you look at the direction of the North Pole, the east is where the sun rises is
to your right side, and the west where the sun goes down is to your left. A 10 year
old child without any proper education can come to that conclusion.

To come to the main point, it was actually determined before Islam. Ptolemy (90-
168 AD) established the notion that north should always be up, and east at the
right side. This was stated 500 years before Muhammad.

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Allah proved water cycle
“Have you not seen that Allah sent rain down from the sky and caused it to
penetrate the ground and come forth as springs, then He caused crops of different
colors to grow…” - Quran 39:21

"And of His signs is [that] He shows you the lightening [causing] fear and
aspiration, and He sends down rain from the sky by which He brings to life the
earth after its lifelessness. Indeed in that are signs for a people who use reason." -
Quran 30:24

"And We have sent down rain from the sky in a measured amount and settled it in
the earth. And indeed, We are Able to take it away." - Quran 23:18

"And We have sent the fertilizing winds and sent down water from the sky and
given you drink from it. And you are not its retainers." - Quran 15:22

"Do you not see that Allah drives clouds? Then He brings them together, then
He makes them into a mass, and you see the rain emerge from within it. And
He sends down from the sky, mountains [of clouds] within which is hail, and He
strikes with it whom He wills and averts it from whom He wills. The flash of its
lightening almost takes away the eyesight." - Quran 24:43

"It is Allah who sends the winds, and they stir the clouds and spread them in the
sky however He wills, and He makes them fragments so you see the rain emerge
from within them. And when He causes it to fall upon whom He wills of His
servants, immediately they rejoice" - Quran 30:48

"By the sky which returns [rain]" - Quran 86:11

First of all it is worth mentioning that by looking at the number of chapters and
number of all these different verses, it is clear to anyone to come to the conclusion
how disoriented and unsystematic the Quran in reality is. It really takes 7 different
verses from 7 chapters to compile them together to come to the conclusion of the
miracle of water cycle. Not to mention that there are more similar verses from
chapters which are different than these.

People's statement is that the Quran mentions the water cycle in great detail. It
surely does not. Any person with a diploma in Earth Science will understand
that this is absolutely not even close to any details. Since there are many verses

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included in this section,it is better to separate them and take them one by one.

Rainwater returned back as clouds which again causes rain


One of the earliest evidence that states rain is evaporated back as clouds is from
Adityahridayam of Ramayana (Hindu), which is dated back to the 4th century
BC. It mentions in verse 22 that the sun heats up the water and sends it down as
rain. This is a clear indication that the water cycle was known 1000 years before
Muhammad. Ancient scholars back in 500 BC were also speculating that much of
the water in rivers can be attributed to rain.

Condensed clouds causes rain and lighting


One of the earliest evidence that people proposed that condensed clouds causes
rain is from Aristotle, about 1000 years before Muhammad.

“and lighting is produced by cold, being driven out by the condensation of the
clouds..” – from the book Meteorologica by Aristotle, 350 BC

Although Aristotle doesn't say rain but only lighting, they are essentially the same.

Rain needed to make crops grow


The earliest realization that crops needed water and rain in order for them to grow
was in ancient Egypt. They noticed that the floods receded and the fields dried
out, so the plants would wither or die because of this. The Nile left behind a mud
which needed watering in the hot sun. They tried to trap as much flood water as
they could so they didn't had to get water from the river constantly.
It was an observed fact that rain came from the clouds and crops needed water to
grow. Any human being from the Ancient civilizations, like Egypt, Greece, China,
India or Persia could see that water falls down from the clouds and it is needed
for the crops to grow. How hard is it to realize that crops, plants and trees needed
water to grow?

Water cycle as a close cycle


The water cycle as a close cycle was probably first postulated by Anaxagoras of
Clazomenae (460 BC) and Diogenes of Apollonia (460 BC), about 1000 years
before Muhammad.

Water penetrating the earth


One of the earliest evidence for percolation comes from both Plato (390 BC) and
Aristotle (350 BC) which speculated that percolation was a part of the water cycle.
Percolation is the process where water travels downwards through the spaces

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between rocks and soil particles and seeps underground.

People says that only in 15th century non-muslims began to teach the water cycle
in school even though it was revealed in 600 AD. If that is the case, why haven't
muslims taught the water cycle based on the Quran already from 7th century? The
obvious reasons why it began being taught in the renaissance is because people
had gather much more information than the Quran has ever revealed.

Miracle of rain and hail


“See you not that Allah drives the clouds gently, then joins them together, then
makes them into a heap of layers, and you see the rain comes forth from between
them; and He sends down from the sky hail (like) mountains, (or there are in the
heaven mountains of hail from where He sends down hail), and strikes therewith
whom He wills, and averts it from whom He wills. The vivid flash of its (clouds)
lightning nearly blinds the sight” - Quran 24:43

Everyone can see that it is dense clouds that causes rain, hail and lighting. It is
very rare that non-dense clouds causes hail and lighting. Aristotle's book called
Meteorologica (350 BC) concerns many details about rain, snow, hail, lighting and
clouds, especially the chapters 9, 11 and 12. Below are some quotes taken from the
book.

“From the clouds there fall as a result of refrigeration rain, snow and hail” –
Aristotle, Meteorologica chapter 11.

“and lighting is produced by cold, being driven out by the condensation of the
clouds..” – Meteorologica

It was clear from the Ancient Greece that lighting, snow, rain, hail and condensed
clouds were a known phenomena. It is recommended to read Meteorologica by
Aristotle for further evidence.

Allah predicted that sweet water comes from the


mountains
"And have placed therein firm, and tall mountains, and have given you to drink
sweet water?" - Quran 77:27

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As written earlier in this chapter, ancient scholars back in 500 BC were
speculating that much of the water in rivers can be attributed to rain. This was
known 1100 years before Muhammad.
There is really nothing special about this, it is an observed fact and everyone can
come to that conclusion. Everyone can see that rain falls on higher peaks, and the
only way it has is to go down through the mountains due to gravity.

Made the earth egg-shaped


"And then we made the Earth egg-shaped" - Quran 79:30

This is one of those famous miracles people uses to convince non-muslims. They
claim that that this proves the real ovoid shape of the earth, which they also claim
is the nearest description and not like a ball.

First of all is it written in the first chapter that it is completely wrong and is also
explained why it is so. There is even a figure comparing a perfect sphere, the Earth
and an Ostrich egg. The reason why it is wrong is because Earth is not egg-shaped
but nearly a perfect sphere, and it is wrong because dahaha does not mean egg-
shaped but spread out. Remember also that it really isn't a miracle at all because
this was known by many scientists before Muhammad and Islam.

One good example is Erastosthenes (240 BC) who not only knew the Earth was
round, but he even calculated the circumference of the earth. He did that by
measuring the angle of the shadows in both Alexandria and Syene which had a
difference of 7,2 degrees. The distance between the two cities was about 800 km.
The calculation were the following:

(800 km/7.2 degrees)*360 degrees = 40.000 km

The circumference of the earth today is measured at 40.075 km, that is a difference
of only 75 km (0,19%). That is extremely close considering he did that for 2200
years ago.

It is worth noting that the idea of a spherical Earth in Ancient Greece came from
Pythagoras in 500 BC it was validated by Aristotle before Eratosthenes. Not only
did they know that the earth was round, they even calculated its circumference
and axial tilt too. Even in the Islamic Golden Age which they calculated the

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circumference with trigonometric, they were not as precise as Erastosthenes.
Regardless of what, the Quran actually says spread out (Arabic = dahaha) instead
of egg-shaped.

Islam was the first to encourage to seek knowledge


"Are those who have knowledge and those who have no knowledge alike? Only
the men of understanding are mindful." - Quran, 39:9
"Seek knowledge from the cradle to the grave" - hadith

People use these and other verses and hadiths to justify that Islam first claims to
seek knowledge. Although it may be the first religion (since obviously it is one of
the latest major religions), there has been numerous people who made statement
to seek knowledge:

"A library of wisdom, is more precious than all wealth, and all things that are
desirable cannot be compared to it. Whoever therefore claims to be zealous of
truth, of happiness, of wisdom or knowledge, must become a lover of books.”
- Plato (429 BC - 347 BC)

"The unexamined life is not worth living"


- Socrates (470 BC - 399 BC)

“The foundation of every state is the education of its youth.”


- Diogenes (412 BC - 323 BC)

“A room without books is like a body without a soul.”


- Marcus Tullius Cicero (107-43 BC)

“If your plan is for one year plant rice. If your plan is for ten years plant trees. If
your plan is for one hundred years educate children. ”
- Confucius (551-479 BC)

As it can be seen, every civilization were aware that seeking knowledge was
important, at least 1000 years before Muhammad.

Islam encourages to participate in sport


This has been known before. An example is Hippocrates who made a statement

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1000 years before Islam:

"Sport is a preserver of health" - Hippocrates (460-370 AD)

PART 2
Eye for eye, tooth for tooth
“Life for life, eye for eye, nose or nose, ear for ear, tooth for tooth, and wounds
equal for equal” - Quran 5:45

Code of Hammurabi is from 1754 BC (2300 years before Muhammad) and says
this:

229+230: Life for life


196: eye for eye
200: tooth for tooth
205: ear for ear
X: Wounds equal for equal

This is called Lex Talionis and was copied by Exodus 21:22-25, and now by Islam.

Buraq
"Exalted is He who took His Servant by night from al-Masjid al-Haram to al-
Masjid al- Aqsa, whose surroundings We have blessed, to show him of Our signs.
Indeed, He is the Hearing, the Seeing." - Quran 17:1

Then he [Gabriel] brought the Buraq, handsome-faced and bridled, a tall, white
beast, bigger than the donkey but smaller than the mule. He could place his
hooves at the farthest boundary of his gaze. He had long ears. Whenever he faced
a mountain his hind legs would extend, and whenever he went downhill his front
legs would extend. He had two wings on his thighs which lent strength to his legs.”
– Muhammad al-Alawi al-Maliki, al-Anwar al Bahiyya min Isra wa l-Mi'raj Khayr
al-Bariyyah

"Then a white animal which was smaller than a mule and bigger than a donkey

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was brought to me." - Sahih al-Bukhari, 3887

People claim that it was a miracle how a man for 1400 years ago could imagine an
animal as described above.

However it literally doesn’t require a leap of imagination to think of a horse


with wings. It’s also a description of Pegasus in Greek mythology. Pegasus is a
pure white stallion with feathered wings from his back. It sometimes wore an
enchanted golden bridle which was made by Athena. In the last of Pegasus' days,
Zeus transformed him into a constellation, a boxy body with an arched neck and
two front legs.

Pegasus can be found in the reverse side of the Silver Denarius of Domitian which
is dated to be around 79–80 AD (600 years before Muhammad).

The 5 prayers in Islam


The five prayers in Islam are considered unique to the religion, but in fact they
have a lot of similarities with the Zoroastrianism religion. Below is a description
of this plagiarism.

The story of Muhammad with the Buraq is similar to the story of Arda Viraf
In around 621 AD Muhammad had a night journey in two parts called Isra and
Mi’raj. Accordingly, Muhammad travels to the seventh heaven where he speaks
to Allah and had a conversation about the details of the prayers. He managed to
convince Allah to decrease the number of prayers from 50 to only 5 prayers a day.

This is the same kind of story from the The Book of Arda Viraf which describes
how a Zoroastrian saintly priest named Arda Viraf had a journey to his God. It
was the angel Sarosh who guided his spirit up to the heavens, from one utopia to
another until he reached the great deity of the universe, Ormazd. Arda Viraf was
commanded by Ormazd to return to Earth as a messenger and teach the humans
the knowledge he had required by him, and among it was praying 5 times a day.

Time of the prayers


Many do believe that the 5 prayers is unique to Islam, but this is not the case. In
fact, not only did Muhammad copied the number of prayer, but he also copied the
exact same time when these prayers had to be performed.

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Washing before prayers
The five prayers in the Zoroastrianism religion are known as Gáh. Before each
of these prayers, the believing Zoroastrian must perform ritual called pádyáp,
which includes washing the face and limbs three times, the first two times with
flower extracts, cucumber juice and oils, substituted by soap and lotion and finally
with water. The mouth must also be washed and rinsed. Apart from the face, the
mouth must also be washed and rinsed comprehensively with a refreshing juice or
mouthwash This is much the same as in Islam where a muslim must wash his face,
hands, feet and so on before each prayers.

Primary citation language


The prayers in Zoroastrianism must be recited in Avestan which is a holy
language, much like the same in Islam where the prayers much be recited in
Arabic which is also a holy language according to Islam.

Praying while kneeling and falling on one’s face


It is generally though that in Islam the praying while kneeling and falling on one's
face is unique to Islam. The truth is that this practice has been around through
Judaism and Christianity. Moses and Jesus prayed while kneeling and falling on
their faces, as seen below:

"Moses bowed to the ground at once and worshiped. 9 “Lord,” he said, “if I
have found favor in your eyes, then let the Lord go with us. Although this is
a stiff-necked people, forgive our wickedness and our sin, and take us as your
inheritance."” - Exodus 34:8

"Going a little farther, he fell with his face to the ground and prayed, “My Father,
if it is possible, may this cup be taken from me. Yet not as I will, but as you will.”" -
Matthew 26:39

The only area of the world who prays like that today are Eastern Orthodox
Churches, and specifically the Coptic Church. 2nd century Christian figure
Turtulian (155-230 AD) wrote:

“But who would hesitate every day to prostrate himself before God, at least in the
first prayer with which we enter on the daylight?
At fasts, moreover, and Stations, no prayer should be made without kneeling, and
the remaining customary marks of humility; for (then) we are not only praying,

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but deprecating, and making satisfaction to God our Lord." - The Sacred Writings
of Tertullian by Tertullian, Volume 2 p. 262

In Judaism the Jews worship God 3 times a day which are all obligatory: morning,
afternoon and evening. Some muslims do believe there are also only three main
prayers in a day: morning, afternoon and evening and the others are optional.
One of the reasons is that these three are called “salat” in Quran.

In guerrilla there are small differences between the Islamic way of praying and
bowing down and the Jewish and Christian way, but overall they remind each
other.

Muhammad stole the Kaaba


Hubal was the Arabian moon God worshiped at the Kaaba in Mecca by the
Quraysh before Islam, acorrding to the 9th-century Islamic commentator and
historian Al-Azraqi's book called Book of Reports about Mecca. The Black Stone
as we know it from Islam was originally dedicated to worshipping Hubal. In pre-
Islamic Arabia the pagan Gods were worshiped in the form of rectangular stones
or rocks.

"Narrated 'Abdullah bin Masud: The Prophet entered Mecca and (at that time)
there were three hundred-and-sixty idols around the Ka’aba. He started stabbing
the idols with a stick he had in his hand and reciting: "Truth (Islam) has come and
Falsehood (disbelief) has vanished." - Sahih Bukhari 3:43:658

The Quran in 2:125 says that Abraham and Ishmael built the Kaaba, but there
is no historical evidence that the Kaaba existed more than a few hundred years
before.

"Remember We made the House a place of assembly for men and a place of safety;
and take ye the station of Abraham as a place of prayer; and We covenanted with
Abraham and Isma'il, that they should sanctify My House for those who compass
it round, or use it as a retreat, or bow, or prostrate themselves (therein in prayer)".
- Quran 2:125

In the following Sahih Bukhari, Muhammad says that was built 40 years before
the Temple of Jerusalem:

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"Narrated Abu Dhaar: I said, "O Allah's Apostle! Which mosque was built first?"
He replied, "Al-Masjid-ul-Haram." I asked, "Which (was built) next?" He replied,
"Al-Masjid-ul-Aqs-a (i.e. Jerusalem)." I asked, "What was the period in between
them? He replied, forty years." - Sahih Bukhari 4:55:636

King Solomon built the Temple of Jerusalem in around 958-951 BC, and since
Muhammad says it is 40 years older it implies that the Kaaba was built in 998-991
BC. This is incorrect because Abraham lived in 2000 BC. In the end the Kaaba
has nothing to do with Islam or Abraham and Ismael, it was made by the Pagan
religion. Egyptian Professor Dr. Taha Husayn said the following:

"The case for this episode is very obvious because it is of recent date and came into
vogue just before the rise of Islam. Islam exploited it for religious reasons." - As
quoted in Mizan al-Islam by Anwar al-Jundi, p. 170

According to the next Hadith Muhammad had the plan to dismantle the Kaaba:

"Narrated Aswad: Ibn Az-Zubair said to me, "Aisha used to tell you secretly a
number of things. What did she tell you about the Ka'ba?" I replied, "She told me
that once the Prophet said, 'O 'Aisha! Had not your people been still close to the
pre-Islamic period of ignorance (infidelity)! I would have dismantled the Ka'ba
and would have made two doors in it; one for entrance and the other for exit."
Later on Ibn Az-Zubair did the same." - Sahih Bukhari 1:3:128

Why destroy it when it was the house of Allah?

Muhammad stole the Black Stone


The Black Stone which is in the Kaaba is kissed by muslims from all over the
world. This stone was stolen from the Pagan religion which also used to kiss the
Black Stone to worship Allah's daughter Al-Lat, although Muhammad removed all
the other artefacts, he kept the Black Stone.

Another claim is that the Black Stone in Mecca has often been described as a
meteorite. This reminds of the sacred stones of worship called Baetylus from the
Ancient Greece, which according to the ancient sources were meteorites.

Muhammad copied the qibla

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Qibla in Islam is the worship facing the rectangular Kaaba in Mecca.
Zoroastrianism had the Qibla towards the sun, but if they were in a Fire Temple,
then the had Qibla towards the Holy Fire. They also had the tradition of kissing
the Black Stone as one passes by.

Islam copied the mihrab


The architecture of the mihrab that points the qibla to Mecca has been borrowed
from the prayer niches common to the oratories of Coptic Christian monks.

Islam copied the crescent moon


The earliest evidence for the crescent moon comes from the coin of King Orodes
II, who reigned around 50 BC. Another example is the coin from Vardanes I of
Parthia, who ruled around 40 AD. The first coin to be introduced by the Sassanid
Empire with the the crescent moon was by the Sassanid King Kavadh (488-531
AD). What is interesting is that there is no reference to the cresent moon in
the Quran or any Islamic traditions. Since Hubal was the moon God, logically
the crescent moon was also Hubal’s symbol. Muhammad’s grandfather almost
scarified Muhammad’s father at the Kaaba to Hubal:

"An arrow showed that it was 'Abdullah to be sacrificed. 'Abdul-Muttalib then


took the boy to Al-Ka'bah with a razor to slaughter the boy. Quraish, his uncles
from Makhzum tribe and his brother Abu Talib, however, tried to dissuade him.
They suggested that he summon a she-diviner. She ordered that the divination
arrows should be drawn with respect to 'Abdullah as well as ten camels. … the
number of the camels (finally) amounted to one hundred. … They were all
slaughtered to the satisfaction of Hubal." - Ibn Hisham 1/151-155; Rahmat-ul-
lil'alameen 2/89,90

The Kaaba was originally a place where human sacrifices were made for Hubal.
At the Battle of Badr, the pagan opponent of Muhammad, Abu Sufyan, praised
the moon god Hubal by saying O Hubal, be high, and Muhammad told his
companions to yell Allah is higher, which is commonly phrased in arabic as
Allahu Akbar. Muhammad disregarded the moon god when he founded Islam.
The question is if Allah is higher than the moon god Hubal, why did the muslims
copied the crescent moon and proclaimed it as a symbol for Islam?

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Muhammad copied the name Allah
Al-ilah was the title for the Arabian pagan high-god (Hubal the moon God)
which means The God, while Al-Liah means the one worshipped. Muhammad's
fathers name was Abdullah ibn Abd al-Muttalib. Abdullah and Abdallah are built
from arabic words Abd and Allah, which obviously is pre-Islamic since he had
his name before Muhammad was born. According to the Book of Idols by the
Arabian scholar Hisham Ibn Al-Kalbi (737–819 AD), Al-llah had three daughters;
Al-Lat, Uzza and Manat, who also were worshipped, and the Quraysh had to
chant the following verses while circumambulating the Kaaba:

By Al-Lat and Al-Uzza,


And Manat, the third idol besides.
Verily they are the gharaniq
Whose intercession is to be sought.

Muhammad copied circumambulation


Circumambulation is the ritual to go into circles around a particular object.
Muhammad copied this ritual from the pagans which was pre-Islamic. They used
to go around the Kaaba to please their moon God Hubal, the 360 deities and of
course Al-Illah. Before Muhammad founded Islam and removed Hubal and the
360 deities, it is known that even he used to do that.

“Narrated ‘Abdullah bin Masud: The Prophet entered Mecca and (at that time)
there were three hundred-and-sixty idols around the Ka’aba. He started stabbing
the idols with a stick he had in his hand and reciting: “Truth (Islam) has come and
Falsehood (disbelief) has vanished.” - Sahih al-Bukhari 2478

The ritual of going around the Kabaa seven times is called Tawaf. This is the
same number as the hindu marriages (rite of Satphere) where the married couple
goes around a fire seven times. In both Islam and India, religious phrases were
repeated during while circling around their objects.

Sa'ee between Safa and Marwa


“Narrated ‘Asim: I asked Anas bin Malik: “Did you use to dislike to perform
Tawaf between Safa and Marwa?” He said, “Yes, as it was of the ceremonies of the
days of the Pre-lslamic period of ignorance, till Allah revealed: ‘Verily! (The two

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mountains) As-Safa and Al-Marwa are among the symbols of Allah. It is therefore
no sin for him who performs the pilgrimage to the Ka’ba, or performs ‘Umra, to
perform Tawaf between them.’ ” (2.158) – Sahih Bukhari 2:26:710

When doing the pilgrimage to Mecca, it is a duty doing the Sa'ee between Safa and
Marwa. Safa and Marwa are two small mountains very close to the Kaaba where
one must go back and forth seven times. This practice was originally from the pre-
Islamic pagan religion, and it was copied and proclaimed it to be another Quranic
revelation.

Ihram
"Narrated ‘Urwa: I asked ‘Aisha : …But in fact, this divine inspiration was revealed
concerning the Ansar who used to assume “Ihram” for worshipping an idol called
“Manat” which they used to worship at a place called Al-Mushallal before they
embraced Islam, and whoever assumed Ihram (for the idol), would consider it not
right to perform Tawaf between Safa and Marwa." - Sahih Bukhari 2:26:706

Ihram is a state a Muslim enters into for his pilgrimage to Mecca, and the
designation of the suit consisting of two pieces of white cloth worn by the men
during the pilgrimage.

Muhammad copied this ritual which was originally a pagan requirement for
worshipping their idols.

Quran copies a talmud


"Because of that, We decreed upon the Children of Israel that whoever kills a
soul unless for a soul or for corruption [done] in the land - it is as if he had slain
mankind entirely. And whoever saves one - it is as if he had saved mankind
entirely." - Quran 5:32

The Quranic verse above is found to be copied from a jewish talmud. Keep in
mind that talmuds is not a part of the Torah or Bible, but is entirely written
by humans independently from God's influence. A good analogy is the hadith
or tafsir compared to the Quran, the same goes for talmuds compared for the
Torah. Below is the quote from the talmud. Keep in mind that there are different
wordings of it, two of them are mentioned.

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“if any man has caused a single life to perish from Israel, he is deemed by
Scripture as if he had caused a whole world to perish; and anyone who saves
a single soul from Israel, he is deemed by Scripture as if he had saved a whole
world.” - Mishnah Sanhedrin 4:5 - Sefaria

“Whoever destroys a soul [of Israel], it is considered as if he destroyed an entire


world. And whoever saves a life of Israel, it is considered as if he saved an entire
world” - Mishnah Sanhedrin 4:5 - Sefaria

It was written hundreds of years before Muhammad copied it. What is really
special about this, it is not influenced by any Gods or prophets, but is 100% man
made by clerics.

There is no God but Allah


“There is no God but Allah and Muhammad is the messenger of Allah.” - Quran

This has been copied from:

"yet for us there is but one God, the Father, from whom all things came and for
whom we live; and there is but one Lord, Jesus Christ, through whom all things
came and through whom we live." - Corinthians 8:6 (New Testament))

“See now that I myself am he! There is no god besides me. I put to death and I
bring to life, I have wounded and I will heal, and no one can deliver out of my
hand. - Deuteronomy 32:39 (Old Testament)

Muhammad copied the moon calendar


The lunar-based calendar predates Islam in Central Arabia.

Muhammad copied ramadan


Ramadan has pagan roots developed in India and the Middle East. According
to Ibn al-Nadim (990 AD) and al-Jandrikinieh (1086-1158 AD), an Indian sect
fasted when the moon disappeared and ended the fast with a great feast when the
crescent reappeared.

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The Sabians in pre-Islamic Arabia composed of two groups, the Mandaeans and
the Harranians. The arabic writer from Iraq, Abu Zanad (747 AD), concluded
in his book al-Fahrisit that at least one Mandaeans group performed ramadan.
He also mentions that they practiced fasting for thirty days, and in this period
they honored the god named Sin, which is the moon god. Furthermore he also
describes the sacrifices made for their deity.

Another historian, Ibn Al Jawzi (12h century AD), wrote in his Talbis Iblis, that
the Harranian fasted thirty days, and ended the month by sacrificing animals
and presenting alms to the poor, much of the same as Islam. What is interesting
about it that today's muslims eat large meals at sunset and and wake up early in
the morning for another big meal before sunrise. Instead of eating simple meals
during the days like in other months, they spend sometimes triple or more money
on food than normally to arrange elaborate meals.

The pagans of Jahiliyah also practiced fasting of Ramadan in pre-Islamic era,


which was introduced to Arabia by the Harranians. It was practiced as an Annual
Ritual in Harran, a city on the border between Syria and Iraq. Their god was the
moon God, and they conducted a fasting that lasted 30 days.

Fasting on the 10th of Muharram


"Narrated 'Aisha: 'Ashura' (i.e. the tenth of Muharram) was a day on which the
tribe of Quraish used to fast in the pre-lslamic period of ignorance. The Prophet
also used to fast on this day. So when he migrated to Medina, he fasted on it and
ordered (the Muslims) to fast on it. When the fasting of Ramadan was enjoined, it
became optional for the people to fast or not to fast on the day of Ashura."

The pagan tribe Quraish (which Muhammad belonged to) fasted on the 10th of
Muharram which is the first month of the moon calendar. Muhammad copied
this ritual to Islam but made it optional.

Dhul-Qarnayn
And they ask you, [O Muhammad], about Dhul-Qarnayn. Say, “I will recite to you
about him a report.” - Quran 18:83-101

The story in Quran 18:83-102 is very similar to the story of the Syriac Alexander
the Great. However there are different accounts of him, that is in Alexander

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Romance, which is the traditional one, and in the first edition of the Syriac
work called Neshanâ dîlehd-Aleksandrôs, translated to The Glorious Deeds
of Alexander, but has recently been nicknamed to the Alexander Legend by
scholars. It is believed to have been written around 628-30 AD to boost the
reign of Heraclius after his victory in 628 AD, but before the Islamic conquest of
Mesopotamia in 636 AD. Below is a comparison of the two stories.

Dhul-Qarnayn (Quran) Neshanâ dîlehd-Aleksandrôs


18:83: And they ask you, [O Alexander put horns upon his head
Muhammad], about The Two-Horned
One (Dhul-Qarnayn). Say, "I will recite
to you about him a report."
18:84: Indeed We established him God gives him power over the entire
upon the earth, and We gave him to earth
everything a way.
18:85: So he followed a way He and his 7000 Egyptian workers of
brass and iron sat sail for four months
and twelve days
18:86: Until, when he reached the They reached a distant land. They go to
setting of the sun, he found it [as if] a place of bright water, where the sun
setting in a spring of dark mud, and enters when it sets
he found near it a people. Allah said,
"O Dhul-Qarnayn, either you punish
[them] or else adopt among them [a
way of] goodness."
18:87: He said, "As for one who To test the potency of the poisonous
wrongs, we will punish him. Then water, Alexander tested it with the
he will be returned to his Lord, and prisoners who were condemned to
He will punish him with a terrible death. He asked that the evil-doers
punishment. (wrong-doers) be brought to him
18:88: But as for one who believes Those who were not condemned were
and does righteousness, he will have a not tested
reward of Paradise, and we will speak
to him from our command with ease."
18:89: Then he followed a way Alexander and his crew then followed
the course of the sun to the east

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18:90: Until, when he came to the They reached to a place where the
rising of the sun, he found it rising on sun rises, it becomes so hot that the
a people for whom We had not made indigenous people flee the rising sun
against it any shield. to hide in the water of the sea and in
caves.
18:91: Thus. And We had encompassed
[all] that he had in knowledge.
18:92: Then he followed a way Alexander and his crew again sail
further, to the headwaters of the
Euphrates and the Tigris
18:93: Until, when he reached [a pass] They reached northwards into
between two mountains, he found mountains, with a narrow pass
beside them a people who could hardly
understand [his] speech.
18:94: They said, "O Dhul-Qarnayn, They complain about the Huns, in
indeed Gog and Magog are [great] which the name of the kings are Gog
corrupters in the land. So may we and Magog
assign for you an expenditure that you
might make between us and them a
barrier?"
18:95: He said, "That in which my Lord Alexander proposed to build a wall of
has established me is better [than what brass and iron to block the Huns from
you offer], but assist me with strength; entering.
I will make between you and them a
dam.
18:96: Bring me sheets of iron" - until, They build the wall together with the
when he had leveled [them] between Egyptian workers with brass and iron
the two mountain walls, he said, "Blow
[with bellows]," until when he had
made it [like] fire, he said, "Bring me,
that I may pour over it molten copper."
18:97: So Gog and Magog were unable
to pass over it, nor were they able [to
effect] in it any penetration.

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18:98: [Dhul-Qarnayn] said, "This is
a mercy from my Lord; but when the
promise of my Lord comes, He will
make it level, and ever is the promise
of my Lord true."
18:99: And We will leave them that day Alexander puts an inscription on the
surging over each other, and [then] gate, saying that the Lord will gather
the Horn will be blown, and We will together the kings and their hosts
assemble them in [one] assembly.
18:100: And We will present Hell that
Day to the Disbelievers, on display -
18:101: Those whose eyes had been
within a cover [removed] from My
remembrance, and they were not able
to hear.
18:102: Then do those who disbelieve
think that they can take My servants
instead of Me as allies? Indeed, We
have prepared Hell for the disbelievers
as a lodging.

What is interesting is that they are both written in the same chronological order.
For the full explanation and comparison between Quran 18:83-102 and Alexander
Legend, read The Quran And Its Historical Context (2007), edited by Gabriel Said
Reynolds and The Apocalypse of Empire: Imperial Eschatology in Late Antiquity
and Early Islam (2018) by Stephen J. Shoemaker.

According to the first book mentioned, the probability of the Quran to be a copy
of the Alexander Legend is predominat rather than the opposite due to how the
quranic text is composed. The allusive quranic language presumes that the readers
already know the legend. In the second book, it is described that previous versions
of the Alexander Legend may have been circulating around already in the early
6th century.

The Jinns
The term Jinn (or genies) predates Islamic era with roots in ancient
Mesopotamian legends. The latin term genii in ancient Rome, which is the plural

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form of the latin word genius, was referred to a spirit that watched over every
man. The women also had a similar spirit, which was called juno. In ancient
Rome, some spirits were evil spirits, and those were called evil genius. It also
influenced Aladdin from One Thousand and One Nights (The Arabian Nights).

Beads
Beads are among the earliest human ornaments and has been used known many
civilizations, even Hindus as far back as 800 BC. The ostrich shell beads in Africa
date back to 10.000 BC. It is clear that Islam copied it.

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Chapter 5: The truth about Golden Age
of Islam inventions
Introduction
This is the chapter that helps people not to believe in the claims about the
inventions and discoveries of the medieval Islam. The long story short is that
most of the inventions and discoveries actually existed in pre-Islamic eras, from
the Egyptians, Greeks, Hindus and Romans, Persians, and then made some small
modifications and thus it seemed like they were the genius. Although there is a
fraction which are original inventions and discoveries, probably around 90% of
them are not. Therefore there is nothing really Golden about the age, especially
when the Golden itself was the compiling and collecting all the knowledge from
different civilizations and made single books out of topics collected from different
regions. The medieval Islam was also the era of Jihad, which were spread to Spain
in the west, and India in the east. The truth is that these advancements, claimed by
many, are mainly knowledge of non-believers which were held enslaved or killed.
Furthermore many of the discoveries and inventions are mostly not because of the
Arabs, but the Persians. Arabians would probably had never came to their golden
age without the help of the persians. Persians were before, during and after, an
important civilization.

The Arabs have invented university


The first claim to start with is that the University of Al Qarawiyyin by Fatima was
the first university in the world, and therefore it makes Islam the true religion.
This is however not the case and not true. The first universities were the following:

University at Takshashila in Bharat – 600 BC to 500 AD


The Platonic Academy of Athens – 428 BC to 86 AD
The Gondishapur University - 271 AD - today
Nalanda University in Bihar – 500 AD to 1200 AD

By looking at the list above, it is clear that the University by the Islamic age is not
the oldest university in the world, and the Arabs never invented the university.
One of the oldest universities ever is the Nalanda University, which was build
around 500 AD, about 100 years before the time of Muhammad. The only reason
why it does not longer exist, is simply because the muslims themselves destroyed
the university, specifically Mohammed Bakhtiyar Khilji, in which he destroyed it
in 1200 AD, and massacred the defenceless buddhist monks and violated the nuns
The Gondishapur University, built in 271 AD, about 400 years before Muhammad,
is the world's oldest existing university, and has also been recognized as the first

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university in the world.

So one might ask himself, what exactly did the Arabs then invent? They simply
invented the diploma. As time passed, the world became more advanced from
different civilizations, from the earliest civilizations to the Egyptians, the Greeks,
the Persians, the Hindus, the Chinese, the Romans and then to the Arabs. At this
time knowledge and science became too wide and hard for a single person to
learn, so the solution was to invent a diploma for that specific area of knowledge.
It doesn’t require a leap of imagination when the university was already invented.

They invented modern chemistry


This can nothing be further from the real truth. The modern chemistry used
today in many fields, and not just chemistry, is only about 200-300 years old. It
comprises of organic chemistry, inorganic chemistry, biochemistry, spectroscopy,
physical chemistry, quantum chemistry, environmental chemistry, organic
synthesis, medicinal natural products, medicinal chemistry and more.

Any person who studies and studied chemistry, biochemistry, medicinal


chemistry, pharmacy, molecular biology knows that all these chemistry fields
were invented after the 16th century. There are two different kinds of chemistry,
the old chemistry which nobody had an idea what happened, and the atomic and
molecular chemistry, which nothing of it didn't exist before the year 1600, if not
later. The Romans viewed matter as discrete particles somehow linked together,
which is somehow true, but it still is not modern chemistry. Much of today's
modern chemistry is based on analytical spectroscopy, whether it is NMR, UV,
IR, MS spectroscopy - without it, modern chemistry would still not have evolved.
Spectroscopy was invented in 1859 by the German chemist Robert Wilhelm
Bunsen and the German physicist Gustav Robert Kirchhoff. In short, people in
ancient times had no idea what they did.

The numbers came from the Arabs


This statement that the numbers we have today are derived from the Arabs is
not true. While it is called the Hindu-Arabic numerical, it was really the Hindus
who developed it first centuries before Islam. Aryabhata of Kusumapura was the
person who developed the place-value notation in the 5th century, and then in
6th century Brahmagupta introduced the symbol for zero.

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Today even the Arabs call the numericals we have today for Raqam Al-Hind,
which is translated to Hindu numerical system, and not Hindu-Arabic. It was due
to the expansion of the trade-market and wars, these numericals from the Hindus
spread out to the Middle-East.

So the question is, what exactly did the muslims in the medieval Islam then
invent? In the next page, an illustration has been made to answer this question. As
it is seen all numericals were invented by the Hindus. The numerical 5 is not listed
here, but it can be seen from the hindu scripture called Bakhshali manuscript
from about the 3rd century, which stood for number 8. Furthermore they just
rearranged some of the numbers, and adjusted the appearance very little, and
thus the numericals came to. It is important to note that the Europeans further
modified it later, so basically the muslims were only an intermediate for the
development of the numericals.

Arabs invented the camera obscura


One of the important claims is that without the medieval Islam, we wouldn't have
had cameras. Both statements are false. First of all inventions can be reinvented,
especially the camera obscura and pinhole camera. Second of all, both of them
were actually invented and discovered before the medieval Islam by the Chinese
and Greeks.

400 BC: Mo-ti, who was the founder of Mohism, is generally attributed to have
been the first to mention the basic concept of a pinhole camera.
350 BC: The first experiments with the camera obscura and optics in general were
made by the ancient Greeks around 400 BC (1000 years before Islam). Aristotle
used the pinhole camera to observe the sun during a partial solar eclipse, using
gaps between leaves of trees and holes in a sieve.
300 BC: Euclid noticed the passing of light in a straight line.
300 AD: Theon of Alexandria also noticed the passing of light in a straight line.
500 AD: Anthemius of Tralles used a type of camera obscura in his experiments.

As it is easily demonstrated the pin-hole camera and camera obscura were


known to man-kind long before the Islamic age. The question is, what exactly
did Alhazan then do? In short, he used a screen so an image from one side of a
hole in the surface could be projected at the screen on the other. In other words,
it is a projecting of the light, not a camera. In fact, cameras today do not use
this technique to capture light, but use charge-coupled device (CCD) or the

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active-pixel sensor (CMOS sensor). What this means is that the technique by
Alhazan is not even used in modern day to capture the image into the sensor,
because modern cameras capture the light straight in a line, from the lens to the
image sensor, directly linear. Another misconception is that Alhazan was the
first to propose the intromission theory, that is that light enters the eye, contra
to not emission theory where rays emitted from the eyes percieves the object.
This is however not true, since Aristotle ( first proposed it in his book On Sense
and the Sensible. Alhazan also explained how light enters the pinhole camera
mathematically, that light travels the shortest distance which is the reason why
it becomes and upside down image. This is of course a fine achievement, but
definetely not the most important in the camera development.

What is more important is the development of the camera after the Islamic age,
which is the very hard part of the evolution. This means that an 8K RED camera
today was definitely not a result of Alhazan, where he used a screen so an image
from one side of a hole in the surface could be projected at the screen on the
other. The explanation of the camera obscura mathematically would sooner
or later had been explained by another scientist, as it is an obvious scientific
discovery. Shortly, the hard part of the camera development began after 1600.

Another aspect that has not been covered is the TV or a monitor to show the
digital images or frames in a video (with binary, 0's and 1's). For example how
does a QLED work? The answer is that it is needed to have a career in software
technology, electrical engineering or similar to have an understanding of a QLED
and how to reconstruct it. By reading about a QLED on the World Wide Web,
won’t make people being able to reproduce a QLED from scratch, but on the other
hand it is possible for anyone to reproduce a projecting of light by using a screen
so an image from one side of a hole in the surface could be projected at the screen
on the other side, even by 12 years old. Now what is fascinating these days is that
is not neccesary to have a camera to make a cinematic movie, simply because one
can make 3D animated movies with the help of different 3D software. Below is the
list of the camera development.

• 4th century BC: Chinese invented the camera obscura.


• 1700s: Thomas Wedgwood got the idea to create permanent photographs by
capturing camera images on material coated with a light-sensitive chemical.
• 1807: William Hyde Wollaston patented the camera lucida.
• 1822: Nicéphore Niépce invented the first photographic process, called
Heliography
• 1827: French Joseph Nicéphore Niépce (1765–1833) made the world’s first

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oldest surviving photograph.
• 1835: William Henry Fox Talbot invented the photographic negative process,
and took the first ever negative image
• 1839: Louis Daguerre invented the photos on silver plates that became known
as daguerreotypes.
• 1839: Mungo Ponton presented his discovery of the light-sensitive quality of
sodium dichromate to be used as a method of permanent photography.
• 1841: William Henry Fox Talbot introduced the calotype photographic
process
• 1850: Levi Hill invented heliochromy, a color photography process capable of
basic rendering of reds and blues.
• 1851: Frederick Scott Archer developed a method to take pin-sharp photos
onto wet glass plates, the wet plate collodion photographic process.
• 1854: James Ambrose Cutting received three patents for improvements of the
Ambrotype photography, a wet plate collodion process
• 1855: James Clerk Maxwell invented the modern three-color photography,
by proposing that if three black-and-white photographs were shot through
red, green and blue filters and transparent prints of the images were projected
onto a screen using three projectors equipped with similar filters, when
superimposed on the screen the result would be complete reproduction of all
the colours in the scene. This method was neither chemical or electronic. The
graphic design industry today uses his three color method, called the RGB-
color.
• 1856: Alphonse Louis Poitevin invented the collotype photographic
• process.
• 1861: Coleman Sellers invented the kinematoscope, an early cinema camera
• Louis Arthur Ducos du Hauron invented a new method of color photography,
using both additive and subtractive methods. The discovery of dye
sensitization helped him to achieve it.
• 1870s: Richard Maddox invented a technique to take photos using dry plates
and gelatin.
• 1877: George R. Carey invented a selenium telectroscope, which is a camera
projecting moving images to a distant point. It is the
• precursor of television.
• 1878: Eadweard Muybridge used multiple cameras to capture motion in stop-
motion photographs.
• 1881: David Houston invented the roll film for cameras.
• 1882: Étienne-Jules Marey invented a chronophotographic photography gun
• 1884. George Eastman invented the paper-strip photographic film, the
modern photographic film.

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• 1888: George Eastman launched his easy-to-use Kodak camera. His slogan
was: “You push the button and we do the rest.”
• 1894: Auguste and Louis Lumière invented the portable motion picture
camera, the cinematographe, which is a combination of a
• movie camera and a projector.
• 1894: John Joly devised an additive colour photographic process for producing
images from a single photographic plate, called the Joly colour screen
• 1899: Joshua Cohen invented the electric flash-lamp for photography
• 1900: Eastman Kodak invented their first Brownie camera
• 1904: Lucien Bull developed the field of chronophotography
• 1905: Pathé Frères invented the first commercially successful stencil color
photography process, which became one of the most accurate and reliable
stencil coloring systems
• 1907: Lumière brothers invented the Autochrome Lumière, the first color
photography process
• 1910: Robert W. Wood first published infrared photographs
• 1913: Oskar Barnack invented the first 35 mm film miniature still camera.
• 1923: Samuel Shlafrock invented the instant camera
• Philo Farnsworth transmitted the first image at his laboratory with his
electronic image dissector television camera tube
• 1929: Arthur C. Pillsbury invented the first X-Ray motion picture camera
• 1930: Arthur C. Pillsbury invented the Underwater Motion Picture Camera
• 1930: Bernhard Schmidt invented the Schmidt Camera
• 1933: Ub Iwerks invented multiplane camera
• 1933: Vladimir K. Zworykin and his group launched the first practical cathode
ray tube television camera, called the iconoscope
• 1934: Kodak invented the 135 film cartridge with the Kodak Retina camera. It
made 35mm film easier to handle
• 1939: Semyon Kirlian invented the Kirlian photography
• 1947: Edwin Land invented the polaroid camera, the Land Camera. It is the
first practical instant camera.
• 1957: Hal Anger developed the gamma camera (scintillation camera)
• 1959: Agfa invented the Optima, which was the first fully automatic camera
• Pentax Spotmatic invented single-lens reflex (SLR) camera. With this
invention they pioneered through-the-lens metering
• 1963: Edwin Land invented the color polaroid camera.
• 1964: Fernando Alves Martins became the first person to build a gastrocamera
• 1969: AT&T Bell Lab invented the CCD, which is used as the electronic
imager in photo cameras and video cameras
• 1975: Steven Sasson invented the digital camera, a self-contained, portable

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digital camera, with the first electronic based on CCD.
• 1980: Fujio Masuoka invented flash memory (both NOR and NAND types),
which is found in USB flash drives, MP3 players, digital cameras and solid-
state drives
• 2000s: Cell phones with built-in digital cameras
• 2003: Kodak released the first digital camera with an organic light-emitting
diode (OLED) display
• 2008: Germany developed the camera pill (capsule endoscopy)
• 2010: Sony developed the Alpha A55 Camera, the first camera that does not
blink when taking a photograph, which increases its shooting speed
• 2012: Engineers developed 50-gigapixel camera, by constructing it with 98
small cameras into one device
• 2013: Heriot-Watt University scientists developed a new camera system that
can create high resolution 3D-photographs, as far as up to one km away
• 2014: Researchers demonstrated the fastest receive-only 2D camera in the
world, with 100 billion frames per second
• 2015: Researchers used quantum dots to produce a 0,0092 mm^2 photograph
at a resolution of 25.000 dpi.
• 2018: INRS invented the world's fastest camera, T-CUP, which is able to
capture 10 trillion frames per second

So let's recap again what Alhazan did: He used used a screen so an image from
one side of a hole in the surface could be projected at the screen on the other side
This is clearly a sarcastic statement, meaning that not is it not used to capture light
in modern cameras, but even if it were, it would not have been very significant.
He also mathematically explained why the image is upside down, which is a fine
achievement, but really not the most important, or even not the most difficult.
It is clear that all these photographic techniques, which are the more important
inventions in the camera development, are the main topics of the camera. For
example the camera hardware and techniques are too essential, like the image
sensor, processor chip, shutter speed, ISO, aperture, turning it to RAW files
and JPEG files, flash capacitor, battery compartment, and others. To answer the
main question of this section, no, Alhazan did not discover pin-hole camera and
camera obscura.

Arabs invented pharmacopoeia


For those who don’t study pharmacy, the modern Pharmacopoeia is the complete
book of pharmaceutical medicine, their characteristics, how to identify them with

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different tests and others. The book is about 2000 pages. Below is a description of
the different subjects in the book about an active ingredient:

• Definition: molecular formula or similar


• Characters: the appearance and the solubility
• Identification: their melting point, specific optical rotation, chromatograms,
Infrared absorption spectrophotometry,
• Tests: how to identify them with different chemicals, or with chromatography,
absorbance, test with heavy metals, loss of drying, sulphated ash
• Storage: for example if it is necessary to protect the active ingredient from
oxidation caused by light
• Impurities: when a medicine is synthesized there can be impurities

This basically means that an active ingredient in the pharmaceutical field is based
on modern chemistry, modern physics, and modern medicinal chemistry. The
modern pharmacopoeia was not known before the 16th century since it was not
known about molecules, g/mol or similar.

The question is, did the medieval Islam create the first pharmacopoeia? The
answer is no. There were actually others that existed before to the medieval
Islamic age, and those were:

• 1500 BC: Edwin Smith Papyrus in Egypt, Pliny’s pharmacopoeia


• 50 AD: De Materia Medica by Pedanius Dioscorides. It is considered to be the
precursor to all modern pharmacopoeias today
• 200 AD: Shen-nung Pen-tsao Ching (Divine Husbandman’s Materia Medica),
the first known Chinese pharmacopoeia. It describes 365 pharmaceuticals
derived from plants, animals, and minerals.

The three above pharmacopoeias were all written before the medieval age of
Islam, where Ibn Baytar from Malaga wrote his pharmacopeia around 1200 AD,
which is about 1000 years after the pharmacopeia by Pedanius Dioscorides, where
his pharmacopoeia is the basis of modern pharmacopoeias. It is worth noting that
none of them are modern in themselves since it is necessary to know the chemical
formula and modern chemistry to understand pharmaceuticals.

The Arabs created the modern pharmacy


Some give statements that Jabir ibn Hayyan created the modern pharmacy. This is

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simply not true. Today modern pharmacy is based on modern chemistry, which
is only about 200-400 years old, and completely different from what was known
before. Modern pharmacy furthermore includes:

• Physiology, pharmacology, biochemistry, organic chemistry, inorganic


chemistry, physical chemistry, biomedical, medicine, anatomy, natural
products chemistry, immunology, toxicology. All these branches described
didn't exist before the 15th century, except anatomy, but even anatomy wasn't
that advanced.

Furthermore modern pharmacy specifically is about:

• Pharmaceutical excipients, bioavailability, biopharmacy, routes of


administration, granulation, drying, compressing, coating, filtration, sterile
filtration, sterilization, preformulation, stability, autoclave, and much more.
None of these terms and field existed before the 15th century, not even
the route of administration as it is known today, because it depends of
pharmaceutical excipients.

In short the medieval Islam did not invent the modern pharmacy, simply because
modern pharmacy is about modern chemistry, immunology, biochemistry,
pharmacology, toxicology and others. All these fields are only 200-300 years old, a
maximum of 400 years old.

The Arabs made the first hospital


The statement that the medieval Islamic age created the first hospital, is not true.
The earliest documented examples of ancient institutions to provide healthcare
came from the ancient Egyptians and the ancient Greeks. The chinese buddhist
monk, Fa Xian (400 AD) who travelled across India, wrote the following:

“The heads of the Vaishya [merchant] families in them [all the kingdoms of
north India] establish in the cities houses for dispensing charity and medicine.
All the poor and destitute in the country, orphans, widowers, and childless men,
maimed people and cripples, and all who are diseased, go to those houses, and are
provided with every kind of help, and doctors examine their diseases. They get the
food and medicines which their cases require, and are made to feel at ease; and
when they are better, they go away of themselves.”.

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This description of a civic hospital is the earliest known account. Furthermore
the earliest known encyclopaedia of medicine in Sanskrit is the Carakasamhita
(Compendium of Caraka) by Dominik Wujastyk (150 AD). It describes a hospital
should be equipped. The oldest known hospital in the world is the Mihintale
Hospital, dated to be around mid 9th century. Even the Romans build the
buildings called valetudinaria for the care of sick slaves, gladiators, and soldiers
around 100 BC. King Pandukabhaya (4th - 5th century) had lying-in-homes and
hospitals (Sivikasotthi-Sala) built in various parts of the country, according to the
Mahavamsa written in 6th century AD, which is the ancient chronicle of Sinhalese
royalty. Furthermore the medieval Islam did not have faculties under medical
schools, and neither a system of academic evaluation and certification, in contrast
to medieval Europe which had.

In short, the Arabs did not invent the hospital, but they are credited to make the
first general hospital.

The Arabs were the first who proposed evolution


The first who proposed evolutionary theory were Anaximander, Empedocles, and
Lucretius.

600 BC: Anaximander wrote On Nature, which was a poem that has been lost
during history. The complete work is lost, however other people had quoted parts
of the book. He postulated that animals evolved into what they are today due to
environmental adaptation from other animals, and originally all life began in the
sea.
400 BC: Empedocles postulated that the first living beings were some type of
disembodied organs, which were evolved into the creatures we observe today,
caused by the ongoing process of attraction and repulsion.
50 BC: Lucretius wrote On the Nature of Things where he described his
evolutionary theory. He described that life began through a combination of
elements (which is true in the molecular sense). He described that chance was
responsible for life's creation, which is also one of the modern statement about
evolution. He claimed that monster-like creatures were extinct due to natural-
selection, and those who survived, had strength, speed or intelligence.
Lucretius failed in the field where he claimed that animals from the land could not
evolve from the sea, and he neither believed that one animal could evolve from
another one.

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Reading the theories from Anaximander, Empedocles and Lucretius, it is obvious
that the modern evolutionary theory is a combination of those three. Generally
the evolutionary theory was hypothesized 1000 years before medieval Islam.

Even though the ancient Greeks or any other ancient civilization hypothesized
the theory of evolution, it is absolutely not the same as the modern theory, and
interestingly enough, it is not even the same as the theory as Charles Darwin.
What it specifically means is that Charles Darwin only based it on observations,
and not on experiments and facts.

The modern way of proving the theory are through many different pathways.
Firstly, archaeologists, palaeontologists and scientists discover the bones of a
species, whether it is human or an animal. Then the bones are dated with the
help of carbon-isotope dating or uranium-lead dating, depending on how old
the bones are. The carbon-isotope dating only goes up to 60.000 years, and
uranium-lead dating goes up in billions, but they both confirm each other in their
intersection.
With the dating techniques, scientists have given an age of the bones. The second
way is to collect the DNA from the bones, analyse them and register dem in a
database. This way the scientists have the age of all ancient bones in a timeline
with their age, together with their DNA. This way they can see the change
of the DNA through time, from generation to generation. For each of these
generations, the next one has for the first time ever emerged out of nowhere, and
the other previous ones has died off. The DNA confirms exactly their similarity
and difference for each generation of species, together with their appearances.
Furthermore geneticist today observe mutations on their daily basis, for example
bacteria who became resistant to antibiotics in the laboratories, where they are
able to precisely find the mutated gene with the nucleic acids. The below points
are the important ways to confirm the evolution:

• Dating the bones how old they are (carbon- or uranium-lead dating)
• DNA to confirm similarities that they are indeed on the same family
• Appearance (Charles Darwin method)
• One human species has died off, while another emerges (with the help of
carbon- and uranium-lead dating)
• Geneticist today see mutation on a daily basis on humans and animals by
analysing their DNA and proteins.

In the next page, a figure with all the fields that confirm evolution is illustrated.
All these factors and scientific fields contributed so the theory of evolution

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became a fact. Therefore in the ancient times, even though there were people
who proposed the theory, they had no evidence to support it, not even Darwin.
Richard Dawkins made a statement about this:

“Evolution is a fact, as securely established as any in science, and he who denies


it betrays woeful ignorance and lack of education, which likely extends to other
fields as well.” ~ Richard Dawkins

Dawkins mentions the other fields, and those other fields are basically those
illustrated on the next page, and possibly more. These fields are the very essence
of science and is the core of any science, health and even some engineering, like
environmental engineering or chemical engineering. Thus it is important to know
and understand those fields in order for them to understand the core of science
and evolution.

Some may wonder why astronomy is on the list, but in fact, astronomy is one of
the most important fields to confirm evolution. Firstly, the uranium-lead dating of
dinosaurs are determined to be around 100-400 million years ago, and the Earth
itself has been determined to be around 4,5 billion years with this technique.
Now astronomers determined the age of the universe to be about 13 billion
years, by measuring the rate of expansion of the universe, called the Hubble
Constant. Putting these three together, where the universe is 13 billion years old
(with math), the earth is 4,5 billion years (with chemistry), and the dinosaurs

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are around 300 million years old (with chemistry), it is easy to tell that there is a
timeline in a correct manner.

The other ways to determine evolution through astronomy are the discoveries
in outer space. For example it was announced in 2014 that the complex
molecule iso-propyl cyanide has been discovered near the galactic core in an
abundant quantity. This molecule is similar to an amino-acid which is basically
the building block for proteins and crucial for all cells. Back in 2009 several
different amino acids were found on a comet called Comet Wild 2. In the year
of 2012, astronomers detected glycolaldehyde, a sugar molecule, in a star very
far away about 400 light years away. What is interesting about this molecule is
that it is needed to form RNA, which is the macromolecule needed to produce
DNA. The discovery may hint that complex molecules arrived on young planets
early in their formation. In 2012 NASA experimented with polycyclic aromatic
hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the interstellar medium (environment similar to
space), and with hydrogenation, oxygenation and hydroxylation, they managed
to produce complex organic molecules, which is a step closer to DNA. What is
important about PAHs is that astronomers constantly find them in outer space,
whether it is on a planet, on space, or on comets. In 2017, astronomers discovered
acrylonitrile on Saturn's moon, Titan (vinyl cyanide, C2H3CN), an organic
compound essential for life, cell membranes and vesicles. In 2019 astronomers
detected ribose in meteorites, which is the molecule for building DNA and ATP.
This discovery could hint that life came from space. Finally in 2019, scientists
identified 6331 groups of genes that are the same in all living animals today. This
hints that the living animals today may have risen from a common ancestor, and
with the help of uranium-lead dating, the researchers could postulate that the
single ancestor lived around 650 million years ago.

Example of a biological experiment proving evolution


A biologist put flies into a cave of their own in complete darkness, in a span of 57
years, which is equal to about 1400 generations of the fly species. What it showed
was that there were changes in the DNA from the fly compared to those who lived
in daylight.

The Arabs made the first world map


The claim that muslims created the first world map is not true. Below is a list of
the world maps that were created before.

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200 BC: Eratosthenes was called the Father of Geography. When he was the chief
librarian at the Library of Alexandria, he wrote a three-volume geographical
treatise, which included a world map. The world map itself has been lost in the
course of history, possibly due to the arabs burning 700.000 books, but the treatise
only exists in fragments preserved by different authors, where the most important
was Strabo. In the year of 1883 a reconstruction of his world map was made.
100 BC: Posidonius' ideas about the positioning of the continents were
reconstructed in the year 1628.
10 AD: Strabo's Geographica contains a map of Europe. Later the written text of
Strabos were used to construct a world map.
50 AD: Pomponius Melas' ideas of the world map were reconstructed into a world
map.
150 AD: Ptolemy's world maps have been lost, however the oldest surviving
Ptolemaic world map was redrawn around the year 1300.

The problem with all the ancient maps, before Al-Idrisi’s map and Ibn Hawqals
map, is that they have been lost. The only one that has survived is the redrawn
version of Ptolemy from around 1300. It is furthermore worth noting that Al-
Idrisi and Ibn Hawqals used methods to draw their maps that belonged to earlier
civilizations, for example from the works of Ptolemy.

The Arabs were the first to calculate the circumference


of the earth
Some people claim that the Arabs were the first to calculate the circumference of
the earth, which is simply wrong. The first person to calculate the circumference
of the earth was Eratosthenes (276-194 BC) in ancient Greece. He measured the
angle of the shadows in both Alexandria and Syene, which had a difference of
7,2 degrees, and ordered people to measure the distance from those two cities,
which was around 800 kilometre. By using these two numbers he calculated the
circumference of the earth to be 40,074 km, which is a difference of 66 km, or
0.16%, from the currently accepted circumference of the Earth. That is extremely
close considering he did that for 2200 years ago!

The older civilizations calculated the circumference of the Earth with the help
of the sun and two different locations on Earth. Al-Biruni developed a method
using trigonometric calculations, where he used the angle between a plain and
mountain top. This made it possible to only use one location by one person. But
the problem with his calculations was that they were inaccurate compared to

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Erastosthenes. The astronomers of Al-Ma’mun's determined it also, but again
they weren't as accurate as the difference was 600 km from the currently accepted
circumference, compared to the Greeks which was only 66km. The Greeks
circumference remain the most précis in more than 2000 years.

The Arabs were the first to calculate the axial tilt


This is not true. It was was accurately measured as early as 1100 BC in India and
China. Pytheas of Marseilles measured the axial tilt in 350 BC, about 1000 years
before Islam.

The Arabs calculated pi


Archimedes of Syracuse was the first person to calculate Pi, around 250 BC. By
600 AD, the Chinese had calculated pi to seven digits, and the indians calculated
it to five digits. Madhava of Sangamagrama discovered Madhava–Leibniz series,
which is the infinite series for π, and calculated pi to 11 decimals. Later he
calculated pi to 13 decimals by using another method.

In medieval Islam, Jamshīd al-Kāshī went from 13 decimals to 17 decimals, only


four decimals. In 1600 AD, Ludolph Van Ceulen calculated pi to 35 decimals.
In 1789 Jurij Vega calculated it to 140 decimals. Today pi has been calculated to
trillions of decimals.

Basically Jamshīd al-Kāshī jumped a minor step with only 4 decimals, which is
not a large step compared to the others before him, and after him.

The Arabs invented the Guitar


Some claim that the medieval age of Islam invented the guitar. This is not the case.
Archaeologists have discovered bowl harps and tanburs which dates around 1500-
2000 BC. The oldest preserved instrument that resembles a guitar is 3500 years
old, which belonged to Har-Mose, an Egyptian singer. The ancient Greeks used
the instrument called kithara. The oldest known iconographic representation of a
guitar is carved at Alaca Huyuk in Turkey, dated to be around 1300 BC, which is
a representation of an old Hittite "guitar". The Persians invented the four-stringed
persian chartar (tar), and the persian setar, which are considered to be the
forerunner of modern day guitars. The short-necked lutes called barbat or barbud

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was invented in Bactria and Gandhara of the Sasanian Empire (224–651 AD),
which reminds of the one made by the muslims. Now the Gilt bronze sculpture
known as Kneeling Apsaras Playing a Lute, made in the first half of 6th century in
China, is a short short-necked lute with five strings, and is amost identical as the
one muslims claimed they invented. At around 7th century the chinese invented
the four-stringed lute called pipa, which is depicted in a terracotta pipa-player in a
suit of armor from the Sui Dynasty (581–618 AD). The new four-stringed short-
necked lute called Biwa, arrived in Japan in the 7th century from China. Then
in the medieval age, the muslims got credited for developing the four-stringed
Lute (Al'ud, Oud). By the early 16th century medieval Spain, the Guitarra latina
was invented. In the 17th century, the Italians invented the chitarra battente. The
modern guitar as it is known today, was invented by Antonio Torres in 1850, and
since then it hasn't changed a lot.

So the question is, did the muslims in medieval Islam invent the short-necked
four string oud? Although the Islamic oud has some special characteristics, the
answer is no. It was greatly inspired by the barbat from the Sassanian Empire , the
6th century Kneeling Apsaras Playing a Lute gilt bronze sculpture, the chinese
pipa from around 7th century, and the chinese biwa from 7th century.

The arabs invented chess


Although Al-Adli ar-Rumi (800–870) wrote a chess manual which is dated to
around 840-850 AD, called Kitab ash-shatranj (Book of Chess), they did not
invent it. In 2002, british archaeologists discovered an ivory chess piece in
southern Albania, dated back to 6th century, even before Muhammad.

The Arabs invented ethanol


Ethanol, or alcohol as it is known, was not invented or synthesized by anyone
until the modern chemistry began from 1600 and thereafter. Muhammad ibn
Zakariya al-Razi did not invent alcohol nor synthesized it chemically, it was via
a process called alcohol distillation he separated it. What this means is simply
letting the wine be open, in which the alcohol will evaporate out into the air, and
trapping it into another container. This technique known as distillation has been
used for thousands of year before the muslims in medieval age, in the process
called solar distillation. In this technique people filled a container with sea water,
and the water evaporated due to the rays of the sun. The evaporating water was
trapped into another container, and this way clean water was produced. This

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technique is especially easy with sea water, where salt has a boiling point of about
800 degrees and water only 100 degrees. This way it is easy to boil the water out of
the salt, and separate it, just as it is easy to separate ethanol from water, because
it has a boiling point of 69 degrees. Today it is possible to separate millions of
chemicals from each other, even when their boiling point difference is only 1
degree - or less.

In short, he did not synthesized alcohol, he only separated it with a technique that
was known before, called distillation. It is especially easy with alcohol, because
it is generally known to everyone that leaving a bottle of wine opened will make
the alcohol evaporate. Although he is credited for being the first person to do so,
it is actually not a hard task to do it. If he didn't do it, millions of other chemists
would have done it after him. Below are examples where distillation was already
known before the medieval times.

Distillation was invented by ancient civilization


In fact almost every civilization before the age of medieval Islam used this process
by separating water from salt, called solar distillation. The boiling point of salt
is around 800 degrees, and the boiling point of water is 100 degrees. The only
difference is that the arabs trapped the evaporating alcohol instead of water. The
oldest reference to a still apparatus comes from Tapputi, who is considered to be
the first recorded chemist. She is mentioned in a cuneiform tablet which is dated
to be around 1200 BC in Babylonian Mesopotamia.

Aristotle inventing a filter (reverse osmosis)


"There is more evidence to prove that saltness is due to the admixture of some
substance, besides that which we have adduced. Make a vessel of wax and put it in
the sea, fastening its mouth in such a way as to prevent any water getting in. Then
the water that percolates through the wax sides of the vessel is sweet, the earthy
stuff, the admixture of which makes the water salt, being separated off as it were
by a filter. It is this stuff which make salt water heavy (it weighs more than fresh
water) and thick. The difference in consistency is such that ships with the same
cargo very nearly sink in a river when they are quite fit to navigate in the sea. This
circumstance has before now caused loss to shippers freighting their ships in a
river." - Aristotle, Meteorologica

Archaeological findings of 3000 years old distillation devices


Paolo Rovesti discovered in 1975 a very well preserved terracotta distillation
apparatus in the Indus Valley in Taxila, Pakistan, which was possibly used to
prepare aromatic waters. Its carbon-dating results determined it to be 3000 years

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old, which is 1000 BC. He further discovered perfume oil containers made of the
same material, which is evidence proving that essential oil production was known
to the Indus Valley Civilisation long before medieval Islam. Other discoveries
indicated that distillation has also been practiced in ancient Turkey, Persia, Egypt,
Mesopotamia and India thousands of years before medieval Islam

Archaeological findings of a 4000 years old distillation devices


A distillation device was discovered nearby Afghanistan, dated to be around 2000
BC.

Archaeological finding of elaborate egg-shaped vessels containing coils


A distillation device similar to the Arab itriz is described in Mesopotamian
cuneiform tablets from around 1300 BC. It is described as an elaborate egg-
shaped vessels containing coils.

One of the earliest evidence for distillation by Maria Prophetissima (200 AD)
One of the earliest evidence of distillation devices is attributed to Maria
Prophetissima, which is described in the Alexandrian text called The Gold
Making of Cleopatra.The distillation apparatus was used to distil aromatic
and medicinal oils and capture the chemical called phenol-ethyl-alcohol from
lavender water and rose water, an important ingredient for the preparation of
unguents and skin ointments.

Zosimos of Panopolis credited her for the invention of the tribikos, which is an
alembic with three arms, and still used today in chemistry laboratories. She is
also credited for the invention of the Kerotakis alembic. Furthermore she is also
attributed to the invention of the bain-marie (Mary's bath), which can be found in
the chemistry labs and in the kitchen.

Conclusion
Muhammad ibn Zakariya al-Razi did not invent distillation, and neither was
the first to invent alembics used today in modern chemistry. He did not invent
alcohol, he just used separated alcohol from wine by heating it, a technique
known by many civilizations in the ancient world. Furthermore it is important to
note that he was not a muslim, describing prophet Muhammad as a fraud, and the
Quran did not contain any useful information or explanations. Beneath is a quote
from him.

“You claim that the evidentiary miracle is present and available, namely, the
Koran. You say: 'Whoever denies it, let him produce a similar one.' Indeed,

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we shall produce a thousand similar, from the works of rhetoricians, eloquent
speakers and valiant poets, which are more appropriately phrased and state the
issues more succinctly. They convey the meaning better and their rhymed prose
is in better meter. … By God what you say astonishes us! You are talking about
a work which recounts ancient myths, and which at the same time is full of
contradictions and does not contain any useful information or explanation. Then
you say: 'Produce something like it"?! - Muhammad ibn Zakariya al-Razi

For further study about distillation and alembics, read Handbook of Essential
Oils: Science, Technology, and Applications by K. Husnu Can Baser and Gerhard
Buchbauer, Aromatherapy: A Complete Guide to the Healing Art by Kathi Keville
and Mindy Green, and Ormus: The Secret Alchemy of Mary Magdalene - Revealed
(Part A) by William Hearth.

The arabs invented perfumes


Many claim that the arabs invented perfumes, specifically Yaqub Al-Kindi
(801–873 AD). This is not true. The earliest reference of perfume comes from
Tapputi, who is, according to a cuneiform tablet which is dated to be around
1200 BC, considered to be the first recorded chemist and perfume maker. This
is around 2000 years before Al-Kindi. The earliest uses of bottles for perfumes is
dated around 1000 BC in Ancient Eygpt, which is 1800 years before the lifetime
of Al-Kindi. Further more, before medieval Islam, the Greek, Roman, and the
Persian empire also used perfumes. Both King Persepolis Darius and King Xerxes
were pictured holding bottles of perfumes. The world's oldest perfume factory
was discovered in Cyprus in 2007, called House of the Vettii. Scientists are also
working to recreate the Roman perfumes by using written records and analyse the
chemicals in ancient pots. This is possible because both the Greeks and Romans
carefully documented their perfume-making processes. Ancient India and ancient
China also used perfumes before medieval Islam.

The arabs first got the idea of alchemy


The alchemy of searching for the Philosophers Stone, Elixir of life, and for
transforming lead into gold did not originate in the medieval Islam, rather as
early as from Hermes Trismegistus and Maria the Jewess, also called Maria
the Prophetess or Maria the Hebrew. Maria the Jewess who lived around 100
AD is credited for being the inventor of alchemy, as it is written in Zosimus
of Panopolis. She worked to create gold from base metals from the Earth, for

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example lead.

They discovered pharmacology


The statement that medieval Islam discovered pharmacology is simply not true.
Regardless what people before 1600 AD knew, they had absolutely no knowledge
of pharmacology, except for the intake of medicine and observations from a
patients. If this was modern pharmacology, then the pharmaceutical industry
today would never have been this advanced.

The field of pharmacology is only about 200 years old. Organic chemistry,
molecular biology, medicinal chemistry, natural product chemistry, toxicology
and other fields are directly tied to pharmacology, and none of them existed
before 1600 AD. In pharmacology, it is essential to know about receptors, where
the focus is on how a medicine works in the cells, and not just what kind of
subjective effects it produces to a person. One major and essential factor is
knowing is knowing the concentration of the medicine in the blood during time,
and this can only be known with spectroscopy and blood samples. Neither of
them were invented before 1600 CE.

The conclusion is that “what effects does a plant give”-pharmacology is the easy
part and is not modern pharmacology or pharmacy, rather much of it is subjective
The hard part is “how the drug interacts in the cells of our body and the receptors”,
which is basically modern pharmacology and can be observed on cells that have
been cultured in the laboratories. These two are two very different things.

The Arabs discovered heliocentrism


Some give statements that the Arabs were the first to discover that the sun is in
the center, and the earth orbiting it, which is called heliocentrism. This is not true,
it was discovered by many ancient greeks. It was specifically Aristarchus of Samos,
who lived between 310–230 BC. What he observed, calculated and discovered was
that the Earth is smaller than the sun, and was the first to place the sun is in the
center of the solar system. The Greeks and Chinese further calculated the axial tilt,
and found out that the earth orbits itself. What is interesting is that Aristarchus
had an idea that the stars were actually other suns.

In medieval Islam, Ibn al-Shatir made developed the heliocentrism further, and
developed also the lunar model, but heliocentrism was definitely known before.

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The Arabs discovered the milky way
It is impossible to know who first noticed the Milky Way galaxy since it can be
seen with the naked eye. However the real question is who determined that the
Milky Way is a galaxy with countless stars. Philosophers in ancient Greece were
the first or one of the first to propose that the galaxy consists of a large collection
of stars, however the first to really prove it with evidence was Galileo Galilei in
1610 with the help of his rudimentary telescope. The timeline is written below:

• Democritus (450–370 BC) first proposed that the Milky Way might consist of
distant stars.
• Aristarchus of Samos (310 BC to 230 BC) proposed that the galaxy of the
Milky Way consists of a large collection of stars, so small that it is impossible
to see the individual stars. He further speculated that the Milky Way is very
far away, and therefore has no parallax.
• Abū Rayhān al-Bīrūnī (973–1048 AD) was a persian astronomer, and he
proposed the same as the ancient Greeks, that it is a collection of countless
fragments of the nature of nebulous stars
• Ibn Bajjah (1138 AD) proposed much of the same as the ancient Greeks, that
it was made up of many stars which almost touched one another
• Ibn Qayyim Al-Jawziyya (1292–1350 AD) proposed that it is a myriad of tiny
stars packed together in the sphere of the fixed stars, much the same as the
ancient greeks.
• Alhazen (965–1037) determined that there is no parallax of the Milky Way
by observing and measure it, and therefore it is very far away from Earth.
Determining a parallax is a technique from the ancient greeks.

It is clear that Democritus and Aristarchus of Samos were the first to notice that
the Milky Way galaxy consists of a vast collection of stars, and even postulated
that it has no parallax, which is movement of the stars relative to each other as the
Earth moves around the Sun. He did not calculate it since he had no instrument
to achieve the precise observations, but Alhazen did it with two different locations
of the sun. Alhazen used the technique from ancient Greeks to determine the
parallax of the galaxy. This means that he started to measure the position of the
Milky Way one day, and waited for half a year to determine the position again,
since the Earth is on the opposite side of the sun as it was before. He observed
the position was the same, which means that the Milky Way is very far away. The
actual proof came, as mentioned before, by Galileo Galilei, where he used his

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microscope prove the parallax.

Basically Alhazen only used a technique discovered by the ancient Greeks to


determine the parallax of the Milky Way, where the ancient greeks used it 1000
years before to determine the parallax of the moon. It was specifically Hipparchus
(130 BC), where he used parallax to calculate the distance of the moon from
Earth. He did that by observing how much the moon moved relative to the stars
behind it, at two different places on Earth. Using this data he calculated the
distance to be 59 times larger than the radius of Earth, compared to the currently
acceptable value which is 60,3 times (384.000 kilometre). He was very close to
the exact distance. Although Alhazen determined that there is no parallax of the
Milky Way, it would not have been impossible by the ancient Greeks 1000 years
before to determine it too, since they were well aware of the technique.

The arabs proposed the continent of America


Al-Biruni (973-1050 AD) used the data by the indians to calculate the span of the
Europe and Asia, which was two-fifths of the total circumference of the Earth.
Thus, because there was a huge space of oceans that spanned three-fifths between
Europe and Asia, he theorized the existence of regions in the huge area of water.
Some people state that he was the first to have an idea of the continent of America
before Columbus arrived in 15th hundred.

The truth is that Al-Biruni was born in 973, and he wrote his book called Codex
Masudicus in 1037 AD. A captain named Leif Erikson sailed around Greenland
and landed in a strange land he named Vinland around 1000 AD or a couple of
years earlier. Vinland is today known as North America. Notice that Al-Biruni
was a maximum of 27 years old when Leif discovered America, and possibly as
young as 20 years old, depending on when Leif sailed around North America. Leif
died in 1003 AD.

Another important point is that Christoffer Columbus presumably never got


the idea to sail to the west because of Al-Biruni. The reason why he took sail
to the west was as a result of Muslims performing Jihad in Constantinople in
1453, and had blocked the passage to India, thus he wanted to find a shortcut
to India by accepting the idea of a spherical Earth. Regardless if Al-Biruni
proposed it or not, the Norseman sat foot in America before he wrote his book.
It is a good achievement that he calculated that Euroasia spanned two-fifth of
the circumference, by relying on the research from the Indians, but it is not true

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that he was the first one to think of America. It is worth noting that he only said
that there are supposed regions that exist beyond the known remaining regions
of the world. He only thought of the possibility of regions, he didn't confirm the
existence of such landmass or any other landmasses or shapes.

The arabs made the biggest library in Baghdad


250 BC: Library of Alexandria - 400.000 to 700.000 papyrus scrolls.
400 AD: Imperial Library of Constantinople - 120.000 volumes.
1258 AD: Baghdad Library - 400.000 manuscripts saved.
2019 AD: Library of Congress in USA - 168 million items, which includes:
• 38 million books
• 3 million recordings
• 13 million photographs
• 5 million maps
• 8 million sheet of music
• 72 million manuscripts
• and other times..

Below is a comparison between the libraries. The Library of Congress includes the
books and manuscripts, which is a total of 110 million.
Some people state that the library of Baghdad was larger than most libraries
today. As per 2019, the 22nd largest library has a total of 15 million items, which
is 30 times bigger than Baghdad Library in 1258 AD. What is true is that possibly
around 99% of all libraries in the world do not compete to be the biggest in the
world, their mission is only to have an appropriate size to fulfill the need of their
local cities. It is mostly the libraries of the capitals in the world that do compete
with each other, and possibly all libraries in all capitals in today's world are larger
than the library of Baghdad.

From 120.000 volumes in the 5th century AD to 400.000 volumes in the 13th
century AD is a step, but not a miraculous step. They managed to build a library
that had 280.000 more books than the previous library in a span of 800 years.
Comparing it to 800 years later from 1258 AD to 21th century today, the largest
library, which is in Washington, consists of 120.000.000 books and manuscripts

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combined. Baghdad jumped about 3,3 times larger than the previous in 800 years,
Washington jumped 300 times larger than the previous in 800 years.

Another excuse is that today’s population is 7,7 billion people compared to only
about 350 million in 1250 AD. A comparison of books per world capita can be
achieved:

• Medieval Islam: (400.000/350.000.000)*100 = 0,11% books per world capita


• Modern West: (120.000.000.000/7.700.000.000)*100 = 1,54% books per world
capita.

This means that the Library of Congress has 14 times more books per world capita
than the muslims did in Baghdad - and this doesn't include the other 58 million
items. Another factor to remember is that the library of Baghdad did not only
contain arabic books, but books from other civilizations too:

• Earlier civilizations manuscripts


• The translated version of earlier civilizations manuscripts
• And the Arabs own work

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The Baghdad Library must've contained books from earlier civilizations in their
own languages (greek, roman, hindu, chinese, spanish, persian). How many books
were actual the works of the muslims is unknown. Another aspect that has not
been covered is that the secret of making paper was obtained from the Chinese
prisoners of war in the 8th century. Paper is much cheaper than papyrus, vellum
and parchment, therefore the muslims could make manuscripts at relativively
affordable costs compared to earlier civilizations.

The arabs invented the surgical instruments


Some people claim that the muslims in medieval times invented surgical
instruments. This is not true. It was invented by the Indians thousands of years
before, but the most famous indian was Suchruta (600 BC), recognized as the
Father of Medicine and the Father of Plastic Surgery. In the next page, it is
illustrated and explained what he had accomplished about 1500 years before
medieval Islam. Notice how similar Ibn al-Haytham’s surgical instruments
are compared to Sushruta, many of them are the exact same with very small
deviations. Notice that not all of Suchruta’s surgical instruments are listed in the
sketches.

Another misconeption is that the muslims invented hollow needles for


treating cataracts. Sushruta made the earliest reference to cataract surgery, and
furthermore archaeologists have found surgical instruments in Rome, used to
treat cataract dating back to the 1st and 2nd century AD.

The arabs were the first to describe diabetes


Some people claim that Abd al-Latif al-Baghdadi (1152-1231 AD) was the first
person to describe diabetes in his medical text called Fi l-marad alladhi yusamma
diyabita. This is not true. The Egyptians first mentioned diabetes 1 around 1000
BC. In ancient India, they discovered that ants could be used to test the urine
for diabetes. Around 300 BC, Apollonius of Memphis made the first reference
to the word "diabetes". The greeks also were able to distinguish between diabetes
mellitus and diabetes insipidus. The people in India and China in 500 AD knew
that there is a difference between diabetes 1 and diabetes 2.

The arabs drew the eye nerves in the brain

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Ibn al-Haytham's drawing of the eyes with the optic nerves was certainly not the
first person to discover and understand it. Hippocrates (460–370 BC), Herophilus
(330–260 BC), Erasistratus (330–255 BC), Rufus of Ephesus (80–150 AD), and
Galenus of Pergamon (129 - 200/216 AD), all were aware of the optic chiasm,
and optic nerves. Rufus also described the retina, cornea, iris, uvea, tear ducts,
eyelids, and the vitreous and aqueous humors. It is worth mentioning that it is not
difficult to draw and describe the anatomy of the optic chiasm.

The arabs were the first to describe the blood


circulation
It is generally though that Ibn Nafis (1213-1288 AD) was the first person who
discovered pulmonary blood circulation. This is however not true since it was first
described by the Chinese in different accounts. The first one being Guanzi, dated
to 375 BC, which says:

“Water is the blood and breath of Earth, functioning in similar fashion to


circulation of blood and breath in the sinews (muscles) and veins (vessels)" –
Meridian Misconceptions of Chinese Medicine by Donald E. Kendall (2008), pp.
1

In Mawangdui China, additional texts were recovered in 1973 (from 168 BC)
from a tomb, which provides detailed information about the Chinese blood vessel
theory. Another text includes the Zhangjiashan Han bamboo texts which were
discovered at Zhangjiashan, and are dated back to 150 BC. The are the first texts
to provide the universal model of pathology based on the blood vessel theory.

Yellow Emperor’s Internal Classic, also called Huangdi Neijing or simply Nei Jing
(Chinese Book of Medicine) is a chinese medical text dated to be around 200-100
BC, which is 1600 years before Ibn Nafis. It is the first comprehensive chinese
medical text. For example it provides a full description of 12 longitudinal blood
vessels either supplying (arterial) or draining (venous) each side of the body.

For further study, read Meridian Misconceptions of Chinese Medicine by Donald


E. Kendall (2008).

The arabs discovered coffee

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There is a story of an Abyssinian goat herder and Ethiopian man named Kaldi
from the 9th century, who noticed that his goats got excited after eating the beans
from a coffee plant. His wife then urged him to share the story with the holy man
at the monastery. The dilemma with this story is that it appears nowhere until
the year of 1671, thus it may probably be apocryphal, meaning it is a work of
unknown authorship or of doubtful origin. Another problem is that Abyssinians
were predominantly Orthodox Christians, and according to the Quran,
monasteries are also forbidden:

"Then We sent following their footsteps Our messengers and followed [them] with
Jesus, the son of Mary, and gave him the Gospel. And We placed in the hearts of
those who followed him compassion and mercy and monasticism, which they
innovated; We did not prescribe it for them except [that they did so] seeking the
approval of Allah . But they did not observe it with due observance. So We gave
the ones who believed among them their reward, but many of them are defiantly
disobedient." - Quran 57:27

The word coffee is believed to originate from different places, which one of it
from the Kaffa region of Ethiopia. The first person to mention coffee in print
was Rhazes (865-925 AD), and then Avicenna (980-1037 AD) also mentioned
it about one century later. However the earliest evidence of coffee being roasted
and brewed as they are today is from the mid 15th century. Except for those
misleading claims, it would be correct that coffee originates from the Arabian
peninsula, if the story of Khalid is apocryphal. A good question would be, which
is more important: coffee beans from Arabia to produce coffee, or cacao beans
from America to make chocolate?

For further study about the origin of coffee, read Uncommon Grounds: The History
of Coffee and How It Transformed Our World by Mark Pendergrast (2019), and All
About Coffee by William H. Ukers (2011).

The arabs invented the toothbrush


Some people claim that the Muhammad, invented the first toothbrush by using a
twig from the Miswak tree, and therefore the they invented the first toothbrush.
This is not correct. The ancient civilizations dated all the way back to 3000 BC
used a chew stick, which was a thin twig with a frayed end. Ancient China also
used toothbrushes made of bronze, bones or wood are dated back to 2000 BC.
Furthermore the modern bristle toothbrush was invented in China in 1498 AD.

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The arabs invented paper money
This is not correct. Paper money was invented in China in the end of the 8th
century or 9th century AD.

The arabs invented the modern cheque


This is not correct. The Ancient Rome is believed to be the first to use cheques,
which were called praescriptiones. Banks in the Sassanid Empire issued letters of
credit known as chakks during the 3rd century AD. The modern word cheque is
derived from chakk, saqq or sakk.

The arabs invented the clock


This is not true. The first mechanical clock was invented by Yi Xing of China in
725 AD. Even the weight-driven clock, which is a water clock driven by gears
and weights does not originate from 11th century medieval Islam. It was already
invented by Ctesibius's (285–222 BC), in which it consisted of gears and weights
and was named clepsydra. Clepsydra was the most accurate clock ever constructed
until Christiaan Huygens' invention of his pendulum clock in 1656 AD. Pacificus
of Verona (776-844 AD) also invented a water clock. Gerbert of Aurillac (946-
1003 AD) invented a weight-driven mechanical pendulum clock in 996 AD.

The arabs modified the water-clock (weight-driven clock) and much of the
invention of the mercury clock was influenced by medieval Islam. One of the
features in their water clock by medieval Islam is the mechanical bird singing,
but this already invented by Heron of Alexandria 1000 years before. However
today the clocks works entirely different, and the most accurate clock today is the
atomic clock, invented in 1949 AD, which measures time using the microwave
signal emitted by electrons in atoms when they change energy levels. It has only
an error of 1 second during a span of 100 million years.

They discovered sulfuric acid and nitric acid


It is true that Jabir ibn Hayyan is credited for discovering sulfuric acid, and
Muhammad ibn Zakariya al-Razi first mentioned nitric acid. But this is not the
same as saying they discovered modern chemistry, they only separated them

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with the help of distillation, a technique known thousands of years before. The
question is, did they determine the chemical structure via NMR, IR or MS
spectroscopy? Could they used the field of organic chemistry to synthesize them
from scratch? Organic chemistry is the discipline of knowing how chemicals
react with each other to produce another chemical - without even doing the
experiment. This is modern chemistry which has lead to a database of 150.000.000
chemicals in the chemistry database. The truth is that they only separated the
chemicals through distillation.

They invented geometry


The muslims in medieval Islam absolutely did not invented geomtry. Geometry
was invented and developed before medieval Islam:

• The earliest recorded beginnings of geometry can be traced back to the


ancient indians, and ancient Babylonia.
• The Egyptians had derived formulars for the volume of a frustum of a square
pyramid, triangle, rectangles. It was also discovered in the Ahmes papyrus
that they had a formula for the area of a circle
• The Babylonians had developed many different concepts in geometry, and
many different formulas and rules for measuring volumes and areas. They also
calculated pi to 3,125 (compared to 3,1415). Even the Pythagorean theorem
was known to them before Pythagoras was born about 1000 years after. The
Babylonian astronomers calculated the motion of the planets, and the solar
and lunar eclipses with geometry. They also method for estimated the area
under a curve by drawing a trapezoid underneath.
• The Vedic India had developed different concepts in geometry.
• The Ancient Greece developed geometry in very large detail. Euclid
wrote the book The Elements of Geometry. Archimedes developed
mathematical concepts similar to the limiting process of integral calculus,
and the coordinate systems of analytic geometry. Hipparchus introduced
trigonometry. Theodosius of Bithynia is probably the first known person
to study shperical geometry, in his about the geometry of the sphere, called
Sphaerics. Menelaus of Alexandria also wrote a book called Sphaerica about
on spherical trigonometry, introduced the concept of spherical triangle, and
developed also the Menelaus' theorem.
• The Classical India also developed many geometry problems, including
in the Bakhshali manuscript. In the work Brāhma Sphuta Siddhānta by
Brahmagupta, it includes cube roots, fractions, ratio and proportion, and

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barter, mixture, mathematical series, plane figures, stacking bricks, sawing of
timber, and piling of grain. It also includes the theorem on the diagonals of a
cyclic quadrilateral
• The Ancient Chinese advanced geometry in much greater detail. One of
the greatest books on geometry from the time is The Nine Chapters on
the Mathematical Art, edited and commented by Liu Hui about 250 AD.
It includes area for: square, rectangle, circle, isosceles triangle, rhomboid,
trapezoid, double trapezium, segment of a circle, and annulus ('ring' between
two concentric circles). Furthermore it includes volume for parallelepiped
with two square surfaces, parallelepiped with no square surfaces, Pyramid,
Frustum of pyramid with square base, frustum of pyramid with rectangular
base of unequal sides, cube, prism, wedge with rectangular base and both
sides sloping, wedge with trapezoid base and both sides sloping, tetrahedral
wedge, frustum of a wedge of the second type (used for applications in
engineering), cylinder, cone with circular base, frustum of a cone, and the
sphere. He was also the first to mention the Sea Island survey diagram, a
geomtry problem.

Although this is not the complete list, it can be seen that geometry was not
invented by medieval Islam.

The geometry of Medieval Islam


Al-Mahani, Thābit ibn Qurra, Ibrahim ibn Sinan, Abu'l-Wafa, Abu Nasr
Mansur and Al-Jayyani all made contributions to geometry, but many of their
development of geometry was based on previous civilizations. They developed law
of sinus based on sinus that was already invented by the Egyptians, Greeks and
Indians. Al-Jayyani wrote the book The book of unknown arcs of a sphere, which
is considered the first treatise on spherical trigonometry, althought Theodosius of
Bithynia and Menelaus of Alexandria introduced this concept about 1000 years
before.

Conclusion
Geometry was not invented by medieval Islam. They developed it further, but
many, if not all, of the geometry was based on earlier civilizations.

The arabs invented the flying machine


This is a very misleading statement claiming that Abbas ibn Firnas made the first
flying machine and the first successful flight. The only evidence that exists that

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supports this claim is the poem:

"He surpassed in velocity the flight of the ostrich, but he neglected to arm his
body with the strength of the vulture. "- Mu'min ibn Said, 886 AD

The Algerian historian Ahmed Mohammed al-Maqqari (d. 1632) wrote 700 years
later:

"Among other very curious experiments which he made, one is his trying to fly.
He covered himself with feathers for the purpose, attached a couple of wings to
his body, and, getting on an eminence, flung himself down into the air, when
according to the testimony of several trustworthy writers who witnessed the
performance, he flew a considerable distance, as if he had been a bird, but, in
alighting again on the place whence he had started, his back was very much hurt,
for not knowing that birds when they alight come down upon their tails, he forgot
to provide himself with one." - Ahmed Mohammed al-Maqqari, 1632 AD

The authenticity of the written text above cannot be determined since there are no
other evidence to support his claims.

Difference between a flying machine and a hang glider


A flying machine is an apparatus that uses mechanical power, and which consist
of several different parts, each one of them performing a different function. Abbas
ibn Firnas made a hang glider, and not a flying machine. The other statement
is that it was a successful flight. Clearly his hang gliding was not successful
since attaching wings, falling down, and breaking bones, is anything else than
successful. The most important part of the plane is lift, drag and thrust.

Earlier flights than Abbas ibn Firnas


The Chinese Emperor Wang Mang recruited in 100 BC a soldier to be bound
with bird feathers, who had two giant wings strapped to his back and covered
with bird feathers all over his body. It is claimed he glided around 100 meters.
Another chinese emperor, Gao Yang, used prisoners in 559 AD as test people to
achieve flying. One of the prisoners named Yuan Huangtou is claimed to have
landed safely from a tower jump. Furthermore Kites have been invented by the
Chinese since around 400 BC. Archytas (428 - 347 BC) invented the first flying
machine, which has a shape of a bird, and is alleged to have flown 200 meters. He
nicknamed it ‘the pigeon’.

Leonardo da Vinci inspired

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Another claim is that the design of Leonardo da Vinci is based on Abbas ibn
Firnas. It was already stated before that the chinese made flights prior to the
muslims in medieval Islam, and by considering that the poem was maybe the only
piece of evidence of the flight, it is highly doubtful that his designs was based on
him. Furthermore, the dream of flying like a bird have existed since ancient times,
and it wouldn't require any leap of imagination to copy the wings of the bird.
Leonardo da Vinci also made designs of helicopters, and those designs are neither
based from the nature of birds nor Abbas ibn Firnas, or the first civilizations who
made the first flight, the chinese.

Another person Leonardo da Vinci might have got the idea of flying is from
a man in the 12th century England, William of Malmesbury, who stated that
between 1000-1010 AD, Benedictine monk Eilmer of Malmesbury attached wings
to his hands and feet and flew a short distance. There is no evidence to support
the theory that he got the inspiration from Abbas ibn Firna, rather he actually
received the inspiration when he was in his younger years where he read and
believed the Greek fable of Daedalus. Other people during the course of history
also got the idea from other greek mythologies, like Pegasus, but it has always
been clear that humans wanted to fly like birds since the earliest times.

Today's planes
The statement that the flight of Abbas ibn Firnas was the founding of flying,
is simply not true. Today's flying machines are based significantly in physics,
aerodynamics, mechanical engineering, chemical engineering and different
inventions. What ibn Firnas did was basically only making wings and crash
down, with no success or control. The planes, rockets and jets today are much
more advanced than meets the eye. For example there are ramjets and scramjets.
The aerodynamics of the wings and plane body, the electronic systems, how the
chemical fuel is converted to mechanical energy - nothing of it was known to
mankind in the medieval ages. In 1979 NASA improved the efficiency of fixed-
wing aircraft by reducing drag, with their new invention called winglet. In the
1970s NASA developed the supercritical airfoil, which lead to the invention of
supercritical wings (SCW), used by almost every plane on the planet.

Now there are other types of flying machines, and not just wing inspired from the
birds. This includes space shuttles, missiles, helicopters and air balloons. Scientists
around the world are researching in a technology called anti-gravitational
propulsion system, which is completely unrelated to wings and air.

Conclusion

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The chinese were the first people who made the first flights with wings before
Abbas ibn Firnas in the 9th century, and today's space shuttles, missiles, planes,
rockets and air balloons are much more advanced and works entirely different.

The arabs invented optics


Ancient Egypt, Greece and Babylon invented the earliest lenses which are dated
back to 750 BC. Unlike the ancient civilizations who used crystals like quartz to
make them, the muslims in the medieval age used glass instead.

Regarding Ibn Al- Haytham's book which is called The Book of Optics, translated
in english by A. I. Sabra (1989), it is clear that much of what has been written
down by him cannot be used for anything in science or engineering. One must
only compare the translated book above and those two following books:

• Physics of Light and Optics by Justin Peatross and Michael Ware (2015)
• Optics by M.P. Vaughan (2014)

There is a significantly huge difference between the modern optics and Ibn Al-
Haytham's book. It is clear that the difference of those two optics are the formulas
which are essential in optics, without them optics is not optics.

Earlier evidence in optics


The earliest reference for geometrical optics was from Euclid (325-265 BC). His
book Optics is a work on the geometry of vision. The difference between the
writers before him is that they developed theories of vision based on philosophical
in nature, while Euclid was the first to treat vision in a mathematical perspective,
and thus became a big influence of the larger Hellenistic trend to quantify a whole
range of scientific fields. His book includes the definitions:

1. The vision of focus can be drawn in a straight line to an object


2. The form of the space which our eyes look at is shaped in a cone
3. Those objects which are in the space of the cone can be seen, and those who
are not cannot be seen
4. Objects with smaller angles appear smaller, objects with larger angles appear
largers, and those with the same angles appear the same size, even though
they are at different distance and size
5. Those things within a higher range appear higher and vise versa
6. Right and left visual rays appear right and left

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7. Objects that are seen within several angles appear clearer

Euclid in his book Optics focused his analysis to simple direct vision, in which
he used geometry drawings. Hero of Alexandria (AD 10–70) further developed
geometrical optics to include catoptrics, which is the branch of optics that deals
with the problems of reflection. He formulated the principle of the shortest path
of light, one of the most important principles in the field of optics. With the
principle of the shortest path of light, Hero was able to define the fixed relation
between an object and its image in a plane mirror.

Ptolemy (100-170 AD) not only focused on direct and reflected vision, but
further developed the study into vision by refracted rays (dioptrics), that is the
observation of light from objects through two media of different density. This
includes air to water, air to glass, water to glass. He also tabulated the relationship
between the incident and refracted rays.

Ibn al-Haytham (Alhazan)


When Hero formulated the principle of the shortest path of light, Alhazan (1000
years later) extended it to both reflection and refraction.

The earliest recorded windmill design


The persians are credited with the earliest known panemone windmill design
between 700-900 AD. However they are not the first to ever create a windmill
design.

Hero of Alexandria (10-70 AD) invented a wind-wheel operating an organ, the


earliest known instance in history of wind powering a machine. Although it is not
a large scale windmill, the concept of the windmill predates medieval Islam.

The muslims invented robotics


Some people state that robotics was invented in medieval Islam. This is however
not true. Philo of Byzantium (280-220 BC) had nine known books which fell
under Philon's Mechanics. He invented the first automatic humanoid robot
called The Robot Servant of Philon. The earliest written proof for the existence
of a watermill is attributed to him as part of a washstand automaton, although
a earlier watermills are dated back to as early as 1500 BC in modern Cyprus.
The watermill later inspired the gristmill of Marcus Vitruvius Pollio (80-10

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BC), and the Roman Janiculum watermill complex at Rome and the Barbegal
watermill complex. Furthermore the earliest known escapement mechanism is
attributed to Philo. However the most important part of his treaties regarding
robotics - Automatiopoeica, didn't manage to survive to the present time for more
detailed description of his robotic inventions. One can only speculate if more of
the automatic mechanic inventions by the muslims in medieval Islam, could be
attributed to Philo.

Heron of Alexandria (10–70 AD) described over a hundred machines and


automata in his works Pneumatica and Automata. He invented what is called
the Heron’s Automatic Theatre, together with automatic doors. As written in
previous section, he also invented the earliest known instance in history of wind
powering a machine, a wind-wheel operating an organ. He also invented the
first automatic vending machine. The romans invented the Hierapolis sawmill,
which is considered to be the earliest known machine to incorporate a crank and
connecting rod mechanism, around 3rd century AD.

Another misconception is that Al-Jazari (1136-1206 AD) invented the


combination lock. This is however not true. The earlist known combination lock
discovered was in a Roman period tomb in Kerameikos, Athens. The Chinese also
invented the key-operated padlocks and letter-combination padlocks.

Plato (428-348 BC) invented the first alarm clock.

The muslims in medieval Islam were polymaths


People often mention that a person in medieval Islam, named X, was an
astronomer. mathematician, geologist, doctor, physicist, chemist and others. This
was however not unique in the medieval age or before that, because there wasn't
that much of a knowledge back than, neither in the ancient world, or in medieval
Islam. It was therefore relatively easy to have at least two to three professions, if
not more. Regardless of what, there were actually many people in ancient Greece
who had multiple professions and were polymaths.

Aristotle (384-322 BC) is considered to be the world's first polymath. He covered


subjects such as physics, biology, zoology, metaphysics, logic, ethics, aesthetics,
poetry, theater, music, rhetoric, linguistics, and politics.

Plato (429 BC) is another example who was a greek philosopher and polymath.

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He covered subjects in physics, biology, zoology, economics, metaphysics, logic,
ethics, music, poetry, theatre, rhetoric, aesthetics, psychology, linguistics, politics
and government.

Eratosthenes (276-194 BC) was also a polymath, including a mathematician,


geographer, poet, astronomer, and music theorist.

There are more examples from other civilizations, like Varāhamihira (500 AD),
who covered architecture, mathematics, temples, astronomy, timekeeping,
astrology, meteorology, agriculture, gemology, perfumes and others.

As it is easily demonstrated, being a polymath was a common nature before the


medieval Islam.

Architecture in medieval Islam


What we now call today as Islamic architecture, has actually its origin from
previous civilizations.

Horseshoe arch
A popular Islamic feature in architecture is the horseshoe arch, but this was
already being used by the Visigoths in Spain, and by the Byzantines in Syria and
Persia, who used it as early as the 5th century. They are known in the Baptistery
of Mar Ya'qub (St. Jacob) at Nisibin (4th century AD) and Qasr Ibn Wardan (564
AD)

Ogee arch or Tudor arch


The arch that resembles the arch used in the architecture of the mosques today
has been borrowed multiple places from the pre-Islamic era. The arch can be
found in Arg-e Bam, built around 500 BC in the city of Bam, Iran. Another place
where the arch already was built was in the Temple of Bel in Dura Europos, Syria.

There are two other sites where the arch could have been originated from, but
since they were rebuilt, it is not known if the arch was part of the original plan.
The first example is the Old Bridge of Dezful, built in the Sassanid dynasty (224-
651 AD) in the city of Dezful, Iran. The second example is Rayen Castle in
Kerman, Iran, where the arabs could not invade it during the reign of the Sasanid
King, Yazdgerd III (632-651 AD) due to the high walls.

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Square plan
The square plan of a building, in which the Kaaba is planned on, is borrowed from
the Persians.

Molding (art)
The glamorous moldings and pargetings, the protruded type of moldings, has
been borrowed from the Sassanid period (224-651 AD). An example is the art
of Taq-i Kisra in the city of Ctesiphon, which resembles the later molding in
medieval Islam's Fahraj Great mosque with tendril decorations. Furthermore the
art on the walls and pillars in Islamic mosques resembles the Sassanid molding.

The Islamic dome mosque


The Sarvestan Palace, built in the Sassanid period (224-651 AD), resembles the
modern mosque in great detail. This includes the dome, walls and pillars.

The islamic architecture as it is know today can also be much attributed to the
Hagia Sophia, a church of Constantinople built by the Byzantine empire in 537
AD. After the muslims conqured the region in 1453 AD, they turned it into a
mosque, but much of the interior remained the same.

The Gabri Dome (also called Jabalieh), is believed to be constructed before the
Islamic era due to having many of the 120 pieces of stone carvings being related
to different historical periods. It is located in Kerman, Iran, and has many of the
same characteristics as the Islamic mosque.

Another inspiration to the architecture of the mosques today comes from the
mausoleum called Dome of Soltaniyeh, built in the city of Soltaniyeh, Iran, by the
mongolian ruler Ilkhanate between 1302 and 1312 AD. Although he actually dit
convert to Islam.

The minaret
Minaret means tower, and the first known minaret appeared under the Abbasid
rule in 9th century.

However, they are not the first to come up with the design. Many different pottery
designs of watchtowers already was created under the Han dynasty (206 BC - 220
AD), and reminds a lot of the minaret, especially the square minaret. The chinese
also invented the pagoda tower between 5th-10th century. The oldest existent
stone pagoda in China is the Songyue Pagoda, constructed in 523 AD at the
Songyue Monastery on Mount Song, in Henan province, China. Another example

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is the Xumi Pagoda, built in the year 636 AD, located west of Zhengding, Hebei
province, China. An example of a circular pagoda is the Daqin Pagoda, built in
640 AD, located in Zhouzhi County of Xi'an, Shaanxi Province, China. Now the
pagoda that reminds the most of the Islamic minaret are the Three Pagodas, built
around 9th and 10th centuries, and are located near the old town of Dali, Yunnan
province, China.

The arabs invented the muslim carpet


Many people states that the carpet, which has that special characterization of the
Islamic pattern, was invented by the muslims medieval Islam. This is not true.
The earliest known carpet is the Pazyryk rug, dated back to 500 BC, and is very
similar to the Islamic carpet, was found in 1949 AD. The typical Roman home as
early as 200 BC had mosaic flooring, for example in the House of the Tragic Poet in
Pompeii, Italy, and is also similar to the muslim carpet.

Homosexuality in Medieval Islam


This is not something many people read about, but many Muslim men in
Medieval Islam actually had sexual act with boys or men, even high-ranking
officials, like rulers or generals. For example the famous classical Arabic poet,
Abu Nuwas (756-814 AD), who made a couple of appearances in The Book of
One Thousand and One Nights, had sexual relationship with teenage boys. The
Egyptian Ministry of Culture burned 6000 volumes of his poetry in the year 2001,
due to pressure from Islamic fundamentalists.

The three poets Muhammad bin Dawud al-Zahiri (868-909 AD), Ibn Hamdis
(1053-1133 AD), and Ibn Quzman (1080-1160 AD) all had sexual relationship
with men. Shaiykh Muhammad ibn Umar al-Nafwazi wrote the book The
Perfumed Garden (al-Rawd al-Atir fi Nuzhat al-Khatir) between 1410 and 1434,
which contains lovemaking manuals. Al-Jahiz (777-869 AD) also wrote the book
called The Book of Respective Merits of Maids and Young Men (Kitab Mafaharat
al-Jawari wa al-Ghilman), which also contains lovemaking manuals. The persian
poet, Sa’di of Shiraz (1184-1291 AD) also described his love of young men. Omar
Khayyam (1048-1131 AD) wrote Quartets (Ruba’iyyat) where he described the
tone for sexuality. The persian poet, Jalal al-Din Rumi (1207-1273 AD) writes
about his desires of a man named Shams al-Din Tabriz in his works. A male
caliphs of Cordaba made his wife dress as a boy and use the male name Djafar to
keep the sexual life going, and additionally he also kept a male harem.

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Of rulers there can be mentioned Sultan Mahmud (971-1030 AD) of Ghazni;
texts describes his relationship with his lover Malik Ayaz. Mughal Emperor Babur
(1483-1530 AD) wrote in his 16th century biography of his attraction to a boy in
the camp bazaar. The ruler of Damascus, Al-Malik al-Ashraf (1262-1293 AD) had
a strong love for his young Turkish soldiers, in which he describes:

“May I be the ransom for a full moon whom description is at a loss to encompass,
One who is liberal with my blood, despite being honest and trustworthy.
Should I marvel? He keeps my wealth safe,
But sees my soul destroyed by him and pays it no mind!”

As it is demonstrated, homosexuality was indeed normalized in Medieval Islam.

Islamic Golden Age consisted of arabs and muslims


who invented all of these inventions and discoveries
The caliphates Harun al-Rashid (763-809 AD) and his son Al-Ma’mun (786-833
AD) had a theocratic regime and were called the rulers of the faithful. However
they came to a state of secularism that indeed had a big impact. Al-Ma'mum
tolerated religious dissidence and even non-believers, and supported the Mu’tizili
sect who believed in rationality and the scientific method. Furthermore the
caliphs enjoyed drinking wine.

Ibn al-Muqaffa’, Muhammad al Warraq, Ibn al-Rawandi, and Ibn al-Rāwandī


were not muslims. The persian scientist Muhammad ibn Zakariya al-Razi, who
separated alcohol and developed some alembics in chemistry was not a muslim.
His statement about the Quran was:

“You claim that the evidentiary miracle is present and available, namely, the
Koran. You say: “Whoever denies it, let him produce a similar one.” Indeed,
we shall produce a thousand similar, from the works of rhetoricians, eloquent
speakers and valiant poets, which are more appropriately phrased and state the
issues more succinctly. They convey the meaning better and their rhymed prose
is in better meter. … By God what you say astonishes us! You are talking about
a work which recounts ancient myths, and which at the same time is full of
contradictions and does not contain any useful information or explanation.” -
Muhammad ibn Zakariya al-Razi

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Ibn al-Haytham (965-1040 AD) drew the optic chiasm. The problem is that the
teachings of Islam forbade the drawing of humans in both Sahih al-Bukhari and
Sahih Muslim.

"We were with Masruq at the house of Yasar bin Numair. Masruq saw pictures
on his terrace and said, "I heard `Abdullah saying that he heard the Prophet (‫)ﷺ‬
saying, "The people who will receive the severest punishment from Allah will be
the picture makers.'" - Sahih al-Bukhari 5950

"Verity the most grievously tormented people on the Day of Resurrection would
be the painters of pictures. Ashajj (one of the narrators) in the hadith narrated by
him did not make mention of the word" verity". - Sahih Muslim 2109 a

"The Prophet (‫ )ﷺ‬cursed the lady who practices tattooing and the one who
gets herself tattooed, and one who eats (takes) Riba' (usury) and the one who
gives it. And he prohibited taking the price of a dog, and the money earned by
prostitution, and cursed the makers of pictures." - Sahih al-Bukhari 5347

Al-Adli ar-Rumi (800–870) who was a renowned Arab chess player, wrote a chess
manual in Arabic which is dated to around 840-850 AD, titled Kitab ash-shatranj
(Book of Chess). The problem is that chess is not allowed in Islam:

"Buraida reported on the authority of his father that Allah's Apostle ‫ ﷺ‬said: He
who played Nardashir (a game similar to backgammon) is like one who dyed his
hand with the flesh and blood of swine." - Sahih Muslim, 5:5612

They also developed the lute from previous guitars, and yet music is not allowed
in Islam, according to the hadith below.

“Narrated Abu ‘Amir or Abu Malik Al-Ash’ari: that he heard the Prophet saying,
“From among my followers there will be some people who will consider illegal
sexual intercourse, the wearing of silk, the drinking of alcoholic drinks and the
use of musical instruments, as lawful. And there will be some people who will stay
near the side of a mountain and in the evening their shepherd will come to them
with their sheep and ask them for something, but they will say to him, ‘Return to
us tomorrow.’ Allah will destroy them during the night and will let the mountain
fall on them, and He will transform the rest of them into monkeys and pigs and
they will remain so till the Day of Resurrection.” - Sahih al-Bukhari 7:69:494v

Evolution was proposed by people in medieval Islam (although there were others

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who proposed it before). Al-Jahiz wrote:

"Animals engage in a struggle for existence, and for resources, to avoid being
eaten, and to breed. Environmental factors influence organisms to develop new
characteristics to ensure survival, thus transforming them into new species.
Animals that survive to breed can pass on their successful characteristics to their
offspring." - Al-Jahiz (776-868 AD)

But evolution is against Islam.

- THE REST OF THE CHAPTER HAS NOT BEEN CORRECTED

Muhammad ibn Zakariya ar-Razi (865–925)


"One important Arabic medical authority started his career as lute player:
Muhammad ibn Zakariya ar-Razi, born in Rajj, today’s Tehran. Only a little is
known about his life (e.g., he was in charge of hospitals in Baghdad and Rajj,
and was also a friend of the local emir al-Mansur ibn Ishaq). He left an extensive
legacy, however, in the form of specialized literature; ar-Razi was the greatest
clinician of the Arab world and has been well-known, especially in Europe, as
Rhazes. He dedicated one of his medical encyclopedias to his patron Mansur.
The Latin translation of its ninth chapter, which became very popular in Europe,
is Liber Nonus Almansurus. It contained cures that were grouped according to
individual diseases from head to toe, and was even available in some common
European languages. Another ar-Razi work that became very famous in Europe
dealt with measles and smallpox. This work was still being published even in the
eighteenth century in England." - https://www.reddit.com/r/exmuslim/comments/
f6n829/ive_seen_somewhere_that_many_muslim_poets_and/

Ibn al-Haytham (AD 965–?)


"In Basra, a person called Ibn al-Haytham was born who would later become
known in Europe as Alhazen. He began his career as a civil service worker but
switched careers and started carrying out scientific studies in Baghdad and Persia.
One day, al-Haytham caught the attention of the counter-caliph in Cairo. When
he mentioned that it was possible to dam up the Nile River and provide irrigation
for the fields all year around, he was called to Egypt and assigned to the project.
With a large team and a lot of devices at his disposal, he went up the Nile River
in order to start the project, but when he saw all the impressive old Egyptian
buildings along the Nile River, he began having doubts about the whole idea. If
not even those people who were capable of creating such buildings were able to
build a dam, how could someone like him succeed? Nevertheless, he kept on and

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found a suitable spot in Aswan, at the site of today’s Aswan Dam. But soon he
would realize that this project couldn’t be carried out."

For further study, read Freethinkers of Medieval Islam: Ibn Al-Rāwandī, Abū Bakr
Al-Rāzī, and Their Impact on Islamic Thought (2016) by Sarah Stroumsa.

Scientists were called Kafirs and books were burned


down

The peak of Islam was during the Islamic Golden age, which was roughly between
the 8th and 14th century, everything went downhill from there. But even then, the
scientists and philosophers of that time who often had controversial viewpoints
and ideas that opposed to what Islam stood for, they were persecuted, deemed
as heretics and some of them were convicted of treason and sentenced to death,
or worse tortured to death. While others chose to live their lives in seclusion and
kept to themselves.

You can find out about the heinous crimes and how the Islamic Golden age
philosophers, scientists, poets, mathematicians, chemists, and doctors such as
Alrazi, Alfarabi, Ibn Alhaytham, Ibn Rushed, Bashar ibn Burd, Mansur Alhallaj,
Ibn Almuqaffa, Ibn Alkhatib, Alkindi, were persecuted, tortured and even killed
in heinous ways in Islamic history books such as Al-Bidaya wa'l-Nihaya by Ibn
Kathir, Munqidh min aldalal by Abu Hamid Alghazali, Almontathim by Ibn
Aljawzi, Dara' altaearud by Ibn Taymiyyah, and Lisan Almizan by Ibn Hajar
Alasqalani. There are more but those are just a few examples you could check out
for yourself.

Many scientists in that age were called Kafirs. Prominent mainstream figures
were like Abu-Hanifa and most of the head of Mu’tazila school were called Kafirs
and Shi’is were commonly called Kafirs. The worst offenders are the Ahlu-Al-
Hadith or Hanbalis (the modern day salafis), who had a the most literalist reading
of scripture and whore vehemently opposed to Greek influences (Anti logic,
philosophy and astronomy). The famous Sunni exegete and historian Al-Tabari
(mainstream Sunni) was besieged by the Hanbali mob and his house was stoned.
The presence of a large force from the Baghdad police prevented them from
reaching him. He died under siege in six months (320H). Most philosophers were
called heretics by the Ahlu-Al-Hadith: Al-Kind, Ibn-Rushd, Ibn-Sina, etc.

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• The burning of the books of Ibn Masarra.
• The burning of the books of Ibn Hazm.
• The burning of the books of Al-Ghazali in 500H by Ibn Tashfeen..
• The burning of the library of Ray in 384H by Al Ghaznawi.
• Around 981 AD in Spain, Al-Mansur burned down the library of Al-Hakam II
(Caliph of Cordoba) which contained books on “ancient science”
• Around 214 years later in 1195 AD, Muslims publicly burned the works of
Ibn Rushd (aka Averroes), banned his teachings, and banished him from
Cordoba, Spain

Scientists and philosophers, when presenting ideas that opposed Islam, were
persecuted, deemed as heretics and some of them were convicted of treason and
sentenced to death. Other scientists choose to live in seclusion and keep their it to
themselves

Stealing Christian children


Not only did they force non-muslims to pay the tax called jiza which they were
then called as dhimmis, they also stole Christian children, raised them up and
used them as a frontline attack in conquring, and even as animials in frontline
defense. The Islamic golden age was anything than than harmony.

Reasons the Islamic empire rose


• The roman and persian empire were exchausted after fighting each other, and
the arabs took the chance to attack there. Had it not been for that, Islam would
probably have not existed today
• As mentioned before, they stole non-muslim children and used them for
battle
• They had the stirrup for horses which gave them a huge benefits, beheading
people from their horses with the sword

Non-muslims are only presented about inventions and discoveries, and never
really taught about what happened regarding the conquests. John J. O'Neill wrote

"..the muslim conquest of Spain produced, instead of a Golden Age of science and
learning, a bloodbath and an interminable war of attrition"
- from the book Holy Warriors by John J. O'Neill (2009) pp. 116

235
Al-Khwarizmi invented Algebra and Algorithms.
George Boole proposed the Boolean algebra, the basis for digital logic

Los Alamos NL: They created computational algorithms with Monte Carlo method.

In 1637, René Descartes published La Géométrie, inventing analytic geometry


and introducing modern algebraic notation. Another key event in the further
development of algebra was the general algebraic solution of the cubic and quartic
equations, developed in the mid-16th century.

236
237
Chapter 6: Discoveries and inventions of
the modern world
Introduction
This chapter is about the inventions and discoveries of the modern would where
Islam did not had much influence on. This is an important chapter to give an
overview of what the West and East have discovered and invented from 1600 to
2019, which is called the Golden Age of the West and East. We are in the middle
of the greatest Golden Age of the entire human race, thousands of times more
advanced than the Golden Age of Islam or any other. Most people don't even
know half of these discoveries and inventions, not to talk about how they work
Remember that global scientific output doubles every nine years.

The list
The list does not include all inventions and certainly only a minor part of a
scientific discoveries. If one includes all scientific discoveries, it definitely would
reach at least 5000-10.000 pages, if not much more than that. For this reason only
major ones are listed.

Year Inventions Discoveries


1600 William Gilbert invents the first electrical measuring instrument
(the electroscope)
William Gilbert publishes De Magnete which describes how Earth behaves
like a giant magnet. This is the beginning of magnetism.
Shakspeare writes one of the greatest plays, Hamlet

1601
1602 Verenigde Oostindische Compagnie invented the first stock
market.
Galileo Galilei described isochronism
Vincenzio Cascarido discovers barium sulfide

1603 Federico Cesi founds the oldest scientific academy, Accademia


dei Lincei
Johann Bayer developed the modern system for naming stars.
Girolamo Fabrici discovered the valves in veins

1604 Huntingdon Beaumont builds the first railway, Wollaton


Wagonway
Johannes Kepler developes the law of rectilinear propagation for light
waves.
Italy observes the first supernova which becames known as Kepler's
Supernova (SN 1604)
Luca Valerio developes the method for determining the center of gravity
of solids

1605 Sir Francis Bacon devised Bacon's cipher


Sir Francis Bacon discovered the phenomenon of mechanoluminescence
from scratching sugar with a knife.

1606 Johannes Trithemius wrote the cryptographic text


Steganographia.
Willem Janszoon makes the first confirmed sighting of Australia
Giovanni Antonio Magini devises trigonometric tables with a high
Galileo Galilei invents a thermometer based on the expansion accuracy.
of gas.
Chinese military first uses the bayonet

1607 Frenchmen invented the howitzers Johannes Kepler observes and records the appearance and motion of a
comet which later became known as Comet Halley.

1608 Marin le Bourgeoys invents the flintlock muzzleloader


King James & Lord Sheffield invents the manufacture of alum.
Hans Lippershey invents the first refracting telescope.

1609 Johann Carolus published the first newspaper


Cornelius Drebbel invented the thermostat
Johannes Kepler discovers the first two laws of planetary motion
Galileo Galilei builds a telescope and makes new astronomical discoveries.

239
1610 German silversmith invented tinsel, who used real silver for the
metal strands
Galileo Galilei discovered that the moon is not a perfect sphere but has
craters.
Poland created bagels and gave them as gifts to women after Galileo Galilei discovered the moons of Jupiter.
childbirth Nicolas de Peirecs discovered orion nebula
Thomas Harriot became the first to view sunspots through a telescope
Jean Beguin publishes Tyrocinium Chymicum, the first book of chemistry
lectures in the world

1611 France finishes the building of Cordouan lighthouse on the


Gironde estuary, the first wave-swept light.
Johannes Kepler produces Kepler's conjecture on sphere packing.

1612 Claude-Gaspar de Meziriac invented the first maths for fun


puzzles book
Simon Marius gives the first description of the Andromeda Galaxy based
on observations by telescope
Marin de Bourgeoys invented flintlock musket Santorio Sanctorius is the first to ue the thermometer into the medical
field.

1613 England opens The New River (engineered by Sir Hugh


Myddelton), supplying London with drinking water from
Galileo Galilei published the Letters on Sunspots which is the first major
work on the topic.
Hertfordshire.

1614 Antonio Zara invented the index for books John Napier invented the logarithms for calculation and incorporation of
decimal mark
Santorio Santorio became the first person to study metabolism which leads
to carbondioxid

1615 Salomon de Caus invented the first known solar activated device,
a water pumping machine
Jean Beguin discoveres the first-ever chemical equation in his chemistry
textbook Tyrocinium Chymicum

1616 Giuliano Bossi invented a double-barreled gun. Fortunio Liceti is the first person to begin the field which studies the
malformations of the embryo.
Robert Bylot and William Baffin make a detailed exploration of Baffin
Bay, they discover Smith Sound, Lancaster Sound and Devon Island, and
furthermore also reach latitude 77° 45' North which became the world
record for 236 years.

1617 John Napier invented the Napier’s Boneswhich is a multiplication


device
Johannes Kepler is the first person to set out the theory of elliptic orbits in
his published book Epitome astronomiæ Copernicanæ

1618 Scotland invented the featherie ball, a precursor to a golf ball Johannes Kepler formulates the third law of planetary motion.
Johann Baptist Cysat becomes the first person to study a comet through the
telescope and gives the first description of the nucleus and coma of a comet.
Fortunio Liceti first to support the theory of spontaneous generation of
organisms.

1619 Sir Basil Brooke first produces steel using a reverberatory


furnace
Johannes Kepler publishes his book where he finds out that planets path
were ovals or elipses and not circles
Fabriccio Bartoletti discoveres lactose
Dermod O'Meara's first publishes the text on genetic disorders, De
Moribus: Pathologia Haereditaria Generalis

1620 Cornelius Drebbel invented the first compound microscopes


made of two converging lenses
Francis Bacon proposes Baconian method, a forerunner of the scientific
method
Cornelis Drebbel builded the first navigable submarine Francis Bacon studies candle flames which lead to a better understanding
of combustion
Francis Bacon is the first to notice the jigsaw fit of the opposite shores of
the Atlantic Ocean.

1621 Cornelius Drebbel presents a compound microscope with a


convex objective and a convex eyepiece, called a "Keplerian"
Willebrord Snellius is the first to formulate Snell's law on refraction.

microscope.
America celebrates the first Thanksgiving Day

1622 Dud Dudley recieves a patent for the process for smelting iron
ore with coke.
William Oughtred invented the first slide rule
Gaspare Aselli is the first to discover the lacteal vessels of the lymphatic
system

1623 Wilhelm Schickard invented a calculating machine called


Speeding Clock or Calculating Clock
Jacques Ferrand is the first to mention erotomania in a psychiatric treaty

1624 Cornelis Drebbel makes discoveries regarding gases.


Adriaan van den Spiegel gives the first comprehensive description of
malaria.

1625 Jean-Baptiste Denys invented a method for blood transfusion. Johann Rudolf Glauber discovers sodium sulfate (sal mirabilis or
"Glauber's salt", which is used as a laxative)
Johann Baptista van Helmont gives the first description of hydrogen and is
the first to use the word "gas".

1626 Adriaan van den Spiegel's work De formato feotu is published which
includes the first observation of milk in female breasts at birth.

1627

240
1628 William Harvey is the first to come with the correct description of
circulation of the blood in his De Motu Cordis

1629 Giovanni Branca invented a steam turbine.

1630 Cornelius Drebbel is the first to produce an early form of magic


lantern or slide projector.
Pierre de Fermat is the first to study the curve which was later known as the
"Witch of Agnesi".
Francesco Stelluti publishes Persio tradotto in verso schiolto e dichiarato,
which is the first book to contain images of organisms viewed through the
microscope.

1631 Hieronymus de Zentis made the earliest known bentside spinet William Oughtred is the first to devise the "x" symbol for multiplication
and the abbreviations "sin" and "cos" for the sine and cosine functions
Thomas Harriot is the first to devise the symbols for "is less than" and "is
greater than", along with other innovations

1632 Leiden University builded the world's first official observatory.

1633 Giovanni Baptista Ferrari is the first to pioneer the field of floriculture.
Fabrizio Bartoletti makes the first, crude, isolation of lactose

1634 Gilles de Roberval is the first to show that the area under a cycloid is three
times the area of its generating circle.
Louise Bourgeois Boursier is the first to propose the podalic version
technique in the first of obstetrics

1635
1636 William Gascoigne invented the micrometer. Pierre de Fermat discovered the field of analytic geometry, adequality and
the Fermat numbers.
Marin Mersenne is the first to devise Mersenne's laws which describs the
frequency of oscillation of a stretched string.

1637 Galileo Galilei invented the Galileo's escapement


England is the first to use proof-marks on firearms
René Descartes is the first to introduce the Cartesian coordinate system.
Pierre de Fermat conjectures Fermat's Last Theorem.

1638 Galileo Galilei devises the laws of falling body (motion of objects)
Galileo Galilei is the first to come with the field of strength of materials

1639 Jeremiah Horrocks and William Crabtree are the first and only scientific
observers of a transit of Venus, which was predicted by Horrocks.
Girard Desargues is the first to introduce the concept of infinity into
geometry.
Giovanni Battista Zupi is the first to observe that the planet Mercury has
orbital phases.

1640 France invented a form of bayonet


Robert Hooke invented the reticle telescope which initiated the
Blaise Pascal is the first to demonstrate the properties of the hexagrammum
mysticum
birth of sharpshooting. Pierre de Fermat states his "Little Theorem"

1641 Italy invented the the sealed thermometer Samuel Winslow is granted the first patent for a new saltmaking process.

1642 Blaise Pascal starts to build the Pascaline which is the first
practical mechanical calculator intended to help with the
recording of taxes
Ludwig von Siegen invented mezzotint engraving

1643 Evangelista Torricelli invented the mercury barometer

1644 Pietro Mengoli proposes The Basel problem which puzzled mathematicians
until it was solved by Leonhard Euler in 1735.

1645 Giacomo Torelli invented the revovling stage Michael Florent van Langren is the first to publish a map of the Moon.
Daniel Whistler presented the first printed pediatric text on rickets

1646 Blaise Pascal developed Pascal's Law (Pascal's principle of hydrostatics)

1647 France's military is the first to use the bayonet Johannes Hevelius is the first to publish the first comparatively detailed
map of the Moon

1648 Zaya Pandita developed clear script which was used by the
Torgut Mongols of Sinkiang
Jan Baptista van Helmont is the first to discover that air has different gases,
including carbon dioxide and nitrix oxide.
Jean Laurent Palmer developed the first micrometer Johannes Hevelius discovered the longitudinal libration of the Moon.
Semyon Dezhnyov is the first recorded person to voyage through the
Bering Strait.
Florin Périer is the first to demonstrate that atmospheric pressure varies
with height
Mercurius van Helmont create an early version of the law of conservation
of mass.

1649 Johann Schröder publishes two different methods for the


production of elemental Arsenic.

241
1650 Otto von Guericke invented the first vacuum pump Giambattista Riccioli discoveres the first binary star named Mizar

1651 William Harvey is the first to describe organ formation in the developing
embryo in De Generatione.

1652 Thomas Bartholin is the first to discover the lymphatic system and also
determined its relation to the circulatory system.

1653 Blaise Pascal is the first to describe a convenient tabular presentation for
binomial coefficients which is now called Pascal's triangle.
Blaise Pascal explains his law of pressure in Treatise on the Equilibrium
of Liquids

1654 Otto von Guericke is the first ever person to demonstrate the strenght of
vacuum with the magdeburg hemispheres
Blaise Pascal corresponds with Pierre de Fermat on gambling problems,
which created the field of the theory of probability.
William Petty is the first to carry out the first large scale attempt at a
scientific survey.

1655 Christiaan Huygens discovered Titan, Saturn's largest moon

1656 Christiaan Huygens invented Pendulum clock Christiaan Huygens discovered that the planetary rings of Saturn consist
of rocks.

1657 Walter Rumsey invented the provang, a baleen instrument


Robert Hooke invented the anchor escapement for clocks
Christiaan Huygens is the first to publish a book on probability theory.
Pierre de Fermat stated the 'least time' principle which states that a light ray
follows the path to its destination in the shortest possible time.

1658 Jan Swammerdam is the first to discover red blood cells


Christopher Wren gives the first published proof of the lenght of the arc
of a cycloid.

1659 Christiaan Huygens is the first to discover the rotation of Mars


Christiaan Huygens derives the formula for centripedal force.
Stefano degli Angeli is the first to use the term Abscissa

1660 Germany invented the cuckoo clocks in the Black Forest region.
England banks invented the Cheque Book
Robert Hooke proposed Hooke's Law, an equation describing elasticity

England developed thoroughbred horse racing

1661 Melchisédech Thévenot invented the spirit level Marcello Malpighi discovered capillaries
John Evelyn makes a pamphlet called Fumifugium which includes the
earliest descriptions of air pollution.
Robert Boyle invented the modern chemistry by separating chemistry as
corpucles, from alchemy, as qualities, and gave the first precise definitions
of a chemical element, a chemical reaction, chemical analysis. He also made
studies of acids and bases. Only after this event scientists abandoned the
notion of ancient times that matter was compounded of fire, earth, air and
water.

1662 Blaise Pascal launches the first City Bus Service Robert Boyle devised the Boyle's Law of ideal gas.
Robert Boyle determined that sound doesn't travel in a vacuum.
John Graunt invented life tables which are now used by life insurance.

1663 Otto von Guericke invented the friction machine


James Gregory invented the first reflecting telescope
Girolamo Cardano publishes the first book about games of chance

Germany made the world's first magazine (Erbauliche Monaths


Unterredungen).

1664 Robert Hooke is the first to discover Jupiter's Great Red Spot.
Thomas Willis is the first to identify the corpus striatum, now called the
basal ganglia that initiats motor acts as well as being the receiver of sensory
data. He also distinguished the cortical gray matter from the deeper white
matter.

1665 Robert Hooke is the world's first ever to discover the cell
Royal Society published the first ever peer reviewed scientific journal called
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society
Isaac Newton and Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz invented calculus
Robert Hooke is the first to outline the correct theory of combustion in
Micrographia

1666 England invented cheddar cheese


Samuel Morland invented several designs of pocket calculating
Gian Cassini discovered the polar caps on Mars
Amsterdam begins publishing Stanisław Lubieniecki's Theatrum
machine Cometicum, the first encyclopedia and atlas of comets.
Isaac Newton discovered the law of universal gravitation, the essentials of
calculus, and that white light is composed of all the colors of the spectrum.

1667 Johann Joachim Becher is first to explain the phlogiston theory


James Gregory demonstrates the transcendence of π.
Robert Hooke shows that alteration of the blood in the lungs is essential
for respiration.

242
1668 Sir Isaac Newton invented the Newtonian telescope Francesco Redi disproved the idea of spontaneous generation.
John Wilkins proposed the earliest concept of a metric system
Nicholas Mercator and William Brouncker discovered an infinite series for
the logarithm while calculating the area under a hyperbolic segment.

1669 Gilles de Roberval invented the shop scales. Nicholas Steno is the first to propose that fossils are organic remains
embedded in layers of sediment, which is the basis of stratigraphy
Henning Brand discovered phosphorus
Geminiano Montanari detected the variability of the eclipsing binary Algol.
Jan Swammerdam is the first to explain the process of epigenesis and
metamorphosis in insects.
Rasmus Bartholin observed the birefringence of a light ray by calcite
(Iceland spar)

1670 Germany invented the candy cane


Dom Pérignon invented Champagne
Robert Boyle first produced hydrogen by reacting metals with acid.

William Clement invented the minute hand for clocks


William Clement builed the first longcase clock

1671 Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz designed the calculating machine


called Step Reckoner
France completes building of Paris Observatory, the world's first such
national institution
James Gregory developed a series expansion for the inverse tangent
function. He also discovered Taylor's theorem.

1672 Sir Isaac Newton publishes his discovery that white light is a spectrum of a
mixture of distinct coloured rays
Robert Hooke discovered the diffraction of light
John Flamsteed determined the solar parallax from observations of Mars.
Giovanni Cassini discovered a satellite of Saturn called Rhea.
Georg Mohr published the Mohr–Mascheroni theorem

1673 Christiaan Huygens is the first to study oscillating systems, and also
analyzed the design of pendulum clocks
Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz devised the Leibniz formula for π

1674 George Ravenscroft patented Lead Crystal


Christiaan Huygens invented spring watch
Anton Van Leeuwenhoek was the first to visually see and describe
protozoa.

1675 Christian Huygens patented the pocket watch. Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz and Isaac Newton discovered infinitesimal
calculus, and for the first time to find the area under the graph of the
function y=f(x).
Anton van Leeuwenhoek observed microorganisms with a microscope
Anthony de la Roché is the first to cross the Antarctic Convergence who
then lands on South Georgia.

1676 Robert Hooke invented the universal joint.


Compagnie de Limonadiers invented lemonade
Ole Rømer was the first to measure the speed of light at 220,000 km/s,
compared to the true value of 299,792 km/s.
Thomas Tompion constructed the first clocks using a form of Anton Van Leeuwenhoek was the first to see and describe bacteria with a
deadbeat escapement from a design by Richard Towneley, microscope.
John Ray publishes Francis Willughby's Ornithologiae, the foundation of
scientific ornithology.
William Briggs publishes Ophthalmographia which describes the anatomy
of the eye in much greater detail than ever before
Robert Plot discovered the first-ever fossilised bone of what is now known
to be a dinosaur, the femur of a Megalosaurus from a limestone quarry
Nehemiah Grew proposed the true nature of ovules and pollen.

1677 Antonie van Leeuwenhoek discovered the spermatozoon.

1678 Martin Lister publishes the first book ever devoted to spiders,
called English Spiders
Edmund Halley publishes the first systematic southern sky survey, a
catalogue of 341 southern stars.
Robert Hooke discovered the fundamental law of elasticity; stress (force)
exerted is proportional to the strain (elongation) produced.
Denis Papin is the first to ever demonstrate the influence of atmospheric
pressure on boiling points. He did that by devising a vessel in which the
boiling point of water is raised by an increase in steam pressure.

1679 Denis Papin invented the Pressure Cooker Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz popularized binary system from the ancient
China.

1680 Christiaan Huygens gives the first known description of a piston


engine.
Gottfried Kirch observed the Great Comet of 1680, the first comet
discovered by a telescope.
Robert Boyle invented phosphorus matches Robert Hooke observed the nodal patterns which is associated with the
vibrations of glass plates.

1681 John Mayow provides the first known description of mitral stenosis.

1682 Edmond Halley observed a comet which later became known as Comet
Halley, after Edmund Halley successfully predicts its return in 1758.
Antony Van Leeuwenhoek discovered the banded pattern of muscle fibers.

243
1683 Seki Takakazu developed the elimination theory based on his discovery
of the resultant. To express the resultant, he develops the notion of the
determinant.

1684 Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz published the first description of differential


calculus.

1685 Govert Bidloo published the first atlas of human anatomy

1886 Edmund Halley is the first to establish the relationship between barometric
pressure and height above sea level.
John Ray is the first to use the biological definition of the term species in his
Historia Plantarum.
Edmund Halley presented a systematic study of the trade winds and
monsoons. He also identified solar heating as the cause of atmospheric
motions.
Isaac Newton was the first to use a fixed length of pendulum with weights
of different composition to test the weak equivalence principle to 1 part in
1000.

1687 Sir Isaac Newton provides a classical mathematical description of the


fundamental force of universal gravitation, and also compiled the three
physical laws of motion.

1688 Louis Lucas de Nehou invented Plate Glass


Russia invented the balalaika.

1689 Denis Papin invented a centrifugal pump


Hans Sloane develops a milk chocolate drink
Pierre Magnol invented the concept of plant families based on
combinations of morphological characters. It is the first example of a natural
classification.
Walter Harris published De Morbis Acutis Infantum which remained a
standard textbook on pediatrics for nearly 100 years.

1690 Denis Papin invented the first steam engine. Giovanni Cassini observed differential rotation within atmosphere of
Jupiter.
John Flamsteed recorded the earliest sighting of the planet Uranus, which
he mistakenly catalogues it as the star 34 Tauri.
Izeki Tomotoki provides the resultant and the Laplace expansion of the
determinant for the n×n case.

1691 Christopher Scheiner invented the Hartmann Mask


Edmond Halley devises a diving bell.
Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz discoverd the technique of separation of
variables for ordinary differential equations.
Andreas Werckmeister developed the "equal temperament" in Michel Rolle devised the Rolle's theorem.
which is used in today's music.

1692 Christiaan Huygens was the first to study the tractrix, sometimes called a
tractory or equitangential curve

1693 Philip Verheyen is the first to record the name of the Achilles tendon.

1694 Rudolph Jakob Camerarious is the first to report the existence of sex in
flowering plants.

1695
1696 Guillaume de l'Hôpital published the first textbook on differential calculus
Jakob Bernoulli and Johann Bernoulli solved the brachistochrone curve
problem which was the first result in the calculus of variations.

1697
1698 Thomas Savery patented an early steam engine, Savery Engine
Bartolomeo Cristofori invented the piano which was originally
Christiaan Huygens is the first to argue in his published book
Kosmotheoros, that other planets in the solar system could contain
named the "piano et forte" extraterrestrial life.
Edmond Halley sets sail with the HMS Paramour to investigate magnetic
declination

1699 Sir Isaac Newton developed a reflecting quadrant. Abraham Sharp calculated π to 72 digits by using an arctan sequence. Only
the last decimal was incorrect

1700 Johann Christoph Denner invented the Clarinet Edmond Halley observed the Antarctic Convergence from HMS Paramour.
Nicolas Andry is the first to pioneer the germ theory of disease.
Bernardino Ramazzini is the first to pioneer the occupational medicine.

1701 Jethro Tull invented the seed drill.


Joseph Sauveur originate the French word acoustique. The
Edmond Halley published General Chart of the Variation of the Compass
based on observations in the atlantic ocean. He is the first time ever to show
english word acoustics is derived from that. magnetic declination and the first on which isogonic halleyan lines appear.
Giacomo Pylarini inoculates children with smallpox, hoping to prevent
more serious smallpox sickness when the children are older. By doing so he
became the first immunologist.

244
1702 Frenchman M. Bion developed a fountain pen
Pierre Varignon applied calculus to spring-driven clocks.
David Gregory publishes the first astronomy textbook specifically based
on Isaac Newton's principles of motions and theory of gravitation. It's an
important book because physics and engineering fields today uses these
laws and principles to build planes, cars, buildings and developing games.

1703 Abbé Jean de Hautefeuille developed an early crude seismograph Georg Ernst Stahl proposed the phlogiston theory.
Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz is the first to publish a description of binary
numbers in the West.

1704 George Graham and Thomas Tompion build the first modern
orrery.
Sir Isaac Newton proposed theories on optics in his Opticks
Pierre Varignon invented the U-tube manometer. It is a device that is
Heinrich Diesbach accidentally invented the pigment Prussian capable of measuring rarefaction in gases.
blue, which is used in oil painting.

1705 Edmond Halley determined the periodicity of Halley's Comet


Raymond Vieussens published what is considered to be an early classic
work on cardiology, Novum vasorum corporis humani systema
Jean Louis Petit published his work L'Art de guerir les maladies des os, the
first significant work in the field of bone disease.

1706 William Talbot and Sir Thomas Allen founded the world's first
life insurance company, the Amicable Society
William Jones proposed using the symbol π to represent the ratio of
the circumference of a circle to its diameter. The Greek letter pi is an an
Francis Hauksbee produced the 'Influence machine' to generate abbreviation for perimeter.
static electricity.

1707 Sir Isaac Newton published Arithmetica universalis, the collected works of
his discoveries on algebra.
Abraham de Moivre derives de Moivre's formula.
John Floyer is the first to introduce counting of pulse rate during one
minute.
Giovanni Maria Lancisi published De Subitaneis Mortibus (On Sudden
Death), which is an early work in cardiology.

1708 Ehrenfried Walther von Tschirnhaus produced calcareous


hard-paste porcelain and developed after his death by Johann
Herman Boerhaave published Institutiones medicae which is one of the
earliest textbooks on physiology.
Friedrich Böttger.

1709 Bartolomeo Cristofori crafts the first piano.


Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit invented the alcohol thermometer.
Abraham Darby I is the first to successfully produce cast iron
using coke fuel
John Dennis invented the thundersheet method of producing
theatrical thunder
Johann Friedrich Böttger is first to produce hard-paste porcelain
in Europe
France introduces the collapsible umbrella

1710 Jakob Christof Le Blon invented a three-color printing process


with red, blue, and yellow ink. Later in his life he added black,
Edmond Halley discovered the proper motion of some "fixed" stars by
comparing his observations with Ptolemy's catalog
thus introducing the first four-color printing process.

1711 John Shore invented the tuning fork. Stephen Hales is the first to perform blood pressure measurement and first
cardiac catheterisation
Luigi Ferdinando Marsigli demonstrated that coral is actually an animal
and not a plant as previously thought.
Giovanni Ceva published De Re Nummeraria (Concerning Money
Matters), which may be the first book on mathematical economics.

1712 Thomas Newcomen built the first commercial steam engine


(Newcomen's engine) that pumps water out of mines
Seki Takakazu discovered Bernoulli numbers
Brook Taylor delivers a form of what is later known as Taylor's theorem
Giacomo F. Maraldi obtains the angle in the rhombic dodecahedron shape
experimentally. This becomes known as the Maraldi angle.

1713 Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit substituted alcohol for mercury as the


thermometric fluid in his thermometers. Thus, he created the first
Nicolas Bernoulli is the first to describe the St. Petersburg paradox
James Waldegrave is the first to provide the minimax mixed strategy
mercury-in-glass thermometer. solution to a two-person game

1714 Henry Mill recieves a patent for inventing the first typewriter. Roger Cotes provided the first proof of what is now known as Euler's
formula and also constructed the logarithmic spiral.
Brook Taylor described his solution to the center of oscillation problem.
Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz delivers the harmonic triangle.
Dominique Anel is the first to use fine-pointed syringe in surgery which
later became known as "Anel's syringe".

1715 Thomas Doggett invents the first rowing race in the world called
Doggett's Coat and Badge
Edmond Halley proposed that nebulae are clouds of interstellar gas.
Brook Taylor discovered a new branch in the higher mathematics, which
Unknown inventer invented the first recognised fire extinguisher is now called "calculus of finite differences". He also introduced Taylor's
theorem and the Taylor series. Taylor also discussed the principles of
perspective and the vanishing point.
Raymond Vieussens gave the first description of valvular disease of the
heart.

245
1716
1717 Edmond Halley constructed the diving bell.
Benjamin Franklin invented swim fins
Thomas Fairchild produced the first artificial hybrid plant.

1718 James Puckle patented the Puckle Gun Edmond Halley discovered the proper motion of stars.
Étienne François Geoffroy introduces the first ever table of chemical
affinity, which was based on displacement reactions

1719
1720 Jonathan Sisson developed a theodolite Abraham Vater discovered the Ampulla of Vater

1721 Japan made the first suggestion box


Richard Newsham obtained his first patent for a manual fire
pump.

1722 French C. Hopffer patented the fire extinguisher. René Antoine Ferchault de Réaumur published his work on metallurgy
Abraham de Moivre states de Moivre's formula which connects complex
numbers and trigonometry.
Willem 's Gravesande discovered for the first time, with the help of
experimental proof, the formula for kinetic energy of a body in motion
which is used a lot in physics.
Jacob Roggeveen first lands on Easter Island.

1723 George Graham discovered diurnal variation in Earth's magnetic field.


Giacomo F. Maraldi made the first observation of the Arago spot

1724 Gabriel Daniel Fahrenheit invented the first mercury


thermometer.
Gabriel Daniel Fahrenheit invented the temperature scale
Giacomo F. Maraldi concludes that the corona is part of the Sun after
observing an eclipse
Daniel Bernoulli was the first to express the numbers of the Fibonacci
sequence in terms of the golden ratio.
Herman Boerhaave first described Boerhaave syndrome, a rupture of the
esophagus which is fatal

1725 James Bradley first observed stellar aberration.


Basile Bouchon invented the binary numeral system
Pierre Varignon introduced planar dual graphs

1726 John Harrison developed the gridiron pendulum. It is a


pendulum that compensates for temperature errors by arranging
a grid of alternating brass and steel rods so that the expansion due
to heat is dissipated.

1727 Edward Scarlett invented eyeglasses, with side pieces that rest
on the ears
Stephen Hales made the first measurement of blood pressure.
George Graham and Anders Celcius independently determined that a
Thomas Rawlinson invented the modern kilt which is associated disturbance on the sun was a magnetic storm.
since the 19th century with Scottish culture

1728 Pierre Fauchard published the first comprehensive text on


dentistry. It includs the first description of orthodontic braces.
James Bradley uses stellar aberration to calculate the speed of light to be
around 301,000 km/s
James Bradley observed the nutation of the Earth's axis.

1729 Chester Moore Hall invented an achromatic lens which is


commonly used as the objective of small refracting telescopes.
James Bradley presented his discovery of aberration of starlight.
Fr. Nicolas Sarrabat discovered the Comet of 1729, probably the largest
comet on record, with the highest apparent magnitude
Stephen Gray discovered electrical conduction.
Pierre Bouguer defines in his publication the quantity of light lost by
passing through a given extent of the earth's atmosphere. Thus he made
one of the earliest measurements in photometry and also became the first
known discoverer of what is now known as the Beer–Lambert law.
Stephen Switzer published a 2-volume general treatise on hydraulics, called
An Introduction to a General System of Hydrostaticks and Hydraulicks

1730 René Antoine Ferchault de Réaumur developed the Reaumur


scale, with 0° = the freezing point of water and 80° = the boiling
Grandjean de Fouchy developed the analemma

point.
Joseph Foljambe of Rotherham invented the iron-clad
Rotherham swing plough.

1731 Thomas Godfrey and John Hadley independently invented the


octant
John Bevis is the first person in modern era to observe the Crab Nebula.

Europe invented the harpoon gun and used for throwing the it
into the body of whales.

1732 Henri Pitot invented the Pitot tube which is used for measuring
flow velocity under the Seine bridges.
Mikhail Gvozdev and Ivan Fyodorov are the first known to cross the
Bering Strait which they did with the Sviatoi Gavriil. They sail from Cape
England moored the world's first lightship named Nore, in the Dezhnev to Cape Prince of Wales, and explore the coast of Alaska.
Thames Estuary

246
1733 John Kay invented a flying shuttle, enabling only one person to
operate a loom
Abraham de Moivre presents the normal distribution to approximate the
binomial distribution in the field of probability.
William Kent developed the perambulator
Chester Moore Hall invented the achromatic refracting lens

1734 James Short invented a Gregorian reflecting telescope with had


an aperture of 36 cm (14 inches)
Leonhard Euler introduced the integrating factor technique. This made it
possible to solve the first-order ordinary differential equations.

1735 Carl Linnaeus introduced a new system for classifying plants in his
published Systema Naturae
Georg Brandt discovered and isolated cobalt. This makes it the first metal
discovered since the ancient times.
France sats sail in the French Geodesic Mission, for the purpose of
measuring Earth's roundness, and calculating the lenght of a degree of
latitude at the equator.
Leonhard Euler solved the Basel problem, almost 100 years after it was
posed by Pietro Mengoli in 1644. He also solved the Seven Bridges of
Königsberg problem.
George Hadley is the first to publish the explanation of the trade winds.

1736 John Harrison tested the newly invented Sea Clock, called H1. Charles Marie de La Condamine and François Fresneau Gataudière made
the first scientific observations of rubber in Ecuador
Leonhard Euler described the Euler–Maclaurin formula in a letter to James
Stirling, providing a connection between integrals and calculus.
Leonhard Euler produced the first proof of Fermat's "little theorem".

1737 Francesco Serao became the first to use the word lava in connection with
extruded magma

1738 Lewis Paul and John Wyatt invented the first mechanized roller
cotton spinning machine.
Pierre Louis Maupertuis confirms Isaac Newton's view that the earth is an
oblate spheroid which is slightly flattened at the poles.
William Champion patented a new process to distill zinc from
calamine by using charcoal in a smelter.
Jacques de Vaucanson invented the world's first automaton.
Franz Ketterer constructed the earliest cuckoo clocks.

1739 Leonhard Euler is the first to solve the general homogeneous linear
ordinary differential equation with constant coefficients.
Jean-Baptiste Charles Bouvet de Lozier discovered Bouvet Island in the
South Atlantic Ocean.
Leonhard Euler invented the tonnetz

1740 Benjamin Huntsman presented the technique for the production


of crucible steel
Émilie du Châtelet presented a demonstration that the energy of a moving
object is proportional to the square of its velocity. This becomes one of the
Jacques-Barthélemy Micheli du Crest construct the spirit most used formulas, Ek = ​1⁄2mv² in physics and engineering.
thermometer, where he used the two fixed points: 0 degree for the
temperature of earth, based on a cave at Paris Observatory - and
100 degress for the boiling point of water.

1741 Anders Celsius invented the centigrade temperature scale, which


has the two fixing point: 0 degrees for the freezing point of water
Johann Jacob Dillenius presents his significant work on cryptogams.
Vitus Bering is the first person to set out to map the coasts of Siberia and
and 100 degrees for the boiling point of water. Alaska.
Nicolas Andry pioneers the field of orthopedics in his published work
Orthopédie

1742 Benjamin Franklin invented the Franklin stove Christian Goldbach produced the Goldbach's conjecture.

1743 Jean-Pierre Christin of Lyon invented the mercury thermometer.


The centigrade scale runs from 0 degrees to 100 degrees,
representing the freezing point and boiling point of water,
respectively

1744 John Newbery mentioned the earliest description of baseball in


his A Little Pretty Pocket-Book
Leonhard Euler discovered the catenoid, which has a minimal surface.

1745 Pieter van Musschenbroek and Ewald Jürgen Georg von Kleist
independently invented the first capacitor ever, called The Leyden
Johann Nathanael Lieberkühn gave the first description of Crypts of
Lieberkühn
jar. It is the first-ever device for storing electric charge César-François Cassini de Thury presented the Cassini projection, a map
Dr. Watson demonstrated the first blasting cap (detonator) projection
Roger Joseph Boscovich tries to find a middle way between Isaac Newton's
gravitational theory and Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz's monadology. By doing
this he developed a concept of "impenetrability" as a property of hard bodies
which explains their behavior in terms of force rather than matter.

247
1746 John Roebuck invented the lead-chamber process for the manufacturing
of sulfuric acid.
Andreas Sigismund Marggraf is credited to be the first person to describe
zinc as a separate metal.
Eva Ekeblad was the first to discover how to make flour and alcohol out of
potatoes.
Jean le Rond d'Alembert developed the theory of complex numbers.
Patrick d'Arcy discovered the principle of angular momentum in what is
known as "the principle of areas" (areal velocity).

1747 London Lock Hospital opened the first venereal diseases clinic Bernhard Siegfried Albinus and Jan Wandelaar produced the most exact
account of the bones and muscles of the human body. It resulted to the
published work Tabulae Sceleti et Musculorum Corporis Humani.
Jean le Rond d'Alembert became the first to use partial differential
equations in mathematical physics.
Benjamin Robins described the physics of a spinning projectile after his
investigation of rifle barrels.

1748 Pierre Le Roy invented the detent escapement in watchmaking,


which is considered the most accurate of the balance wheel
Thomas Bayes derived the Bayes' theorem.

escapements

1749 Leonhard Euler produced the first proof of Fermat's theorem on sums of
two squares. The proof is based on infinite descent.

1750 John Canton discovered how to make artificial magnets. Joseph Black invented the analytical balance which was based on a light-
weight beam balanced on a wedge-shaped fulcrum. It became the best
accurate weight measuring tool, and is used scientific instrument in most
chemistry laboratories.
Leonhard Euler and Daniel Bernoulli originated the Euler–Bernoulli beam
equation.

1751 Benjamin Franklin is credited to be the first to discover that lightning is


electrical
Carl Linnaeus published the first textbook of descriptive systematic
botanical taxonomy. It also contained the first appearance of his binomial
nomenclature.
Axel Fredrik Cronstedt discovered nickel
Robert Whytt discovered the pupillary light reflex, the first reflex of the
human body to be discovered.

1752 Austria establishes the Tiergarten Schönbrunn in Vienna, the


world's oldest zoo.
Benjamin Frankling invented the flexible urinary catheter
Thomas Melvill gives a lecture called Observations on light and colours
to the Medical Society of Edinburgh. It is a precursor of flame emission
spectroscopy.
Leonhard Euler discoveres the formula for the number of faces, edges and
vertices in a polyhedron.

1753 Benjamin Franklin invented the lightening rod. It rings a bell


when struck by lightning.
Ruđer Bošković discovered the absence of atmosphere on the Moon.
Carl von Linné published Linnaeus' Species Plantarum, which became the
George Semple developes hydraulic lime cement start of formal scientific classification of plants.
Claude François Geoffroy demonstrates that bismuth is is not the same as
lead and tin

1754 Joseph Black discovered carbonic acid gas.


Albert Brahms and Frisian Dijkgraaf begins supporting the idea of the
scientific recording of tides.
Joseph-Louis Lagrange starts working on the problem of tautochrone.

1755 William Cullen invented the first artificial refrigeration machine.


Thomas Mudge invented the lever escapement for timepieces.
Immanuel Kant presented the Gaseous Hypothesis
Immanuel Kant developed the nebular hypothesis
Joseph Black presents his discovery of carbon dioxide (fixed air) and
magnesium

1756 John Smeaton is the first to produce the high-quality cement


using hydraulic lime
Joseph Black is the first ever to describe how carbonates become more
alkaline when they lose carbon dioxide, and that absorbing carbon dioxide
France invented the recipe for mayonnaise makes them more acidic. This is used in carbonated drinks, like Coca-Cola.
Mikhail Lomonosov disproved the phlogiston theory of combustion. He
then pioneers the study of oxidation after demontrating the conversion of
tin to stannic oxide.

1757 John Bird invented the first navigational sextant. Leonhard Euler discovered the equations for inviscid flow.

1758 John Dollond patented the achromatic doublet lens John Champion discovered the process of calcining zinc sulphide into an
oxide usable in the process of retort.
Angélique du Coudray invented the first obstetric mannequin.
Francis Home was the first to attempt to deliver a measles vaccine.
Carl Linnaeus applied his discovered binomial system to animal
classification

1759 John Harrison invented the first successful marine chronometer,


called "No. 1 sea watch" ("H4")
Caspar Friedrich Wolff is the first to desribe the mesonephros in great
detail

248
1760 John Spilsbury invented and commercialised the jigsaw puzzle Louis Claude Cadet de Gassicourt synthesised the first organometalic
compound, and thereby pioneering the field of organometallic chemistry.
He did that by investigating inks based on cobalt salts and isolated cacodyl
from cobalt mineral containing arsenic.
John Michell is the first to suggest earthquakes are caused by one layer of
rocks rubbing against another.
Johann Heinrich Lambert published Photometria which invented the field
of photometry. The book includes a formulation of the Beer–Lambert law
on light absorption and the albedo as a reflection coefficient.

1761 John Harrison invented the marine chronometer (navigational


clock) that measures longitude.
Mikhail Lomonosov discovered the atmosphere of Venus
William Crookes discovered Thallium
Benjamin Franklin invented the Glass Armonica Louis Gérard published Flora Gallo-Provincialis. It became the first book
Claude Bourgelat founded the first veterinary school which flora were arranged according to natural classification
Matthew Boulton opens Soho Manufactory, the first modern Johann Heinrich Lambert presents his proof that π is irrational.
factory. Joseph Black described the latent heat

1762 Joseph-Louis Lagrange discovered the divergence theorem.


Joseph Black presented his discoveries on latent heat

1763 Thomas Bayes published the first version of Bayes' theorem. It became the
foundation of Bayesian probability
Edward Stone discovered Aspirin's active ingredient

1764 James Hargreaves invented the spinning jenny. Joseph-Louis Lagrange presents an explanation as to why the same face of
the moon is always turned to the Earth. It was a problem he treated with
the help of virtual work, containing the germ of his idea of generalized
equations of motion.
Joseph Black described specific and latent heats

1765 James Watt invented an improved steam engine with a separate


condenser that did not waste as much as the previous one.
Jean Baptiste Vaquette de Gribeauval introduced the Gribeauval system
for manufacture of cannon

1766 The Cranege brothers introduced a new method of producing


wrought iron from cast iron, by using coal fuel. They did that by
Henry Cavendish discovered hydrogen
Joseph-Louis Lagrange delivers a paper on the movements of Jupiter's
experimenting with the reverberatory furnace. satellites
Joseph Wright paints the stunning and very realistic painting John Bartram works nine month to complete his exploration and
called A Philosopher Lecturing on the Orrery. cataloging North American plants

1767 Joseph Priestley invented a method to produce carbonated water. Royal Nevil Maskelyne provided ship navigators the opportunity to find
longitude at sea using tables of lunar distance

1768 Richard Arkwright patented the spinning frame.


Philip Astley invented the modern circus
William Cookworthy recieved a patent for the manufacturing of porcelain
from kaolinite
Leonhard Euler used closed curves (Euler diagrams) to illustrate syllogistic
reasoning

1769 Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot invented the first steam-powered vehicle,


which was an early car, capable of carrying passengers.
Carl Wilhelm Scheele discovered a process for mass-producing
phosphorus.
Richard Arkwright recieves a patent for a water-powered
spinning frame which is able to spin thread mechanically.

1770 Richard Salter invented the first known design for a weighing
scale.
William Hewson first isolated fibrin which is a key protein in the blood
coagulation process. He also investigated the structure of the lymphatic
Jean-Charles de Borda formulates the ranked preferential system, and described the red blood cells. He became known as father of
electoral system. This later becomes known as the Borda count. haematology.
Richard Salter created the spring scale. Captain Cook and together with his ship crew became the first Europeans
to encounter the coastline of the Australian continent.
Joseph-Louis Lagrange proves Bachet's theorem that every positive integer
is the sum of four squares. He produces a tract on elimination theory. In
his published paper on general process, he solved an algebraic equation of
any degree via Lagrange resolvents. Lastly he discusses representations of
integers by general algebraic forms.

1771 Thomas Henry invented a process for preparing magnesium


oxide.
Charles Messier is the first to publish a catalogue of astronomical objects,
called Messier Objects. It includes galaxies, star clusters and nebulae.
England established the world's oldest engineering society called Society of
Civil Engineers which had their first meeting.
Joseph-Louis Lagrange presents his paper of the general process for solving
any degree of an algebraic equation with the help of Lagrange resolvents. He
furthermore also proved the Wilson's theorem, that if n is a prime, then (n −
1)! + 1 is always a multiple of n.

249
1772 England established the oldest arts festival
Andrew Meikle invented spring sails for the windmills.
Johann Heinrich Lambert creates seven new map projections. They include
the transverse Mercator, Lambert conformal conic, and Lambert azimuthal
equal area.
Daniel Rutherford is the first to isolate nitrogen.
Leonhard Euler confirms that the number 31 is a Mersenne prime
Nicolas de Condorcet published a significant paper on integral calculus.
Joseph Priestley synthesized nitrous oxide (laughing gas). He called it
phlogisticated nitrous air
Joseph-Louis Lagrange found the special-case solution to the three-body
problem. It later became known as the Lagrangian points.

1773 David Hartley invented a method of fireproofing construction


which can be used for buildings and ships
Hilaire Rouelle discovered urea.
Joseph-Louis Lagrange presented his work on the secular equation of
the Moon. By doing so he introduced the idea of the potential of a body.
Additionally he also published a paper about the attraction of ellipsoids.
Joseph-Louis Lagrange presented an idea of a functional determinant of
order 3, which is a special case of a Jacobian. Furthermore he also proved
the expression for the volume of a tetrahedron where one of the vertices at
the origin as one sixth of the absolute value of the determinant formed by
the coordinates of the other three vertices.

1774 John Wilkinson invented the boring machine. It is considered to


be the first machine tool ever.
Justus Claproth developed the process of deinking.
Joseph-Louis Lagrange presents his work on the motion of the nodes of a
Georges Louis Lesage patented the electric telegraph. planet's orbit.
Jesse Ramsden produced one of the first advanced circular Abbé Bonaventura Corti discovered cyclosis in plant cells.
dividing engines, which had the support of the Board of Joseph Priestley is the first to isolate oxygen in the form of a gas
Longitude. Nevil Maskelyne carried out the Schiehallion experiment to determine the
mean density of the Earth

1775 Jesse Ramsden invented the modern screw-cutting lathe.


Alexander Cumming patented the S-trap which layed the
Percivall Pott was the first person ever to demonstrate that a cancer may
be caused by an environmental carcinogen, pioneering the science of
foundations for the modern flush toilet epidemiology.
Jacques Perrier invented a steamship. Torbern Bergman published his work called De attractionibus electivis
Pierre-Simon Girard invented a water turbine. (translated to "A Dissertation on Elective Attractions"), which contains the
largest tables of chemical affinity ever published.
Joseph-Louis Lagrange developed a general theory of binary quadratic
forms.
Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz introduced the integral symbol

1776 John Wilkinson invented a mechanical air compressor. This


prototype has become the standard for all the mechanical
James Keir suggested that some rocks might have been formed by the
crystallisation of molten lava. Examples are those at the Giant's Causeway.
compressors until today. Jean Baptiste Meusnier discovered the helicoid. Furthermore he announces
David Bushnell invented a submarine. the Meusnier's theorem.
Thomas Jefferson invented the swivel chair

1777 Thomas Arnold produced the first watch to be called a


chronometer, named Arnold 36
Leonhard Euler originated the letter i to represent the square root of −1.

1778 Joseph Bramah patented an improved design of the flush toilet Joseph-Louis Lagrange presents his treatise on cometary perturbations
Antoine Lavoisier identified oxygen and gave its name. He also recognizes
its importance role in combustion.
Samuel-Auguste Tissot is the first to desribe a classical account of
migraine.
Samuel Thomas von Sömmerring described the organization of the cranial
nerves.
Petrus Camper published an early work of comparative anatomy.

1779 Samuel Crompton invented the spinning mule.


Bryan Higgins recieved a patent for hydraulic cement (stucco) to
Étienne Bézout produces an original work on elimination theory.

use it as an exterior plaster.


Bartholomäus Girandoni designed the Girandoni Air Rifle

1780 Benjamin Franklin invented bi-focal eyeglasses.


Georg Gottfried Gervinus invented the circular saw.
Clément Joseph Tissot is the first person to publish a text on the
therapeutic benefits of physical exercise.
Aimé Argand invented the Argand lamp. Lazzaro Spallanzani is the first to propose the process of animal digestion
Thomas Earnshaw produced the spring detent escapement for as being a chemical process in the stomach. He also proposed that it was
marine chronometers. caused by the action of gastric juice.

1781 Archibald Cochrane recieved a patent for the manufacturing


of coal tar.
William Herschel expands the known boundary of the solar system for the
first time in modern history by discovering Uranus.
Jacob Yoder builds the first floatcard. Felice Fontana is the first to describe the axon of the brain cell with the help
of a microscope.
Peter Jacob Hjelm isolated molybdenum.

1782 Antoine Lavoisier and Pierre-Simon Laplace pioneered the foundation


of thermochemistry. The began to use the world's first ice calorimeter
to determine the heat generated in different chemical reactions. Their
calculations were based on Joseph Black's discovery of latent heat.
Giordano Riccati was the first to study material elastic moduli. His
experiments determined what would later be known as Young's modulus.

250
1783 Claude de Jouffroy built the first steamboat with the Newcomen
steam engine.
John Michell is the first to propose the existence of black holes
Antoine Lavoisier demonstrated that the phlogiston theory is conflicting,
The Montgolfier brothers invented the Montgolfière-style hot air and thereby proposing chemical reaction as an alternative theory. He
balloon, globe aérostatique. Jean-François Pilâtre de Rozier and demonstrates that water is a compound and not an element, and gives the
François Laurent d'Arlandes were the first in the world to test it. name hydrogen for the atom.
Louis-Sébastien Lenormand invented the first modern José and Fausto Elhuyar discovered tungsten by finding an acid in
parachute and was the first ever to make a public demonstration wolframite which they reduce with charcoal to isolate the element.
Benjamin Hanks patented the self-winding clock.
Henry Cort invented the steel roller for the production of steel.
Thomas Bell patented a method of printing on fabric based on
engraved cylinders.
Horace-Bénédict built the first hair tension hygrometer.
Jacques Charles and the Robert brothers built and launched the
first hydrogen balloon

1784 Andrew Meikle invented the threshing machine.


Joseph Bramah invented the safety lock.
L'Abbé René Just Haüy presents the geometrical law of crystallization.
Antoine Lavoisier pioneers stoichiometry which is the basis of modern
Benjamin Franklin invented eyeglasses with two distinct optical chemistry.
powers, called bifocals Unknown first isolated cholesterol.
Henry Cort of Funtley converted cast to wrought iron by
applying the coal-fired reverbatory furnace to the puddling
process.

1785 Martinus van Marum is the first person ever to use the
electrolysis technique. It is used in many field of science today.
William Withering is the first ever to present an definitive account of the
use of foxglove, also called digitalis, for treating dropsy
Edmund Cartwright invented the power loom.
Claude Berthollet invented chemical bleaching.
Charles Augustus Coulomb invented the torsion balance.
Jean-Pierre Blanchard invented a working parachute.
David Rittenhouse invented the first man-made diffraction
grating
Lionel Lukin patented the first rescue lifeboat

1786 Andrew Meikle invented the threshing machine.


Ignaz von Born introduced the patio process for the extracting
Sir William Jones demonstrated the formal resemblances between Latin,
Greek, and Sanskrit, thus pioneering comparative linguistics and Indo-
of metals European studies.
William Playfair is the first person ever to produce the first line Erland Samuel Bring is the first to propose algebraic solutions to quintic
and bar charts. functions.

1787 Oliver Evans invented the automatic flour mill


Harrow School founded the first glee club
Jacques Charles discovered Charles's law of ideal gas. It is a corollary of
Boyle's law which describes the relationship between temperature and
John Fitch invented the Fitch steamboat. volume of a gas.
Jesse Ramsden constructed the first great theodolite William Herschel discovered the moons titania, enceladus, oberon, and
England produced the first all-iron edge rail for underground mimas
colliery rail transport Ernst Chladni demonstrates modes of vibration.
John Curr first introduced the L section plateway,
Levi Hutchins invented a mechanical alarm clock.

1788 Kitagawa Utamaro published Ehon Mushi Erami, a book with


color illustrations
Joseph-Louis Lagrange introduces Lagrangian mechanics.

Isaac Briggs and William Longstreet patented a steam engine.

1789 Edmund Cartwright invented the power loom.


Joseph-Ignace Guillotin invented the guillotine.
Antoine Lavoisier discovered the law of conservation of mass, which is the
basic for modern chemistry.
François Huber invented the leaf hive for the cultivation of Martin Heinrich Klaproth discovered uranium and zirconium. An
honey bees. uranium isotope is used in atomic bombs.
Antonio Scarpa presented his classic treaty on the hearing and olfactory
organs.
William Herschel discovered Saturn's moons, Enceladus and Mimas
Antoine Laurent de Jussieu published anno M.DCC.LXXIV, which
becomes the basis for the system of natural classification of flowering plants,
still used today.
Jurij Vega presented his approximation of π to 140 decimal places. Only the
last 14 are incorrect.
James Parkinson is the first to describe human injury from lightning strikes
Andrew Duncan gave the first lectures on forensic medicine

1790 Thomas Saint invented the sewing machine. Samuel Hopkins recieves a patent for a potash production technique

1791 John Barber invented the gas turbine


Comte Mede de Sicrac invented an early bicycle.
William Gregor discovered the metal titanium. It is one of the most
important metal since it is one of the strongest metals and at the same time
Nicolas Leblanc patented the Leblanc process. It ise used for the very light. It is used for the engines of planes and other similar fields.
production of sodium carbonate (soda ash) from sodium chloride Luigi Galvani discovered animal electricity (Galvanism)
(common salt) Thomas Jefferson introduces D'Hondt method, the highest averages
James Rumsey recives a patent pumps, motors, hydraulic method of voting.
cylinders related to fluid power engineering Samuel Croker-King presents his trepanning device.
Pierre Prévost is the first to demonstrate that all bodies radiate heat,
regardless how hot or cold they are.

251
1792 Claude Chappe invented the modern semaphore telegraph.
William Murdoch invented gas lighting.
Kurt Sprengel presented the first chronologically complete work on the
history of medicine in his published book.
John Pearson invented the first cracker François Chopart performed the first plastic surgery on the lip using a flap
from the neck.

1793 Eli Whitney invented the modern cotton gin


Dominique Jean Larrey founded the first battlefield flying
Alexander Mackenzie is the first known person to complete a
transcontinental crossing of northern North America, in his Peace River
ambulance service. expedition to the Pacific Ocean where he reached his goal at Bella Coola.
Diego Marín Aguilera flied a glider in a lenght of about 360 m Christian Konrad Sprengel pioneered the study of pollination ecology.
Matthew Baillie discovered the systematic study of pathology. He is also
credited to be known as the first to identify the transposition of the great
vessels and situs inversus.

1794 Eli Whitney patented the cotton gin Welshmen


Philip Vaughan invented ball bearings
John Dalton is the first to describe colour blindness in his paper called
Extraordinary facts relating to the vision of colours
Antonio Scarpa is the first to give an accurate depiction of cardiac
innervation. He also presented the discovery that the inner ear is filled with
fluid
Erasmus Darwin published Zoonomia, arguing that all extant organism are
descended from one common ancestor, a proto-evolutionary concept.
Lazzaro Spallanzani is the first to conclude that bats use another sense
other than sight for locating themselves in darkness.

1795 Joseph Bramah invented the hydraulic press.


Francois Appert invented the preserving jar for food.
Carl Friedrich Gauss developed the foundation of least squares analysis.
Gilbert Blane introduced lemon juice in the Royal Navy to prevent scurvy.
Thomas Jefferson invented the wheel cypher It contains vitamin C, and became mandotary for the naval soldiers.
Samuel Henshall recieved a patent for the first corkscrew France ordered that the gram should be equal to "the absolute weight of a
volume of water equal to the cube of the hundredth part of the metre, at
the temperature of melting ice" - Décret relatif aux poids et aux mesures. 18
germinal an 3 (7 avril 1795)

1796 Alois Senefelder invented the lithography printing technique.


Amelia Simmons invented the cupcake
Georges Cuvier is the first to establish extinction as a fact
Hanaoka Seishū is the first to perform surgery using general anesthesia.
Benjamin Thompson invented the Rumford fireplace Edward Jenner developed a smallpox vaccination.
James Parker recieved a patent for Roman cement Samuel Hahnemann discovered homeopathy.
Thomas Telford built the first cast iron aqueducts Franz Joseph Gall developed the theory of cranioscopy, which is a
Joseph-Michel invented the self-acting hydraulic ram forerunner of phrenology.
Carl Friedrich Gauss became the first person to prove the quadratic
reciprocity law. This enabled the determination of the solvability of any
quadratic equation in modular arithmetic.
Adrien-Marie Legendre conjectured the prime number theorem.
Georges Cuvier is the first to demonstrate that species had become extinct.

1797 Samuel Bentham invented the plywood.


Wittemore patented the carding machine.
Smithson Tennant is the first to show that diamond is a pure form of
carbon.
Henry Maudslay invented the first metal precision lathe. He is Louis Nicolas Vauquelin discovered chromium.
seen as the founding father of machine tool technology Joseph Proust proposed the law of definite proportions
Giovanni Battista Venturi is the first to describe the Venturi effect.

1798 Unknown invented the first soft drink.


James Sadler invented the table engine
Thomas Robert Malthus first identified consequences of population growth
identified
Louis Vauquelin discovered the element beryllium
Joseph-Louis Lagrange the method of approximating to the real roots of an
equation by means of continued fractions.
Philippe Pinel is the first to emphasise the importance of nosology
(classification of diseases) to medicine.
Samuel Thomas von Sömmerring published the first accurate
representation of the female skeleton.

1799 George Medhurst invented the first motorized air compressor.


Louis-Nicolas Robert invented the first paper machine
Pierre Bouchard finds one of the most important stones in archeology,
the Rosetta Stone, in the Egyptian port city of Rosetta (Rashid). Without
Louis Lefèvre-Gineau and Giovanni Fabbroni defined the this stone, it would probably never have been possible to decipher ancient
kilogram with an n all-platinum prototype called Kilogramme Egyptian hieroglyphic writings.
des Archives. It was fabricated as closely as feasible to the mass of Thomas Beddoes is the first known person to use the word biology in its
one cubic decimetre of water at 4 °C, which was measured to be modern sense.
the most stable temperatur at the time. William Wallace discovered the concept of the Simson line.
Caleb Parry described the mechanisms for angina.
Maria Dalle Donne is the first woman to become a Doctor of Medicine
Matthew Baillie developed the first comprehensive atlas of pathology as a
separate subject.

1800 Louis Robert invented the Fourdrinier Machine which is used for
making large quantities of sheet papers.
Alessandro Volta invented the first chemical battery, thus making him the
founding father of the discipline of electrochemistry.
Joseph Marie Jacquard invented the Jacquard Loom. Humphry Davy discovered the anaesthetic properties of nitrous oxide
Long Island brewery created beer ferment using yeast. Prior to (laughing gas)
that the beer was made with lambic (wild yeast and bacteria) William Herschel discovered infrared rays
Henry Maudslay invented the first industrially practical screw- Friedrich von Hahn discovered the central star of the Ring Nebula
cutting lathe. For the first time this allowed standardisation of Edward Howard discovered fulminates
screw thread sizes. Xavier Bichat published pioneering texts in histology and pathology.
Ralph Walker produced the first design of a cast iron twin leaf
swing bridge

252
1801 Frederick Graff Sr. invented the first fire hydrant
James Finley built the first iron (chain) suspension bridge
Charles Hatchett FRS discovered the element niobium.
Andrés Manuel del Río discovered vanadium, a transition metal
Joseph-Marie Jacquard developed the Jacquard Loom Johann Wilhelm Ritter discovered ultraviolet
Jean-Baptiste Lamarck pioneered the classification of the group of animals.
He is also the first to describe invertebrates, and the firs to separate the
classes of arachnids and crustaceans from insects.
William Playfair is the first person to use pie chart and circle graph, using it
to show part-whole relations
Samuel Thomas von Sömmerring discovered and described the macula in
the retina of the human eye.
John Dalton discovered Dalton's law by observing that the total pressure
exerted by a gaseous mixture is equal to the sum of the partial pressures of
each individual component in a gas mixture.
Thomas Young discovered the interference between light beams in optics,
showing the wave nature of light.

1802 Humphry Davy invented the first electric light, the arc lamp.
It produces light by maintaining an electric arc across a gap
Johann Wilhelm Ritter built the first electrochemical cell.
Jean-Baptiste Lamarck pioneered teleological evolution
between two conductors. Thomas Young proposed the theory on physiological basis of colour vision
Richard Trevithick built the first full-scale railway steam Luke Howard developed nomenclature system for clouds
locomotive Sir William Herschel is the first to use the term binary star which refers
George Bodley patented the first enclosed kitchen stove. to a star that revovles around another star. He furthermore coins the term
asteroid.
William Hyde Wollaston discovered the noble metal palladium.
France by Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac discovered Charles's law(law of
volumes), which desribes how gases tend to expand when heated
James Sowerby published the first comprehensive illustrated reference work
in the field of mineralogy, called British Mineralogy. The coloured figures
intended to elucidate the mineralogy of Great Britain.
France opened the first pediatric hospital, the Hôpital des Enfants Malades

1803 Robert Ransome invented the self-sharpening chilled cast-iron


ploughshare
Thomas Young discovered evidence for a wave theory of light
William Hyde Wollaston discovered the chemical elements rhodium and
England built and installed the first Fourdrinier continuous palladium.
papermaking Smithson Tennant discovered the elements iridium and smium.
Paul Hammer first mentions of the Schafkopf card game. John Dalton developed the modern atomic theory
Jean Baptiste Biot demonstrates that a meteorite shower falls on L'Aigle in
Normandy is of extraterrestrial origin
William Henry's first delivers the formulation of his law on the solubility
of gases
Gian Francesco Malfatti presented the Malfatti circles conjecture.
Jean Marc Gaspard Itard is the first to discover pneumothorax.

1804 Richard Trevithick developed the first steam-powered


locomotive.
Hanaoka Seishū discovered tsūsensan, the first modern general anesthetic.
Nicolas-Théodore de Saussure is the first to outline the basic reaction of
Frederick Albert Winsor was the first person to patent gas photosynthesis.
lighting. William Hyde Wollaston discovered the process of making malleable
Sir George Cayley designed the first glider to carry a human platinum.
being aloft Alexander von Humboldt discovered that the magnetic field of the Earth
Sir George Cayley invented the seat belt decreases from the poles to the equator.
Theodore Burr built the first Burr Truss bridge across the Friedrich Sertürner is the first isolate morphine from the opium poppy
Hudson River in Waterford, New York. plant. This is possibly the first time ever someone isolated a natural plant
The British Army is the first to use shrapnel shells (also called alkaloid
spherical case shot), which was invented by Major Henry
Shrapnel

1805 Oliver Evans invented the vapor-compression refrigeration


Oliver Evans invented the amphibious vehicle
John Dalton published the first list of molecular weights
Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac discovered that water is composed of two
Johann Nepomuk Mälzel invented the music instrument hydrogen atoms and one oxyge atom by volume
Panharmonicon Adrien-Marie Legendre delivers the first description of the method of least
William Congreve is the first to demonstrates the solid-fuel squares for fitting a curve to a given set of observations, as an algebraic
Congreve rocket to use it as an artillery weapon. fitting procedure.
Francis Beaufort devised the Beaufort scale of wind speed France makes the first known record of water birth.

1806 Benjamin Thompson invented the coffee percolator


Ralph Wedgwood patented the carbon paper
Humphry Davy published his research about the electrolysis of water
Louis Nicolas Vauquelin and Pierre Jean Robiquet identified the first
amico acid by isolating asparagine in crystalline form from asparagus juice
Jean-Robert Argand introduced the Argand diagram.
John Bell published The Principles of Surgery. It describes arterial surgery,
and thereby making him the founder of vascular surgery.

253
1807 Claude and Nicéphore Niépce recieved a patent for the
Pyréolophore, an early internal combustion engine
Sir Humphry Davy isolated sodium and potassium, one of the most
important elements in living organism.
Lionel Lukin launched the world's first sailing self-righting England founded The Geological Society
rescue life-boat William Wallace published his prove that any two simple polygons of equal
François Isaac de Rivaz designed the first internal combustion area are equidecomposable. This became later known as the Bolyai–Gerwien
engine powered automobile, fuelled by hydrogen. theorem.
Robert Fulton invented a workable steamboat, thereby
expanding water transportation and trade
Alexander John Forsyth patented the use of fulminate in
firearms
William Cubitt patented self-regulating sails for windmills.
William Hyde Wollaston patented the camera lucida.

1808 Ebenezer Thorndike invented the lobster trap


Sir George Cayley invented the tension-spoke wire wheels
Sir Humphry Davy isolated calcium, strontium, barium, magnesium and
boron
Jesse Fell is the first to burn anthracite coal as fuel. This discovery Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac discovered the law of combining volumes for
leads using coal as a key fuel source and sparks the industrial gases.
revolution. John Dalton explained his atomic theory of chemistry, including an
William Congreve patented the Congreve clock with a rolling updated list of atomic weights.
ball regulator. Jöns Jakob Berzelius published Lärbok i Kemien in which he introduces the
John Heathcoat recieved a patent for a bobbinet lace machine modern chemical symbols and notation. He also introduced the concept of
relative atomic weight.
Christian Kramp introduced the notation n! in factorials.
Carl Friedrich Gauss introduced Gauss's lemma in the third proof of
quadratic reciprocity.
Robert Adrain produced a formulation of the method of least squares

1809 Mary Kies recieved a patent for a technique of weaving straw hats
with silk and thread.
Carl Friedrich Gauss introduces the Gaussian gravitational constant. The
also invented the method of least squares.
Samuel Thomas von Sömmerring invented a water voltameter Johann Heinrich Friedrich Link is the first describe penicillium.
electrical telegraph. Louis Poinsot described the two remaining Kepler-Poinsot polyhedra.
William Hyde Wollaston invented the reflecting goniometer. Ephraim McDowell performed the world's first ovariotomy, which is the
removal of an ovarian tumor.
Philippe Pinel is the first to describe schizophrenia.
Charles Julien Brianchon proved the Brianchon's theorem.

1810 Nicolas Appert invented the canning process for food.


Peter Durand invented the tin can.
Sir Humphry Davy discovered chlorine
Carl Friedrich Gauss introduced the Gaussian elimination. He also worked
Oktoberfest, the world's largest Volksfest with functions of complex number variables.
Nicolas Appert published the first description of modern food Bernard Courtois discovered iodine
preservation using airtight containers. Amedeo Avogadro proposed the Avogadro's law, which states that equal
Friedrich Koenig and Andreas Friedrich Bauer produced the volumes of gases under constant temperature and pressure contain equal
first steam printing press number of molecules.
Charles Bell is the first person to distinguish between sensory and motor
nerves in his published An Idea of a New Anatomy of the Brain

1811 Friedrich Koenig invented the first stop-cylinder printing


machine
Cornelius Varley invented the graphic telescope, a drawing aid
with the power of a telescope

1812 William Reid Clanny invented the safety lamp which he


improved years later. His improved design were used until the
John Davy is the first to describe the synthesis of phosgene.
Friedrich Mohs presented his system of classifying minerals. He also
adoption of electric lamps. introduced his scale of mineral hardness.
Colonel Bomford invented the columbiad Heinrich Vogel discovered that glucose is a product when hydrolyzing
lactose.
Napoléon Bonaparte gave order to use the Mesures usuelles, which is the
basis of the metric system.

1813 Tabitha Babbitt invented the circular saw which is still used
substantially in the wooding industry
Carl Friedrich Gauss improved the Gauss's law.
Mathieu Orfila published Traité des poisons, a groundbreaking book that
Edward Howard invented the enclosed vacuum pan for refining formalized the field of toxicology.
sugar. Siméon Denis Poisson corrected Laplace's second order partial differential
Charles Waterton begins the process of turning his estate into equation for potential.
the world's first nature reserve. Peter Ewart supported the idea of the conservation of energy

1814 James Fox invented the modern planing machine. Matthew


Murray and Richard Roberts are also credited to be the inventors.
Joseph Carpue performs the first nose plastic surgery
Joseph von Fraunhofer invented the spectrocope for the chemical analysis
George Stephenson designed the first steam locomotive. of glowing objects.
Heinrich Stölzel invented a piston valve for brass instruments. Joseph Nicéphore Niépce took the first ever photograph in the world
Dietrich Nikolaus Winkel invented a form of metronome Joseph von Fraunhofer discovered Fraunhofer lines
William Charles Wells delivered the first correct scientific explanation of
dew.

254
1815 Humphry Davy invented the Davy lamp as a coal mining safety
lamp.
William Prout introduced the Prout's hypothesis, saying that the atomic
weight of every element is an integer multiple of that of hydrogen.
Levi Spear Parmly invented the dental floss Jean Baptist Biot discovered polarimetry in the polarization of light
in liquids. This means polarized light could be rotated clockwise or
counterclockwise, dependent upon the optical axis of the material. In
modern chemistry it is known that an R-isomere of a molecule will rotate
one way and an S-isomere will rotate the other way equally.
Jöns Jakob Berzelius discovered atomic decay in gadolinite, a radioactive
mineral which gets damaged by alpha particles released in its own activity.
Atomic decays are used to date fossils (uranium-lead dating) or modern
archeology (C-14 dating)

1816 Veuve Clicquot invented the riddling table process to clarify


champagne.
John Farey introduced the Farey sequence.

Francis Ronalds invented the first working electric telegraph


Robert Stirling recieved a patent for the Stirling hot air engine.
Simeon North invented a milling machine for working metal.

1817 Baron Karl von Drais invented the dandy horse which was an
early velocipede and also precursor to the modern bicycle.
James Parkinson gave the first description of Parkinson's disease in "An
Essay on the Shaking Palsy"
Georg Lankensperger invented the Ackermann steering Johann Arfvedson discovered lithium. Today the world's primary batteries
geometry are based on lithion, including the electric cars and laptops.
Diedrich Uhlhorn invented the tachometer
David Brewster patented the kaleidoscope

1818 Marc Isambard Brunel invented the tunnelling shield.


Heinrich Stölzel and Friedrich Blühmel
James Blundell performed the first successful blood transfusion
Pierre Joseph Pelletier and Joseph Bienaimé Caventou isolated strychnine,
invented the french horn an alkaloid which is used as an rodenticide
Thomas Morton invented the patent slip.
Jeremiah Chubb produced the first Chubb detector lock

1819 Samuel Fahnestock patented a soda fountain


Ferdinand Oechsle invented the Oechsle scale
René Laennec invented the stethoscope.
John Bostock gave the first accurate description of hay fever, and gave the
John H. Hall invented the the M1819 breech-loading flintlock first account of allergic rhinitis
using interchangeable parts Johann Franz Encke identified the Comet Encke to be periodic by
computing the orbit
Captain William Smith sights Williams Point, the first land discovered
south of latitude 60° S.

1820 Thomas Blanchard invented the pattern-tracing lathe


John Frederic Daniell invented the dew-point hygrometer, which
Hans Christian Ørsted discovered that electric currents create magnetic
fields, thus pioneering the relationship between electricity and magnetism.
is an instrument that is used for measuring the moisture content It is one of the world's greatest discoveries in history.
in the atmosphere Jean-Baptiste Biot and Félix Savart introduced the Biot–Savart law in
British soldiers invented ice hockey in Canada electromagnetism.
Jean-Victor Poncelet invented an inward-flow water turbine. André-Marie Ampère established the laws of electrodynamics.
Warren De la Rue produced the first light bulb using a vacuum Gideon Mantell initiated the scientific study of dinosaurs
tube. Since he used a platinum coil, it made it commercially
unviable.
Charles Xavier Thomas de Colmar invented the arithmometer,
the first mass-produced calculator.
Brommesche Tarok-Gesellschaft invented the Skat card game

1821 Michael Faraday invented the Faraday motor


Christian Friedrich Ludwig Buschmann invented the
Thomas Johann Seebeck became the first to observe the properties of
semiconductors
harmonica Alexis Bouvard notices irregularities in the orbit of Uranus.
John Kidd is first to describe the properties of aromatic compound called
naphthaline.
Pierre Jean Robiquet, Joseph Bienaimé Caventou and Pierre Joseph
Pelletier isolated caffeine.
France established the world's first geographical society called the Société
de géographie
Ignaz Venetz pioneered glaciology and proposed his ice age theory.
Augustin-Louis Cauchy is the first person to present a complete
presentation of calculus using limits.
Charles Bell identified Bell's palsy
Michael Faraday discoverd electromagnetic rotation.
Thomas Johann Seebeck discovered the thermoelectric effect.
Augustin Fresnel demonstrated that light is made up of a traverse wave
motion.

1822 Nicéphore Niépce invented the first photographic process, called


Heliography
Georges Cuvier established new standards and methods in paleontology
and stratigraphy
Charles Babbage began building the first programmable John Phillips and William Conybeare identified the Carboniferous Period.
mechanical computer. He is considered to be the "father of the Jean Baptiste Julien d'Omalius d'Halloy identified the Cretaceous Period.
computer" He was also the first to propose the Jurassic System.
Charles Babbage proposed the Difference Engine, in which he Karl Feuerbach described the nine-point circle of a triangle.
originated the concept of a digital programmable computer. It William Farish presented a systematization of the rules for isometric
was mechanical ancestor of the modern computer to calculate drawing.
trigonometric functions and logarithms. Claude-Louis Navier and George Gabriel Stokes formulated the Navier–
Stokes equations in fluid dynamics.
William Beaumont pioneered human gastric endoscopy

255
1823 Johann Wolfgang Döbereiner invented the first lighter.
Charles Mackintosh invented the Mackintosh (raincoat)
William Webb Ellis invented Rugby football
Johann Wolfgang Döbereiner inventred the Döbereiner's lamp
Charles Macintosh invented a method of rubberizing fabric,
which made them waterproof. An invention that plays a crucial
role in today's world
Henri-Joseph Paixhans developed the Paixhans gun. It is the first
naval artillery to fire explosive shells.

1824 Johann Nikolaus von Dreyse invented the bolt-action rifle.


Michael Faraday invented the first toy balloon.
Sadi Carnot proposed the Carnot cycle, the idealized heat engine
Franz von Gruithuisen was the first to explain the formation of craters on
William Sturgeon invented the electromagnet. the Moon as a result of meteorite impacts.
Joseph Aspdin patented Portland cement, which is the modern Joseph Fourier is the first to mention the greenhouse effect by calculating
building material in today's world that the Earth would be far colder if it lacked an atmosphere.
William Wilberforce founded the first animal welfare society, Augustin-Louis Cauchy used the implicit Euler method to prove the
the RSPCA convergence of the Euler method
Louis Braille developed the six-dot code raised-letter systems William Buckland is the first person to describe a dinosaur in a scientific
(Braille), which allowed the visually impaired to read and write journal.
faster than any previous systems. He invented it when he was only
15 years old.
Unknown invented the panoramagram, the first stereoscopic
viewer

1825 Michael Faraday isolated benzene, the first known aromatic hydrocarbon.
It is one of the most important compounds in chemical and pharmaceutical
manufacturing.
Samuel Thomas von Sömmerring discovered
the rhamphorhynchus
Hans Christian Ørsted discovered that by reducing aluminium chloride
which is an inorganic compound, it produced metallic aluminium in an
impure form.
Friedrich Wöhler and Justus von Liebig were the world's first to discover
and explains isomers. They experimented with cyanic acid and fulminic
acid, and found out that isomerism is caused by differing arrangements
of atoms within a molecular structure. This is one of the most important
discoveries in chemistry.
George Julius Poulett Scrope published the first systematic work on
volcanology, called Considerations on Volcanoes,
Augustin-Louis Cauchy presented the theory of residues in complex
analysis.
André-Marie Ampère discovered the Stokes' theorem.
Benjamin Gompertz formulated the Gompertz function.
Georges Cuvier is the first person in history to propose the catastrophe
theory as the cause of extinctions of large groups of animals.

1826 John Walker invented the friction match.


Samuel Morey invented a compressionless internal combustion
Antoine Jerome Balard isolated bromine, an important element in modern
chemistry
engine Pierre Jean Robiquet isolated the dye alizarin.
Nicéphore Niépce produced the first photograph Michael Faraday is the first to determine the chemical formula of
Benoit Fourneyron invented an efficient outward-flow water naphthalene.
turbine. Nikolai Lobachevsky introduced the system of non-Euclidean hyperbolic
geometry.
Johannes Peter Müller introduced the law of specific nerve energies.
Karl Ernst von Baer discovered the mammalian ovum.

1827 John Walker invented the modern matches.


Charles Wheatstone invented the microphone, one of the
Georg Ohm discovered Ohm's law, one of the founding laws in electricity
Carl Friedrich Gauss introduced the Gauss map and Gaussian curvature
greatest electronic invention. Friedrich Wöhler is the first to isolate aluminium, an important metal in
Hannah Montague invented the detachable collar the modern world
Robert Wilson of Dunbar demonstrated a screw propeller. William Prout is the first person in history to classify the components of
Jacob Perkins introduced the uniflow steam engine food into the three main divisions of carbohydrates, fats and proteins.
John Isaac Hawkins developed the trifocal lens, which are William Christopher Zeise discovered Zeise's salt, the first platinum
eyeglasses with lenses that have three regions which correct for or olefin complex. It is one of the earliest examples of organometallic
distance, intermediate, and near vision. chemistry.
Richard Bright is the first to describe Bright's disease
Robert Brown observed the phenomenon of Brownian motion, the
fundamental experiment in discovering the atoms
Joseph Fourier is the first to propose existence of the greenhouse effect

1828 James Beaumont Neilson patented the hot blast process for
ironmaking.
Friedrich Wöhler is the first to ever synthesised a chemical compound,
destroying vitalism. He synthesised urea.
Patrick Bell invented the reaping machine. Carl Reichenbach discovered creosote
Ányos Jedlik produced the world's first electric motor. Karl Ernst von Baer pionered the science of comparative embryology
John and Charles Deane produced the first diving helmet by Jöns Jakob Berzelius produces a table of atomic weights. He also discovered
adapting Augustus Siebe's smoke helmet thorium.
Peter Nicholson creates a method of preparing stones for George Green published the first mathematical theory of electricity and
construction of a helicoidal skew arch. magnetism. He also introduced the concept Green's functions, the idea of
potential theory and a form of divergence theorem, which is a version of
Green's theorem.

256
1829 William Mann invented the compound air compressor.
Louis Braille invented braille printing.
Nikolai Ivanovich Lobachevsky presents his work on hyperbolic non-
Euclidean geometry.
William Burt invented a form of typewriter, the typographer. Benjamin Guy Babington is the first to use a laryngoscope.
Sylvester Graham invented graham cracker Jules Desnoyers gives the name Quaternary period.
Charles Wheatstone invented the concertina Peter Gustav Lejeune Dirichlet introduced the Dirichlet conditions,
Isaac Holden produced a form of friction match. Dirichlet's test, Dirichlet function, Dirichlet kernel, Dirichlet integral and
Cyrill Demian patented a version of the accordion the modern concept of a function
Henry Robinson Palmer files patent for the application of
corrugated iron for use in buildings.

1830 Carl Reichenbach created paraffin wax


Edwin Budding invented the lawn mower.
Johann Heinrich Mädler and Wilhelm Beer are the first ever to produce a
map of the surface of Mars.
Barthélemy Thimonnier invented a sewing machine.
Stephen Harriman Long designed the Long truss wooden bridge.
Friedrich Fröbel created the kindergarten concept
Aeneas Coffey recieved a patent for an improved column still.
Eaton Hodgkinson pioneered the application of mathematics to
problems of structural design, specifically on the optimum cross
section for cast iron structural beams.

1831 Cyrus Hall McCormick invented the first commercially


successful reaper.
Michael Faraday discovered electromagnetic induction
Heinrich Schwabe is the first to make a detailed drawing of Jupiter's Great
Michael Faraday invented an electric dynamo. Red Spot
Joseph Henry invented the electric bell.
America invented the flanged T rail, an important structural
design for trains.
Wilhelm Albert invented the wire rope
William Wallace invented the eidograph.
Joseph Henry invented the multiple coil magnet

1832 Joseph Plateau and Simon Stampfer independently devise the


phenakistiscope, which is an animation device creating an optical
Carl Ludwig Reichenbach discovered pittacal.
Thomas Bell begins the first comprehensive study of the world's turtles.
illusion of motion. Isidore Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire introduced a key text on teratology.
Louis Albert Necker is the first to present the optical illusion Pierre Jean Robiquet isolated the analgesic codeine.
which becomes known as the Necker Cube. Friedrich Wöhler and Justus von Liebig are the first ever to discover and
explain functional groups and radicals. This discovery is one of the greatest
finding in modern chemistry, especially in organic chemistry.
Évariste Galois introduced a condition for the solvability of algebraic
equations. With this presentation he essentially founded group theory and
Galois theory.
Peter Gustav Lejeune Dirichlet proved Fermat's last theorem for n = 14.
Thomas Hodgkin is the first to describe Hodgkin's lymphoma, a condition
with abnormalities in the lymph system.
Michael Faraday introduced his laws of electrolysis.

1833 Walter Hunt invented sewing machine (lock-stitch)


Carl Friedrich Gauss and Wilhelm Eduard Weber invented an
Anselme Payen discovered and identified the first enzyme, diastase.
Thomas Graham proposed Graham's Law.
electromagnetic telegraph Paul Gerwien proved the Bolyai–Gerwien theorem. It was initially
Adrian Stephens invented the steam whistle as a warning device formulated by Farkas Bolyai which states that any two simple polygons of
Obed Hussey patented a reaper equal area are equidecomposable.
Jordan Mott invented the first practical coal burning oven Marshall Hall introduced the term "reflex" for a muscular reaction.
Jean Lobstein introduced the term arteriosclerosis.

1834 Moritz von Jacobi invented the first practical electric motor.
Henry Blair patented a corn planter
Friedrich Engelhardt discovered plateosaurus
Friedlieb Ferdinand Runge discovered phenol which is a key compound in
Jacob Perkins invented an early refrigerator organic chemistry.
Charles Babbage beings designing a a mechanical forerunner of Carl Gustav Jakob Jacobi discovered the uniformly rotating self-gravitating
the modern computer called "analytical engine", ellipsoids.
Leonard Norcross made the first diving-suit for under water use. John Scott Russell is the first to observe a nondecaying solitary wave
Joseph Hansom patented the Hansom cab. Émile Clapeyron introduced a formulation of the second law of
Joseph Chaley's design of the Grand Pont Suspendu bridge thermodynamics.
is inaugurated. It is the first suspension bridge with cables William Whewell is the first to introduce term scientist in the Quarterly
assembled in mid-air. Review
Justus von Liebig invented Melamine Hermann Helmholtz proposed gravitational contraction as the energy
source for the Sun.
Johann Heinrich von Mädler and Wilhelm Beer published the most
complete map of the moon up to this time, called Mappa Selenographica
James Paget discovered the parasitic worm that caused trichinosis in
human muscle
Félix Dujardin is the first to state that single-cell animals should be
classified in an individual group
Heinrich Lenz discovered Lenz's law.
Jean-Charles-Athanase Peltier discovered the Peltier effect.

257
1835 Henry Fox Talbot took the world's first negative photograph
Solymon Merrick patented the wrench.
Hugo von Mohl is the first in human history to observe cell division
(mitosis) as he works over green algae Cladophora glomerata.
Francis Pettit Smith invented the propeller. Justus von Liebig and Henri Victor Regnault first produced vinyl chloride
Charles Babbage invented a mechanical calculator. Adolphe Quetelet presented his theory of social physics. He also described
Austin Burt invented the solar compass his concept of the average man who is characterized by the mean values of
Hiram Moore built the first combine harvester measured variables that follow a normal distribution.
Wilhelm Friedrich Wieprecht and Johann Gottfried Moritz George Biddell Airy presnted the first and full explanation of the Airy disk
invented the tuba. phenomenon.
Samuel Colt invented the revolver. Robert James Graves is the first to describe the symptoms of Graves'
Joseph Henry invented the electric relay. disease.
Samuel Morse developed the Morse code.

1836 Amasa and George Sizer invented the gridiron (cooking)


Nicholas Callan invented the first induction coil
James Marsh invented the Marsh test which is used for detecting arsenic
poisoning
England opened Victoria Bridge, the first to use James Dredge's Theodor Schwann discovers pepsin in extracts from the stomach lining
patent 'taper principle' of stays. Edmund Davy discovered the chemical compound acetylene (ethyne). It is
James Nasmyth invented the shaper. used a lot in modern chemistry.
Alonzo Dwight recieved a patent for a phosphorus friction match
Francis Baily observed the phenomenon named after him as Baily's beads
during an eclipse of the sun

1837 Samuel Morse invented the telegraph


Rowland Hill invented the postage stamp.
Peter Gustav Lejeune Dirichlet introduced the Dirichlet's theorem on
arithmetic progressions. In here created the branch of analytic number
Self-polishing cast steel plow theory by using mathematical analysis concepts to tackle an algebraic
Robert Cocking improved the parachute design problem. By doing this he introduced the Dirichlet characters and
Thomas Davenport recieved patent on an electric motor. L-functions. He also presented the difference between the absolute and
Godefroy Engelmann patented chromolithography. conditional convergence of series, explaining its impact in the Riemann
Louis Daguerre famous image called daguerrotype L’Atelier de series theorem.
l'artiste is the earliest known photographic image to undergo the William Rowan Hamilton began to treat complex numbers as ordered pairs
full process of exposure, development and fixation. of real numbers.
Camille Polonceau patented the Polonceau truss. Pierre Wantzel proved that several ancient geometric problems are
impossible to solve using only compass and straightedge. This includes also
doubling the cube and trisecting the angle.
Michael Faraday introduced the concept of lines of force.

1838 Moritz von Jacobi invented electrotyping.


Alexander Mitchell built the first screw-pile lighthouse
Matthias Schleiden first stated that all plants are made of cells
Friedrich Wilhelm Bessel made the first accurate measurement of distance
David Bruce, Jr. invented the Pivotal Typecaster. An invention to a star (61 Cygni) using stellar parallax
that replaced hand typecasting in printing. Augustus De Morgan introduced the term 'mathematical induction'.
William Barnett recieved a patent for the first internal Siméon Denis Poisson presented his work on probability theory and
combustion engine with compression of the gas/air mixture in introducing Poisson distribution.
the cylinder. Jean Esquirol first described Down syndrome.
Sir Charles Wheatstone invented the stereoscope. Gerardus Johannes Mulder discovered proteins, and Jöns Jakob Berzelius
Pavel Petrovich Anosov invented bulat steel alloy gave its name.
Claude Servais Mathias Pouillet is the first person in the world
quantitatively measuring heat emitted by the Sun.

1839 William Smith Otis invented the steam shovel


James Nasmyth invented the steam hammer.
Michael Faraday clarified the true nature of electricity in his Experimental
Researches in Electricity
Henry Fox Talbot invented salted paper, a paper-based Thomas Henderson made the first parallax measurement of the distance to
photographic process for producing positive prints (from Alpha Centauri
negatives Louis Daguerre took the first photograph of the Moon
Edmond Becquerel effectively produced the first solar cell, using Theodor Schwann proposed that all living matter is made up of cells.
his new method for the photovoltaic effect. Carl Mosander discovered lanthanum.
Thaddeus Fairbanks invented platform scales. James Clark Ross is the first person with his crew to set off on the first
Charles Goodyear developed vulcanized rubber scientific expedition to survey Antarctica.
Louis-Jacques-Mandé Daguerre and J.N. Niepce co-invented William Daniel Conybeare and William Buckland made the first scientific
Daguerreotype photography, an invention that would forever report on describing an enormous landslide.
change the nature of photography.
Kirkpatrick MacMillan invented the pedal-driven bicycle
(rear-wheel)
William Grove invented the Grove fuel cell (hydrogen)
Cumberland Valley Railroad invented sleeping car
Lester E. Denison patented a corn sheller
Isaac Babbitt developed the Babbitt metal
Samuel Morse publicly demonstrated the electrical telegraph.
Mungo Ponton presented his discovery of the light-sensitive
quality of sodium dichromate to be used as a method of
permanent photography.

258
1840 John Herschel invented the blueprint.
William Howe patented the design of Howe truss for bridges
John William Draper invented astronomical photography
Justus von Liebig is the first to emphasise the importance of agricultural
Robert Bunsen invented the Bunsen cell. chemistry in crop production. Today almost the whole world's agricultural
is based on chemistry.
Hugh Lee Pattinson takes the first known photograph of Niagara Falls, a
daguerreotype
Joseph Whitworth presented his precision called "end measurements"
Carl Friedrich Gauss gives the first systematic analysis of the formation of
images under a paraxial approximation, later known as Gaussian optics
John Gould publicated The Birds of Australia.
Louis Agassiz presented the first major scientific work to propose that the
Earth has seen an ice age.
Captain Charles Wilkes is the first to provide evidence that Antarctica is a
complete continent.
Germain Hess introduced Hess's law which states the change in energy in
a chemical reaction depends only on the states of the reactants and product
and not on the specific pathway taken between the two states. This is a
major scientific finding in enthalpy and Gibbs energy, which is also an early
statement of the law of conservation of energy
George Richards Elkington patented the electroplating process. It was
invented by John Wright.

1841 Alexander Bain devised a printing telegraph.


Samuel Slocum patented the stapler.
Alexander Woskresensky first discovered theobromine in cacao beans
Eugène-Melchior Péligot isolated uranium
William Henry Fox Talbot introduced the calotype photographic Hugo Reinsch discovered Reinsch test for heavy metals
process Karl Weierstrass discovered the Laurent expansion theorem.
Loring Coes patented the screw type wrench, also known as the William Rutherford calculates an approximation of π to 208 decimal
monkey wrench places. Only the first 152 decimal places are correct, but it would still be a
Squire Whipple patented the Bowstring arch iron-bridge truss record.
William Howe and William Williams designed the Stephenson
Valve Gear for the steam locomotive.

1842 John Bennet Lawes invented superphosphate, which is the first


man-made fertilizer.
Christian Doppler proposed the Doppler effect.
William E. Clarke became the first person to administer an inhaled
Joseph Dart built the first grain elevator. anesthetic (ether) to perform a surgical procedure, in his case a dental
Thomas Edmondson invented the Edmondson railway ticket extraction
Nathaniel Bagshaw Ward promoted his concept of the Wardian William Bowman is the first person in history to identify the Bowman's
case. capsule, a key component of the nephron. It plays a crucial role in the body

1843 Alexander Bain invented the facsimile.


Nancy M. Johnson inventred the first Ice Cream Maker (hand-
James Prescott Joule introduced the Law of Conservation of energy, the
first law of thermodynamics
cranked) Sir William Rowan Hamilton invented linear equations
James Braid is the first to publish a work based in the history of John Couch Adams predicted the existence and position of Neptune by
hypnotism. only using mathematics
Richard March Hoe invented the steam powered rotary printing Heinrich Schwabe is the first to report a periodic change in the number of
press sunspots. He found out that they wax and wane in number according to a
ten-year cycle.
John James Waterston produced an account of the kinetic theory of gases.
Pierre-Alphonse Laurent discovered the Laurent expansion theorem.
James Prescott Joule discovered the mechanical equivalent of heat with
experiments.
Georg Ohm proposed Ohm's acoustic law
Ada Lovelace expanded Menabrea’s notes on Charles Babbage's analytical
engine. The work included an algorithm for calculating a sequence of
Bernoulli numbers which is regarded as the world's first computer program.
William Rowan Hamilton discovered the calculus of quaternions and
concluded that they are non-commutative.
Arthur Cayley and James Joseph Sylvester discovered the algebraic
invariant theory.
John T. Graves discovered the octonions.

1844 Friedrich Gottlob Keller and Charles Fenerty independently,


came discovered the wood pulp method of paper production.
Gabriel Gustav Valentin is first to mention the digestive activity of
pancreatic juice.
John Mercer invented mercerized cotton. Adolphe Wurtz is the first to synthesie copper hydride, which is a very
Thomas and Caleb Pratt invented the Pratt truss important reducing agent and catalyst in the field of organic chemistry.
Rillieux in Louisiana the multiple-effect evaporator Joseph Liouville discovered the first transcendental number
Francis Rynd invented the hollow hypodermic needle. He Hermann Grassmann studied vectors with more than three dimensions.
became the first person in recorded history to perform a
subcutaneous injection, specifically of a sedative to treat neuralgia
Samuel Morse sent the first message using the Morse code.
Henry Fox Talbot started to publish the first illustrated book
with photographs from a camera, called The Pencil of Nature.
Robert Bunsen invented the grease-spot photometer.
Richard Turner began constructing the first large-scale structural
use of wrought iron, the Palm house at Kew Gardens
Egide Walschaerts invented the Walschaerts Valve Gear for the
steam locomotive.

259
1845 Isaac Charles Johnson invented the modern Portland cement
Elias Howe invented the modern lockstitch sewing machine
Michael Faraday discovered the Faraday effect, by seeing that an intense
magnetic field can rotate the plane of polarized light
Robert William Thomson patented the first vulcanised rubber Christophorus Buys Ballot confirmed the Doppler effect
pneumatic tire. William Parsons discovered the nature of spiral galaxies
Alexander Cartwright invented baseball Gustav Kirchhoff is first to describe the Kirchhoff 's circuit laws
Edward Maynard invented the Maynard tape primer Baron Carl von Reichenbach introduced the Odic force
Horace Day invented the pressure-sensitive tape Crawford Long is the first person to perform a childbirth using anesthesia
Stephen Perry patented the rubber band Edmond Frémy discovered the oxidizing agent Frémy's salt (potassium
nitrosodisulfonate)

1846 Henri-Joseph Maus invented the Tunnel boring machine.


Royal Earl House invented the printing telegraph
Johann Galle discovered Neptune.
William Lassell discovered Neptune's largest moon, Triton.
Germany invented the transverse shuttle sewing machine Abraham Pineo Gesner developed a process to refine the liquid fuel
Thomas J. Smith invented the Christmas cracker kerosene from coal, bitumen or oil shale.
Adolphe Sax patented the saxophone Augustin-Louis Cauchy published Green's theorem.
Robert William Thomson recieved a patent for a pneumatic tyre William Lassell discovered Triton
William Armstrong designed hydraulic crane is built Édouard Séguin published the first systematic textbook which deals with
Squire Whipple introduced the trapezoidal Whipple truss for the special needs of children with developmental disabilities.
bridges

1847 Ascanio Sobrero invented nitroglycerin. It would be the first


explosive produced which was stronger than black powder.
Hermann von Helmholtz states the law of conservation of energy.
Ignaz Semmelweis pioneered the antisceptic procedures. He prevented the
Hanson Gregory invented the ring-shaped doughnut with a hole transmission of puerperal fever.
in the middle Hermann Kolbe produced acetic acid from inorganic compounds, thus
Lewis Phectic Haslett invented the forerunner to the modern disproving vitalism further
gas mask George Boole formalizes symbolic logic and defined what is now called
James Young Simpson discovered the anesthetic properties of Boolean algebra.
chloroform. He is the to use it successfully on a patient Johann Benedict Listing first introduced the term Topology in print.
Richard March Hoe patented a rotary printing press Émile Küss and Charles-Emmanuel Sédillot performed the first recorded
biopsies on neoplasms.

1848 Jonathan J. Couch invented the pneumatic drill.


Waldo Hanchett patented the dental chair.
Lord Kelvin established the absolute zero, which is the temperature where
all molecular motion ceases.
Linus Yale, Sr. invented the modern pin tumbler lock William Lassell discovered the moon Hyperion
Nicholas Callan invented an improved form of battery. Édouard Roche calculated the Roche limit.
James Warren submitted a patent for the Warren truss. Rudolf Wolf devised Wolf number, a way of quantifying sunspot activity
Joseph-Louis Lambot constructed the first ferrocement boat. Edward Frankland discovered the organometallic compound diethylzinc.
USA opened the first medical school for women in the world, The Boston
Female Medical School,
Alfred Baring Garrod discovered that excess uric acid in the blood is the
cause of gout.
Hippolyte Fizeau and John Scott Russell presented his results of the
Doppler effect in both electromagnetic and in sound waves

1849 Walter Hunt invented a repeating rifle which uses metallic


cartridges and a spring-fed magazine.
Édouard Roche discovered the Roche limit, by finding the limiting radius
of tidal destruction and tidal creation for a body held together only by its
James Bicheno Francis developed the radial flow Francis turbine. self gravity. He used this discovery to explain why Saturn's rings do not
Walter Hunt invented the safety pin. condense into a satellite
Jonathon Couch invented the jackhammer Arnold Adolph Berthold pioneerd endocrinology, a very important
Thomas and William Bowler designed the Bowler hat medical field concerning hormones
Charles-Adolphe Wurtz discovered methylamine.
Louis Pasteur advanced the field of stereochemistry by discovering that
the racemic mixture of tartaric acid is composed of the levorotatory and
dextrotatory forms, which explained the nature of optical rotation
George Gabriel Stokes showed that a combination of periodic waves causes
solitary waves
Thomas Addison first described Addison’s disease
Kohn Snow is the first to come up with the theory that cholera is a
contagious disease of the human gastrointestinal tract
Hippolyte Fizeau and Léon Foucault measure the speed of light to be
about 298,000 km/s

1850 Sir William Armstrong invented the hydraulic accumulator.


Joel Houghton recieved a patent for the first dishwasher
Carl Wilhelm Siemens discovered the Siemens-Martin process
Bernhard Riemann discovered the Riemann geometry
John Leonard Riddell invented the first practical binocular Hermann von Helmholtz invented the ophthalmoscope
microscope Victor Puiseux introduces the concept of essential singular points, and
Allen Benjamin Wilson invented the vibrating shuttle distinguishes between poles and branch points
Allen Benjamin Wilson invented the feed dogs James Joseph Sylvester originates the term matrix in mathematics.
William Penny Brookes invented the format for the modern George Stokes presented his findings on the numerical calculation of a class
Olympic Games of definite integrals and infinite series.
Lutherans invented the advent calendar. James Young discovered a method of distilling kerosene from coal.
Levi Hill invented heliochromy, a color photography process
capable of basic rendering of reds and blues.
John Gorrie publicly demonstrated his ice-making machine,

260
1851 Isaac Singer invented a new sewing machine.
John Nelson Gamewell invented the fire alarm box
William Lassell discovered Ariel and Umbriel, the moons of Uranus
Johann Julius Friedrich Berkowski took the first ever correctly exposed
Allen Benjamin Wilson invented the rotary hook, a design that photograph (daguerrotype) of the solar corona is made during the total
would eventually prevail over all other lockstitch bobbin driver phase of the eclipse. Robert Grant, William Swan and Karl Ludwig von
designs. Littrow observed this eclipse and determined that solar prominences are
Samuel Fox developed the steel-ribbed umbrella part of the Sun.
Hermann von Helmholtz invented the keratometer Julius Pintsch producesd Pintsch gas.
England laid the first protected submarine telegraph cable across Charles-Adolphe Wurtz produced compound ureas with cyanic ethers
the English Channel. Eugène Prouhet is the first to apply the Thue–Morse sequence to number
William Armstrong invented the weight-loaded hydraulic theory.
accumulator. Bernhard Riemann presented his proof of Green's theorem
Frederick Scott Archer presented the wet plate collodion James Joseph Sylvester coined the term term "discriminant", a key
photographic process. component in solving second degree eqautions
William Marsden established the world's first specialist cancer hospital, The
Royal Marsden as the Free Cancer Hospital
Hippolyte Fizeau is the first to measure the relative speeds of light in
moving water by carrying out the Fizeau experiment

1852 Robert Wilhelm Bunsen first to use a chemical vapor deposition


technique.
Georg Meissner first to descripe the tactile corpuscle
August Beer proposed Beer's law, which established the analytical
Elisha Otis invented the safety brake elevator. technique known as spectrophotometry, a very important machine in the
Henri Giffard becomes first to perform a controlled and powered chemical and pharmaceutical industry. He achieved it partly with the work
flight by using a dirigible. of Pierre Bouguer and Johann Heinrich Lambert. The Beer's law explains
Jean Bernard Léon Foucault invented a gyroscope. the relationship between the composition of a mixture and the amount of
Henri Giffard built an airship which was powered by the first light it will absorb.
aircraft engine Francis Guthrie posed the four colour problem to Augustus De Morgan.
Lorenzo Lorraine Langstroth patented the Langstroth hive for
the cultivation of honey bees.
Alexander Bonner Latta's first american designed experimental
steam fire engine is tested.
France replaced most of the mechanical semaphores with the
electric telegraph

1853 François Coignet invented reinforced concrete, one of the most


important invention in the construction industry that makes it
Claude Bernard first to describe the glycogenetic function of the liver.
Anton de Bary demonstrated that rust and smut fungi causes plant disease.
possible to built very tall buildings. Jakob Steiner introduced the Steiner system, a basic kind of block design in
George Cayley invented a manned glider. combinatorial mathematics
George Crum invented potato chips
David M. Smith patented the modern clothespin
Augustus Russell Pope patented the burglar alarm
Charles Pravaz and Alexander Wood independently invented a
practical hypodermic syringe.
John Francis Campbell invented the Campbell–Stokes recorder
for sunshine
Eugenio Barsanti and Felice Matteucci developed the Barsanti-
Matteucci engine. It is an internal combustion engine that uses
the free-piston principle.

1854 John Tyndall demonstrated the principles of fiber optics.


Orwell H. Needham patented the breast pump
George Boole proposed the Boolean algebra, the basis for digital logic
George Airy measured the gravity in a coal mine, and using this data
Heinrich Band invented the bandoneon calculated the mean density of the Earth
Thaddeus Hyatt patented the pavement light. Benjamin Silliman first to fractionate petroleum into its individual
James Ambrose Cutting recieved three patents for improvements components by distillation.
of the Ambrotype photography, a wet plate collodion process Charles Wheatstone demonstrated the
Elisha Otis finished his safety elevator. Playfair cipher
Arthur Cayley introduced the original Cayley's theorem and also produced
the first Cayley table.
Bernhard Riemann described the Riemann integral.
Claude Bernard introduced the physchology term Milieu intérieur
Filippo Pacini discovered the bacterium that causes cholera, Vibrio
cholerae
Louis Pasteur began studying fermentation

261
1855 James Clerk Maxwell invented the modern color photography,
by proposing that if three black-and-white photographs were
Friedlieb Ferdinand Runge invented chromatography, one of the most
important analytical technique in chemistry.
shot through red, green and blue filters and transparent prints of Robert Bunsen and Peter Desaga invented the Bunsen burner, one of the
the images were projected onto a screen using three projectors most important instruments in chemistry
equipped with similar filters, when superimposed on the screen Friedrich Gaedcke is the first to isolate the cocaine alkaloid. He gives the
the result would be complete reproduction of all the colours in name "erythroxyline".
the scene. This method was neither chemical or electronic. The William Odling proposed that carbon is tetravalent.
graphic design industry today uses his three color method, called Charles-Adolphe Wurtz discovered the Wurtz reaction, an important
the RGB-color. organic chemistry reaction to produce chemicals and medicine.
Sir. Henry Bessemer patented the Bessemer process for making Benjamin Silliman, Jr. disovered the methods of petroleum cracking. It is
steel. Improvements of this process were made by others during one of the most important discovery in the modern world, that makes the
later years. entire modern petrochemical industry possible.
Isaac Singer patented the sewing machine motor. James Clerk Maxwell showed that light is an electromagnetic wave by
Georges Audemars invented rayon unifying electricity and magnetism into a single theory, the classical
Joshua C. Stoddard patented the calliope electromagnetism
Wolfgang Franz von Kobell invented the stauroscope
James Patterson introduced the Gall orthographic projection for
celestial and terrestrial equal-area cartography
William Armstrong invented the rifled breech-loading
Armstrong Gun.
Heinrich Geißler designed a mercury pump, which was a better
pump to produce a vacuum than anything before

1856 James Harrison used the principle of vapour compression to


produce the world's first practical ice making machine and
Germany found the remains of Neanderthal 1 in the Neandertal Valley
Gregor Mendel began researching genetics.
refrigerator Lev Tsenkovsky discovered infusoria, including the lower algae are
William Henry Perkin discovered the first synthetic dye unicellular organisms.
(aniline), Mauveine. Louis Pasteur first crystallized galactose.
William Austin Bur invented the equatorial sextant Charles-Adolphe Wurtz discovered the glycols.
Gail Borden patented condensed milk William Ferrel proposed the Earth's wind circulation by demonstrating
Alexander Parkes patented Parkesine, the first thermoplastic the tendency of rising and rotating warm air from southern and warmer
Alphonse Louis Poitevin invented the collotype photographic regions, being transported to the northern regions.
process. Eunice Newton Foote first presented the causes of the greenhouse effect.
Tinsmith Ralph Collier invented the first egg beater with Henry Darcy introduced Darcy's law on fluid flow.
rotating parts.
Pierre-Louis Gautrot invented the sarrusophone

1857 Heinrich Geissler invented the Geissler tube.


George Pullman invented the Pullman Sleeping Car for train
Johann Carl Fuhlrott and Hermann Schaaffhausen gave the first
description of the Neanderthal
travel. Friedrich Albert Fallou pioneered the modern study of soil science.
France invented the pink lemonade Robert Bunsen invented the apparatus for measuring effusion.
William Rowan Hamilton invented the Icosian game. Jean-Louis-Paul Denucé first mentioned the neonatal incubator.
Robert Forester Mushet invented the first rails made from steel August Kekulé proposed that carbon has four chemical bonds, a tetravalent.
Carl Wilhelm Siemens patented the Siemens cycle. It is the basis for organic chemistry and living organism.

1858 Hamilton Smith patented the rotary washing machine


Jean Lenoir invented an internal combustion engine
Rudolf Virchow concluded that cells can only arise from pre-existing cells
Henry Gray published Gray's Anatomy, which is regarded as the first
Thomas E. McNeil patented the dustpan complete human-anatomy textbook.
Homer N Grillot invented the twine knotter Giovanni Battista Donati photographed the first comet ever, Donati's
W. Vandenburg patented the ironing board Comet.
Joseph Gayetty invented the modern toilet paper (mass- August Ferdinand Möbius and Johann Benedict Listing independently
produced and rolled) discovered the Möbius strip
Hymen Lipman invented the pencil eraser Arthur Cayley introduced the modern concept of the matrix in
John Landis Mason patented the Mason jar mathematics.
John Landis Mason patented the pepper shaker
William Herschel initiates fingerprint identification
Gaspard-Félix Tournachon took the first aerial photograph from
a moored balloon, using the collodion photography process.
Friedrich Hoffmann patented the Hoffmann kiln for continuous
production brickmaking.

262
1859 Gaston Planté invented the lead acid battery, which is the first
rechargeable battery in history
Charles Darwin published On the Origin of Species, the earliest and most
influental book on the theory of evolution by natural selection
USA invented the escalator Wilhelm Rudolph Fittig discovered the Pinacol coupling by producing
George B. Simpson invented the electric stove Pinacol
Harry Gem and Augurio Perera invented tennis Bernhard Riemann introduced Riemann hypothesis
France launched the first ocean-going ironclad battleship, the Joseph Prestwich and John Evans extended human history back to is now
French ironclad Gloire known as the Paleolithic Era, from the results of their investigations of
Thomas Aveling invented the first traction engine gravel-pits in the Somme valley and other places
Étienne Lenoir invented the first single-cylinder two-stroke Marian Albertovich Kowalski introduced the method to deduce the
Lenoir cycle gas engine with an electric ignition system. rotation of the Milky Way.
Charles Harrison Blackley identified pollen as the cause of allergic rhinitis
by.
Isidore Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire introduced the term ethology.
Rudolf Virchow published a major textbook on cellular pathology.
Benjamin Collins Brodie discovered the lamellar structure of thermally
reduced graphite oxide.
Aleksandr Butlerov discovered hexamine.
Robert Bunsen and Gustav Robert Kirchhoff invented an improved
spectroscope.
John Tyndall discovered that some gases block infrared radiation, thus
considering that if the concentrationen of those specific gases rises in the
atmosphere, it would bring climate change.
Arthur Cayley produced the first Cayley–Klein metric
Bernhard Riemann published his number theory paper, including the
Riemann zeta function and Riemann hypothesis.
Gustav Kirchhoff introduced the Kirchhoff 's law of thermal radiation

1860 Joseph Swan invented carbon fibers.


Benjamin Tyler Henry designed the repeating rifle that used
Florence Nightingale pioneered modern nursing
Germany held the first international meeting of chemists, the Karlsruhe
metallic cartridges Congress
Daniel Hess of West invented a carpet sweeper, which is a Marcellin Berthelot rediscovered acetylene and gives its name.
predecessor of a vacuum cleaner Robert Bunsen and Gustav Kirchhoff discovered caesium in mineral water,
Édouard-Léon Scott de Martinville produced the earliest using their newly improved spectroscope
known decipherable sound recording of the human voice, a Stanislao Cannizzaro compiled a table of atomic weights, ending decades
phonautogram of conflicting atomic weights and molecular formulas. It was possible only
because he used Avogadro's ideas regarding diatomic molecules. It also lead
to Mendeleev's discovery of the periodic law.
Albert Niemann isolated the crystalline alkaloid by analyzing the coca leaf,
and discovered cocaine
Emil Erlenmeyer invented the the Erlenmeyer flask
Carl Wilhelm Borchardt proved the Cayley's formula in graph theory.
Sixt Friedrich Jakob von Kapff discovered Teratosaurus

1861 Elisha Otis patented elevator safety brakes


Pierre Michaux invented a bicycle.
Louis Pasteur introduced Germ theory
John Tyndall made experiments in Radiant Energy, and proved the
Linus Yale invented the Yale lock (cylinder lock) connection between CO2 and infrared radtion. This reinforced the
John P. Charlton produced the postcard Greenhouse Effect
Coleman Sellers invented the kinematoscope, an early cinema Francis Galton created the world's first weather map
camera Anton de Bary described the sexual reproduction in Peronospora (fungi)
Stephen A. Morse invented the twist drill Robert Bunsen and Gustav Kirchhoff discovered rubidium
William Schrafft invented jelly bean Aleksandr Butlerov introduced the concept of chemical structure that the
USA invented the first steam-powered carousel molecules are also determined by the arrangements of the atoms, not only
William Froude presented his research into ship hull design. which atoms. This is one of the greatest discovery in chemistry.
Richard J. Gatling invented the Gatling gun. Josef Loschmidt proposed the two-dimensional representations for over
James Clerk Maxwell demonstrated the principle of permanent 300 molecules. He also recognized the variations in atomic size.
three-colour photography. Ernest Solvay invented the Solvay process to manufacture soda ash (sodium
Philipp Reis invented the Reis telephone. He created a device carbonate).
that captures sound and converts it to electrical impulses. These Eduard Suess first to propose the supercontinent Gondwana
eletrical impulses are transmitted via electrical wires to another Paul Broca identified the brains speech production center
device that transforms them into the original acoustical sound. Franciscus Donders introduced the term visual acuity.
Adolf Zsigmondy invented a dental notation system.

1862 Louis Pasteur invented pasteurisation.


Brown & Sharpe invented the first universal milling machine.
Alexander Borodin is first to describe a nucleophilic displacement, in his
case of chlorine by fluorine in benzoyl chloride. The modern chemistry is
Alexander Parkes invented Parkesine, one of the earliest synthetic based on this.
polymers.The invention formed the foundation of the industry of David Kirkaldy pioneered the tensile testing in his published book called
modern plastics. Results of an Experimental Inquiry into the Comparative Tensile Strength
and other properties of various kinds of Wrought-Iron and Steel in Glasgow
describing
Alexandre-Emile Béguyer de Chancourtois is first to propose arranging
the chemical elements in order of atomic weights
Friedrich Albert Fallou founded soil science.
Hermann Snellen introduced the Snellen chart for testing visual acuity.

1863 John Gilleland designed the double-barreled cannon


James L. Plimpton patented quad skates
Teerfarbenfabrik Meister, Lucius & Co. produced a green dye from coal
tar.
J. J. Richardson patented a ratchet wrench Max Schultze discovered that animal and vegetable protoplasm are
James Caleb Jackson invented the breakfast cereal identical, thus advancing cell theory
Alanson Crane patents a fire extinguisher. William Banting published the first popular low-carbohydrate diet.
Frederick Walton invented linoleum Paris Observatory began to publish weather maps.

263
1864 H. L. Hunley, a Confederate hand-propelled submarine became
the first submarine to sink an enemy ship, the USS Housatonic
James Clerk Maxwell introduced the theory of electromagnetism
Adolf von Baeyer first synthesized barbituric acid
ship, using a spar torpedo during the American Civil War William Huggins became the first person take the spectrum of a planetary
Siegfried Marcus inventerd and constructed the first motorized nebula when he analyzes NGC 6543.
cart John Alexander Reina Newlands constructed the first ever periodic table of
the atomic elements.
Lothar Meyer produced one of the earliest periodic table, with 28 elements
organized by valence.
Cato Maximilian Guldberg and Peter Waage proposed the law of mass
action. They proposed it by building on Claude Louis Berthollet's ideas.
William King desribed the species Homo neanderthalensis

1865 Carl Wilhelm Siemens and Pierre-Émile Martin invented the


Siemens-Martin process for making steel.
Friedrich Kekulé proposed a ring structure for benzene.
Francis Galton formulated eugenics
William A. Bullock improved the rotary printing press (web) Rudolf Clausius formulated the first mathematical version of the concept
John B. Stetson invented the cowboy hat of entropy, which is a key concept in physical chemistry. He also gives its
Aveling and Porter invented the world's first steam roller name.
Hermann Sprengel invented the Sprengel pump Adolf von Baeyer started his work on indigo dye, which revolutionized the
dye industry, and modern industrial organic chemistry
Louis Pasteur demonstrated that air is full of bacteria.
Max Schultze is the first to fully describe the platelet.
Johann Josef Loschmidt discovered the exact number of molecules in one
mole. This becomes known as Avogadro's number, which is one of the most
important discovery in chemistry
John Newlands devised the periodic table

1866 J. Osterhoudt patented the tin can with a key opener.


Robert Whitehead invented the self-propelled naval torpedo
William Huggins discovered that a nova is surrounded by a cloud of
hydrogen, by studying the emission its spectrum
Charles Goodnight invented the chuckwagon Giovanni Schiaparelli observed that meteor streams happens when when
Andrew Rankin invented an upright flushing apparatus (Urinal) planet Earth passes through the orbit of a comet that has left debris along
England formed the The Aeronautical Society of Great Britain', its path.
which is the world's oldest of such society. Gregor Mendel published Mendel's laws of inheritance, which is the basis
Ralph H. Twedell patented the hydraulic riveter for genetics.
Alfred Nobel invented dynamite, which is stronger than black Ernst Haeckel observed that the single celled organisms, the protists, do not
powder fit neither in the plant or animal division of life.
August von Hofmann invented the voltameter August von Hofmann proposed the system of hydrocarbon nomenclature,
which has become as standard system in modern chemistry
Emil Erlenmeyer proposed that the chemical compound naphthalene has a
structure of two fused benzene rings.
Max Schultze discovered two sorts of 'receptors' in the retina, the basis of
the anatomy of the eye that recieves images
John Langdon Down introduced his theory that different mental condition
can be classified ethnic characteristics, describing mongolism, which is the
genetic developmental disability now known as Down syndrome.
Thomas Clifford Allbutt invented a clinical thermometer
James Clerk Maxwell introduced the Maxwell–Boltzmann distribution in
the field of kinetic theory of gases.

1867 Christopher Scholes invented the first practical and modern


typewriter.
Joseph Lister outlined the discovery of antiseptic surgery.
Henry Enfield Roscoe isolated vanadium.
USA invented the refrigerator railroad car Charles-Adolphe Wurtz synthesized neurine.
B&W patented the water-tube steam boiler
Edward A. Calahan invented ticker tape
Lucien B. Smith invented the barbed wire
Samuel B. Fay invented the paper clip
Pierre Michaux invented the motorcycle, called a steam powered
velocipede
Sylvester H. Roper invented the Roper steam velocipede
Pierre Michaux invented the first mass-produced bicycle, the
front wheel-driven velocipede

1868 George Westinghouse invented railway air brake


Robert Mushet invented tungsten steel.
Norman Lockyer used spectroscopy to discover helium in the sun
William Henry Perkin first to synthesize coumarin (the first synthetic
John Peake Knight invented traffic lights perfume) and cinnamic acid, which he did via the Perkin reaction
Alvin J. Fellows invented the tape measure Paul Langerhans discovered Langerhans cell
Margaret E. Knight invented the paper bag Jean-Martin Charcot described and names multiple sclerosis
Thomas Edison invented a form of electronic voting machine. Adolph Kussmaul is the first to perform the esophagogastroduodenoscopy
Louis Arthur Ducos du Hauron invented a new method of color on a living human
photography, using both additive and subtractive methods. The Louis Lartet discovered the original Cro-Magnon skeletons, the first
discovery of dye sensitization helped him to achieve it. anatomically modern humans

1869 O. A. North invented clothes hanger


Daniel Chapman Stillson invented the modern pipe wrench
Dmitri Mendeleev is the father of the modern periodic table which he
presented it to the Russian Chemical Society.
USA invented American football Paul Langerhans discovered the pancreatic islets.
George Taylor invented the vibrator (steam-powered Friedrich Miescher discovered the DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) in the pus
Manipulator) of discarded surgical bandages. He is the one that gave its name "nuclein",
John Wesley Hyatt invented celluloid because it was found in the nuclei of the cells.
William Stanley Jevons invented the logic piano, a mechanical Hermann Schwarz devised the Schwarz–Christoffel mapping.
computer, constructed to work out problems in symbolic logic.

264
1870 Jones County invented feather duster
Benjamin Chew Tilghman invented the sandblasting (air blast)
Felix Klein presented a model for hyperbolic geometry and the logical
independence of Euclid's fifth postulate.
process Louis Pasteur and Robert Koch established the germ theory of disease.
William Lyman invented the rotary can opener Weather Bureau (National Weather Service) made the first first official
Moses Quinby invented the bee smoker meteorological forecast.
David Edward Hughes invented carbon microphone Rudolf Clausius proved the scalar virial theorem
David Joy recieved a Joy valve gear for steam locomotives Ludimar Hermann observed the Hermann grid illusion.
Svend Foyn recieved a patent for the grenade harpoon cannon
for whaling.
Henry R. Heyl invented a magic lantern movie projector.
Thomas Edison invented a practical stock ticker
Kingdom of Prussia were the first known to use weapons for
anti-aircraft warfare

1871 W. B. Curtis improved the rowing machine


England is first to use alternating current electricity in the Souter
John Strutt introduced the the phenomenon which is now called Rayleigh
scattering, which explains why the sky is blue. He also introduced the theory
Lighthouse of acoustic resonance
Ralph Hart Tweddell invented the portable hydraulic riveter Felix Hoppe-Seyler first explained Porphyria in biochemical terms
Friedrich Adolf Trendelenburg introduced the first successful elective
human tracheotomy for the purpose of administering general anaesthesia.
George Biddell Airy discovered that astronomical aberration is
independent of the local medium.
James Clerk Maxwell published the Theory of Heat, and demonstrated
Maxwell's demon in the philosophy of thermal and statistical physics. He
also established Maxwell relations

1872 J.E.T. Woods and J. Clark invented Stainless steel, one of the
most important metals in the industry.
Eugen Baumann rediscovered polyvinyl chloride
Robert Chesebrough invented Vaseline
J.S. Risdon invented the metal windmill. Charles-Adolphe Wurtz discovered the aldol reaction, a very important
A.M. Ward issues the first mail-order catalog. reaction in modern chemistry
Walter Scott established the first diner HMS Challenger expidition from Portsmouth laid the foundation for the
George Westinghouse Jr. inveted the railway air brake science of oceanography
John Hopkinson introduced the idea of the group flash system Richard Dedekind introduced the theory of irrational numbers in his
for distinguishing lighthouses published Stetigkeit und irrationale Zahlen
C. M. Ramus of Sussex invented the single-step hydroplane hull Felix Klein invented the Erlangen program on geometries
George Huntington is the first person to describe Huntington's disease in
detail
Ferdinand Monoyer proposed the dioptre unit which is used in modern
day glasses and contact lenses for measuring the optical power.
Ludwig Boltzmann published his H-theorem
Ludwig Boltzmann presented his Boltzmann equation which describes the
statistical behaviour of a thermodynamic system (temporal development of
distribution functions in phase space)

1873 Frederick Ransome invented the rotary kiln.


Sir William Crookes invented the Crookes radiometer
Johannes Diderik van der Waals discovered a intermolecular force called
van der Waals force. It is one of the most important discovery in modern
Zénobe Gramme invented the Gramme machine, the first chemistry
commercial electrical generator Frederick Guthrie discovered thermionic emission
Eli H. Janney invented the knuckle coupler (Janney coupler) Willoughby Smith discovered photoconductivity of the element selenium
Jacob W. Davis invented the jeans, an important invention in Jacobus Henricus van 't Hoff and Joseph Achille Le Bel independently
clothing in the modern world developed a model of chemical bonding that explains the chirality from
USA invented the farm tower silo Louis Pasteur experiments. They also provide a physical cause for optical
Chester Greenwood invented the modern day earmuffs activity in chiral compounds.
Jacob W. Davis and Levi Strauss invented the copper rivets to Charles Hermite proved that the mathematical constant e is a
strengthen the pockets of blue denim jeans transcendental number
Christopher Miner Spencer produced the fully automatic turret Henri Brocard introduceed the Brocard triangle, the Brocard points, and
lathe the Brocard circle
Carl von Linde installs his first commercial refrigeration system, James Clerk Maxwell introduced Maxwell's equations, partial differential
using dimethyl ether as the refrigerant equations, which form the foundation of classical electrodynamics, optics,
and electric circuits. He introduced it in his book A Treatise on Electricity
and Magnetism and is first to do so.
Gerhard Armauer Hansen discovered Mycobacterium leprae, which is is
the first bacterium to be identified as pathogenic in humans. The bacterium
causes leprosy,
Camillo Golgi demonstrated the Golgi's method.

1874 Gustave Trouvé invented the first metal detector.


Charles Goodyear invented the shoe welt stitcher
Georg Cantor introduced Cantor's first uncountability proof
Georg Cantor discovered set theory
C. F. Bennett invented the jockstrap C. R. Alder Wright synthetized heroin
Thomas Edison invented the quadruplex telegraph Othmar Zeidler synthesised DDT
Robert McCay Green invented the ice cream soda Jacobus van't Hoff and Achille Le Bel independently proposed that organic
Samuel W. Francis patetned the spork molecular models can be three-dimensional
Henry S. Parmalee invented the modern fire sprinkler Vladimir Alekseyevich Betz is the first to discover and describe giant
(automated) pyramidal cells in the motor cortex. These were later known as Betz cells
British Army invented snooker James Clerk Maxwell produced a model of Maxwell's thermodynamic
Christopher Latham Sholes and Samuel W. Soule invented the surface
Sholes and Glidden typewriter, with cylindrical platen and the Franz Brentano published Psychologie vom Empirischen Standpunkte
modern day QWERTY keyboard. The QWERTY keyboard is the which translates to Psychology from an Empirical Standpoint.
modern day computer keyboard
Joseph Glidden invented modern barbed wire

265
1875 Thomas Edison invented the mimeograph
George Green invented the first electric dental drill
William Crookes invented the Crookes tube. He also studied cathode rays
Friedrich Sigmund Merkel is the first to describe Merkel cell
Alexander P. Ashbourne invented biscuit cutter Paul Emile Lecoq de Boisbaudran discovered gallium via spectroscopy.
He also obtained the free metal by electrolysis of its hydroxide. This is an
important discovery because it is the first of Dmitri Mendeleev's predicted
elements to be identified.
Hermann Emil Fischer discovered phenylhydrazine

1876 Nikolaus August Otto invented the Four-stroke cycle engine


Alexander Graham Bell recieved a patent for the telephone.
Josiah Willard Gibbs introduced the notions of chemical potential, the
phase rule in thermodynamic equilibrium
Melville Bissell patented the carpet sweeper. Oscar Hertwig discovered meiosis
Thomas A. Edison invented the tattoo machine Robert Koch discovered that Bacillus anthracis bacterium is the cause of
Elisha Gray the electrical music instrument, the synthesizer anthrax. It is the first bacterium found that caused the disease.
Francis Galton invented the silent dog whistle August Rauber first to describe Koller's sickle in avian gastrulation
Francis Edgar Stanley invented an atomizing paint distributor, a William Macewen diagnosed brain sites with tumors clinically. He also
form of airbrush performed the first successful intercranial surgery.
Seth Thomas Clock Company invented an adjustable wind-up Patrick Manson began to study the filariasis infection in humans.
alarm clock. Édouard Lucas showed that 127 is a Mersenne prime. It would be the
largest Mersenne prime found for 75 years. He also demonstrated that the
Mersenne number 267 − 1 (M67) must have factors.
Asaph Hall made the first recorded observation of the Great White Spot on
Saturn, who used it to calculate the planet's rotation period.

1877 Thomas Edison invented the first working phonograph


Eadweard Muybridge invented the first moving pictures
Charles Sanders Peirce devised the Peirce quincuncial projection
Georg Cantor advanced the continuum hypothesis.
Frederick Wolseley invented a sheep shearing machine. Adolph Kussmaul described dyslexia as word-blindness
French poet Charles Cros invented the Paleophone, a method of Patrick Manson studied animal carriers of infections
recording sound Ludwig Boltzmann described the connection between entropy and
Emile Berliner invented combined telegraph and telephone, in probability. He also introduced the conecpt of distributions of molecular
which he incorporated a microphone velocities in the gas phase
Louis Brennan patented the Brennan torpedo. Wilhelm Rudolph Fittig invented Poly(methyl methacrylate)
Emile Berliner invented a telephone with induction coils
Thomas Edison demonstrateed the phonograph, a sound
recording machine.
George R. Carey invented a selenium telectroscope, which is
a camera projecting moving images to a distant point. It is the
precursor of television.
Maximilian Nitze and Josef Leiter invented the first practical
cystourethroscope with an electric light source

1878 Henry Fleuss inventerd the first practical rebreather (closed-


circuit scuba)
Richard A. Proctor described the area of the night sky that is obscured by
our own galaxy, called the Zone of Avoidance
Lester Allan Pelton invented the Pelton wheel William Allen Whitworth was the first to introduce the Bertrand's ballot
Joseph Wilson Swan invented a practical and longer-lasting theorem
electic lightbulb.
Samuel Pierpont Langley invented the bolometer
J.W. Stawitz designed the Stawitz Turbine, a Free jet water
turbine
Thomas Edison inventerd the phonograph
Vctor D'Hondt introduced the D'Hondt method of voting.
Percy Gilchrist and Sidney Gilchrist Thomas developed
the 'basic' process, enabling the use of phosphoric iron ore in
steelmaking
John Philip Holland's experimental powered submarine is
launched
Eadweard Muybridge used multiple cameras to capture motion
in stop-motion photographs and produces the famous Sallie
Gardner film. It was a predecessor of silent film, and he also
demonstrated with the film that all four feet of the horse are off
the ground at the same time.
Joseph Swan invented an incandescent light bulb
Karl Benz invented a two-stroke gas engine
William Crookes invented the Crookes tube, that produces
cathode rays.
Gustav Kessel invented an espresso machine
Karel Klíč developed the photogravure process.
Lester Allan Pelton developed the first succesful Pelton wheel
Remington introduced a new typewriter, the first with a shift key
that made it possible to use lower and upper case character

266
1879 Constantine Fahlberg discovered and invented saccharin, used
in the sweetening industry and pharmaceutical industry.
Wilhelm Wundt in Leipzig developed experimental psychology
Heinrich Anton de Bary coins the term symbiosis
James Ritty inventred the cash register Charles Sanders Peirce developed the Peirce quincuncial projection
Goerge Eastman invented a machine to produce photographic Lars Fredrik Nilson discovered the element scandium.
dry plates Vasily Dokuchaev introduced pedology, which is the foundations of
Werner von Siemens inventred the first electric locomotive using modern soil science
an external power source Ferdinand André Fouqué published a significant text in volcanology, called
William Denny and Brothers built an ocean-going ship, made Santorin et ses éruptions
of mild steel Gottlob Frege published an important text in the development of
Thomas Edison developed a incandescent light bulb with a mathematical logic.
carbon filament thread Felix Klein was the first to describe the Grünbaum–Rigby configuration
Jacob Morrison built a heavy oil engine is built by George Stokes developed the Campbell–Stokes recorder (for sunshine)
Eadweard Muybridge inventerd the zoopraxiscope, the first and fully.
early device for displaying moving images. It is considered to be Vassili von Anrep demonstrated the analgesic properties of cocaine
the predecessor of the movie projector. Edwin Hall discovered the Hall Effect
Joseph Stefan developed the Stefan–Boltzmann law. An important law in
thermodynamic which states that the total radiation from a black body is
proportional to the fourth power of its thermodynamic temperature.
Wilhelm Wundt constructed the first laboratory of experimental
psychology

1880 British Perforated Paper Company began selling toilet paper


John Milne invented the modern seismograph.
Pierre Curie and Jacques Curie discovered Piezoelectricity
John Venn devised the Venn diagram
Justin White developed candlepin bowling Robert Koch pioneered the modern bacteriology.
Amanda Jones invented a better oil burner Henry Draper took the first photograph of the Orion Nebula. He also
Walter Parry Haskett Smith develiped modern rock climbing photographed the spectrum of Jupiter.
England invented table tennis or ping-pong Fortuné Landry discovered the largest known Fermat prime, 65537.
Werner von Siemens invented the world's first electric elevator Sampson Gamgee presented his use of the medical dressing Gamgee Tissue.
Dugald Clerk built the first successful two-stroke engine. William Macewen presented the orotracheal intubation as an alternative
to tracheotomy
Thomas Edison observed the Edison effect.
Johannes Diderik van der Waals formulated the Law of Corresponding
States.

1881 Nikolay Benardos presented the first practical carbon arc


welding
Eugene Allen invented the peristaltic pump
John Tebbutt discovered C/1881 K1, a long-period comet
Alexander Graham Bell invented the first crude metal detector. Hermann Reinhard conducted the first systematic study in forensic
David Houston patented the roll film for cameras. entomology
Edward Leveaux invented the automatic player piano. India discovered the birch bark Bakhshali manuscript, which contains the
Alfred Southwick invented the electric chair earliest known Indian symbol of zero
Scotland launched The Cunard Line's SS Servia, the first steel Simon Newcomb presented Benford's law
transatlantic liner George Goodfellow performed the first laparotomy. The patient had to
Siemens & Halske opened the world's first electric tramway, the remove a bullet.
Gross-Lichterfelde Tramway, Ferdinand Adolf Kehrer performed the first modern Caesarean section
England made the town Godalming the first in the world Louis Pasteur discovered a vaccine for anthrax
to have its streets illuminated by electric light. The light were Carlos Finlay was the first to propose that yellow fever is transmitted by
hydroelectrically generated. mosquitoes, and not by humans
Peter Herdic pateneds the Herdic horse-drawn cab Waren Tay first described the genetic disorder Tay–Sachs disease
England opened Richard D'Oyly Carte's Savoy Theatre, which Samuel Siegfried Karl von Basch invented the non-invasive
became the world's first public building to be fully lit by sphygmomanometer, for the measurement of blood pressure
electricity. The building used Joseph Swan's incandescent light
bulbs.

1882 Schuyler Wheeler invented an electric fan.


Henry W. Seely patented the electric flat iron
Robert Koch discovered Mycobacterium tuberculosis as the cause of
tuberculosis
Paul Beiersdorf patented an adhesive bandage Élie Metchnikoff discovered phagocytosis, a very important biological and
England began operating the world's first coal-fired public physiological concept.
electricity generating station, the Holborn Viaduct power station Luigi Palmieri detected helium on Earth through its D3 spectral line
Étienne-Jules Marey invented a chronophotographic Ferdinand von Lindemann proved that π is a transcendental number. He
photography gun. It was capable of taking 12 frames per second also further proved that squaring the circle is impossible.
on the same plate. Felix Klein first describeed the Klein bottle.
Werner von Siemens demonstrated the first form of trolleybus, Vladimir Bekhterev began noting the role of the hippocampus in memory.
the Electromote

1883 Warren S. Johnson patented the thermostat


Charles Fritts constructed the first solar cell. He used the
Francis Galton formulated the concept Eugenics
Carl Friedrich Claus patented the Claus process
semiconductor selenium on a thin layer of gold which produced Svante Arrhenius developed ion theory, which explains conductivity in
less than 1% efficiency. electrolytes
USA invented the salt water taffy Carl Schotten and Eugen Baumann first decribed the Schotten–Baumann
Otto von Bismarck invented health insurance reaction
Robert Koch isolated Vibrio cholerae
Osborne Reynolds introduced the Reynolds number in fluid mechanics

267
1884 Hiram Maxim invented the Maxim gun, founding the age of
semi- and fully automatic firearms.
Jacobus Henricus van 't Hoff discovered the osmotic pressure in solutions
and the laws of chemical dynamics
Paul Vieille invented the first smokeless powder for firearms. Oliver Heaviside reformulated the Maxwell's equations into the four
Poudre B modern ones
Charles Parsons invented the modern steam turbine. Carl Paal and Ludwig Knorr discovered the Paal–Knorr synthesis
Károly Zipernowsky, Ottó Bláthy and Miksa Déri invented Robert Koch and Friedrich Loeffler presented the Koch's postulates.
the AC parallel power distribution, and the closed core high Friedrich Loeffler discovered that Corynebacterium diphtheriae causes
efficiency transformer diphtheria
George Eastman invented the paper-strip photographic film. Robert Koch discovered that cholera is caused by vibrio cholerae bacteria
H. de Chardonnet invented rayon. Jacobus Henricus van 't Hoff proposed the Arrhenius equation. It is
Lewis Edson Waterman invented the first practical fountain pen. one of the most important equation in physical chemistry describing the
James Ritty invented the mechanical cash register. temperature dependence of the reaction rate constant, and therefore, rate of
William Upjohn invented the first dissolvable pill a chemical reaction
Chester H. Pond invented the first electrical self-winding clock. Hermann Emil Fischer proposed the structure of purine. It is one of the
most important chemical component in many biomolecules
Henry Louis Le Chatelier presented the Le Chatelier's principle, which is
one of the most important principle in a chemical reaction, which explains
the response of dynamic chemical equilibria to external stresses
Georg Cantor introduced the Cantor function
Gottlob Frege presented a theory of logicism.
Friedrich Schultze first described Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease
Vladimir Bekhterev presented his study on the formation of the human
conception of space
Ludwig Boltzmann formulated the Stefan–Boltzmann law on blackbody
radiant flux

1885 John Kemp Starley presented his Rover safety bicycle, which is
regarded as the first practical modern bicycle
Clemens Winkler discovered germanium
Ernst Hartwig discovered the first supernova beyond the Milky Way, the S
Sylvanus Bowser invented the fuel dispenser Andromedae in the Andromeda Galaxy.
George Eastman sold the first flexible photographic roll film Theodor Escherich discovered the bacterium Escherichia coli (E. coli),
Charles Cretors invented the popcorn machine which is one of the most important bacterias found.
Gottlieb Daimler, with the help of Wilhelm Maybach, invented Eugene Goldstein used cathode ray and canal ray to discover the electrons
the Daimler Reitwagen, whch is regarded as the first motorcycle. and protons, respectively. He discovered that protons have equal and
It had a single-cylinder water-cooled engine design. opposite charge of an electron. He also discovered that a proton is 1,840
George H. Pegram recieved a patent for the Pegram truss times heavier than an electron.
Tolbert Lanston invented a typesetting system which included Eduard Suess presented his theory of eustasy, pioneered different concepts
the basic Monotype System keyboard. in ecology, and proposed the existence of the previous supercontinent
Karl Benz invented the Benz Patent-Motorwagen, which is Gondwana
regarded as the first automobile car William W. Grant performed the first successful appendectomy
Marinus Gerardus van den Bos invented the first form of Georges Gilles de la Tourette discovered Tourette syndrome
gyrocompass Wilson Bentley took the first photograph of a snowflake by attaching a
Rufus Eastman invented the electric food mixer camera to a microscope.
William Le Baron Jenney's designed ten floor building, the Johann Balmer presented a mathematical formula for the visible spectral
Home Insurance Building, gets completed and is regarded as the lines of the hydrogen atom.
first skyscraper in the world. Thus, USA built the first skyscaper.
Paul Gottlieb Nipkow patented the Nipkow disk
Carl Auer von Welsbach invented the incandescent gas mantle.

1886 Carl Gassner invented the first dry cell battery, the zinc-carbon
battery
Richard Altmann discovered of mitochondrion
Eugen Goldstein discovered anode rays
Charles Martin Hall invented the Hall–Héroult process for Henri Moissan isolated fluorine by electrolysis of a solution of potassium
converting alumina into aluminum by electrolysis hydrogen difluoride in liquid hydrogen fluoride
Karl Benz invented the fiirst gasoline powered car William Allen Whitworth used ordered Bell numbers to count the number
John Pemberton invented Coca Cola, probably the most famous of weak orderings of a set
carbonated soda in history Heinrich Schule described dementia praecox.
Gottlieb Daimler built the world's first four-wheeled motor Heinrich Hertz verified the existence of electromagnetic waves.
vehicle.
Reuben H. Donnelley produced the first Yellow Pages directory
(telephone directory)
Henry Brown invented the horizontal filing cabinet
Ottmar Mergenthaler presented his Linotype machine
William Stanley, Jr. invented the first practical alternating
current transformer device, the induction coil
Gottlieb Daimler invented the first motorboat, called Neckar
Josephine Cochrane invented the automatic dishwasher
Auguste Mustel invented the celesta.
Herbert Akroyd Stuart invented the first heavy oil engine

268
1887 Carl Josef Bayer invented the Bayer process for procuding
alumina.
Julius Richard Petri invented the Petri dish, used in bacteria research
Lazăr Edeleanu synthesized amphetamine, which he named
James Blyth invented the first working wind turbine used for phenylisopropylamine
generating electricity. Friedrich Loeffler developed Löffler's
John Stewart MacArthur developed the process of gold Heinrich Hertz helped establish the photoelectric effect by discovering its
cyanidation effect on the production and reception of electromagnetic waves in radio.
Heinrich Hertz invented the radar. Jean Pierre Mégnin pionered the modern forensic entomology
Emile Berliner invented the gramophone record Sergei Winogradsky discovers the first form of lithotrophy
August Müller and Adolph Fick invented the first wearable Émile Guyou developed Guyou hemisphere-in-a-square projection
contact lenses. Henri Poincaré presented a solution to the three-body problem.
Thomas Hill invented the comptometer
Farragut Boat Club invented softball
Hannah Harger invented the screen door
Everett Horton invented a fishing rod, made of telescoping steel
tubes.
Herman Hollerith received a patent for the punched card
calculator.
Dorr Eugene Felt invented the comptometer
Anna Connelly patented the fire escape.
Manuel Mondragón invented the Mondragón rifle, which is the
world's first automatic rifle
Alfred Yarrow invented the high-pressure water-tube Yarrow
boiler, used for a torpedo boat

1888 Marvin Stone invented the spiral winding process for


manufacturing paper drinking straws.
Friedrich Reinitzer discovered liquid crystals.
Theodor Boveri described the centrosome
Nikola Tesla invented the AC motor and transformer. Ernst Büchner invented the Büchner flask and Büchner funnel, important
John Boyd Dunlop invented the pneumatic tire. instrument in chemistry.
James Salisbury invented salisbury steak Peter Hermann Stillmark isolated ricin, which founded the field of
Frank Edward McGurrin invented touch typing lectinology.
Elisha Gray developed the telautograph Henri-Louis Le Chatelier states his Law of Stability of Chemical
Theophilus Van Kannel invented the revolving door Equilibrium
Almon Brown Strowger invented the stepping switch Emil Fischer established the relation between glucose, fructose and
Van Depoele invented the trolley pole mannose. He did that by passage to a common osazone
Thomas Edison invented the kinetoscope David Hilbert proved the Hilbert's basis theorem
Karl Benz invented the driver's license Francis Galton introduced concept of correlation in statistics
Oliver B. Shallenberger invented the AC induction electricity Richard Dedekind introduced his definition of an infinite set
meter. Sofia Kovalevskaya discovered the 'Kovalevskaya top'
Nikola Tesla invented the induction motor. Heinrich Rudolf Hertz discovered radio waves.
George Eastman invented the roll film camera, registering the Carlo Martinotti first described cortical cells (Martinotti cells)
trademark as Kodak. Emile Roux and Alexandre Yersin isolated diphtheria toxin
John J. Loud invented the ballpoint pen, who wished to produce Johannes Robert Rydberg devised the Rydberg formula, used to describe
pen that can write on leather the wavelengths of photons emitted by changes in the energy level of an
Louis Le Prince shoots the first recorded film in history, using a electron in a hydrogen atom.
single lens camera and Eastman paper film. The film was called
Roundhay Garden Scene
John Boyd Dunlop invented the pneumatic bicycle tyre

1889 Joshua Pusey invented the matchbook


James Dewar and Frederick Abel invented Cordite
Francis Galton published the book Natural Inheritance, which inspired
other people, including Karl Pearson and Raphael Weldon to develop the
Southern New England Telephone Co. installed the payphone mathematics and statistics of inheritance and biometry
in USA Joseph von Mering and Oskar Minkowski demonstrate that one of the
Samuel Leeds Allen inventedh the flexible flyer function of the pancreas is to produce the hormone insulin
Gottlieb Daimler and Wilhelm Maybach invented the V engine Hugo de Vries postulated the existence of genes, in his book Intracellular
Almon B. Strowger invented an automatic telephone exchange Pangenesis
using the Strowger switch Svante Arrhenius presented a physical explanation for the Arrhenius
Herman Hollerith invented an electric tabulating machine equation, used to derive the reaction rate constant
USA completed the first long distance electric power Joseph Louis François Bertrand introduced the Bertrand's box paradox in
transmission line probability theory.
Acquedotto de Ferrari-Galliera implemented an early method Giuseppe Peano introduced the Peano axioms for the natural numbers.
of high-voltage direct current transmission (invented by René USA opened the Johns Hopkins Hospital in Baltimore, Maryland, which
Thury). It transmitted 630 kW at 14 kV DC over a distance of originated the concept of a residency for training junior doctors
120 km Franz Carl Müller-Lyer devised the Müller-Lyer illusion
Siegfried Marcus's car design was completed, with his low-
voltage ignition magneto

269
1890 Frédéric Swarts invented the first chlorofluorocarbons, applying
it as a refrigerant.
Emil von Behring and Kitasato Shibasaburō discovered that it was
possible to immunize people against diphtheria, by preparing an anti-toxin
Clément Ader invented Ader Eole, the first aircract, airplane and via injecting of diphtheria toxin into animals.
fly machine. Walter Heape breeded rabbits from a fertilised ova, which was transferred
Francis Robbins Upton invented the smoke detector from the biological mother into the upper end of the Fallopian tube (uterus)
Stephen Babcock developed the babcock test of a different breed
Henry Perky invented shredded wheat cereal Francis Galton demonstrated the uniqueness and classifiability of the
William Phelps Eno inventerd the Stop sign human fingerprint
William Kemmler became the first person to be executed in the Jacques Loeb presented his major work on tropism,
AC electric chair. Henry Luke Bolley isolateed the organism responsible for potato scab. He
Ernest William Moir invented the airlock also managed to develope an effective treatment.
Robert Gair invented the precut paperboard box Nikolai Menshutkin discovered the Menshutkin reaction, where a tertiary
Ferdinand Hurter and Vero Charles Driffield described the amine can be converted into a quaternary ammonium salt with the help of
Hurter and Driffield film speed measurement system, an early an alkyl halide
practical system for measuring the sensitivity of an emulsion Emil Fischer discovered the stereochemistry and isomeric properties
sugars. He accomplished it by epimerization between the gluconic and
mannonic acids. He also synthesized glucose, fructose and mannose from
glycerol
Herman Hollerith's tabulating machine started being used to record census
returns using punched card input. It is one of the most important step in the
history of compuing hardware. The company later became IBM, one of the
most important hardware componies in the world today.
USA drilled the first geothermal well.
Germany discovered the phosphate mineral messelite
Percy John Heawood proved the five colour theorem
Giuseppe Peano demonstrated first a space-filling curve
Curt Schimmelbusch invented the Schimmelbusch mask. It is used for the
delivery of anesthetics to surgical patients, safely.
Robert Koch postulated the causal relationship between microbes and
diseases.

1891 Whitcomb Judson invented the zipper


Jesse W. Reno invented the escalator
Herbert Henry Dow discovered the Dow process, the electrolytic method
of bromine extraction from brine
August Schrader invented the Schrader valve, used for bicycle Georg Cantor introduced the Cantor's diagonal argument and Cantor's
tires still today theorem
Almon Brown Strowger invented the rotary dial Agnes Pockels presented the results of surface tension
Nikola Tesla invented the Tesla coil Emil Fischer devised the Fischer projection, an important concept in
George Washington Gale Ferris Jr. inventred the Ferris wheel organic chemistry
Albert Ballin built the first purpose-built cruise ship, called Hans Reusch first discovered Reusch's Moraine in Norway, a tillite from a
Prinzessin Victoria Luise Precambrian glaciation
Almon B. Strowger recieved a patent for an automatic telephone The Japan Meteorological Agency was the first to start taking records of
exchange using the Strowger switch the global average temperature
W. K. L. Dickson developed and demonstrated the kinetograph Yevgraf Fyodorov and Arthur Schoenflies concluded the Fyodorov–
moving picture system, showing the film known as Dickson Schoenflies theorem, from their work on crystallographic groups
Greeting. Édouard Lucas introduced the ménage problem.
Thomas Edison patented peephole viewer Julius Ludwig August Koch introduced the concept of psychopathology
Crompton & Co. invented the electric kettle Arnold Pick introduced the term dementia praecox
Michelin invented the removable pneumatic bicycle tire Themistocles Gluck carried the earliest recorded attempt at hip
Panhard et Levassor and Émile Levassor invented the Système replacement, using ivory to replace the femoral head
Panhard automobile layout, which consisted of four wheels with a
front-engine, rear-wheel drive and a sliding-gear transmission
Friedrich Wilhelm Gustav Bruhn invented the modern
taximeter

1892 Léon Bouly invented the cinematograph


James Dewar invented the Dewar flask or vacuum flask.
Dmitri Ivanovsky discovered the first virus
August Weismann discovered Weismann barrier and germ plasm
Arthur Garford invented the bicycle seat (padded) Edward Emerson Barnard discovered the third moon of jupiter, Amalthea.
William Painter invented the bottle cap It is also the last natural satellite found by direct visual observation.
Rudolf Diesel recieved a patent for a compression-ignition Ellen Swallow Richards introduced the word ecology, to embrace
engine. environmental education and consumer nutrition.
François Hennebique patented his developed system of Georg Cantor demonstrated that there are different kinds of infinity. He
reinforced concrete also studied transfinite numbers.
Gino Fano discovered the Fano plane
Waldemar Haffkine demonstrated the first anti-cholera vaccine.
Curt Schimmelbusch designed a form of autoclave, a technique used in the
hospital and pharmaceutical industry to sterilize the medical instruments.
He also proposed that medical dressings should be sterilized daily prior to
surgery.
Johann von Mikulicz-Radecki is the first to describe Sjögren’s syndrome

270
1893 Rudolf Diesel invented the diesel engine
Edward Goodrich Acheson invented carborundum.
Kōkichi Mikimoto developed a method to seed and grow cultured pearls
Henry Luke Bolley discovered a method of treating smut with
Louise Austin invented the pinking shears formaldehyde
H.A. Deslandres invented the spectroheliograph Hans Goldschmidt discovered the thermite reaction
Webb C. Ball invented the railroad chronometers. A timepiece Nagai Nagayoshi first synthesized methamphetamine from ephedrine
which was used for safe and correct operation of trains in many Alfred Werner established the field of coordination chemistry, by
countries discovering the octahedral structure of cobalt complexes
Thomas Edison completed the world's first construction a Eduard Suess first to postulate the existence of the Tethys Sea in previous
motion picture studio, in West Orange, New Jersey. times
János Csonka and Donát Bánki inventred the carburetor Daniel Hale Williams completed the first successful open heart surgery
Edward Goodrich Acheson invented the method for making the Ádám Politzer first described otosclerosis
abrasive silicon carbide powder Wilhelm Wien formulated Wien's displacement law.
William Scherzer invented a rolling lift bridge design
USA opened the first Ferris Wheel at the World's Columbian
Exposition in Chicago
Wilhelm Maybach invented the spray nozzle carburetor
Alan MacMasters invented the first electric bread toaster
Edward Weston developed the Weston cell

1894 William Halsted implemented the use of sterilized medical


gloves
John Strutt, 3rd Baron Rayleigh and Scot William Ramsay discovered
argon
Bradley Allen Fiske invented the stadimeter Patrick Manson postulated that malaria is spread by mosquitoes
Charles Francis Jenkins invented the phantoscope
Charles Frederick Cross, Edward John Bevan and Clayton
Beadle invented viscose, a form of artificial silk or rayon
Auguste and Louis Lumière invented the portable motion-
picture camera, the cinematographe, which is a combination of a
movie camera and a projector.
William C. Hooker patented a spring-loaded mousetrap
John Joly devised an additive colour photographic process for
producing images from a single photographic plate, called the
Joly colour screen
Julius Scheiner devised a film speed measurement system.

1895 Guglielmo Marconi invented wireless communication using


radio waves.
Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen discovered x-rays, a type of electromagnetic
radiation
Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen invented the first x-ray radiograph William Ramsay isolated helium by treating the mineral cleveite. Per
William G. Morgan invented volleyball Teodor Cleve and Abraham Langlet also isolated it the same year, and they
Charles Hanson invented the clipless pedal also determined its atomic weight
Curtis H. Veeder invented the cyclocomputer Emil Fischer and Arthur Speier are the first to describe the Fischer–Speier
Ogden Bolton Jr. invented an electric bicycle esterification
Wilhelm and Carl Fein invented the world's first portable Carl von Linde discovered the Linde cycle.
handheld electric drill Svante Arrhenius presented his quantified data about the sensitivity of
Ernest A. Hummel invented the telediagraph. global climate to atmospheric carbon dioxide.
Auguste and Louis Lumière are the first to present a projected Eugen Warming founded the scientific discipline ecology, with the
motion picture to an audience of more that one person, using publishing of Plantesamfund
their newly invented cinematographe. France held the first international meeting for the protection of birds
Diederik Korteweg and Gustav de Vries derived the Korteweg–de Vries
equation. The equation describes the development of long solitary water
waves in a canal of rectangular cross section
Georg Cantor introduced set theory containing the arithmetic of infinite
cardinal numbers and the continuum hypothesis
Henri Poincaré provided the first systematic treatment of topology
Alexander Stepanovich Popov invented the first practical application of
electromagnetic waves by demonstrating a radio receiver, containing a
coherer, refined as a lightning detector

1896 H. O'Sullivan invented the rubber heel.


Jesse W. Reno produced the first working inclined escalator
Henri Becquerel exposed photographic plates to uranium, and this way
discovered radioactivity
Gottlieb Daimler invented the first truck Svante Arrhenius formulates the greenhouse law. He is the first person in
Captain Neville Bertie-Clay invented an expanding bullet. history to predict that the emissions of fossil fuels's carbon dioxide are large
enough to cause global warming.
Hadamard and de la Vallee Poussin proved the prime number theorem on
the distribution of primes
Karl Pearson contributed significant to correlation and regression
Ernest Duchesne discovered the properties of penicillin
Wilhelm Wien derived Wien approximation.
Victor Despeignes pioneered radiation oncology

271
1897 William A. Spinks and William Hoskins invented the billiards
cue chalk
J.J. Thomson discovered the electron in cathode rays
David Hilbert used his treaty Zahlbericht to unify the field of algebraic
Ellsworth B. A. Zwoyer invented the charcoal briquette number theory
Alfred L. Cralle invented the ice cream scoop John Edward Campbell devised the Baker–Campbell–Hausdorff formula. It
Wyn Eugene Mccoy inventhed the tapered roller bearing is used for the multiplication of exponentials in Lie algebras
William Morrison and John C. Wharton invented the machine- Raoul Bricard defined the Bricard octahedron, by investigating and
spun cotton candy classifying flexible polyhedra
William Harbutt invented plasticine John Jacob Abel isolated epinephrine (adrenaline)
Walther Nernst invneted the Nernst lamp Felix Hoffmann successfully synthesizes acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin)
Rudolf Diesel built the first working prototype Diesel engine Felix Bernstein and Ernst Schröder presented the Cantor–Bernstein–
Thomas Edison recieved a patent for the Kinetoscope. It is a Schroeder theorem
precursor of the movie projector. Arthur Eichengrün discovered protargol
Robert Dahlander recieved a patent for the Dahlander pole
changing motor
Daimler-Motoren-Gesellschaft built the world's first meter-
equipped taxicab, the Daimler Victoria,

1898 Hans von Pechmann invented polyethylene, which is the most


common plastic today in the world
Martinus Beijerinck discovered that virus are infectious replicating in their
host. He also named it virus
Edwin Prescott patented the roller coaster. Joseph John Thomson proposed the Plum pudding model of an atom
John and Will Kellogg invented Corn Flakes Ronald Ross identified the mosquito as the carrier of malaria
J.W. Pepper invented the sousaphone Morris Travers and William Ramsay discovered neon, xenon, and krypton.
Sinclair Smith invented the installer bit (bell-hanger), which is Egypt discovered the Narmer Palette in Hierakonpolis, which contains
one of the most common drilling bit some of the earliest hieroglyphic inscriptions ever found from 31st century
Henry van de Velde inventhed the filing cabinet BC.
Alexander Winton invented the semi-trailer truck Annie Scott Dill Maunder photographed the outer corona of the sun
John Browning invented the semi-automatic shotgun during a solar eclipse
Nikola Tesla inventhed the remote control George Darwin proposed that the Earth and Moon had before been one
Goelitz Candy Company invented the candy corn body
Emil Fischer synthesized purine, and proposed the structure. Purine is a
key component in many biomolecules.
Richard Willstätter derived cocaine from tropinone, and analyzied the
structure of it
Alfred Einhorn discovered polycarbonate
Vilhelm Bjerknes devised the primitive equations, which is used in climate
modeling.
Paul Flechsig presented the cytoarchitecture of the brain into 40 areas.

1899 Waldemar Jungner invented the nickel- battery.


I.R. Johnson inventhed the bicycle frame.
Unknown established the International Committee on Atomic Weights
Élie Cartan formulated today's exterior derivative
J.S. Thurman inventhed the motor-driven vacuum cleaner. David Hilbert proposed Hilbert's axioms (a formal set) to replace Euclid's
Joshua Cohen invented the electric flash-lamp for photography elements
Wright Brothers invented the wing warping, a key design in Georg Alexander Pick presented his theorem on the area of simple
airplanes polygons
U.S. Congress first approved voting machines for use in federal Ernest Rutherford discovered two types of radiation, alpha rays and beta
elections rays.
Hugo Lenz presented the Lenz poppet valve gear for stationary Henri Becquerel discovered charged particles can be deflected by magnetic
steam engines. fields, from the radiation of uranium
Hertha Ayrton was the first woman ever to read her own paper. Her paper
was about the electric arc

1900 Ferdinan Graf von Zeppelin and Theodor Kober designed and
completed the first rigid dirigible airship, the Zippelin LZ1
Jagdish Chandra Bose pioneered the investigation of microwave optics
Wilhelm Schlenk invented the Schlenk flask, used a lot in the chemistry lab
Robert R. Montgomery invented the fly-killer Carl Bosch and Fritz Haber discovered the Haber process
Frederick Baldwin invented the carbide lamp Max Planck introduced his quantum hypothesis, in which he disocvered
USA invented the Duckpin bowling Planck's law of black-body radiation, and Planck constant. He marked the
The Wright brothers first experimented with the first manned birth of quantum physics.
glider flight Moses Gomberg identified the first organic radical, the triphenylmethyl
Eastman Kodak invented their first Brownie camera radical
Guglielmo Marconi invented the tuned circuit Richard Dixon Oldham distinguished between primary, secondary and
Thomas Alva Edison inventhed the rechargeable nickel-zinc tertiary waveforms, in which he recorded it with the seismometers
battery Max Dehn introduced Dehn plane examples and the Dehn invariant.
Charles Washington Merrill discovered the Merrill–Crowe Ernst Zermelo discovered Russell's paradox
process, which is a technique for seperating gold from the Gaston Tarry confirmed that no 6×6 orthogonal Graeco-Latin square is
solution obtained by the cyanide leaching of gold ores. possible, confirming Leonhard Euler's conjecture
Alfred Young introduced the Young tableau.
Reginald Fessenden made the the first audio radio transmission, while
experimenting with a high-frequency spark transmitter, in which he
successfully transmitted speech over a distance of about 1.6 kilometers
Paul Villard discovered Gamma rays, while studying uranium decay.
Karl Landsteiner first discovered blood types, and identified the ABO
blood group system
Jōkichi Takamine and Keizo Uenaka discoveed adrenaline

272
1901 Reginald Fessenden invented an improved wireless transmitter
Sartori Kato invented instant coffee
Frederick Gowland Hopkins discovered the amino acid Tryptophan
Frederic Kipping discovered silicone
Peter C. Hewitt invented the mercury vapor lamp Karl Pearson developed the discipline of modern mathematical statistics
King C. Gillette invented the disposable razor blade Edmund Selous gave rise to the term birdwatching, with his book called
Italy invented the radio direction finder Bird Watching in the U.K.
Edwin Moore invented the push pin Emil Fischer and Ernest Fourneau synthesized the dipeptide, glycylglycine,
Guglielmo Marconi invented the radio an important discovery in DNA and proteins.
Eastman Kodak invented the 120 film. Emil Fischer presented his work on the hydrolysis of casein.
Germany pioneered Max Schiemann's under-running trolley Germany established the world's first history of science society,
current collection system, by building the first passenger-carrying called Deutsche Gesellschaft für Geschichte der Medizin und der
trolleybus in regular service operates Naturwissenschaften,
Hubert Cecil Booth invented the electrically powered vacuum Henri Lebesgue defined the Lebesgue integration for some function f(x)
cleaner, which uses suction Élie Cartan developed the exterior derivative.
Frank Hornby invented a construction toy that will become Aleksandr Lyapunov used characteristic functions to prove the central
Meccano limit theorem
Ernest Godward invented the spiral hairpin Albert Einstein presented his conclusions on capillarity
Theodor Rall invented a design of a rolling lift bridge Owen Richardson described thermionic emission which gave rise to
Richardson's Law
Ivan Yarkovsky described the Yarkovsky effect, an important concept
in astronomy how a force acts on a rotating body which is caused by the
anisotropic emission of thermal photons.
Guglielmo Marconi is the first in history to receive a trans-Atlantic radio
signal. It was sent from England to Newfoundland, with the letter "S" in
Morse code.
Alois Alzheimer examined Auguste Deter, which lead to a diagnosis of the
condition that will carry Alzheimer's name
Ivan Pavlov introduced the theory of the conditional reflex
Georg Kelling performed the first laparoscopic surgery on a dog, also called
coelioscopy

1902 Guglielmo Marconi invented the radio magnetic detector


Georges Claude invented the Neon lamp
Peter Cooper Hewitt invented the mercury arc valve
Almroth Wright developed the first typhoid vaccine
Poulsen Reginald Fessenden invented the radio telephone: Arthur D. Little discovered the Rayon cellulose ester
Simon Lake invented the periscope (collapsible) Wilhelm Ostwald discovered the Ostwald process
Washington Post invented the teddy bear Hermann Emil Fischer and Joseph von Mering discovered barbitone, a
Arthur Hill Pitney invented the postage meter succesful hypnotic agent, and one year after it was used for insomnia.
USA invented the windowed envelope Giuseppe Mercalli invented the Mercalli intensity scale as a seismic scale
Ransom Olds invented the automobile assembly line for earthquakes
Nathan Stubblefield demonstrated his wireless telephone Walter Sutton and Theodor Boveri independently developed the Boveri–
Léon Serpollet sat a new land speed record of 119 km/h (74 Sutton chromosome theory
miles/h) with a steam car. Bertrand Russell introduced the Russell's paradox
Willis Carrier invented the first modern air conditioning system Gyula Farkas introduced the first proof of Farkas' lemma
William Willcocks designed the Old Aswan Dam Henri Lebesgue introduced the theory of Lebesgue integration
Belgium built the first Vierendeel bridge, designed by Arthur Barnum Brown excavated the remains of the second Tyrannosaurus rex
Vierendeel specimen
Valerios Stais identified the Antikythera mechanism, which is Oliver Heaviside and Arthur E. Kennelly independently predicted the
considered to be the oldest analog computer existence of Kennelly-Heaviside Layer of the ionosphere.
Auguste Verneuil invented the Verneuil process for making Philipp Lenard observered that the maximum photoelectron energy
synthetic rubies depends on frequency, and not on illuminating intensity
Gilbert Newton Lewis presented the cubical atom atomic model.
Theodor Svedberg postulated that the Brownian motion is caused by the
fluctuations in molecular bombardment
William Bayliss and Ernest Starling discovered the first hormone,
secretin.
Captain Robert von Beringe discovered the first Mountain gorillas (Gorilla
beringei beringei)

273
1903 Ægidius Elling invented the first gas turbine to generate electric
power, using a centrifugal compressor
Orville and Wilbur Wright performed the first manually controlled, fixed
wing, motorized with a petrol engine, aircraft flight
Édouard Bénédictus invented laminated glass. Aida de Acosta became the first female to fly a powered aircraft solo. She
Richard Pearse invented the powered Monoplan Michael Owens used Santos-Dumont's motorized dirigible, called No.