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STAIN (Transparent to Opaque) To avoid blotching apply over Shellac or other barrier coat or use polyurethane Gel Stain
Pigmented=large/opaque/suspended particles---Dyed=small/translucent/dissolved particles (more penetration and transparency)
OIL Based Stains <250 g/l Better Penetration / Durability / More leveled finish surface
WATER Based Stains <250 g/l Problematic. More manageable/ clearer color / Faster Drying
BRIGHTER DYES (Aniline, etc-might be Water Based, which requires oil-based finish coats to avoid resuspension of dye. (Alcohol- and Oil-based available)
APPLICATION-<AQMD A-C> (A) Flow, Roll, Dip Coater (B) Hand Application (C) High-Volume, Low-Pressure (HVLP) or Electrostatic Application
AWI FINISH COATS--Range from Satin to Gloss typical. NOTE: AQMD Rule 1136 (c)1.(C)-allows stronger VOCs w/ approved emissions control system
LACQUER (Nitrocellulose)<Drying> <275 g/l
LACQUER (Acrylic) <Drying> "
LACQUER (PreCatalyzed) <1 Comp-Curing> " Water White or Amber
LACQUER (PostCatalyzed) <2 Comp-Curing> " Satin (Ideal for Light Woods)
LATEX ACRYLIC (Water-Based) "
SYNTHETIC PENETRATING OIL <250 g/l Clear or Pigmented
VINYL (Catalyzed) <275 g/l
UV CURABLE Acrylated Epoxy, Polyester, or Urethane " Wide range of gloss/pigments
UV CURABLE Water-Based "
POLYURETHANE (Catalyzed) "2K Poly" " From a few mils to thick and more flexible
POLYURETHANE (Water Based) " Wide range of gloss/pigments
POLYESTER <3 Comp-Resin/Promoter/Catalyst> " Clear deep "wet" finish-polishable
Blue = Suitable for Wet Areas
SHELLAC <730 g/l Clear <550 g/l Pigmented
WOOD FILLER (<275 g/l) for midsized pores (Large pores too big to fill, small pores don't require it)
WOOD CONDITIONER/-to prevent over-absorption into softer woods
SANDING SEALER-Brings heavily-grained woods to smooth finish prior to finish coating. (Vinyl better H20 properties than Lacquer)
BARRIER COAT (120 g/l) Isolates stain/dye from finish (ie.-water-based finish used over water-based dye)--Shellac, Vinyl
WASHCOAT-(AWI) (<120 g/l) thin barrier coat applied prior to wiping stains to ensure color uniformity. Followed by finish sanding to open grain to stain
Typical Clear Finish=Sealer Coat (for soft woods) or Barrier Coat (over stains/oils/oily wood) and multiple Top Coats (w/ possible Final Coat of other compatible type)
Backprime (<100 g/l) all Cabinets, moldings, etc. in Wet Areas (Baths, Kitchens, etc.) and against exterior walls.


WAX for the hardest woods-Walnut, etc.--applied over a finished piece for additional shine/luster
FRENCH POLISH-multiple layers of alcohol-dissolved shellac (from the excretions of a tiny insect, Laciffer Lacca, in India and Asia)
OIL RUBBED-archaic; multiple rubbing to work oil into wood supplanted by contemporary penetrating oil
SIDING STAIN--Paint-like oil/water-based stain
GEL STAIN--Pigmented, Polyurethane-based stain---Thick, slow to penetrate, thus depth of application can be controlled by how much wiped away upon application
PASTEL / PICKLED FINISH--One or a combination of off-white heavy pigmented stain and pre-bleaching
EBONIZING-Black dye sealer+misted black lacquer+finish clear coat
GLAZE-Pigment stain applied to sealed wood, then partially wiped off
TONING-To minimize strong grain <winter v summer rings>. LABOR INTENSIVE. Thin Base Stain /Gel Stain (Satin) sealing/ Sand rough areas / More Stain, wiped off/ R
SHADING-Selective staining of sapwood to match heartwood
DISTRESSING-Stripping/Sanding of finished pieces to reveal underlayers. Also physical disfiguring via ballpeens, punches, etc.

INTERIOR FLOORS <50 g/l Note: Products listed for other use (ie-"Industrial Maintenance Coating") can be used (but not reported
Wood (NWFA)
PENETRATING SEALERS Solvent Based (Oil & Resin)
PENETRATING OIL-Natural Oil (Lindseed/ Tung w additives)
PASTE WAX (Optional over Penetrating Sealers/Oil)
EPOXY (Water Based)
PENETRATING SEALERS (Silicate/Silane/Siloxane)
Scofield / Prosoco


PRESERVATIVES (<350 g/l) (Sodium or Zinc Borate / Alkaline Copper / Copper Quat / CPES) NOT Chromated Copper Arsentate (CCA) which is environmentally deleterio

CLEAR FINISHES (WP / WR / UV / Preservative) 1-2 yr life typical, thus regular maintenance is a given
Film Forming (Clear Coat) vs. Penetrating vs. Hybrid (mix of both)
Varnishes + PolyU + Other film formers trap moisture
(CPES is a breathable WP sealer--but coloring <staining> may be an issue)

Clear Wood Finish (Defy=UV resistant, water-based epoxy/synthetic resin that easily preps for annual recoat--albeit with some loss of original quality)

STAINS <50 g/l

Clear Coat/Transparent/Semi-Transparent/Semi-Solid/Solid Transparent = 1 yr ---Solid up to 8 yrs.
UV--Achieved best with "Solid" Pigmentation--"Transparents" typically rely on Transoxides (iron particulates)
Oil Based (Alkyd Resin or Natural Oils)----Greater penetration + more uniform coverage + easier reapplication than water-based
Water Based (Acrylic/Latex)-------------------Less toxic application + faster drying + longer life (although reapplication requires removal of acrylic/latex film residue) + to a
Hybrid (Oil based Acrylic) ---------------------Better penetration than water-based
STAINS-Window + Door + Trim + Garage Doors For Doors & Windows verify parameters of interior/exterior coating requirements
STAINS-Deck & Siding Verify--Alkyd / UV-water-scuff resistance / ease of reapplication / # of coats / transparency
SIDING STAINS (+ MDO/Cement-Fiber/Plywood) Long-Lasting (8 yr) Solid Stain---Heavy / Paint-like
Sikkens (ICI) / Benjamin Moore / Cabot / Pratt & Lambert / TWP
NOTE: Verify CA + AQMD VOC content: TWP 100 & 500 (and many other brands) prohibited in South Coast AQMD

PAINT <50 g/l

SEE MPI Manual Excerpts-Specifications + PDCA Standards + Paint Handbook
Prep-Spackling + Sanding rough or impervious surfaces + TSP (or substitute) + Stain-Blocker (spot prime for trouble spots) + Primer for existing paint (Sealer for new g
Primers High pigment % promotes adhesion to substrate--typ. for existing paint
Sealers High resin % regulates absorption into uneven porosity (ie. taped and mudded drywall)
Interior Latex Paint
Interior Alkyd Paint
Interior Acrylic Latex Bath and Kitchen Paint (alt to Alkyd)
Exterior Water-Based Acrylic Latex Paint
Exterior-Oil-Based Enamel Paint
B.Moore / P. Lambert / ICI Dulux / Sherwin Williams

SEALERS (Concrete / CMU / Stone )

Exterior Penetrating Sealers: All are breathable/ Siloxane-Large Molecule-Less Penetrating-Shorter Life-Water-Borne Silane-Penetrating-Durable-Volatile S
Brick,Mortar,Stone,Historic Conc., Terra Cotta *Weather Seal H-40
CMU *Custom Masonry Sealer
CMU <100 g/l Siloxane WB Concentrate (16-41 g/l)
Concrete (Vertical) <100 g/l Siloxane PD (25 g/l)
Limestone / Marble *Natural Stone Treatment
Limestone / Marble <100 g/l Natural Stone Treatment WB (1 g/l)
Concrete (Walkways) *SL100 Water Repellent
Concrete (Walkways) <100 g/l Color Enhancer WB (34 g/l)
Concrete (Interior Floors) <50 g/l Consolideck LS Guard
er coat or use polyurethane Gel Stain
nd transparency)
leveled finish surface
rer color / Faster Drying AWI
dye. (Alcohol- and Oil-based available) System
or Electrostatic Application No.
w/ approved emissions control system SEE AWI STANDARDS-FINISHING-Page 104-108 for Full Performance Analysis
All lacquers have low build-require multiple coats Subject to yellowing,blushing,crazing 1
"Water White"
Vinyl or Nitrocellulose Base Medium Perf. Fast Drying Warm/Durable/H20 Resistant/Flexible 2
Vinyl or Nitrocellulose Base Med-Hi Perf. Stronger but More Yellowing than Pre Cat Laquer 3
Med Perf.---Low VOC ---Stain + Yellowing resistance 4
High Perf. Stronger/Less Yellowing than Cat Laquers 5
May be only option with naturally oily "tropical" woods Low Perf. (Zero resistance to anything--Maintenance Required) 6
Medium Performance--Durable but Vinyl 7
Low VOC / Excellent Water Resistance (Good Kitchen Cabs) 8
Low VOC Hardness-Durability-Resistance 9
Low VOC 10
Wood + Conc Floors (over epoxy or acrylic primer) Aromatic-Darkens/Yellows Aliphatic-UV resistant 11
Cabinets / Some Doors / Paneling Aromatic vs Aliphatic 12
Cabinets / Some Doors / Paneling Used both as grain-filler under 2K Poly Finish / and as finish coat over 2K barrier coat 13

es than Lacquer)

y finish sanding to open grain to stain

s (w/ possible Final Coat of other compatible type)

ICA Italian Coating supplier-Good technical detail of typical factory finishes

geminicoatings "Low End" of factory finishes + "High End" Exterior Stains, etc.
India and Asia)

rolled by how much wiped away upon application

Mutes strong grain

) sealing/ Sand rough areas / More Stain, wiped off/ Repeat / Compatible (Polyurethane-Gloss) Finish Coat

unches, etc.

ustrial Maintenance Coating") can be used (but not reported) for flooring use

per Arsentate (CCA) which is environmentally deleterious

enance is a given

Also Wood Epoxy Filler + Stucco Primer + Conc Sealer rotdoctor smithandcompany

beit with some loss of original quality) defy

NOTE: ANY acrylic (or Poly, etc.) Clear coat over alkyd/water-based stain will complicate future "touch-up" restaining (Ie. By requiring full refinishing)
n water-based
n requires removal of acrylic/latex film residue) + to avoid blotchiness use Solid or Semi-Solid

ers of interior/exterior coating requirements sikkens-cetol

nce / ease of reapplication / # of coats / transparency Stormstain - Analysis of Deck Finish problems
geminicoatings TWP (verify CA / AQMD VOC Compliance

ble spots) + Primer for existing paint (Sealer for new gyp bd. etc.) or Primer/Sealer
o substrate--typ. for existing paint benjaminmoore
o uneven porosity (ie. taped and mudded drywall) prattandlambert
dunn edwards

-Water-Borne Silane-Penetrating-Durable-Volatile Solvent Base-Darkening Silicate-React with lime and alkalis to fill pores

Silane + Silicates (*VOC non-compliant in LA)

Solvent-based silicone elastomer (*VOC non-compliant in LA)
Water-based siloxane + silane + silicates
Prediluted, water-based Siloxane
Silane + Silicates (*VOC non-compliant in LA)
Water-based potassium methyl siliconate

Silane (*VOC non-compliant in LA)

High Gloss Finish-Lithium Silicate hardener


NOT durable nor H20 resistant. Mostly obsolete (except in antiquing?)

Now used mainly as clear topcoat
Some Yellowing typical, but Non-Yellowing pigments available / Difficulty over oil / Vinyl (or non-stearated*) sealer for moist conditions
Yellows / Difficulty over oil / More water resistant than Pre-Cat, but AWI Stds require Vinyl Sealer (watch out for Zinc Stearate sealers with both Cat Laqs, can cause "blooming" <haze> mon
Poor durability, heat, and solvent resistance
Yellow to Non Yellowing / Difficulty over oil / AWI Stds require Vinyl Sealer
No Build-Low Sheen-Labor Intensive to apply and maintain!Furniture Quality Vinyl-type first coat often used below finish
Occassional lack of finish clarity
Durable and resistant to stain/solvents/H20/chemicals. Discoloration an issue
High Tech Shops req'd-Cures almost instantly under UV lamps / 100% solids.
High Tech Shops req'd-Water and solvent bases allow stains, clear and pigmented coatings, wide range of glosses .
Institutional-Durable-Flexible-Plasticky / Mostly OK with Oils-Barrier Coat may be req'd over solvent bases / Zinc Stearate OK / 2K Poly is Polyisocyanate Resin+Acrylic or Polyester hardene
Not as durable as 2k Poly (Floor use) but High Performance
Insitutional-Hard-Resistant-Brittle / Stains & Oils require 2K Poly or other barrier coat
e "blooming" <haze> months after install)

crylic or Polyester hardener….Health Issue?)