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11.4

4. Let us consider

0

7

b

0

b

x

100 dx lim

7

x 100 dx

lim

b

7 ln x 100 0 lim

b

b

7 ln b 100 7 ln 100

which diverges, since lim x ln x . So the series

also diverges.

k 0

7

k 100

6. Let us consider

2

1

x ln x

b

2

b

dx lim

We do the appropriate u-sub

u ln x,

1

x ln x

dx.

and the last expression becomes

ln b

b

lim

ln 2

1

u du lim

b

2 u ln b

ln 2 lim

b

2 ln b 2 ln 2

which diverges as in number 4. So the series diverges as well.

16. First note that

k

2

k 1

k 2 2k 1 2

k

2

k 1

k 1 2 2

k 1

k 1 4

1

k 1 3 .

 k 2 k 2 b 2 1 x 1 3 dx 1 1 1 2 b 1 2 2 3 2 18 ,

b

We now apply the integral test to the ﬁnal series.

2

lim

b

1

x

1 3 dx lim

2 b lim

b

1

2 x 1 2

so the integral converges, and so the series does too.

18. First let’s show that the hypotheses of the integral test are satisﬁed.

Note that if 0 a b, 1 b 1

The function e 1 x

x

2

is clearly positive for x 1.

a

1

and so e b e a . Also the denominator is increasing, so the whole function is decreasing. Also it is continuous. So we can use the integral test to ﬁnd out whether or not

1

1

k 1

e

1 k

k

2

converges.

1

We do the u-sub

and the integral becomes

e

1

x

b

1

b

x 2 dx lim

u 1 x,

e

1 x

x 2 dx.

b

1

1

lim

b

e u du lim

b

e 1 b e 1 .

But as b goes to inﬁnity, 1 b goes to 0, and so e 1 b goes to e 0 1. So the entire limit exists and equals e 1. So the improper integral converges, and so the corresponding series does too.

22. For positive k, k 2 k. Also k 2 1 k 2 k. So

1

k

1

k

2 1 , and

by the comparison test, since

k

1

k diverges, so does

1

k

1

1

k 2 1 .

24.

For positive k, 3 k k3 k , and so

1

k3 k

1

3

k .

But

k

1

1

k converges,

3

being a geometric series with |r| 1. So by the comparison test,

converges too.

k

1

1

k3 k

26. For any positive k, 3 4 k 5 4 k 5 4 k , so

1

3 4 k 5 4 k

1

5 4 k .

0 4 5 k , which converges, because it is a geometric series

with common ratio smaller than one. So this series converges, and so by the comparison test the original series must converge as well.

But

k

0

1

5 4 k

k

11.5

2. f x ln 1 3x , and after taking a few derivatives we see that for n 1,

f

n x

n 1 ! 3 n

1 3x n

.

Plugging in to the deﬁnition of the Taylor series and using that f 0 0 which gets rid of the zeroth term, we get that the Taylor series at x 0 of f is

n

1

n 1 ! 3 n x n

1 n

n!

2

n

1

3 n x n n

.

3. Going through the steps we end up with

1 1 2 x

2 2 2! x 2 2 3

1

1 3 3! x 3 1 3 5

2 4 4!

Note that this can be written as

x 4

1

1 2 x

n

2

1 n 1 2 n 1 1 ! 2 n n! n 2 !2 n 2

x n ,

or in other ways.

8. Starting with the Taylor series expansion for

with x 2 , and then multiply each term by x, to get:

1

1 x at 0, we ﬁrst replace x

x

x 2 x x 3 x 5 x 7 x 9

1

12. Starting with the Taylor series expansion for e x at 0, we ﬁrst replace x

with x 2 then multiply each term by x 3 to get:

x 3 e x 2 x 3 x 5 x 2! 7

x 3! 9

.

.

.

20. Starting with the Taylor series expansion at 0 for sin x , we ﬁrst replace

x with x 2 then multiple each term by x to get:

x

sin x 2 x 3 x 3! 7

x 11

5!

3

x 15

7!

x 19

9!

.

.

.