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Leading to a Civil War!

!LEADING TO A CIVIL WAR



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  Events Leading to the Secession of the South

  The Confederate States of America

  Causes Leading to the Civil War


Leading to a Civil War
  Events leading to the Secession of the South
–  Sucession
"to withdraw formally from a
union or alliance
Southern individual states nullified their
ratification of the U.S. constitution
The Process of Secession
Leading to a Civil War
  Events leading to the Secession of the South
–  Political Sectionalism
•  Missouri Compromise 1820
– Missouri - slave state
– Maine - free state
– Entry of states into the Union have to be
balanced - one free/one slave
•  Gag Rule of 1836
•  Compromise of 1850
– California a free state
– Slavery allowed in the other
territories acquired from Mexico
Slave and Free Territories Under the Compromise of 1850
Leading to a Civil War
  Events leading to the Secession of the South
–  Political Sectionalism
•  Despite territorial gains emerged from the
Mexican American War, Americans
were more divided than ever
– North denounced war as a southern
project for expanding slavery
•  David Wilmot - Wilmot Proviso
– no slavery in Mexican Territory

Many hoping the Compromise of


!
1850 had finally settled slavery
Leading to a Civil War
  Events leading to the Secession of the South
–  Kansas-Nebraska Act 1854
•  organized 2 new federal territories
•  repealed section of Missouri Compromise
•  prohibiting slavery in states/territories
north of 36º 30 latitude
•  people decide (popular sovereignty)
Bleeding Kansas
Leading to a Civil War
  Events leading to the Secession of the South
–  Change in 2 party system
•  Democrats & Whigs
– Democrats (dough faces)
•  needed northern candidate to win because
of the number of southerners
•  F. Pierce 1852, J. Buchanan 1856, Douglas ?
– Whigs
•  Kansas & Nebraska Act killed party
divided sectionally
•  North & South too far apart on slavery
issue to hold party together
Leading to a Civil War
  Events leading to the Secession of the South
–  Change in 2 party system
•  Democrats & Whigs
•  Whigs & Free Soilers = Republicans
•  * only a northern party
– tolerate slavery in south
– unwilling to accept it's expansion
– demand that the Kansas & Nebraska Act
be repealed
– central railroad (rather than northern
as Douglas proposed)
– Homestead Act - western lands to
families to settle 160 acres
Leading to a Civil War

  Events leading to the Secession of the South!


–  Dred Scott Decision 1857
– Southern dominated court
•  Slaves were property
•  "congress could not ban slavery
from territories
•  Chief Justice Roger Taney
Leading to a Civil War

  Events leading to the Secession of the South


–  The Election of 1860
•  Aggressive movements of pro slave movement
– frightened north
– Hardened resistance in North
– intensified southern insecurity
•  South demands - congressional slave codes
Leading to a Civil War
  Events leading to the Secession of the South
–  The Election of 1860
•  Freeport Doctrine
– legislation to protect slave property in north
– Lead to a division of the Democratic Party
•  Northern Democrats - Stephen Douglas
– appealed to North & South but ambiguous
•  Southern Democrats - John Breckenridge
– Appealed to south - popular sovereignty
•  Republicans - Abraham Lincoln
•  Constitutional Union Party - John Bell
The Election of 1860
!LEADING TO A CIVIL WAR

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  Events Leading to the Secession of the South
–  Political Sectionalism
•  Missouri Compromise
•  Gag Rule
•  Compromise of 1850
•  Wilmot Proviso
–  Kansas Nebraska Act 1854
–  Dred Scot Decision 1857
–  Election of 1860
!LEADING TO A CIVIL WAR

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  Events Leading to the Secession of the South

  The Confederate States of America

  Causes Leading to the Civil War


The Confederate States of America
Leading to a Civil War

  The Confederate States of America


–  Constitution 1787 (1789 9 states ratified - 4 didn't)
•  established government
•  Constitution states that states can't coin money
and can t maintain an army but can they secede?

–  Southern Position held that the Constitution did not


automatically bind states

–  Individual States first . . . then United

STATES UNITED
Leading to a Civil War

  The Confederate States of America


–  Individual States first . . . then United
STATES UNITED
– 11 southern states seceded and formed
their own country
– North says no you can't leave = 4 long years
of fighting
– CIVIL (internal) War - settle question
about whether a state can succeed
•  Pre Civil War The United States are
•  Post Civil War The United States is
Leading to a Civil War

  The Confederate States of America


–  Radicals - fire eaters
•  South Carolinians since Nullification Controversy
–  South Carolina state convention Dec 20, 1860
•  repeal ratification of federal constitution
–  6 weeks later MI, Fl, GA, Al, LA, TX succeed
–  Delegates to Montgomery Alabama
•  organized themselves as the C.S. of A.
•  Jefferson Davis - President ( Mississippi)
!LEADING TO A CIVIL WAR

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  Events Leading to the Secession of the South

  The Confederate States of America

  Causes Leading to the Civil War


Leading to a Civil War

  Causes Leading to A Civil War


1. Conspiracy
President Country
–  North Lincoln 1860 USA
–  South J. Davis 1861 CSA
•  Each side felt the other was conspiring against the other
•  Laws & measures that inhibited the south - DAVIS
Congress controlled by north
•  North doesn't want to control south - south wants
to expand into the west LINCOLN
•  Each side didn't trust in an economic or political sense
Leading to a Civil War

  Causes Leading to A Civil War


2. Constitutional
UNITED STATES VS. STATES UNITED
•  South - separate individual states form the union
– since states formed the union they can opt out
•  North - the union created the states by the constitution
– If the union is dissolved there is nothing

– LINCOLN WAS FIGHTING TO SAVE THE UNION


NOT TO FREE THE SLAVES (a political move)
– Lincoln was a federalist & constitutionalist
Leading to a Civil War
  Causes Leading to A Civil War
3. Growth of Slavery
•  South had 4 million slaves
– Slave owners 25%
•  17 % 1-9 slaves
•  7% 10-99 slaves
•  .1% 100+
– very few had large plantations
– small minority of controlling whites
controlled southern society
•  Labor intensive agricultural society
– slaves imported because can't get enough
whites to do the labor
Leading to a Civil War
  Causes Leading to A Civil War
3. Slavery
•  Davis - the Blacks have a better condition under
superior White race
docile savages to bodily comforts and
religious instruction
•  Lincoln - not in favor of bringing about the social
or economic equality of Negroes
There must be the posi
of inferior/superior
Lincoln 1858
Lincoln was a product of his own culture
Freeing of slaves not a matter of equality!!!
Yet he was against the concept of slavery
SAVE THE UNION
Leading to a Civil War
  Causes Leading to A Civil War
4. Economic
•  Labor
– South - free labor North - paid labor
•  Tariffs
– North wanted to protect their products
artificial inflation of imports
– South faced reciprocal tariffs when they
exported their agricultural products

South Against High Tariffs

North Against Free Labor


Leading to a Civil War
  Causes Leading to A Civil War
4. Economic

•  North passes laws in congress because


of an imbalance in voting power

– 19 Free States

– 15 Slave States


Leading to a Civil War

  Causes Leading to A Civil War


5. Nature of a Republic
•  What is a Republic?
– Representative Democracy
•  Freedom to choose

South choose to leave under this freedom

Under another system this


would not have happened!
Leading to a Civil War

•  ". . . it presents the question whether discontented


individuals too few in numbers to control administration
according to organic law in any case, can always upon the
pretenses made in this case, or on any other pretense,
break up their government, and thus practically put an end to
free government upon the earth. It forces us to ask: Is there,
in all republics, this inherent and fatal weakness? Must a
government, of necessity be too strong for the liberties of its
own people or too weak to maintain its own existence?"

Lincoln - July 4, 1861


following Ft. Sumter
Leading to a Civil War

our heritage depends on inherent


weakness of a republic to strong to
maintain liberties yet too weak to
maintain its existence .

Abraham Lincoln
Leading to a Civil War

  Causes Leading to the Civil War

–  Conspiracy
–  Constitutional
–  Slavery
–  Economic
–  Nature of a Republic

1600 ---------------1787--------------1865---------------2000+
Colonial Am. Nation Civil War

–  Civil War 265 years since beginnings of our country


!LEADING TO A CIVIL WAR

!
  Events Leading to the Secession of the South

  The Confederate States of America

  Causes Leading to the Civil War


Leading to a Civil War!