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# Lecture 9 - Spur gear design

CONTENTS

1. Problem 1 Analysis
2. Problem 2 Analysis
3. Problem 3 Spur gear design

## PROBLEM 1 – SPUR GEAR DESIGN

In a conveyor system a step-down gear drive is used. The input pinion is made of 18 teeth, 2.5
mm module, 20o full depth teeth of hardness 330 Bhn and runs at 1720 rpm. The driven gear is
of hardness 280 Bhn and runs with moderate shock at 860 rpm. Face width of wheels is 35 mm.
The gears are supported on less rigid mountings, less accurate gears and contact across full face
may be assumed. The ultimate tensile strength of pinion and gear materials are 420 and 385 MPa
respectively. The gears are made by hobbing process. Find the tooth bending strength of both
wheels and the maximum power that can be transmitted by the drive with a factor of safety 1.5.
The layout diagram is shown in the figure.

## Conveyor drive Layout diagram

Solution:
The bending fatigue stress is found from AGMA equation:

Ft
σ= K v K o Km (1)
bmJ
Z2= Z1 x (N1/N2) = 18 X (1720/860) = 36

N Z m d b

## Gear 860 rpm 36 2.5 mm 90 mm 35 mm

V = π dn/60000 = π x 45 x 1720/60000
= 4.051m/s

50 + (200V)0.5
Kv = (2)
50
Z J (sharing) Kv Ko Km

## Gear 36 0.385 1.569 1.25 1.6

The J value is obtained from Graph 2 for sharing teeth as in practice. Ko and Km values are
obtained from Tables 3 and 4 respectively for the given conditions.
Graph 2 - Geometric Factor J:

Driven Machinery

## Medium shock 1.50 1.75 2.25

Table 4. Load distribution factor Km

## Accurate mountings, small bearing 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.8

clearances, minimum deflection, precision
gears

Less rigid mountings, less accurate gears, 1.6 1.7 1.8 2.2
contact across the full face

Accuracy and mounting such that less than Over 2.2 Over 2.2 Over 2.2 Over 2.2
full-face contact exists

For pinion:
Ft
σ= K v K o Km
bmJ
Ft
= x 1.569 x1.25 x1.6 (3)
35 x 2.5 x 0.338
= 0.1061 Ft

For Gear:
Ft
σ= K K K
bmJ v o m
Ft
= x 1.569 x 1.25 x1.6 (4)
35 x 2.5 x 0.385
= 0.0932 Ft

## Fatigue strength of the material is given by:

σe = σe’ kL kv ks kr kT kf km (5)

## Gear 385 187.5 1 1 0.8

SPUR GEAR – PERMISSIBLE TOOTH BENDING STRESS (AGMA)

## Endurance limit of the material is given by:

σe = σe’ kL kv ks kr kT kf km (27)

## Where, σe’ endurance limit of rotating-beam specimen

kL = load factor , = 1.0 for bending loads
kv = size factor, = 1.0 for m < 5 mm and
= 0.85 for m > 5 mm
ks = surface factor, is taken from Graph 4 based on the ultimate tensile strength of the material
for cut, shaved, and ground gears.
kr = reliability factor given in Table 5.
kT = temperature factor, = 1 for T≤ 350oC
= 0.5 for 350 < T ≤ 500oC

## Reliability of 90%, working temperature <150o C and reversible is assumed.

kf = 1.0 since it is taken in J factor.
km = 1.0 for reverse bending assumed here.
Prop. kr kT kf km

## Gear 0.897 1.0 1.0 1.0

Fatigue strength of the material is:

σe = σe’ kL kv ks kr kT kf km (6)

σe
[σ] = (7)
n

σ ≤ [σ] (8)

## Maximum power that can be transmitted is :

W = Ft v / 1000 = 947 x 4.051 /1000
= 3.84 kW
PROBLEM 2 – SPUR GEAR DESIGN

In a conveyor system a step-down gear drive is used. The input pinion is made of 18 teeth, 2.5
mm module, 20o full depth teeth of hardness 340 Bhn and runs at 1720 rpm. The driven gear is
of hardness 280 Bhn and runs with moderate shock at 860 rpm. Face width of wheels is 35 mm.
The gears are supported on less rigid mountings, less accurate gears and contact across full face
may be assumed. The ultimate tensile strength of pinion and gear materials are 420 and 385 MPa
respectively. The gears are made by hobbing process. From surface durability consideration, find
the maximum power that can transmitted by the drive with a factor of safety 1.2 for a life of 108
cycles. Drive layout is shown in the figure.

## Given Data: i = n1/n2 = 1720/860 = 2

Z2= Z1 x i = 18 X 2 = 36

n Z m d = mZ b

## Gear 860 rpm 36 2.5 mm 90 mm 35 mm

Bhn Ø Reliability Life Temp

## Solution: The induced dynamic contact stress is given by equation (9)

Ft
σH = Cp K V K o Km (10)
b d1 I

Cp = 191 MPa

sin φ cos φ i
I= (11)
2 i+1

## sin 20o cos 20o 2

I= = 0.1071
2 2+1
SPUR GEAR – SURFACE DURABILITY

Driven Machinery

## Accurate mountings, small bearing 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.8

clearances, minimum deflection, precision
gears

Less rigid mountings, less accurate gears, 1.6 1.7 1.8 2.2
contact across the full face

Accuracy and mounting such that less than Over 2.2 Over 2.2 Over 2.2 Over 2.2
full-face contact exists

V = π dn/60000 = π x 45 x 1720/60000
= 4.051m/s
For hobbed gear

50 + (200V)0.5
Kv = (12)
50
Z Kv Ko Km

## Gear 36 1.569 1.25 1.6

Ft
σH = Cp K V K o Km
b d1 I
Ft
= 191 1.569x1.25x1.6
35x45x0.1071
= 26.051 Ft MPa
SPUR GEAR – SURFACE DURABILITY

## σsf = σsf‘ KL Kr KT (13)

For steel 107 cycles life & 99% reliability from Table 4
σsf’ = 28(Bhn) - 69 = 2.8x340 – 69
= 954 MPa
KL = 0.9 for 108cycles from Fig.1
KR = 1.0. for 99% reliability from Table 5

## SPUR GEAR – SURFACE FATIGUE STRENGTH

SPUR GEAR – ENDURANCE LIMIT

## Table 5. Reliability factor KR

Reliability (%) KR

50 1.25

99 1.00

99.9 0.80

## [ σH ] = σSf / fs = 954/1.2 = 795 MPa

For factor of safety fs = 1.2
Design equation is : σH ≤ [ σH ]
26.051 √ Ft = 795 Ft = 931 N
Maximum Power that can be transmitted

## W = Ft V/1000 = 931x4.051/1000 = 3.51 kW

Problem 3 - Design of Spur gear

A pair of gears is to be designed to transmit 30 kW power from a pinion running at 960 rpm to a
gear running at 320 rpm. Design the gears so that they can last for 108 cycles. Assume 20o full
depth involute spur gear for the system. Motor shaft diameter is 30 mm.

Data: W = 30 kW ; n1= 960 rpm; n2 = 320 rpm; Life = 108 cycles ; 20o full depth involute spur
gear .

## Solution: i = n1 / n2 = 960 / 320 = 3

In order to keep the size small and meet the centre distance Z1 = 17 chosen
Z2 = i Z1 = 3 x 17 = 51

2πn1 2 x π x 960
ω= = = 100.48 rad / s
60 60

## Torque: w 30x 1000

T1 = = = 298.57Nm
ω 100.48

## From Lewis equation we have for pinion

Ft 2T1
σp = = ≤ [σ]p (1)
b Y m bYZ1m2

Steel C50 WQT with 223 Bhn hardness of and tensile strength of 660 MPa and steel C45 OQT
with hardness 205 Bhn and tensile strength of 600 MPa are assumed for the pinion and the gear.
For C50 form the data book is permissible static bending stress [σ]p = 542 MPa and for C45 [σ]g
= 487 MPa and face width b= 10m is chosen for both wheels.
Problem 3 - Design of Spur gear- Buckingham approach

## Equation (1) we have σp = T1

≤ [σ]p (2 )
5YZ1m3
For the pinion Y = 0.25808 for Z1= 17, from the Table 1
For the gear, Y = 0.39872, for Z2 = 51 from the Table 1;
For gear, Y[σ]g = 0.39872x 487 = 194.17
For pinion, Y[σ]p = 0.25808 x 542 = 139.87
SPUR GEAR - TABLE 1 FOR MODIFIED LEWIS FORM FACTOR

For the same face width hence pinion will be weaker and considered for the design.

## T 298.57 x 1000 13610

σp = 3
= 3
= (3 )
5YZ1m 5x0.25808 x 17m m3
≤ 542 MPa
m = 2.93 mm, . Since motor shaft diameter is 30 mm, to get sufficiently large pinion
m = 4 mm is taken

## Gear 51 4mm 40 mm 204mm 3.42 m/s C 45 205

We will now use Buckingham dynamic load approach for the design

## Ft = T1/r1 = 298.57/0.034 = 8781 N

⎡ 9.84V (Cb +Ft ) ⎤
Fi = ⎢ ⎥ ( 4)
⎣⎢ 9.84V + 0.4696 Cb+F t ⎥

For V=3.42 m/s permissible error is e= 0.088 mm from graph6. From table 7, if we choose I
class commercial cut gears, expected error is 0.050 for m=4mm. In order to keep the dynamic
load low precision cut gears are chosen. e = 0.0125

## SPUR GEARS – PERMISSIBLE ERROR – GRAPH 6

SPUR GEARS – EXPECTED ERROR IN TOOTH PROFILE –TABLE 7

## SPUR GEARS – VALUE OF C –TABLE 6

C = 11860e = 11860 x 0.0125 = 148.25
Substituting the values Ft = 8781 N ,
C = 148.25, V=3.42 m/s, b= 40mm in eqn (4)

⎡ 9.84x3.42(148.25x40 + 8781) ⎤
Fi = ⎢ ⎥ = 5464N ( 5)
⎢⎣ 9.84x3.42 + 0.4696 148.25x40 + 8781 ⎥⎦
Fd = Ft + Fi = 8781 + 5464 = 14245 N

## Beam strength of the pinion Ftp = bYm [σ]p

= 40x0.25808 x4x542 = 22381 N

Since Ftp(22381)> Fd(14245) the design is safe from tooth bending failure consideration.

## Wear strength of the pinion is:

2
⎛ [σ ] ⎞
Ft s = b d1 I ⎜ H ⎟ (6)
⎜ C ⎟
⎝ p ⎠
Cp = 191 MPa0.5 from the table for steel vs steel

## sin φ cos φ i sin 20o c os 20o 3

I= = = 0.1205
2 i+1 2 3+1
Substituting i =3, Ф=200 we get I= 0.1205

## SPUR GEAR – BUCKINGHAM CONTACT STRESS EQUATION

Surface fatigue strength of the pinion material is σsf = σsf’ KL KR KT
σsf’ = 2.8(Bhn) – 69 MPa
= 2.8 x 223-69 = 555.4 MPa
KL= 0.9 for 108 cycles life from graph1
KR = 1.0 taken for 99 reliability
KT = 1.0 for operating temperature <120oC Assumed.

## SPUR GEAR – SURFACE FATIGUE STRENGTH (AGMA)

Table 5 Reliability factor KR

Reliability (%) KR

50 1.25

99 1.00

99.9 0.80

## Surface fatigue strength of the pinion material is σsf = σsf’ KL KR KT

= 555.4x0.9x1x1 = 500 MPa
Assuming a factor of safety s = 1.1
[σH] = σsf /s = 500/1.1 = 455 MPa

## Wear strength of the pinion is:

2
⎛ [σH ] ⎞ ⎛ 455 ⎞
2

Ft s =b d1 I ⎜ = 40x68x0.1205 ⎜ ⎟ =1860 N
⎜ C ⎟⎟ ⎝ 191 ⎠
⎝ p ⎠

Since Fts (1860) << Fd (14245) Hence the design is not safe. Revision is necessary.
Increase the surface hardness of the pinion material to 475 Bhn and also increase the b to 13m =
13 x 4 = 52 mm.
Surface fatigue strength of the pinion material is σsf = σsf’ KL KR KT
σsf’ = 2.8(Bhn) – 69 MPa
= 2.8 x 475-69 = 1261 MPa
KL= 0.9 for 108 cycles life from graph1
KR = 1.0 taken for 99 reliability
KT = 1.0 for operating temperature <120oC Assumed.

## Surface fatigue strength of the pinion material is σsf = σsf’ KL KR KT

= 1261x0.9x1x1 = 1135 MPa
Assuming a factor of safety s = 1.1
[σH] = σsf /s = 1135 /1.1 = 1032 MPa
2
⎛ [σH ] ⎞ ⎛ 1032 ⎞
2

Ft s =b d1 I ⎜ =52x68x0.1205 ⎜ ⎟ =12439N
⎜ C ⎟⎟ ⎝ 191 ⎠
⎝ p ⎠

Since Fts (12439) < Fd (14245) still Not safe. Hence increase the module to 5mm.

## With new dimensions Fd = 16098 N

Fts 19436 N. Since Fts > Fd , the revised design is safe from surface fatigue (pitting)
considerations.

Ft
σ = K v Ko Km
bmJ

## Ft = 8781 N, b= 10m, Kv =1.15 assumed

0.5
⎡ 78 + (200V) 0.5
⎤ ⎡ 78 + (200x3.42) 0.5

Kv = ⎢ ⎥ =⎢ ⎥ = 1.15
⎣ 78 ⎦ ⎣ 78 ⎦

## SPUR GEAR –TOOTH BENDING STRESS (AGMA)

Ko = 1.25 is taken assuming uniform power source and moderate shock load from the table3
Km = 1.3 taken assuming accurate mounting and precision cut gears for face width of about
50mm.
J = 0.34404 for pinion Z1= 17 mating with gear Z2=51
For gear J = 0.40808
Table 3 -Overload factor Ko

Driven Machinery

## Medium shock 1.50 1.75 2.25

Table 4. Load distribution factor Km

## Accurate mountings, small bearing 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.8

clearances, minimum deflection, precision
gears

Less rigid mountings, less accurate gears, 1.6 1.7 1.8 2.2
contact across the full face

Accuracy and mounting such that less than Over 2.2 Over 2.2 Over 2.2 Over 2.2
full-face contact exists

σe = σe’ kL kv ks kr kT kf km
The pinion is of steel C50 OQT with 223Bhn hardness and tensile strength of 660 MPa and the
gear is of C45 OQT 30 with hardness 210 Bhn and tensile strength of 465 MPa.

## For pinion σe’ = 0.5 σut = 0.5 x 660 = 330 MPa

kL = 1 for bending, kV = 1 assumed expecting m to be <5mm; kS = 0.73 from the graph 4 for
σut= 660MPa, kf = 1.- and km = 1.33 for σut= 660MPa

σe = σe’ kL kv ks kr kT kf km
= 330x1x1x0.73x1x1x1x1.33
= 320.4 MPa
Factor of safety on bending of 1.5 assumed
[σ] = σe / s = 320.4 / 1.5 =213.6 MPa

## Graph 4 Surface factor ks

Substituting the value in the equation

## 2T1 298540 x 1.15 x 1.25 x 1.3

σ = 2
K v K o Km = ≤ [σ]
b Z1 m J 10m x 17xm2 x 0.34404

9539
σ= = 213.6
m3
m = 3.55 mm take m=4 mm.

From this module the dimensions calculated are given in Table form

## Gear 51 4mm 40 mm 204mm 3.42 m/s C 45 205

Ft = T1 / 2 = 29854/34 = 8781N
The tooth has to be checked from surface durability considerations now.

## The contact stress equation of AGMA is given below:

Ft
σH = Cp K V K o Km
b d1 I
Cp = 191 MPa0.5 from the table for steel vs steel
Substituting i =3, Ф=200 we get I= 0.1205

## sin φ cos φ i sin 20o c os 20o 3

I= = = 0.1205
2 i+1 2 3+1
0.5
⎡ 78 + (200V) 0.5
⎤ ⎡ 78 + (200x3.42) 0.5

Kv = ⎢ ⎥ =⎢ ⎥ = 1.15
⎣ 78 ⎦ ⎣ 78 ⎦

Driven Machinery

## Accurate mountings, small bearing 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.8

clearances, minimum deflection, precision
gears

Less rigid mountings, less accurate gears, 1.6 1.7 1.8 2.2
contact across the full face

Accuracy and mounting such that less than Over 2.2 Over 2.2 Over 2.2 Over 2.2
full-face contact exists
Ko = 1.25 and Km = 1.3 assumed as in the case of bending stress calculation

Ft 8781x1.15x1.25x1.3
σH = Cp K V K o Km = 191
b d1 I 40x68x0.1205

σH = 1209 MPa

## Surface fatigue strength of the pinion material is σsf = σsf’ KL KR KT

σsf’ = 2.8(Bhn) – 69 MPa
= 2.8 x 223-69 = 555.4 MPa
KL= 0.9 for 108 cycles life from graph1
KR = 1.0 taken for 99 reliability
KT = 1.0 for operating temperature <120oC Assumed.

## Surface fatigue strength of the pinion material is σsf = σsf’ KL KR KT

= 555.4x0.9x1x1 = 500 MPa
Assuming a factor of safety s = 1.1
[σH] = σsf /s = 500/1.1 = 455 MPa

σH = 1209 MPa
Since σH (1209) > [σH ] (455)
The design is not safe and surface fatigue failure will occur.
Solutions:
Increase the surface hardness of the material to 475 Bhn and also increase the b to 13m = 13 x 4
= 52 mm
Surface fatigue strength of the pinion material is σsf = σsf’ KL KR KT
σsf’ = 2.8(Bhn) – 69 MPa
= 2.8 x 475-69 = 1261 MPa
KL= 0.9 for 108 cycles life from graph1
KR = 1.0 taken for 99 reliability
KT = 1.0 for operating temperature <120oC Assumed.
Surface fatigue strength of the pinion material is σsf = σsf’ KL KR KT
= 1261x0.9x1x1 = 1135 MPa
Assuming a factor of safety s = 1.1
[σH] = σsf /s = 1135 /1.1 = 1032 MPa

Ft 8781x1.15x1.25x1.3
σH = Cp K V K o Km = 191
b d1 I 52x68x0.1205

As σH (1185) >[σH ] (1032) the design is not safe from surface durability considerations.
Hence increase the module to 5mm and take b=13m

Ft 8781x1.15x1.25x1.3
σH = Cp K V K o Km = 191
b d1 I 65x85x0.1205

σH =948 MPa < [σH ] (1032 MPa) . Hence the design is safe now from surface durability
considerations.

Final specification of the pinion and gear are given in the table

Wheel Z m b=13m d