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Curriculum Implementation

Curriculum implementation is expected to occur between component 4 (educational

plan) and component 5 (evaluation and revision) of Kellough and Kellough's curri
culum development model.
Principals need to implement the curriculum with the help of teachers in an actu
al school setting and find out if the curriculum achieved its goal. Implementati
on refers to the actual use of the curriculum or syllabus or what it consists of
in practice. Implementation is a critical phase in the cycles of planning and t
eaching a curriculum.
Implementing the curriculum does not focus on the actual use but also on the att
itudes of those who implement it. These attitudinal dispositions are particularl
y important in educational systems where teachers and principals have the opport
unity to choose among competing curriculum packages.
How should curriculum be implemented?
There are two extreme views about curriculum implementation:
a. laissez-faire approach or the "let-alone" approach. This gives teachers absol
ute power to determine what they see best to implement in the classroom. In effe
ct, this allows teachers to teach lessons they believe are appropriate for their
classes and in whatever way the want to teach such lessons. There is no firm of
control or monitoring whatsoever.
b. authoritarian control. In this view, teachers are directed by authority figur
es through a memorandum, to follow a curriculum. Teachers have no control or lee
way over the subjects the are teaching. The school head exercise absolute power
in directing teachers to teach certain subjects in specified ways. In other word
s, this approach is dictatorial way of imposing curricular implementation in the
A realistic view o curriculum implementation should be between the two extremes.
Teachers are expected to follow the prescribed syllabus exactly and make sure t
hat they do not miss any topic/component. When teachers diligently follow a pres
cribed syllabus in teaching a lesson, then they are considered to have fidelity
of use or fidelity of implementation.
To promote fidelity of use, one need to identify the topics or subjects that nee
d more focus. These subjects are are those that are more technical or more diffi
cult. A structured approach to implementation is then followed, one on which tea
chers are provided clear instructions early on.
On the other hand, some topics allow or encourage teachers to be creative ad uni
que in teaching these topics. Teachers implement personalized variations of the
prescribed curriculum, but still be guided by it. This is referred to as adaptat
ion to the curriculum or process orientation. process orientation came as a resp
onse to the need to acknowledge different organizational concepts and varying te
achers' needs and abilities that would require on-site modification..
(Activity: If you are a teacher tasked by your school head to implement a new cu
rriculum, what could be your questions on the new curriculum? What would be your
Source: Module 2: Lead Curriculum Implementation and Enrichment. EXCELS Flexible
Course, SEAMEO INNOTECH, c 2005.
Posted by Dr. Olga C. Alonsabe at 4:10 AM 0 comments
Labels: Curriculum Implementaton, olga alonsabe, SEAMEO
Curriculum Leadership
Leadership refers to the role or process that enables systems and individuals to
achieve their goals. Curriculum refers to all the experiences that learners hav
e to go through in a program of education. Curriculum leadership therefore is th
e act of exercising functions that enables the achievement of a school's goal of
providing quality education.
The definition of curriculum leadership involves functions and goals. A curricul
um leader has to take charge of making sure that the curriculum goals are achiev
ed. That ultimate goal is to maximize student learning by providing quality in t
he content of learning. Curriculum leadership focuses on what is learned (the cu
rriculum) and how it is taught (the instruction).
Being a school head, the principal is responsible for making sure that the schoo
l has a quality curriculum and that the curriculum is implemented effectively. A
chieving educational excellence is the goal. To attain such goal, the principal
need to manifest curriculum leadership.
The Roles and Functions of a Curriculum Leader
Glatthorn (1997) was an educator interested in how curriculum development could
be used to make teaching effective. He provides the list of the essential functi
ons of curriculum leadership carried out at the school and classroom levels:
Curriculum leadership functions at the school-level:
a. develop the school's vision of a quality curriculum
b. supplement the state's or district's educational goals
c. develop the school's own program of studies
d. develop a learning-centered schedule
e. determine the nature and extent of curriculum integration
f. align the curriculum
g. monitor and assist in curriculum implementation

Curriculum leadership functions at the classroom-level:

a. develop yearly planning calendars for operationalizing the curriculum
b. develop units of study
c. enrich the curriculum and remediate learning
d. evaluate the curriculum
The roles and functions show that regardless of whether these are at the school
level or classroom level, curriculum leadership involves tasks that guarantee qu
ality education. The tasks and functions may further be specified into four majo
r tasks:
a. ensuring curriculum quality and applicability
b. integrating and aligning the curriculum
c. implementing the curriculum efficiently
d. regularly evaluating, enriching, and updating the curriculum
Exhibiting curriculum leadership means that the principal have to be vigilant in
overseeing the many instructional activities in one's school so that educationa
l goals will be achieved. This implies that curriculum leadership is also a comp
onent of instructional leadership.
(Activity: Given the four major tasks of curriculum leadership, write some speci
fic ways in which these tasks can be manifested).
Source: Module: Lead Curriculum Implementation and Enrichment. EXCELS Flexible C
ourse on Leading Curricular and Instructional Processes. SEAMEO INNOTECH, C 2005
Posted by Dr. Olga C. Alonsabe at 3:40 AM 0 comments
Labels: Curriculum leadership, EXCELS, olga alonsabe
Curriculum Approaches
Curriculum practitioners and implementers may use one or more approaches in plan
ning, implementing and evaluating the curriculum. Even textbook writers or instr
uctional material producers have different curricular approaches.
The following are the five curriculum approaches:
1. Behavioral Approach. This is based on a blueprint, where goals and objectives
are specified, contents and activities are also arranged to match with the lear
ning objectives. The learning outcomes are evaluated in terms of goals and objec
tives set at the beginning. This approach started with the idea of Frederick Tay
lor which is aimed to achieve efficiency. In education, behavioral approach begi
ns with educational plans that start with the setting of goals or objectives. Th
ese are the important ingredients in curriculum implementation as evaluating the
learning outcomes as a change of behavior. The change of behavior indicates the
measure of the accomplishment.
2. Managerial Approach. In this approach, the principal is the curriculum leader
and at the same time instructional leader who is supposed to be the general man
ager. The general manager sets the policies and priorities, establishes the dire
ction of change and innovation, and planning and organizing curriculum and instr
uction. School administrators are less concerned about the content than about or
ganization and implementation. They are less concerned about subject matter, met
hods and materials than improving the curriculum. Curriculum managers look at cu
rriculum changes and innovations as they administer the resources and restructur
e the schools.
Some of the roles of the Curriculum Supervisors are the following:
a. help develop the school's education goals
b. plan curriculum with students, parents, teachers and other stakeholders
c. design programs of study by grade levels
d. plan or schedule classes or school calendar
e. prepare curriculum guides or teacher guides by grade level or subject area
f. help in the evaluation and selection of textbooks
g. observe teachers
h. assist teachers in the implementation of the curriculum
i. encourage curriculum innovation and change
j. develop standards for curriculum and instructional evaluation
3. Systems Approach. This was influenced by systems theory, where the parts of t
he total school district or school are examined in terms of how they relate to e
ach other. The organizational chart of the school represents a systems approach.
It shows the line-staff relationships of personnel and how decisions are made.
The following are of equal importance: a) administration b) counseling c) curric
ulum d) instruction e) evaluation.
4. Humanistic Approach. This approach is rooted in the progressive philosophy an
d child-centered movement. It considers the formal or planned curriculum and the
informal or hidden curriculum. It considers the whole child and believes that i
n curriculum the total development of the individual is the prime consideration.
The learner s at the center of the curriculum.
(Question: Does a principal with humanistic approach to curriculum emphasize mos
t memorization of subject matter? Does the systems approach to curriculum consid
er only each part?)
Source: Curriculum Development by Purita P. Bilbao, et. al. LoreMar Pub., 2008
Posted by Dr. Olga C. Alonsabe at 2:56 AM 0 comments
Labels: curriculum approaches, olga alonsabe
Friday, February 20, 2009
Elements/Components of the Curriculum
The nature of the elements and the manner in which they are organized may compri
se which we call a curriculum design.
Component 1: Curriculum Aims, Goals and Objectives
Aims: Elementary, Secondary, and Tertiary
Goals: School Vision and Mission
Objectives: educational objectives
1. Cognitive knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis, evaluat
2. Affective receiving, responding, valuing, organization, characterization
3. psychomotor perception, set, guided response, mechanism, complex overt respon
se, adaptation, origination
Component 2: Curriculum Content or Subject Matter
Information to be learned in school, another term for knowledge ( a compendium o
f facts, concepts, generalization, principles, theories.
1. Subject-centered view of curriculum: The Fund of human knowledge represents t
he repository of accumulated discoveries and inventions of man down the centurie
s, due to man s exploration of his world
2. Learner-centered view of curriculum: Relates knowledge to the individual s pers
onal and social world and how he or she defines reality.
Gerome Bruner: Knowledge is a model we construct to give meaning and structure to
regularities in experience
Criteria used in selection of subject matter for the curriculum:
1. self-sufficiency less teaching effort and educational resources, less learner s
effort but more results and effective learning outcomes most economical manner (
Scheffler, 1970)
2. significance contribute to basic ideas to achieve overall aim of curriculum,
develop learning skills
3. validity meaningful to the learner based on maturity, prior experience, educa
tional and social value
4. utility usefulness of the content either for the present or the future
5. learnability within the range of the experience of the learners
6. feasibility can be learned within the tile allowed, resources available, expe
rtise of the teacher, nature of learner
Principles to follow in organizing the learning contents (Palma, 1992)
1. BALANCE . Content curriculum should be fairly distributed in depth and breath
of the particular learning are or discipline. This will ensure that the level o
r area will not be overcrowded or less crowded.
2. ARTICULATION. Each level of subject matter should be smoothly connected to th
e next, glaring gaps or wasteful overlaps in the subject matter will be avoided.
3. SEQUENCE. This is the logical arrangement of the subject matter. It refers to
the deepening and broadening of content as it is taken up in the higher levels.
The horizontal connections are needed in subject areas that are similar so that
learning will be elated to one another. This is INTEGRATION.
Learning requires a continuing application of the new knowledge, skills, attitud
es or values so that these will be used in daily living. The constant repetition
, review and reinforcement of learning is what is referred to as CONTINUITY.
Component 3 Curriculum Experience
Instructional strategies and methods will link to curriculum experiences, the co
re and heart of the curriculum. The instructional strategies and methods will pu
t into action the goals and use of the content in order to produce an outcome.
Teaching strategies convert the written curriculum to instruction. Among these a
re time-tested methods, inquiry approaches, constructivist and other emerging st
rategies that complement new theories in teaching and learning. Educational acti
vities like field trips, conducting experiments, interacting with computer progr
ams and other experiential learning will also form par of the repertoire of teac
Whatever methods the teacher utilizes to implement the curriculum, there will be
some guide for the selection and use, Here are some of them:
1. teaching methods are means to achieve the end
2. there is no single best teaching method
3. teaching methods should stimulate the learner s desire to develop the cognitive
, affective, psychomotor, social and spiritual domain of the individual
4. in the choice of teaching methods, learning styles of the students should be
5. every method should lead to the development of the learning outcome in three
6. flexibility should be a consideration in the use of teaching methods
Component 4 Curriculum Evaluation
To be effective, all curricula must have an element of evaluation. Curriculum ev
aluation refer to the formal determination of the quality, effectiveness or valu
e of the program, process, and product of the curriculum. Several methods of eva
luation came up. The most widely used is Stufflebeam's CIPP Model. The process i
n CIPP model is continuous and very important to curriculum managers.
CIPP Model Context (environment of curriculum), Input (ingredients of curriculum
), Process (ways and means of implementing), Product accomplishment of goals)- p
rocess is continuous.
Regardless of the methods and materials evaluation will utilize, a suggested pla
n of action for the process of curriculum evaluation is introduced. These are th
e steps:
1. Focus on one particular component of the curriculum. Will it be subject area,
the grade level, the course, or the degree program? Specify objectives of evalu
2. Collect or gather the information. Information is made up of data needed rega
rding the object of evaluation.
3. Organize the information. This step will require coding, organizing, storing
and retrieving data for interpretation.
4. Analyze information. An appropriate way of analyzing will be utilized.
5. Report the information. The report of evaluation should be reported to specif
ic audiences. It can be done formally in conferences with stakeholders, or infor
mally through round table discussion and conversations.
6. Recycle the information for continuous feedback, modifications and adjustment
s to be made.
(Activity: "Is Philippine education really deteriorating?" This is a big questio
n raised by many sectors of our society. Reflect and research (gather enough dat
a/proof in your particular school/district/division) on this issue. Choose a par
ticular level and a specific subject area as a point o reference).
Source: Curriculum Development by Purita Bilbao, et. al. LoreMar Pub., 2008)
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Major Foundations of Curriculum
Philosophical Foundations of Curriculum:
Philosophy provides educators, teachers and curriculum makers with framework for
planning, implementing and evaluating curriculum in school.I helps in answering
what schools are for, what subjects are important, how students should learn an
d what materials and methods should be used. In decision-making, philosophy prov
ides the starting point and will be used for the succeeding decision-making.
The following four educational philosophies relate to curriculum:
1. Perennialism. The focus in the curriculum is classical subjects, literary ana
lysis and considers curriculum as constant.
2. Essentialism. The essential skills of the 3 R's and essential subjects of Eng
lish, Science, History, Math and Foreign Language is the focus of the curriculum
3. Progressivism. The curriculum is focused on students' interest, human problem
s and affairs. The subjects are interdisciplinary, integrative and interactive.
4. Reconstructionism. The focus of the curriculum is on present and future trend
s and issues of national and international interests.
Educational philosophy lays the strong foundation of any curriculum. A curriculu
m planner or specialist, implementer or the teacher, school heads, evaluator anc
hors his/her decision making process on a sound philosophy.
(Activity: Compare the four Philosophies of Education based on the aim of educat
ion, role of education and curriculum trends. How does a strong belief or philos
ophy influence curriculum?
Historical Foundations of Curriculum.
Curriculum is not an old field. Majority of scholars would place its beginning i
n 1918 with the publication of Franklin Bobbit's book."The Curriculum"
Philippine education came about from various foreign influences. This can be tra
ced back to the glorious history. Of all foreign educational systems, the Americ
an educational system has the greatest influence on our educational system.
The following six curriculum theorists contributed their views on curriculum:
1. Franklin Bobbit (1876-1956)- presented curriculum as a science that emphasize
s on students' need.
2. Werret Charters (1875-1952) - considered curriculum also as a science which i
s based on students' need, and the teachers plan the activities.
3. William Kilpatrick (1871-1965) - viewed curriculum as purposeful activities w
hich are child-centered.
4. Harold Rugg (1886-1960) - emphasized social studies in the curriculum and the
teacher plans the lesson in advance.
5. Hollis Caswell (1901-1989) - sees curriculum as organized around social funct
ions of themes, organized knowledge and earner's interests.
6. Ralph Tyler (1902-1994) - believes that curriculum is a science and an extens
ion of school's philosophy. based on students' need and interests.
The historical development shows the different changes in the purposes, principl
es and content of the curriculum.
(Question: What are the implications of ever-changing curriculum top teachers?)
Psychological Foundations
Psychology provides basis for the teaching and learning process. It unifies elem
ents of the learning process and some of the some of questions which can be addr
essed by psychological foundations.
The following are the three major groups f learning theories:
1. Behaviorists Psychology - consider that learning should be organized in order
that students can experience success in the process of mastering the subject ma
tter, and thus, method of teaching should be introduced in a step by step manner
with proper sequencing of task.
(Activity: Discuss the contributions of Edward L. Thorndike, Ivan Pavlov and Rob
ert Gagne to the present views on curriculum)
2. Cognitive Psychology - focus their attention on how individuals process infor
mation and how the monitor and manage thinking. For the cognitive theorists, lea
rning constitutes a logical method for organizing and interpreting learning. Lea
rning is rooted in the tradition of subject matter where teachers use a lot of p
roblem and thinking skills in teaching learning. These are exemplified by practi
ces like reflective thinking, creative thinking, intuitive thinking, discovery l
earning, etc.
(Activity: Discuss the contributions of Jean Piaget, Lev Vygotsky, Howard Gardne
r, Felder and Silverman and Daniel Goleman to curriculum development.
3. Humanistic Psychology - concerned with how learners can develop their human p
otential. Based on Gestalt psychology where learning can be explained in terms o
f the wholeness of the problem and where the environment is changing and the lea
rner is continuously reorganizing his/her perceptions. Curriculum is concerned w
ith the process not the products, personal needs not subject matter; psychologic
al meaning and environmental situations.
(Activity: Give the contributions of Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers to the prese
nt field of curriculum development.
4. Social Foundations of Education.
Schools exists within the social context.Societal culture affects and shapes sch
ools and their curricula.
The relationship of curriculum and society is mutual and encompassing. Hence, to
be relevant, the curricula should reflect and preserve the culture of society a
nd its aspirations. At the same time, society should also imbibe the changes bro
ught about by the formal institutions called schools.
(Question: A school has been using the same old curriculum it has had for the pa
st ten years. Do you think this is a good practice? Why? Why not?)

Source: Curriculum Development by Purita Bilbao, et. al, Loremar Pub., 2008)
Posted by Dr. Olga C. Alonsabe at 12:08 PM 0 comments
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Types of Curriculum Operating in Schools
Allan Glatthorn (2000) describes seven types of curriculum operating in the scho
1. recommended curriculum - proposed by scholars and professional organizations
2. written curriculum - appears in school, district, division or country documen
3. taught curriculum - what teachers implement or deliver in the classroom and s
4. supported curriculum - resources-textbooks, computers, audio-visual materials
which support and help in the implementation of the curriculum
5. assessed curriculum - that which is tested and evaluated
6. learned curriculum - what the students actually learn and what is measured
7. hidden curriculum - the unintended curriculum
(Activity: Visit a school of your choice. Observe and interview the appropriate
persons (teachers, students, principals)and identify the existence of the differ
ent curricula. Write specific examples).
Source: Curriculum Development by Purita Bilbao, et. al. Lorimar Pub., 2008)