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Networking Based Patient Monitoring System

INTRODUCTION

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Networking Based Patient Monitoring System

1.1 INTRODUCTION:-

Patient monitor or "multiparameter monitor" or also referred to as "physiological monitor" is a


clinical use electronic machine designed to display and minimally interpret, a person's vital signs.
Some monitors can warn of pending fatal cardiac conditions before visible signs are noticeable to
clinical staff .The parameters (or measurements) usually consist of Pulse Oximetry (measurement
of the saturated percentage of Oxygen in the blood referred to as SPO2), ECG (electro-
Cardiograph of the P-QRS-T wave of the heart w/wo pacemaker), Blood pressure (either
invasively through an inserted blood Pressure-to-transducer assembly or non-invasively with an
Inflatable blood pressure cuff) ,and temperature (usually Skin temperature through an adhesive
pad. There are more parameters such as cardiac output, CO 2 measurement (referred to as ETCO2
or end-tidal carbondioxide), respiration (through ECG channel or via ETCO2, when it is called
AWRR or Airway Respiratory Rate), anaesthetic gas measurement, etc.

Patient monitors can be broadly categorized as standalone or multiparameter. Standalone


monitors continue to be used in developing countries like India mainly due to cost restraints and
also because they are easy to manufacture and maintain.In developed part of the world,
multiparameter monitors have supplanted them, in some cases because of statutory requirements
(for example the us FDA) and also because if a clinician requires to monitor one channel then
other channels are also needed to complement the data and get a complete picture of the patient's
vital situation.

Example:
“ECG+SPO2+respiration”,”SPO2+NIBP”,”ECG+SPO2+resporecg+SPO2+resp+NIBP+temp+pre
ssure with or without ETCO2”.

Companies are working to integrate the physiological data from the isolated patient monitoring
networks into the Emerging hospital digital charting systems. This Newer method of charting
patient data reduces the likelihood of human documentation error and will eventually reduce
overall paper consumption.

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ABSTRACT

1.2 ABSTRACT:-

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Networking based patient monitoring system is used to monitor the different parameters of
patients remotely and simultaneously. In this system the doctor can monitor different parameters
of many patients by sitting in his room, House or from anywhere of the world. Parameters of
each patient are recorded and upload to web with the help of a microcontroller.

In our system we are going to use Telnet based networking system. It uses one master and multi
slave systems which are connected to each other in network using Telnet protocol. Master unit
consists of a PC connected with serial communication Ethernet cable. The Slave unit consists of
a microcontroller, sensors and Ethernet communication cable. The slave unit reads the analog
values from sensors and stores them into memory. When master sends a command for data then
that particular slave has to send these values to the master. The master then sends these values
through web. The serial communication of the master with the computer is achieved by means of
Telnet protocol. A Dot Net program is used to display these values on screen. This program also
stores these values on hard disk for future analysis.

This project provides real-time update of the patient’s health to the doctor. It reduces the frequent
visits of the doctors to the patient in person.This project helps in conserving paper and thus
saving very important trees. In our project, the number of patients can be increased depending
upon the number of client devices.

Thus the project provides the facility of virtual supervision for the doctors. This kind of
monitoring system can be applied to the private rooms, semi-private rooms as well as general
wards.

1.3 COMPARISON WITH CURRENT SCENARIO:-

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Fig 1.1

Fig 1.2
Sonography instrument
The pictures Fig 1.1 and Fig1.2 show the current bedside monitors available in the hospitals.
These bedside monitors are local the room in which they are installed. Here the doctor or the
central nurse who is incharge of the ward has to visit every patient to check his/her health status
and verify the parameter values.

The current scenario can be represented in a more simplified manner with the help of following
sketch.

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Fig 1.3

As shown in the sketch various sensors are connected to the patient’s body. The parameter values
obtained from the sensors are shown on the bedside monitors. But these monitors are local to the
room only and hence arises a need for remote monitoring.

1.4 NEED OF MONITORING:-

 In unstable physiological regulatory systems, for example in the case of a drug overdose or
anaesthesia.

 In a life threatening condition, for example where there are indications of a heart attack.

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CONCEPTUAL DIAGRAM

1.5 CONCEPTUAL DIAGRAM:-

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Fig 1.4

The previous sketch can be replaced by the conceptual diagram shown above. Here instead of
displaying the parameter values on the bedside monitors, they are given to the remote master
who takes the responsibility of displaying the values on the doctor’s computer or mobile phone.
Also the networking between master and slave is shown. For convinience only one slave is
shown.

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SPECIFICATIONS

1.6 SPECIFICATIONS OF THE PROJECT:-

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POWER SUPPLY SPECIFICATIONS:


DC +-9V Adaptor.

SLAVE SPECIFICATIONS:
 Microcontroller 8051 and serial to Ethernet module and sensors.

SENSORS:
 Temperature Sensor : LM35
 Pressure Sensor
 Heart rate sensor:

MASTER SPECIFICATIONS:
 PC or mobile or Laptop
 Ethernet based network for Telnet protocol.

NETWORKING SPECIFICATIONS:
 Telnet networking protocol
 Serial to Ethernet Module For converting data in to Telnet format

SOFTWARE SPECIFICATION:
 Visual C#
 Visual Studios 2008
 Keil4

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BLOCK DIAGRAM

1.7 BLOCK DIAGRAM:-

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Fig 1.5

The figure represents block diagram of the project. It clearly indicates the data acquisition and
the networking part.

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BLOCK DIAGRAM
DESCRIPTION

1.8 BLOCK DIAGRAM DESCRIPTION:-


1.8.1 MICROCONTROLLER:-

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Fig 1.6

The microcontroller used is 89v51RD2.

Features:-

 Uses Harvard architecture.

 Register files/data memory can be accesed directly or indirectly.

 It has built in two 16-bit timers.

 It can control up to 6 interrupt sources.

 Contains built in serial port.

 It has four ports to drive output.

1.8.2 TELNET PROTOCOL:-

Telnet is a telecommunications standard for binary serial communications between devices. It is


the protocol or specifications that need to be followed to allow devices that implement this
standard to speak to each other.This protocol is an updated version of the original serial protocol
known as RS232. While the original RS-232 standard allowed for the connection of two devices

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through a serial link, Telnet allows for serial connections between dis-similar devices on a
networked system.

Default, all the senders on the Ethernet bus are in tri-state with high impedance. In higher level
protocols, one of the nodes is defined as a master who sends queries or commands over the
network bus. All other nodes receive these data. Depending on the information in the sent data,
zero or more nodes on the line respond to the master. There are other implementations of Telnet
networks where every node can start a data session on its own. This is comparable with the way
ethernet networks function.

With such an implementation of a Telnet network it is necessary that there is error detection
implemented in the higher level protocol to detect the data corruption and resend the information
at a later time.There is no need for the senders to explicitly turn the device on or off.

The graph below shows potentials of the '+' and '−' pins of an RJ-45 line during transmission of
one byte (0xD3) of data using anasynchronous start-stop method.

Fig 1.7

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DESIGN AND INTERFACING

1.9 DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS AND INTERFACING DETAILS:-


1.9.1 POWER SUPPLY:-

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The basic step in the designing of any system is to design the power supply required for that
system.The steps involved in the designing power supply are

i. Determine the total current that the system sinks from the supply.

ii. Determine the voltage rating required for the different components.

Fig 1.8

a) Transformer Selection:-

Minimum input required for LM7805 IC is given by the equation below.

Vin =Vreg + drop out voltage across LM7805 IC

= 5V + 2V

= 7V

The drop across diodes in the bridge rectifier is 1.4V

Minimum secondary voltage required is = 1.4 + 7 = 8.4V

Hence, unregulated power supply design is for 9V.

Vr (ripple voltage) = 10% of output voltage = 0.9V

Frequency = 50Hz

Time Period =1/50 = 20ms

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b) Diode Design :-

PIV = Vm

Vm = 9V

Hence we select diode 1N4007

PIV = 100V, If = 1A

Reasons for choosing bridge rectifier:-

 The TUF is increased to 0.812 as compared to the full wave rectifier.

 The PIV across each diode is Vm and not 2Vm as in case of two diode rectifier.

 Output of bridge rectifier is not pure DC. It contains some AC ripples in it. To remove these
ripples we have used a capacitor as a filter, which smoothens the output voltage. We choose
capacitor as a filter as it is cost effective, readily available and portable.Selection of
capacitance depends on the current rating of the supply and selection of voltage rating for
capacitor on the secondary voltage of the transformer.

c) Regulator Selection:-

AT89C51 requires a supply of +5V. The sensors also require the same voltage supply.The
sink current of the system is not more than 200mA.

Hence we select regulator IC LM7805.

 Input voltage range: – 8V to 35V

 Drop out voltage: – 2V

 Output rating: – 5V

1.9.2 SERIAL COMMUNICATION:-

DB-9 connector female

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Fig 1.9

DB-9 connector male

Fig 2.0

RS232 Protocol:-

The RS-232 interface is the Electronic Industries Association (EIA) standard for the interchange
of serial binary data between two devices. It was initially developed by the EIA to standardize

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the connection of computers with telephone line modems.The standard allows as many as 20
signals to be defined, but gives complete freedom to the user.
Three wires are sufficient: send data, receive data, and signal ground. The remaining lines can be
hardwired on or off permanently. The signal transmission is bipolar, requiring two voltages, from
5 to 25 volts, of opposite polarity.

Communication Standards:-

The industry custom is to use an asynchronous word consisting of: a start bit, seven or eight data
bits, an optional parity bit and one or two stop bits. The baud rate at which the word sent is
device-dependent. The baud rate is usually 150 times an integer power of 2, ranging from 0 to 7
(150, 300, 600... 19,200). Below 150 baud, many system-unique rates are used. The standard RS-
232-C connector has 25 pins, 21 pins which are used in the complete standard. Many of the
modem signals are not needed when a computer terminal is connected directly to a computer.
Specifying compliance to RS-232 only establishes that the signal levels in two devices will be
compatible and that if both devices use the suggested connector, they may be able to be
connected. Compliance to RS-232 does not imply that the devices will be able to communicate or
even acknowledge each other's presence.

Electrical Characteristics:-

The RS-232-C specifies the signaling rate between the DTE and DCE, and a digital signal is used
on all interchange circuits. The RS-232 standard specifies that logic "1" is to be sent as a voltage
in the range -15 to -5 V and that logic "0" is to sent as a voltage in the range +5 to +15 V. The
standard specifies that voltages of at least 3 V in amplitude will always be recognized correctly at
the receiver according to their polarity, so that appreciable attenuation along the line can be
tolerated. The transfer rate is rated > 20 kbps and a distance of < 15m. Greater distance and data
rates are possible with good design, but it is reasonable to assume that these limits apply in
practice as well as in theory.The load impedance of the terminator side of the interface must be
between 3000 and 7000 ohms, and not more than 2500pF.

Working:-

Data is transmitted and received on pins 2 & 3 respectively Data Set Ready (DSR) is an
indication for the data set that it is ON.Similarly DTR indicates to the data set that the DTE is

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ON. Data Carrier Detect (DCD) indicates that a good carrier is being received from the remote
modem.Pins 4 (RST-Request to send from transmitting computer) and 5 (CTS- Clear to send
from the data set) are used for handshaking purposes. In most aynchronous situations the RTS
and CTS are continuously ON throughout the communication session.The DTE transmits when it
sees CTS up. When the station has finished it’s transmission, it drops RTS and modem drops
CTS and carrier together.

Typical Waveform:-

Fig 2.1

Waveform Explanation:-
The bit by bit serial transmission is as shown above.The transmission starts with a “start” bit
followed by 8 data bits (LSB to MSB) and ending with a “stop” bit.

MAX232:-

Communication between PC and microcontroller is done using IC MAX232. It is a TTL to


RS232 level converter. It converts +5V signal to +/-9V signal. The serial signals provided on

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Networking Based Patient Monitoring System

these pins by the microcontroller are TTL signal levels and must be boosted and inverted through
a suitable converter to comply with RS232 standard.A standard serial interfacing for a PC,
MAX232 requires negative logic i.e. logic’1’ is -3V to -25V.

Connection Diagram:-

Fig 2.2

Pin Description:-

i. Vcc (Pin16):-
Power supply pin for the device, +5V.

ii. V+ (Pin 2):-


Positive supply for TIA/EIA-232-E drivers.

iii. V- (Pin 6):-


Negative supply for TIA/EIA-232-E drivers.

iv. C1+, C1-, C2+, C2- (Pins 1, 3, 4, 5 ):-


External capacitor connection pins.

v. T1I, T2I (Pins 11, 10):-

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Driver input pins are TTL/CMOS compatible.Inputs of unused drivers may be left open, an
internal active pull-up resistor (500kW min, typically 5MW) pulls input HIGH.Output will
be low for open inputs.

vi. T1O, T2O (Pins 14, 7):-


Driver output pins conform to TIA/EIA-232-E levels.

vii. R1I, R2I (Pins 13, 8):-


Receiver input pins accept TIA/EIA-232-E input voltages ( + 25V). Receivers feature a
noise filter and guaranteed hysteresis of 100mV.Unused receiver input pins may be left
open.Internal input resistor 4.7kW pulls input low, providing a failsafe high output.

viii. R1O, R2O (Pins 12, 9):-


Receiver output pins are TTL/CMOS compatible.Receiver output high voltage is specified
for both CMOS and TTL load conditions.

ix. GND (Pin 15):-


Ground pin.

Features:-
 Single +5V power supply.
 Low power Icc 3.0 mA maximum.
 Receiver noise filter.
 Package efficiency: - 2 drivers and 2 receivers.
 Available in plastic DIP, narrow and wide SOIC package.

1.9.3 LCD INTERFACING:-

A typical LCD (Liquid Crystal Display) is as shown below

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Fig 2.3
In recent years LCD is finding widespread use replacing LED. This is due to the following
reasons.
 Declining prices of LCD.
 Ability to display numbers, characters, and graphics. This is in contrast to LEDs, which are
limited to numbers and few characters.
 Ease of programming for character and graphics.

LCD connection diagram:-

Fig 2.4
Various terminals for LCD and the connections required are as shown in Fig 2.4. The trim pot for
intensity variation of LCD is shown. With the help of this trim pot we can vary the brightness
and intensity of LCD.

In our project we are using the LCD for debugging purpose. The LCDs can be connected to
either of the slaves and the readings of the sensors and those being displayed on screen can be

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verified. Main advantage of using LCD is that the application becomes very user friendly and it
serves as a very good debugging tool.

LCD Pin Description:-

Pin Symbol I/O Description


1 Vss -- Ground
2 Vcc -- +5V Power Supply
3 Vee -- Power supply to
control contrast
4 RS I RS=0 to select
(Register Select) command register
RS=1 to select data
register
5 R/W I R/W=0 for write
(Read/Write) R/W=1 for read
6 E I Enable
7 DB0 I/O Data pin
8 DB1 I/O Data pin
9 DB2 I/O Data pin
10 DB3 I/O Data pin
11 DB4 I/O Data pin
12 DB5 I/O Data pin
13 DB6 I/O Data pin
14 DB7 I/O Data pin

D0-D7:-
The 8 bit data pins, D0 to D7, are used to send information to the LCD or read the content of the
LCD internal registers. To display letters and numbers, we send ASCII codes for the letters, A-Z
and numbers 0-9 to these pins while making RS=1.

There are also instruction command codes that can be sent to clear the display or force the cursor
to the home position or blink the cursor.

Following table lists the instruction command codes.

CODE (HEX) Command to LCD instruction register

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1 Clear display screen


2 Return home
4 Decrement cursor
6 Increment cursor
5 Shift display left
7 Shift display right
8 Display off, cursor off
A Display off, cursor on
C Display on, cursor off
E Display on, cursor on
F Display on, cursor blinking
10 Shift cursor position to left
14 Shift cursor position to right
18 Shift entire display to left
1C Shift entire display to right
80 Force cursor to the beginning of first line
C0 Force cursor to the beginning of second line
38 Two lines and 5x7 matrix

By using the table, programming is done and the generated code is sent to the LCD. Note that we
must put along delay between issuing data or command to the LCD. However a much better way
is to monitor the busy flag before issuing a command or data to the LCD.

Following fig shows interfacing with the microcontroller.

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8 D0
Vcc 1k
33
Pot
D7 LCD
Vee
40

AT89C5
Vss RS
1

29

Fig 2.5

1.9.4 SN75176B:-

The SN65176B and SN75176B differential bus transceivers are integrated circuits designed for
bidirectional data communication on multipoint bus transmission lines.They are designed for
balanced transmission lines and meet ANSI Standards TIA/EIA-422-B and TIA/EIA-485-A.
They also meet ITU recommendations V.11 and X.27.
The SN65176B and SN75176B combine a 3-state differential line driver and a differential input
line receiver, both of which operate from a single 5-V power supply. The driver and receiver
have active-high and active-low enables, respectively, that can be connected together externally
to function as a direction control. The driver differential outputs and the receiver differential
inputs are connected internally to form differential input/output (I/O) bus ports that are designed
to offer minimum loading to the bus when the driver is disabled or VCC = 0.
The driver is designed for up to 60 mA of sink or source current. The driver features positive and
negative current limiting and thermal shutdown for protection from line-fault conditions.
Thermal shutdown is designed to occur at a junction temperature of approximately 150oC. The
receiver features a minimum input impedance of 12 k, an input sensitivity of 200 mV.

Features:-
 Bidirectional Transceivers
 Meet or Exceed the Requirements of ANSI Standards TIA/EIA-422-B and TIA/EIA-485-A
and ITU Recommendations V.11 and X.27
 Designed for Multipoint Transmission on Long Bus Lines in Noisy Environments
 3-State Driver and Receiver Outputs
 Individual Driver and Receiver Enables
 Wide Positive and Negative Input/Output Bus Voltage Ranges
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 Driver Output Capability . . . ±60 mA Max


 Thermal Shutdown Protection
 Driver Positive and Negative Current Limiting
 Receiver Input Impedance . . . 12 k Min
 Receiver Input Sensitivity . . . ±200 mV
 Receiver Input Hysteresis . . . 50 mV Typ
 Operate From Single 5-V Supply

Connection Diagram:-

Fig 2.6

Differential wires are connected to the input terminals A and B of the IC. The IC can be
interfaced with PIC microcontroller as shown above. This figure shows only single configuration
of SN75176B but it can be used in multipoint configuration which can be clearly represented
with the help of following diagram.

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Fig 2.7

The figure shows that the networking employed by RS485 protocol and SN75176B transreceiver
can support upto 32 transreceivers.
Texas Instruments SN75176B transceiver that interfaces between RS-485 and TTL logic
levels.The chip has a two-wire RS-485 interface, a TTL driver input and receiver output, and
TTL enable inputs for the driver and receiver. Similar chips include Linear Technology’s
LTC485, Maxim’s MAX485, and National Semiconductor’s DS3695.

1.9.5 RS485:-
When a network needs to transfer small blocks of information over long distances, RS-485 is
often the interface of choice.The network nodes can be PCs, microcontrollers, or any devices
capable of asynchronous serial communications.Compared to Ethernet and other network
interfaces, RS-485’s hardware and protocol requirements are simpler and cheaper. The RS-485
standard is flexible enough to provide a choice of drivers, receivers, and other components
depending on the cable length, data rate, number of nodes, and the need to conserve
power.Several vendors offer RS-485 transceivers with various combinations of features. Also,
there are options for methods of terminating and biasing the line and controlling the driver-
enable inputs.
The interface popularly known as RS-485 is an electrical specification for multipoint systems
that use balanced lines. RS-485 is similar to RS-422, but RS-422 allows just one driver with
multiple receivers whereas RS-485 supports multiple drivers and receivers.The specification
document (TIA/EIA-485-A) defines the electrical characteristics of the line and its drivers and
receivers. There are brief suggestions relating to terminations and wiring, but there’s no
discussion of connector pinouts or software protocols (as there is for RS-232). An RS-485
network can have up to 32 unit loads, with one unit load equivalent to an input impedance of
12k. By using high-impedance receivers, you can have as many as 256 nodes.
An RS-485 link can extend as far as 4000’ and can transfer data at up to 10 Mbps, but not both at
the same time. At 90 kbps, the maximum cable length is 4000’, at 1 Mbps it drops to 400’, and at

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10 Mbps it drops to 50’.For more nodes or long distances, you can use repeaters that regenerate
the signals and begin a new RS-485 line.

Although the RS-485 standard says nothing about protocols, most RS-485 links use the familiar
asynchronous protocols supported by the UARTs in PCs and other computers. A transmitted
word consists of a start bit followed by data bits, an optional parity bit, and a stop bit.Two ways
to add RS-485 to a PC are on an expansion card and by attaching an RS-485 converter to an
existing port. Converters for RS-232 are widely available and Inside Out Networks has
developed a USB–to–RS-485 converter, also available from B&B Electronics.On
microcontrollers, you can connect an RS-485 transceiver to any asynchronous serial port.

Many network circuits also require a port bit to control each transceiver’s driver-enable input.
Ports designed for RS-232 communications can use the RTS output. If that’s not available, any
spare output bit will do.Most serial-communications tools, including Visual Basic’s MSComm,
support RS-485 communications with RTS controlled in software. The COMM-DRV serialport
drivers from WCSC have automatic RTS control built-in.

The main reason why RS-485 links can extend so far is their use of balanced,or differential,
signals. Two wires (usually a twisted pair) carry the signal voltage and its inverse.The receiver
detects the difference between the two. Because most noise that couples into the wires is
common to both wires, it cancels out. In contrast, interfaces like RS-232 use unbalanced, or
single-ended, signals.The receiver detects the voltage difference between a signal voltage and a
common ground. The ground wire tends to be noisy because it carries the return currents for all
of the signals in the interface, along with whatever other noise has entered the wire from other
sources. And noise on the ground wire can cause the receiver to misread transmitted logic levels.
The datasheets for interface chips label the noninverted RS-485 line as line A and the inverted
line as line B. An RS-485 receiver must see a voltage difference of just 200 mV between A and
B. If A is at least 200 mV greater than B, the receiver’s output is logic high. If B is at least 200
mV greater than A, the output is a logic low. For differences less than 200 mV, the output is
undefined. At the driver, the voltage difference must be at least 1.5 V, so the interface tolerates a
fair amount of non-commonmode noise and attenuation. Vendors for RS-485 transceivers
include Linear Technology, Maxim, National Semiconductor, and Texas Instruments. These
companies are also excellent sources for application notes containing circuit examples and
explanations of the theory behind them. RS-485 is designed to be wired in a daisy-chain or bus
topology. Any stubs that connect a node to the line should be as short as possible. Most links use
twisted pairs because of their ability to cancel magnetically and electromagnetically coupled
noise.
Advantage using twisted pair cable:-

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Fig 2.8

 In the picture above, noise is generated by magnetic fields from the environment. The picture
shows the magnetic field lines and the noise current in the RS485 data lines that is the result
of that magnetic field.
 In the straight cable, all noise current is flowing in the same direction, practically generating
a looping current just like in an ordinary transformer.
 When the cable is twisted, we see that in some parts of the signal lines the direction of the
noise current is the opposite from the current in other parts of the cable. Because of this, the
resulting noise current is many factors lower than with an ordinary straight cable.
 Shielding which is a common method to prevent noise in RS232 lines tries to keep hostile
magnetic fields away from the signal lines.
 Twisted pairs in RS485 communication however add immunity which is a much better way
to fight noise. The magnetic fields are allowed to pass, but do no harm. If high noise
immunity is needed, often a combination of twisting and shielding is used as for example in
STP, shielded twisted pair and FTP, foiled twisted pair networking cables.
 Differential signals and twisting allows RS485 to communicate over much longer
communication distances than achievable with RS232. With RS485 communication distances
of 1200 m are possible.

RS485 Network Topology:-

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Fig 2.9

The RS485 network topology is as shown above. Various transreceivers are connected in a
multidrop fashion as shown.
 The general network topology of RS485 is shown. N nodes are connected in a multipoint
RS485 network.
 For higher speeds and longer lines, the termination resistances are necessary on both ends of
the line to eliminate reflections. Use 100 Ω resistors on both ends.
 The RS485 network must be designed as one line with multiple drops, not as a star. Although
total cable length maybe shorter in a star configuration, adequate termination is not possible
anymore and signal quality may degrade significantly.

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Fig 3.0

The circuit has two 120-W terminating resistors connected in parallel, at or just beyond the final
node at each end of the link. One end of the link also has two 560-W biasing resistors.The
terminations reduce voltage reflections that can cause the receiver to misread logic levels.The
receiver sees reflected voltages as output switches, and the line settles from its initial current to
its final current. The termination eliminates reflections by making the initial and final currents
equal. The initial current is a function of the line’s characteristic impedance, which is the input
impedance of an infinite open line. The value varies with the wires’ diameters, the spacing
between them, and the insulation type. For digital signals (which consist mainly of frequencies
greater than 100 kHz), the characteristic impedance is mostly resistive; the inductive and
capacitive components are small.A typical value for 24-AWG twisted pair is 120 W. The final
current is a function of the line termination; the receiver’s input impedance, and the line’s series
impedance. In a typical RS-485 line without a termination, the initial current is greater than the
final current because the characteristic impedance is less than the receiver’s combined input
impedance. On a line without a termination, the first reflection occurs when the initial current
reaches the receiver. The receiver’s input can absorb only a fraction of the current. The rest
reflects back to the driver. As the current reverses direction, its magnetic field collapses and
induces a voltage on the line. As a result, the receiver initially sees a greater voltage than
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what was transmitted.When the reflected voltage reaches the driver, which has a lower
impedance than the line, the driver absorbs some of the reflection and bounces the rest back to
the receiver. This reflection is of opposite polarity to the first reflection and causes the receiver
to see a reduced voltage. The reflections bounce back and forth like this for a few rounds before
they die out and the line settles to its final current. If the line terminates with a resistor equal to
the line’s characteristic impedance, there are no reflections. When the initial current reaches the
termi- nation, it sees exactly what it was expecting—a load equal to the line’s characteristic
impedance. The entire transmitted voltage drops across the load. In a network with two parallel
terminations, the drivers drive two lines with each ending at a termination.The biasing resistors
hold the line in a known state when no drivers are enabled. Most RS-485 transceivers have
internal biasing circuits, but adding a termination defeats their ability to bias the line. A typical
internal circuit is a 100-kW pullup from line A to V+, and a 100-kW pulldown from line
B to ground.

With no termination and when no drivers are enabled, the biasing resistors hold line A more
positive than line B. When you add two 120-W terminations, the difference between A and B
shrinks to a few millivolts, much less than the required 200 mV. The solution is to add smaller
resistors in parallel with the internal biasing so that a greater proportion of the series voltage
drops across the termination.The size of the biasing resistors is a tradeoff. For a greater voltage
difference and higher noise immunity on an idle line, use smaller values. For lower power
consumption and a greater differential voltage on a driven line, use larger values.

When the receiver is disabled, the receiver’s output is high impedance. If the output doesn’t
connect to a input with an internal pullup, adding a pullup here ensures that the node doesn’t
see false start bits when its receiver is disabled. To comply with the specification, all of the nodes
must share a common ground connection. This ground may be isolated from earth ground.
The ground wire provides a path for the current those results from small imbalances in the
balanced line. If the A and B outputs balance exactly with equal, opposite currents, the two
currents in the ground wire cancel each other out and the wire carries no current at all. In real
life, components don’t balance perfectly; one driver will be a little stronger and one receiver
will have a slightly larger input impedance. Without a common ground, the circuit may work, but
the energy from the imbalance has to go somewhere and may dissipate as electromagnetic
radiation.

The RS-485 specification recommends connecting a 100-W resistor of at least 0.5 W in series
between each node’s signal ground and the network’s ground wire, as Figure 3.0 shows. This
way, if the ground potentials of two nodes vary, the resistors limit the current in the ground wire.

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Networking Based Patient Monitoring System

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM

Circuit Diagram of Master:-

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Networking Based Patient Monitoring System

Circuit Diagram of Slave:-

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Networking Based Patient Monitoring System

Artwork/PCB Layout of Master:-

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Networking Based Patient Monitoring System

Artwork/PCB Layout of Slave:-

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Networking Based Patient Monitoring System

Working:-

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Networking Based Patient Monitoring System

Slave side –

Each slave consists of a microcontroller based system which is connected to the master side with
the help of RJ45 link. Microcontroller AT89C51 is used. After power on microcontroller first
initialises various port pins as input or output ports. Each port can be read separately. This ports
are of eight pins. If the pin is to be used as input the corresponding bit must be set to “1” and if
the pin is to be used as output it must be set to “0”. Now microcontroller initialises LCD, then
serial port for 9600 baud rate, then ADC registers. At present microcontroller programs port ‘1’
as all analog inputs. Port ‘2’ as output, port ‘0’ and ‘3’ as combination of input and output. Next
microcontroller displays welcome message on LCD.Then it reads the temperature sensor value
which is connected to analog channel 1 of port ‘1’. Then it stores this value in ram. Then it
converts this value in BCD and then converts this value in ASCII and displays on LCD. The
heart rate sensor is connected to timer/counter 0. Micrcontroller counts the number of pulses in
one second and stores it in ram and displays on LCD. Then microcontroller reads the blood level
and saline levels, stores it in ram and displays on LCD. Now the microcrcontroller sends this data
through RJ45 link to the master. It then issues a special hex code to the next slave in the ring.
Upon receiving the code from the previous slave, the successor slave reads the data from the
sensors and sends this data to the master similarly as the preceding slave. It then issues a special
hex code to the next slave to indicate that now it is his turn to send the data to the master. Thus
all the slaves form a loop and continue sending data to the master. All slaves continue this
procedure.

Master side–

The master side PC will be connected with Ethernet connection which has been initializes with
Telnet protocol. It will receive the data from slave devices and stores this data in database as well
as it uploads this data to the web so that doctors can view this information from anywhere of the
world.

On Screen Display:-

Visual Studios .Net software is used to display data received from Ethernet port. This software
displays the data from all patients on the Screen. Then master microcontroller repeats this
procedure for all other slaves.

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Networking Based Patient Monitoring System

FLOWCHART

Start

Initialize
master, and
slave

Slave no.1 will


accept input
from the sensors
and send it to
master.

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