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TUTORIAL ON TRANSMISSION LINES

 At Radio and microwave frequencies the following questions arise:

1. At what upper frequency does the conventional analysis become in appropriate?


2. What characteristics make the high frequency behavior of electric component so
different from low frequency behavior?
3. What new circuit theory has to be employed?
4. How is this theory applied to the practical design of high frequency analog circuits?

 When a wire or discrete component has to be treated as a transmission line ?

 When V & I waves depend on wavelength in comparison with average component


size ?

 When average size la of discrete circuit component is more than a 10th of the
wavelength, transmission line theory must be applied.
λ
Example : Given wire length = 1.5cms. Iλ ≥
10
c 9.49 × 107
f = = = 633MHz
101 0.15m
Transmission lines : Equivalent circuit
 Advantages:
1. Provides clear intuitive physical picture.
2. Lends itself standardized two port network representation.
3. Permits analysis with Kirchoff’s V & I laws.
4. Provides building blocks that allow expansion from microscopic to
macroscopic forms.
5. Cascaded analysis easy.

 Disadvantages:
1. It is one dimension analysis.
2. Does not include fringing fields perpendicular to the direction of
propagation..i.e..cannot predict interference with other component.
3. Material related to non-linearity's due to hysteresis effects are
neglected.
 Still equivalent circuit is a powerful mathematics tool.
VS = VR cosh rl + Z 0 I R sinh rl
VR
I S = I R cosh rl + sinh rl
Z0

VS VR cosh rl + Z 0 I R sinh rl
Z in = =
IS V
I R cosh rl + R sinh rl
Z0

Z sc = Z 0 tanh rl (Z R = 0,VR = 0)
Z oc = Z 0 coth rl ( Z R = ∞, I R = 0 )

cosh rl Z 0 sinh rl 
 S 
V  VR 
 I  =  sinh rl cosh rl   I R 
 S  Z 
 0
−ΓZ ΓZ
V Ae + Be
Ζ(z) = = Z 0 −ΓZ ΓZ
I Ae − Be

B
1+
A + B A
z = 0, Z R = Z 0 = Z 0
A − B 1−
B
A

B Z − Z Z −1
= Γ = R 0
= R
A Z R + Z 0 Z R + 1

V Max = A + B , V Min = A − B
Relation between Impedance and length of
Transmission line
VOLTAGE AND CURRENT DISTRIBUTION FOR A
LOSS LESS TRANSMISSION LINE
TUTORIAL ON SMITH CHART
SMITH CHART IS A GRAPHICAL COMPUTATION METHOD
OF SOLVING TRANSMISSION LINE EQUATIONS

We have got from transmission line equations

Where

θ ==
/_θ

z =ZIN / Z-O
z +1 plane
Geometric inversion
is 1/(z+1) is mapped
into gamma plane
Upper half circle –ve
reactance and +ve
susceptance lower half +ve
reactance
Entire region of z with +ve
values of r has been mapped
into a region of unit circle
e-2ααl

Locus of impedance along the lossy line is not a circle but a spiral. As βl
increases at points along the line more distance from load one moves around a circle
on the chart and as αl simultaneously increases, one moves inward towards the
centre of the chart.
Lossy line Example-
1) A line is 3.7λ long & loss in this length is 1.14 dB. The line is terminated
in a pure resistive load giving Vmin at the load. VSWR = 2. What is the
sending end impedance?
αl = 1.14 = 0.131 neper
8.686
e-2αl = 0.77
This is the factor by which
radius of (reflection
coefficient) circle is to be
decreased.
Read impedance at Q’
Zs’ = 1.48+j0.53 (Ans.)
2) An antenna is connected to a TV receiver by 6.19l length line of character
impedance 300ohm. Input impedance of the receiver is 82%. Attenuation is
1dB for this line length at 100MHz. Find impedance in which antenna works.
Relative Velocity 82% Vp=0.82C
λ = Vp = 0.82x3x108 = 2.46m
f 108
λ = 6.19l αl = 1dB
Zr = 75 = 0.25
300
Zin on lossless basis = 1.32+j1.7
Zin’ on lossy line = 1.49+j1.22
Zin = 300(1.43+j1.22)
3) 70ohms coaxial line having an outer conductor whose inner
radius is 1” is to be matched to a load of 126-j28 ohms. Find
the location & inner conductor diameter for the required λ/4
transformer.

ZR = 126-j28
70

l = (0.5-0.276)l
= 0.224l
Rl = 0.51x70
= 35.7ohm
λ/4 transmission line should match 35.7ohm to 70ohm
R0’ = (70x35.7)1/2 = 50ohm
= 138 log(D/d)
log(D/d) = R0’/138 =50/138 = 0.362
2r1 = 2r2/2.3 = 0.87”

Z to Y Impedance Inversion
Z1Z2 = Z02 for λ/4 line
Z1 x Z2 = 1 => Z1’ Z2’ = 1
Z0 Z0
=>Z1’ = 1/Z2’ = Y2’
“COMPLEX NUMBERS CAN BE INVERTED USING SMITH CHART.”
TRANSFORMER BANDWIDTH

Suppose this system is operating at UHF with 300MHz as design frequency.


At 3000MHz λ = 1m, λ/4 = 250mm.
400 = 2.0 Normalized load impedance.
200
T-Network
Zsc = jZ0tanβl Zoc = -jZ0cotβl
Z2 = Z0/sinhrl Z1/2 = Z0tanh(rl/2)
= Z0/sinh(jβl) = Z0tan(βl/2)
= Z-0jsin(βl)

π-Network
ZA = Z0sinhrl ZB = Z0 .....

tan(rl/2)
Short length of line having relatively low characteristic impedance
yields capacitive element.
End Inductance Lc = lZ0
2πfλgo
Capacitive length l = λgosin-1(ωcZ0)

= fλgoZ0C (approximately)
Low impedance length of line has equivalent T-network, it must
incorporate ‘stray ’ series inductance.
XL = πlZ0/λg
Since both Z0 and l are relatively small, Stray Inductance will be small.
L1 L1 L2

C1
C2 C1

XL = Z0sin(2πl/λg) B = sin(2πl/λg)
Z0
C= l . L = lZ0 .

2πfZ0λg 2πfλg

Inductive length Capacitive length


lL = λgsin-1(ωL/Z0) lC = λgsin-1(ωCZ0)
2π 2π
= fλgL (approximately) = fλgZ0C (approximately)
Z0