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CHAPTER-1

CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK

1.1 INTRODUCTION

The function of education is to teach one to think intensively and to think


critically intelligence plus character that is the goal of true education.

MARTIN LUTHER KING J.R

Meaningful learning is the goal of instruction at all levels. In almost all


educational institutions no efforts is made in the class to make learning
meaningful. Enormous quantity of information is powered out directly from the
printed texts to the young minds also, We attempt to educate more students with
varying levels of intelligence and diverse cultural back grounds. The intellectual
inputs thus provided to the students satisfy by none completely. Thus we are to
really help students to become academically successful, We would have to
develop alternative learning packages suiting to both male and female students
studying in rural and urban areas, The concept of self learning material has
resulted in making instruction learner- Oriented as the materials comprise the
element of self instruction, self pacing and self evaluation.

Very little research has been done in the field of self learning modules to
determine their effectiveness as per the knowledge of the investigators. The
present study is an attempt to develop self instruction materials in Biology for
higher secondary students and there by determining their effectiveness on the
students achievement in relation to their sex and place of residence.
Education is the cultivation of knowledge in the minds of living beings. But
it literally means systematic instruction, schooling or training in preparation for
life or some particular task. The teaching and learning take place by means of
lectures and demonstrations and making use of multifarious aids.

In the ever changing world consequent to the development of scientific


knowledge in the electronic age, the teaching and learning methods are also
improved by means of new innovations. The abstract ideas, Complicated problems
and metaphysical knowledge are made easy and accessible to the pupils in the
remote areas by means of educational technology which helps them to learn by
sense perception.

In India the department of psychological foundations of the National


institute of education, New Delhi is trying to popularize this movement of
educational technology at the school level. It tries to extend the training facilities
to the programmers and organizes several short term training courses. This
department plans reorientation programmes for the training college and university
teachers regarding educational innovations in general and student oriented
instructional methods in particular. Most of the self Instructional material
developed in other countries are taken as such and put to the use in Indian
educational setting. It is desirable to develop our own programmes suited to our
social conditions, Local needs and language media of learning.
1.2 SCIENCE

Science is a cumulative and endless series of empirical observation which


result in the formation of concepts and theories, with both concept and theories
being subject to modification in the light of further empirical observation. It is
both a body of knowledge and the process of acquiring it.

In schools, science is a subject which can be taught with demonstrations


and experiments science makes the student master with care. It is the only subject
which helps the student to grasp the message fully, when it is taught. One of the
most important and pervasive goals of schooling is to teach students to think. All
school subject should share in accomplishing this over all goal. Science
contributes its unique skills with its emphasis on hypothesizing manipulating the
physical world and reasoning from data.

1.3 LEARNING OF BIOLOGY

The learning of biology involves a number of concepts and basics, which


are presented in simplest form at lower grades and are presented at a greater detail
and complexity with the movement to higher grades. So there is a need for giving
students a feel for the process of learning. The approach for such a learning
procedure has to be different from the conventional method. IT should render
individual help to the students from the teacher. Self pacing help to smoothen the
initial.
1.4 IMPORTANCE OF BIOLOGY
Biology a branch of science also contributed much for the benefited of
humanity. The biological knowledge is more useful in the field of health hygiene,
agriculture etc.

Biology is the study of life of all living things both plants and animal, since
biology deals with all living things their appearance, structure activities, functions
and origin. It is the most extensive of all the success. It is the science of physical
life dealing with the morphology, physiology, original and distribution of animals
and plants.
1.5 INDIVIDUAL INSTRUCTION
Education has long recognized that grouping children in grades according to
chronological age does not assume homogeneity of grouping in other
characteristics. With in every grade in every school children differ from one
another to some extend.Two girls of the same age and mental level may differ in
their reading and spelling ability, two children of the same age and scientific
knowledge may differ.
In a classroom, gifted, average and dull students may be present. The gifted
children have an extraordinary IQ. They are able to perform different task much
above their age. They lose interest in their classroom work because it is generally
much below their intelligence level - A dull or backward child is not able to keep
pace in studies with the children of his own age group.
1.6 IMPORTANCE OF SELF- PACING

Individualized instruction is based on the basis assumption that learning


takes place better if an individual is allowed to learn at his own pace. It should
always take care of the principle of self pacing. The material should be done in the
view of the principle of individual difference and learner should be able to
respond and move from one unit to another according to his own speed of
learning.

1.7 LEARNING MODULES


Learning module is a self contained package dealing with in specific mater
unit. It can be used in any setting, convenient to the learner and may be completed
at the learners own space. It may be used individually or in small learning groups.
It is structured so that the learner can identify the objectives, She wants to achieve,
select the appropriate material following a learning sequence by selecting from a
variety of methods of presentation and evaluate he own accomplishment. Modular
approach provides a strategy for the teacher and the learner to mutually share the
responsibility for learning.

The teacher becomes a facilitator of learning rather than the traditional way.
A module will help the learner in the following ways.
a). Develop learning autonomy in the learner.
b). Ensure achievement of an expected standard.
c). Provide remedial instructions.
1.7.1 LEARNING MODULE SHOULD HAVE THE FOLLOWING
ELEMENTS
1. A title or topic designation.
2. A List of major concept to be learned.
3. The rationale for studying the material.
4. A Pre- assessment activity.
5. objectives stated in behavioral terms.
6. Guide lines for learner, teacher preparation.
7. A detailed learning sequence.
8. suggested depth or guest activities.
9. A Post – assessment activity.

1.7.2APPRAISAL OF THE LEARNING MODULE


In general learning module need to be subjected to critical appraisal in the
following 7 areas.
1. Objectives
2. Subject matter
3. Design characteristics
4. Learning activities
5. Adaptability
6. Validity
7. Evaluation.

1.7.3 OBJECTIVES OF LEARNING MODULE


Instructional module encourages self learning to a great extent. These
enable the student to proceed in her own pace with the least amount of help from
the teacher in the way of direct teaching
For example, the instructional module enables a student not only to learn at
her own time and pace but comprehend thoroughly what she has learnt as she is
made to respond at frequent intervals to questions on the material she has been
learning .

1.7.4 MERITS OF LEARNING MODULE

1. Learning module allows individualization of instruction and is easily


accessible for revision.
2. It is cheaper to produce.
3. It can be preserved by the learners and can be used at their own
convenience.
4. Print as a medium for transmitting information’s has been the most
important component in learning.

1.7.5 DEMERITS

1. The use of print is limited to literate only the illiterate remain deprived
become they don’t have the skills of reading.
2. The print doesn’t allow immediate interaction between teacher-learner and
learner-learner.
3. Print does not normally provides for learners active participation. There is
no immediate interaction.

4. The process of learning and teaching suffers because there is no immediate


feed back from each other. If there is any problem from either side it takes a
long time to get the problem from either side it takes a long time to get the
problem solved.
5. Print can’t be effective as a Video/ TV programme is creating real life like
atmosphere in teaching subjects which sustain lots of visuals such as
laboratory experiments historical monuments etc.,

1.7.6 ESSENTIAL FEATURES OF MODULE

A Good module should have the following essentials.

1. It should be self contained.


2. The objectives and learning activities should be properly sequenced.
3. The learning activities should make the best use of local community
resources.
4. The subject matter should be correct concise and presented in an interesting
manner.
5. It should provide opportunities for the learner to interact with other students
and the community.
6. It should be interesting to the learner.

1.8 IMPORTANCE OF BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE IN SCHOOLS

Biological science is one of those human activities that man has created to
gratify human need and desires. The advancement of nation to a certain extent
depends upon the advancement through original contributions and discoveries in
biological science. The qualities imbibed by the learner through biological science
are valuable for all citizens living in the society. Hence greater competence in
biology has to be developed among students right from the school level.
Biological science learning provides training in biological methods and also help
to develop a scientific bent mind in the learner. Biological science is now a
compulsory subject in every system of school education right from the elementary
stage.
1.9 SIM
Books,workbooks,or other instructional materials designed to instruct the
learner who is working with them unaided by anyone else,for example,self-
instructional materials are presented in programmed instruction and computer-
assisted instruction.

1.9.1 THEORETICAL BASIS FOR SIM


The learning theories such as behaviorist theories ( Skinner 1968)
Cognitive approach ( Bruner 1966) conditions of learning ( Gagne 1974 ) and the
communication theories such as mathematical theory ( Shannon and Weaver ) and
information theory ( Shannon and weaver ) have profound implication for
developing SIM.

1.9.2 STRUCTURING A SIM


While structuring a SIM the various theories of learning and
communication have implications for the following areas.
1. Presentation of the materials in a simple clear and concrete manner
using appropriate media.
2. Braking down the whole content to smaller section and presenting them
from a simple to complex manner continuously.
3. Identifying the objectives and statement in simple clear behavioral
terms.
4. Motivating learners both externally and internally
5. Providing adequate learning activities of various types.
6. Facilitating retention.
7. Promoting transfer of learning
8. Providing feedback
9. providing guidance.
1.9.3 THEORETICAL OVER VIEW OF SIM

As the learner is enjoying freedom for independent study , the SIM must
necessarily be a substitute for the class room weather as far as possible. The
design and production of SIM with appreciable ability is a difficult task.
Production of SIM is entirely different from the production of traditional type of
text book. Since the materials should be designed to avoid the major constraints
while learning the subject, certain theories of learning and theories of
communication should be used as the adequate base for the production of SIM.
The major theories influencing the production of SIM and their implications.

1.9.4 PRESENTATION OF THE MATERIAL

Active learning is the basic principle behind self instructional materials.


The SIM will be designed to keep the learner active. While learning SIM provides
thought provoking questions and self check questions to keep the learners active
and interact with the SIM.

The SIM provides individualized instruction and provision for self- pacing .
The objectives of the unit of the SIM will be given in the beginning of the unit.
This helps the learner to know about what is connected at the successful
completion of the unit. The introduction of the unit should provide an orientation
of the topic of the unit and also show the way to proceed through the unit. The
SIM will begin with known features and then proceed to complexity. The
presentation of the material will utilize all visible previous experiences of the
learners and will give enough demonstrations for the new material. The informal
personalized language used for writing the SIM would doubt lessly be
advantageous to learners.
1.9.5 CHARACTERISTICS OF SIMS

SIM are character by certain features thorough these features of SIMs vary
a little depending upon the objectives / Purpose and style of presentation there are
a few constant features of SIMs. Let us look at these features below.

Self explanatory
The SIMs are self explanatory in the sense that the student can study
through learning materials and under stand the content with out much external
help support. There fore these materials should be free from any ambiguity in
terms of content, presentation and language. The content should be logically
arranged and the presentation should be simple and effective and explain
everything to help the learner learn or prompt his / her learning.

Self contained
SIMs should be self – contained or self sufficient. All the essential content
required by the student to achieve the course objectives is to be included in SIMs.
The Student need not hunt for additional reading materials to accomplish his / her
objectives because of the problems in accessing additional materials. At the same
time SIMs should not be over loaded with too much content or learning tasks to
the point of intimidating the learner.

Self Directed
SIMs perform the function of effective teacher by providing the learners the
necessary guidance, hints and suggestions at every stage of their learning process
learning is directed by presenting the content in logical sequence, explaining the
learning concept according to the level of the students, providing appropriate
learning activities and presenting illustrations to make the content easy to
understand.
Self Motivating
Motivation is the pre requisite to effective learning SIMs Should have
potential to arouse, and sustain interest and motivation in students. The content
should arouse curiosity raise problems and relate knowledge with the familiar
situation of the students so that the students feel motivated and their learning gets
reinforced. This type of motivation and reinforcement should be provided at every
stage of learning

Self Learning
SIMs are based on the principles of programmed instruction. The features
of programmed instruction such as specification of objectives, breaking the
content into small steps, Sequencing learning experiences providing feed back
etc., are incorporated in SIMs.

Thus a systematic approach to learning is followed in the preparation of


SIMs. These features of SIMs equip or make the students learn independently. The
students devise their own learning strategies and learn on their own.

Self evaluation
SIMs provides appropriate feed back to the students to ensure optimum
learning they provide information to the students on whether they are progressing
in the right direction. Self check exercises, in text questions activities and other
form of exercises give the learners the much needed feed back about their progress
reinforce and motivates them to learn and proceed from one learning point to
another. In other words the knowledge of result gives positive re inforcement to
the learners to learn further on.
1.9.6 PRINCIPLES OF SIM

1. The principle of mastery learning holds that each students deserves a fair
change to achieve the learning objectives, regardless of the ways the
student differ from other learners, Techniques for implementing this
mastery principle includes allowing slower students, more time to reach the
goal, constantly evaluating students progress to determine how well they
are achieving the goal providing alternative instruction outers to suit
different learners abilities and learning style and offering remedial teaching
to students who have not succeeded with the usual method of the
instructions.

2. The principles of continuous progress techniques for implementing this


continuous principles include furnishing students with advanced self-
instruction lesson they can complete at their own pace and offering them
enrichment activities which broaden the scope of their studies beyond the
areas covered by their slower class mates. To achieve both principle
educator often employ a combination of several individualization methods
rather than relying on a single approach.

1.10THE KELLER PLAN APPROACH

The keller plan is also a mode of individualizing instruction like


programmed learning or computer assisted instruction another name for keller plan
developed by F.S.KELLER some three decades ago, is personalized system of
instruction or PSSI Keller seems to have imagined that he teacher has no place in
his plan as he called his first exposition of his ideas in a book titled “ Good bye
Teacher “
In keller plan the course material is divided into a number of units each
with a specified learning objectives and the students receive a study guide which
suggest a number of means of achieving these objectives . Armed with this
information, students work largely on their own, using a range of self-
instructional materials. The Study guide leads through a set of text book and
contains supplementary notes, Worked exercises, assignments etc., some units
may also incorporate learning aids such as video’s, slides, models and other
structured learning materials specially prepared for use in the course typically,
each unit represents roughly one week’s work for an average “ student but as
students work at their own pace, this is variable. The students are free to discuss
the problems, associated with the unit with their tutors at any time. For this
reasons tutors have to be available on a fairly regular basis. Tutors are normally
members of the teaching staffs, but they may be in certain circumstance students
who have previously completed the unit successfully. Thus, the possibility of peer
teaching can be incorporated into Keller Plan approach. The use of more
advanced students to teach their less experienced peers is now being extended into
higher education as supplemental instruction.

When students feel they have mastered a given unit and have achieved the
objectives identified and demonstrate the competences specified, they present
them selves for a test ( Oral or Written ) If they pass such a test to a specified
standard. They move on to the next unit, with the Keller plan a high degree of
mastery is required and pass marks on the tests my be of the order so or 90%.
There is however no penalty for failing and students may attempt test on given
unit as many times as is necessary. After each test the student and tutor discuss
any problem which may have arisen during on the unit on during the test itself.
In the Keller plan, lectures, although not a main element of the teaching are
sometimes used to provide an overview of the course material or to illuminate
certain aspects of the topics studied lab orator work ( If required ) is normally
carried out under the direct super vision of a laboratory assistant.

The basic Keller Plan approach has been modified and adapted to meet a
wide variety of needs peer teaching is not always used tests on groups of units
(rater than on single units) may be included, a high level mastery is not always
required, and the final grades can be decided using different methods. What ever
the variations how ever the essential elements of the Keller Plan are individualized
learning in depended study, Self-pacing and tutor support. Although the Keller
plan has been used with a wide range of subjects, the most common applications
to date have been with medical and science subjects usually at college or
university level.

1.11 ROLE OF THE TEACHER

Good teachers have always been interested in providing under standing and
assistance to students to help them over come problems of learning and
adjustment, so as to ensure optimum achievement. The role of the teacher in
learning module is different from that is conventional teaching. Teachers have to
develop the skills and sensitive to use effectively these media. The teachers are
the instructional designers, planning teaching in advance. The teacher becomes
less of an instructor and takes in the role of manager of learning resources and
facilitator of learning of others. She is faced more with counseling and complex
organizational tests dealing with students and has to respond to the varying need
of all students
Evidences indicated significant gains in informational learning retentions,
recall thinking reasoning, interest and imagination and better assimilation and
personal growth when audio- visual materials are properly used. Best result were
achieved when a variety of audio visual material printed materials and follow up
experiences are used together. Experiments have shown that good fils can teach a
body of subject matter efficiently, but that film cannot replace the teacher. So the
difficult units employing varied teaching methods, good illustrations and
comparisons using proper audio visual aids conducting many experiments.

1.12 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM


Efficacy of self instructional material in mineral nutrients for standard XI

1.13 OPERATIONAL DEFINITION


Learning Module : It means a network of techniques or devices employed to
achieve certain learning objectives.
Efficacy: It is the ability to do something or do it well and produce the results that
were intended.

1.14 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

Objectives are the developments are other expected changes that the
investigator aims at studying the weakness of the particular field. In the present
study the objectives of the investigator through the study mentioned below.
1. To make Biology class more active
2. To change the attitude of students towards Biology learning.
3. To make Biology class more interesting
4. To find out the effective teaching techniques usable in biology class.
5. To relate module in biology teaching
6. To develop a learning module in teaching Biology at higher secondary
level.
7. To find out the effectiveness of learning module on attitude towards
biology at higher secondary level.

1.15 HYPOTHESIS OF THE STUDY

1. Control group students differ in their pretest and post test scores
2. Experimental group students differ in their pre test and post test
3. Control group and experimental group students differ in their pre-test
scores

4. Control group and experimental group students differ in their post-test


scores
5. Control group and experimental group students differ in their gain scores

1.16 NEED FOR AND SIGNIFICANCE OF THE MODULE IN


SCHOOLS

From the experience and the opinion of the biology teachers and students at
the higher secondary classes, the investigator found that units like class of plant
kingdom, Physiology, Taxonomy, Cell- Division, Genetics, Bio- Technology are
some of the chapters which are very difficult for the students to learn and to
remember the biological terms. The traditional method of teaching with the use
charts and modules is not found to be sufficient. Thus certain alternate and
addition all methods of teaching and learning are to be considered modules
prepared by the teacher along with the regular text books will be helpful learning
by students. Hence, The investigator strongly felt the need to develop a learning
module in a unit of physiology in biology for Tamil medium and find out its
suitability of learning the students.
1.17 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

Taking into the time limit and possible resources at disposal the investigator
limited for study to the following factors.
1. This study was confined to the biology students studying XI standard.
2. Only one school ( Municipal Girls Hr. Sec. School – Gugai )
3. One section of XI standard was selected
4. Only the state board students were selected as samples. So learning
materials was prepared in tamil
5. Tamil medium class was selected
6. The sample consists of only 60students
7. This study was limited to the unit of plant physiology a part of Bio- Botany
text book in XI standard.

1.18 SUMMARY

This chapter has high lighted the scope of the present problem and
elaborated on the need for a study on the ‘Efficacy of self instructional material in
mineral nutrients for standard XI’.
CHAPTER II

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

2.1 INTRODUCTION

A study of related literature is a very important step not only in findings a


problem but also in the formation of hypothesis and in the selection no methods
and statistics to be employed for the interpretation of date. A familiarity of the
literature in any problem are help the researcher to discover what problems
remain to be solved more over a brief analysis of related literature is also helpful
for the investigator in giving future suggestions by avoiding duplication. So the
study of related literature plays a vital role in the field of research in education.

Research taken advantage of the knowledge which has accumulated in the


past as a result of constant human endeavor. It can be under taken in isolation of
the work that has already been done on the problems which are directly or
indirectly related to study proposed by a researcher. A Careful review of the
research journals, books, dissertations, thesis and other sources of information of
the problem to be investigated is one of the important step in the planning of any
research study.

2.2 PURPOSE OF REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

Review of the related literature besides allowing the researcher to acquaint


herself with current knowledge in the field or area in which she is going to
conduct her research, serves the following specific purposes.
1. The review of related literature enables the researcher to define the limits of
her field. It helps the researcher to delimit and define her problem. The
knowledge of related literature brings the researcher up date on the work
which other have done and thus to state the objectives clearly and
concisely.
2. By review the related literature the researcher can avoid un fruitful and
useless problem areas. She can select those in which positive findings are
very likely result and her endeavors would be likely to add to the
knowledge in a meaningful way.
3. The review of related literature gives the researcher understanding of the
research methodology which refers to the way the study is to be conducted.
4. It helps the researcher to know about the tools and instrument which proved
to be useful and promising in the previous studies. The advantage of the
related literature is also to provide insight into the statistical methods
through which validity of results is to be established.
5. The find and important specific reason for reviewing the related literature is
to know about the recommendations of previous researches listed in their
studies for further research.
6. It avoids duplication of the study.

Pomales- Garcia et al ( 2010 ) conducted a study on design dimensions and


attributes for web based distance learning modules. This study investigates and
compares the relative importance of web modules design dimension and their
attributes as perceived by student participants in the literature. We aim to under
stand whether the dimensions of clarity, organization, structure visual / aesthetical
attractiveness, simplicity and excitement defined by student agree with the
dimension in the literature. Content analysis methodology was used to extract the
common language between the two group and the attributes that best describe
each dimension. The result show both similarities and differences between the two
groups. The result suggest that organization and structure are different dimension
as are simplicity and clarity.

Smitha ( 2009 ) This study examined the effectiveness of inquiry training model
on achievement in science of secondary school students. The analysis also
revealed that grader has no effect on achievement in science and that there was no
group gender interaction effect due to the intervention through inquiry training
model.

Gyan ( 2009 ) In the present study attempts were made to compare the
effectiveness of co- operative learning programmed instruction and traditional
method on achievement of the VIII class students in science. Co-operative
learning group is not significantly different from programmed instruction but co-
operative learning and programmed instruction group are significantly more
effective than the group taught by the traditional method as much as achievement
in science is concerned.

Ganesan and Nanda ( 2008 ) a survey of hardware and software technologies


was conducted to identify suitable technologies for the development of
instructional module representation various instructional approaches. The
approaches modeled were short power point presentations, Chalk and talk type of
lectures and software tutorials. The survey focused on identifying application
experience in the modules. The scope of the survey was limited to those
technologies that would facilitate the rapid development of multimedia modules
by being simple to learn use and adopt. This article describes the survey in three
fronts. First, the hard ware components that are critical to the production of the
multimedia modules are discussed second different input devices are reviewed
with a view of selecting a suitable device for simulating the chalk and talk type of
lecture. Third the authoring software currently available, for producing software
tutorials is discussed. The survey indicated the there are now powerful and
affordable hardware and software that could be used effectively for the rapid
development of multimedia in classroom is anticipated to grow as instructors
become familiar with the emerging and maturing tools for instructional
multimedia development.

Nirmala Devi ( 2006 ) examines the attitude towards computer in education


among rural and urban high school students. The objective of the study were. To
assess the attitude towards computer in education among high school students. To
find out whether any difference in attitude towards computer in education exists
among students the tool was developed and standardized by the investigator. The
study was conducted on a sample of 217 students of secondary stage studying IX
standard. The major findings of the study were 20% , 38% 42% of total sample
and high, average and low attitude towards computer in education respectively,
there are no significant difference between boys and girls , rural and urban high
school students in their attitude towards computer in education.

Samir Kumar lenka ( 2006 ) conducted a study on development and empirical


validation of line or style programme on states of mater. Major findings are the
error relate of the entire program comes to 2.4 cumulative density is 0.62 the
sectional densities range between 0.4 and 0.8 the percentage of success on the
criterion test come to be 97.6% success on Criterion test shows the students are
able to acquire, the science concept at a rapid pace while learning it through linear
style programming.

Devi (2005) studied the attitude of the IX standard students towards computer in
education. The study was conducted on a sample of 217 students of secondary
stage studying IX standard both boys and girls. The study revealed that 20%, 38%
and 40% of the samples has high, average and low attitude respectively. Gender
showed insignificant difference in the attitude towards computer.

Karthikeyan (2005) made a study on the influence of computer education on the


future carrier of higher secondary students. A total sample of 280 students is taken
for the study out of which 198 are boys and 82 are Girls. The objective of the
study is to find out the influence of computer education on future career of higher
secondary students. The findings of the study all the influence of computer
education on the future career of higher secondary students in moderate. In XII
standard students higher secondary students with regard to influence of computer
education on their future career.

Nirod Kumar Dash (2005 ) made study on learning gain from face to face
workshop over Self instructional material. For the experiment an achievement test
comprising 32 items covering all the important components of the workshop was
developed. The test items which focused on knowledge, under standing and
application level of blooms taxonomy of educational objectives was validated by
resources persons. The test was administered to the group in the beginning of the
workshop. However 32%, 17% 2.5% of the participants had exposure to face to
face counseling, Video Programme respectively. After the end of the workshop,
the some test used as post test was administered to the group. The data thus
collected were analyzed with the help of mean, standard error of mean difference
and t-test.

Parcel (2005) Conducted a study of find the effectiveness of the use of


multimedia in probing the answers from the students. The researcher administered
the on line tutorial to 147 fifth grade students at one of three different elementary
schools. The result of the study shows that the use of multimedia in probing
question was effective as there was a significant difference between the
experimental and the control group in answering to the probed question.

Rajiv Arrora et al (2005) conducted a study on development and evaluation of


self learning module to enhance the traditional physiology class at CMC ludhina.
The result indicates that self learning modules to enhance the traditional
physiology class at CMC Ludhiana. The result indicates that self learning modules
are an effective method of studying and re in forcing learning. A survey conducted
on the students view on self learning modules. Indicated that a majority of students
found self learning modules, and effective method of studying and reinforcing
learning. Comparison with other teaching methods indicated that the students
would prefers self learning modules as on additional method of learning but not a
replacement for lecture and text books. Students recommended that SLM
experiment should continue and student suggested of SLM library for self study.

Uma ( 2005 ) conducted a study on learning science and mathematics through


computers she conducted her experiment to 80 students. The achievement test
result shows that the student’s performance were higher after revising the concept
with the help of multimedia.

Sunil Kumar Singh (2004) made a study on the implementation of


Environmental studies for under graduate courses. In this study he focuses on
some important observation/ Issues related to its implementation. Further, on the
basis of the observation some suggestions have also been given for the
implementation. As the university system is not active towards its responsibility of
meeting the environmental challenges / Crisis in the society, so the humble
supreme court had to interfere in this matter for the welfare of the society.
Environmental studies is of inter disciplinary nature. Today knowledge is
multiplying at a very fast rate. There fore, to keep abreast of the situation, at least
universities and autonomous colleges should be allowed to update the syllabus at
the faculty body meeting itself. Approval by Academic council should not be
binding in this case. More over meeting for syllabus modification should be called
at the end of each session on a compulsory basis.

Zaaneen, J ( 2004 ) conducted a study on teaching a module of garden based


science by multimedia. This study aimed to make the multimedia education
similar tot students in prep school and also employ the agricultural environment as
suitable resource to learn, science through the green gardens. Sp the two
researchers design the module connected by the scientific Celebes for the first prep
class in Gaza. The students will use both gardens and multimedia to lead the
scientific concept after finishing the study of the module, the research. Applied
two tests the first was the achievement test the second was the attitude of students
towards science and multimedia.

Thomas,Annu et al (2003 ) made a study on the evolution of a developmentally


tested and revised experimental multimedia instructional package on women
distance learners. To design and develop a proto type. Self instructional
experimental. Multimedia package for distance learners on the process models in
community nutrition and health intervention. Distance learners who participated in
the present study found print material easy to use. Distance learners found it more
difficult initially to study from audio materials. A friendly, personal approach in
audio cassette teaching was found to encourage active and participatory learning.
Many students appear to find video a mere formal medium to work with audio and
apparently felt less comfortable working with it because of its more intrusive
nature. Effective audio and video interaction in distance learning setting was found
to be characterized by the high degree of integration with other course materials.
The study includes 25 references.
Dhavamani maheswari (2002 ) conducted a study on teaching environmental
issues to IX standard students through self instructional module. To develop a
package of SIM for the unit chemicals and environment for Tamil medium
experimental group students of standard IX. To validate the developed materials
by ascertaining its effectiveness. To fine out the responses of the experimental
group regarding the effectiveness of SIM. Experimental group students have
higher knowledge, understanding and application in the unit “ Chemicals and
Environment”

Goswami Kavita et al (2002) Made an experimental study on inducing


environmental concern in girl students. The study attempts to apply indigenous
approach in the area of environmental studies to experimentally study its impact in
creating environmental concern. Dissemination of information, Knowledge, Value
and behavioral skills significantly affected the environmental concern in female
students. The Three groups different significantly on environmental concern in the
pre-test as well as in the post test. The experimental group II did not further
enhance it environmental concern. The study had 13 reference.

Paradis (2001) explored the experience of teacher with the use of the “Zoology
Zone” multimedia resource teaching grade three science. Four generalist teachers
used the multimedia resource. The teaching of the animal life cycle topic from the
Alberta grade three science programme the experience of the teachers were
examined through individual interviews, class room visits and group interviews
class room visits and group interview. The study concludes with some
implications for teachers, educational policy makers and school administration,
related to the use of multimedia resource. It has found that teachers and students
have positive attitude towards learning through multimedia package.
Sparling et al (2001) Made a study on enhancing the learning in self directed
learning modules self-directed modules are a popular option for providing
continuing nursing education . Not all nurses are comfortable with his learning
format. Nursing educators may be unfamiliar with strategies to facilitate self
directed learning. Self directed learning is based on assumptions about adults as
learners. Effectiveness and acceptance of the learning modules are enhanced by
educational strategies that address these assumptions.

Poulin (2000) Studied the attitude of both the teacher and the students learning
through multimedia. He conducted the study through questionnaire, Interview and
observation. He found that both teachers and students had a positive attitude
towards learning through multimedia.

Nath Baiju K ( 2000 ) Studied on the development of self instructional


package for secondary school biology teacher for their in service training majority
of teachers had achieved marks at the range of 61-80. All the teachers appeared for
the test had acquired any of the higher grades such as A, B or C. The mean
percentage score in the achievement test was 67%. The error rate committed by
the respondent was 32.68%. The qualitative analysis showed the various aspects of
the development for the SIP was much effective for self –instruction.

2.3 Summary
From the above review of related literature the researcher has come to
know about the related researcher carried out in India and abroad. The review has
thrown light on the specific area of investigation in terms of the type and variety
of related literature research studies carried out.