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PIPESIM Suite User Guide

PIPESIM Suite

User Guide

PIPESIM Suite User Guide

Proprietary Notice

Copyright 1985 - 2005

No part of this document may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or translated in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and recording, without the prior written permission of Schlumberger.

Use of this product is governed by the License Agreement. Schlumberger makes no warranties, express, implied, or statutory, with respect to the product described herein and disclaims without limitation any warranties of merchantability or fitness for a particular purpose.

Patent information

Schlumberger ECLIPSE reservoir simulation software is protected by US Patents 6,018,497, 6,078,869 and 6,106,561, and UK Patents GB 2,326,747 B and GB 2,336,008 B. Patents pending.

Schlumberger. All rights reserved.

Service mark information

The following are all service marks of Schlumberger:

The Calculator, Charisma, ConPac, ECLIPSE 100, ECLIPSE 200, ECLIPSE 300, ECLIPSE 500, ECLIPSE Office, EDIT, Extract, Fill, Finder, FloGeo, FloGrid, FloViz, FrontSim, GeoFrame, GRAF, GRID, GridSim, NWM, Open-ECLIPSE, PetraGrid, PlanOpt, Pseudo, PVTi, RTView, SCAL, Schedule, SimOpt, VFPi, Weltest 200.

Trademark information

Silicon Graphics and IRIX are registered trademarks of Silicon Graphics, Inc. OpenGL® and the oval logo are trademarks or registered trademarks of Silicon Graphics, Inc. in the United States and/or other countries worldwide. OpenInventor and WebSpace are trademarks of Silicon Graphics, Inc. IBM, AIX and LoadLeveler are registered trademarks of International Business Machines Corporation. Sun, SPARC, Solaris, Ultra and UltraSPARC are trademarks or registered trademarks of Sun Microsystems, Inc. Macintosh is a registered trademark of Apple Computer, Inc. UNIX is a registered trademark of UNIX System Laboratories. Motif is a registered trademark of the Open Software Foundation, Inc. The X Window System and X11 are registered trademarks of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. PostScript and Encapsulated PostScript are registered trademarks of Adobe Systems, Inc. OpenWorks and VIP are registered trademarks of Landmark Graphics Corporation. Lotus, 1-2-3 and Symphony are registered trademarks of Lotus Development Corporation. Microsoft, Windows, Windows NT, Windows 95, Windows 98, Windows 2000, Windows XP, Internet Explorer, Intellimouse, Excel, Word and PowerPoint are either registered trademarks or trademarks of Microsoft Corporation in the United States and/or other countries. Netscape is a registered trademark of Netscape Communications Corporation. AVS is a registered trademark of AVS Inc. ZEH is a registered trademark of ZEH Graphics Systems. Ghostscript and GSview are Copyright of Aladdin Enterprises, CA. GNU Ghostscript is Copyright of the Free Software Foundation, Inc. Linux is Copyright of the Free Software Foundation, Inc. IRAP is Copyright of Roxar Technologies. LSF is a registered trademark of Platform Computing Corporation, Canada. VISAGE is a registered trademark of VIPS Ltd. Cosmo is a trademark and PLATINUM technology is a registered trademark of PLATINUM technology, inc. PEBI is a trademark of Veritas DGC Inc./HOT Engineering GmbH. Stratamodel is a trademark of Landmark Graphics Corporation. GLOBEtrotter, FLEXlm and SAMreport are registered trademarks of GLOBEtrotter Software, Inc. CrystalEyes is a trademark of StereoGraphics Corporation. Tektronix is a registered trade mark of Tektronix, Inc. GOCAD and JACTA are trademarks of T-Surf. Myrinet is a trade name of Myricom, Inc. This product may include software developed by the Apache Software Foundation (http://www.apache.org). Copyright (c) 1999-2001 The Apache Software Foundation. All rights reserved. MPI/Pro is a registered trademark of MPI Software Technology, Inc. The TGS logo is a trademark of TGS, Inc. LAPACK is Copyright 1999 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics, Philadelphia, PA, http://www.netlib.org/lapack/.

Contact information

Support: Service Desk

Note: Information in this document is subject to change without notice. Companies, names and data used in examples herein are fictitious unless otherwise noted.

Contents

3

Table of Contents

Proprietary Notice

2

Patent information

2

Service mark information

2

Trademark information

2

Contact information

2

TABLE OF CONTENTS

3

DOCUMENT CONVENTIONS

10

PIPESIM HOT KEYS

10

1

INTRODUCTION

15

1.1

Setting up

15

1.1.1 Before you run setup

15

1.1.2 Running setup

17

1.1.3 Changing Options after quitting setup

17

1.2

Documentation

17

1.2.1

PIPESIM additional documentation

17

1.2.2

Case Studies

18

1.2.3

Online Help

18

1.3

PIPESIM overview

19

1.3.1 Modules

20

1.3.2 Options

23

1.4 File Management

25

1.5 Security

26

1.5.1 Stand-alone security (dongle)

26

1.5.2 LAN Security

27

4

Contents

1.6 New features

28

1.7 Schlumberger Support Services

28

1.8 What to do next

28

2 MODEL OVERVIEW

31

2.1 Steps in building a model

31

2.2 Starting PIPESIM

31

2.3 Units System

31

2.4 Fluid data

32

2.4.1 Black Oil

32

2.4.2 Compositional

34

2.4.3 Steam

35

2.5

Model components overview

35

2.5.1

Model & Component limitations

39

2.6 Flow correlation

40

2.7 Run an operation

40

2.8 Saving & Closing PIPESIM

41

2.9 How to build models

41

2.9.1 Fluid calibration

41

2.9.2 Pipeline & facilities

42

2.9.3 Well Performance

45

2.9.4 Network Analysis

48

2.9.5 Production Optimization

50

2.9.6 Field Planning

50

2.9.7 Multi-lateral

51

3 FLUID & MULTIPHASE FLOW MODELING

52

3.1

Black Oil

52

3.1.1

Lasater

52

Contents

5

3.1.2 Standing

53

3.1.3 Vazques and Beggs

53

3.1.4 Glasø

54

3.1.5 Coning

55

3.1.6 Liquid Viscosity

56

3.1.7 Dead Oil Viscosity

56

3.1.8 Live Oil Viscosity

57

3.1.9 Undersaturated Oil Viscosity

58

3.1.10 Oil/Water Mixture Viscosity

59

3.1.11 Gas Viscosity

60

3.2

Compositional

60

3.2.1 EOS (Equations of State)

60

3.2.2 Viscosity model

61

3.2.3 BIP (Binary Interaction Parameter) Set

63

3.2.4 Hydrates

63

3.3

Pressure Drop Calculation

65

3.3.1 Flow regimes

66

3.3.2 Single Phase Flow Correlations

69

3.3.3 Vertical Multiphase Flow Correlations

70

3.3.4 Horizontal Multiphase Flow Correlations

76

3.4

References

80

4 RESERVOIR, WELL & COMPLETION MODELING

87

4.1

Vertical Completions

87

4.1.1 Liquid Reservoirs

87

4.1.2 Gas and Gas Condensate Reservoirs

89

4.2

Horizontal Completions

91

4.2.1 Effect of Pressure Drop on Productivity

91

4.2.2 Single Phase Pressure Drop

94

4.2.3 Multiphase Pressure Drop

95

4.2.4 Inflow Production Profiles

95

4.2.5 Steady-State Productivity

96

4.2.6 Pseudo-Steady State Productivity

99

4.2.7 Solution Gas-Drive IPR

101

6

Contents

4.2.8

Horizontal Gas Wells

101

4.3 Multiple Layers / Completions

103

4.4 Artificial Lift

104

4.4.1 Gas Lift

104

4.4.2 ESP Lift

105

4.5 Tubing

105

4.6 Chokes

106

4.6.1 Ashford-Pierce

106

4.6.2 Omana

107

4.6.3 Gilbert, Ros, Baxendall, Achong and Pilehvari

108

4.6.4 Poettmann-Beck

109

4.6.5 Mechanistic Correlation,

110

4.6.6 API 14-B Formulation

112

4.7 Heat transfer

113

4.8 Reservoir Depletion

113

4.8.1 Volume Depletion Reservoirs

113

4.8.2 Gas Condensate Reservoirs

115

4.9

References

115

5 FIELD EQUIPMENT

119

5.1 Compressor

119

5.2 Expander

120

5.3 Single Phase Pump

121

5.4 Multiphase Boosting

121

5.4.1 Multiphase Boosters – Positive Displacement Type

126

5.4.2 Twin Screw Type Multiphase Boosters

127

5.4.3 Progressing Cavity Type Multiphase Boosters

129

5.4.4 Multiphase Boosters – Dynamic Type

130

5.4.5 Helico-Axial Type Multiphase Boosters

131

5.4.6 Contra-Rotating Axial Type Multiphase Booster

133

Contents

7

5.4.7

Alternative approach

134

5.5 Separator

135

5.6 Re-injection point

135

5.7 Heat Transfer

135

5.8 References

135

6 OPERATIONS

139

6.1 Check model

139

6.2 No operation

139

6.3 Run model

140

6.4 System Analysis

140

6.5 Pressure Temperature profile

140

6.6 Flow correlation matching

140

6.7 Wax Prediction

141

6.8 Nodal Analysis

141

6.9 Artificial Lift Performance

142

6.9.1 Well Performance Curves

143

6.9.2 Optimization module performance curves

143

6.10

Gas Lift Design & Diagnostics

145

6.10.1

Check for Gas Lift instability

145

6.11 Horizontal well analysis

148

6.12 Reservoir tables

148

6.13 Network analysis

149

6.14 Production Optimization

149

8

Contents

6.15

Field Planning

150

6.15.1 Dynamic Eclipse link

150

6.15.2 Look-up tables

152

6.15.3 Compositional tank models

153

6.15.4 Event handling

154

6.16 Multi-lateral well analysis

155

6.17 Post processor

155

6.17.1 Graphical plots

155

6.17.2 Tabular data

156

6.17.3 Onscreen data

156

6.18

References

156

7 CASE STUDIES

159

7.1 Pipeline & facilities Case Study – Condensate Pipeline 161

7.1.1 Task 1. Develop a Compositional Model of the

Hydrocarbon Phases

161

7.1.2 Task 2. Identify the Hydrate Envelope

162

7.1.3 Task 3. Select a Pipeline Size

163

7.1.4 Task 4. Determine the Pipeline Insulation Requirement

165

7.1.5 Task 5. Screen the Pipeline for Severe Riser Slugging 167

7.1.6 Task 6. Size a Slug Catcher

170

7.1.7 Data Available

172

7.2

Well Performance Case Study – Oil Well Design

175

7.2.1 Task 1. Develop a Calibrated Blackoil Model

175

7.2.2 Task 2. Develop a Well Inflow Performance Model

180

7.2.3 Task 3. Select a Tubing Size for the Production String 180

182

7.2.4 Data Available

7.3 Network Analysis Case Study – Looped Gas Gathering

Network

7-184

7.3.1 Task 1. Build a Model of the Network

7-184

7.3.2 Task 2. Specify the Network Boundary Conditions

7-189

Contents

9

7.3.3 Task 3. Solve the Network and Establish the deliverability

7-190

7.3.4 Data Available

7-192

7.4 Optimization

7-194

7.5 Field Planning

7-194

7.6 Multi-lateral

7-194

8 INDEX

8-194

10

Conventions

Document conventions

<edit/copy> - used to denote commands enter into the computer from either Microsoft Windows operating systems or PIPESIM

Conventions

11

THIS PAGE LEFT BLANK INTENTIONALLY

12

Conventions

PIPESIM Hot Keys

File

Create New Well Model

CTRL+W

Create New Pipeline Model

CTRL+

Create New Network model

CTRL+N

Open model

CTRL+O

Open engine file

CTRL+T

Save model

CTRL+S

Close PIPESIM

ALT+F4

Text Edit

CTRL+T

Export to Engine file

CTRL+E

Purge Engine Files

CTRL+Y

Simulation

Run model

CTRL+G

Restart Model

CTRL+R

Check model

CTRL+E

Windows

New Model Window

CTRL+W

Close Active Window

CTRL+F4

Go to Next Window

CTRL+F6 or CTRL+TAB

Go to Previous Window

CTRL+SHIFT+F6 or CTRL+SHIFT+ TAB

Tools

Print

CTRL+P

Access Help

F1

Editing/General

Access Pull-down menus

ALT or F10

Cut

CTRL+X

Copy

CTRL+C

Paste

CTRL+V

Delete

Del

Select All

CTRL+A

Find

CTRL+F

Sticky key mode

SHIFT

Conventions

13

Zoom in

SHIFT+Z

Zoom out

SHIFT+X

Zoom Full View

SHIFT+F

Restore View

SHIFT+R

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Field Equipment

15

1 Introduction

Welcome to Schlumberger’s PIPESIM - the integrated Petroleum Engineer and Facilities package for Design, Operation and Optimization.

1.1 Setting up

You install PIPESIM on your computer by using the program SETUP.EXE. The Msetup up program installs ESI

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16

Field Equipment

A mouse

32Mb of RAM

Microsoft Windows 98 or higher

The PC system date is set to the current date. The security system uses the current PC date.

The recommended system requirements are:

Pentium III processor 600MHz

3Gb hard disk

A 4x CD-ROM drive

A SVGA display running in 1024x768 and 256 colors

A 2 button mouse

64Mb of RAM

Microsoft Windows 2000

1.1.1.2

Check the PIPESIM package

The following items should be in the PIPESIM package:

PIPESIM User Guide

PIPESIM Additional Notes

PIPESIM Service Pack Notes (if applicable)

PIPESIM Installation Guide

PIPESIM CD

Registration form (also available on our web site)

Software license reference number. This should be quoted on all correspondence.

If any of the above are missing then please contact your nearest Schlumberger office.

1.1.1.3 Make backup copies

Before you run the install procedure please back up copies of any

important data stored on your PC.

You are also encouraged to make a back up copy of the install CD.

1.1.1.4 Read the additional notes document

The additional notes' document (shipped with the package) lists any

changes to the User Guide since its publication.

Field Equipment

17

1.1.2 Running setup

When you run the setup program

To start Setup

Once you have installed PIPESIM the following links will be created on the Programs menu;

Schlumberger

PIPESIM

GOAL

FPT

HoSim

Documentation

OpenLink

Utilities

B26 to P2K Converter

Security utilities

User defined DLL registry editor

Plotting utility

1.1.3 Changing Options after quitting setup

You can run they setup program as many times as you like to install,

re-install or remove components. However, only 1 copy of PIPESIM can be installed on a single PC.

1.2 Documentation

1.2.1 PIPESIM additional documentation

In addition to this User Guide the following documentation is available

to assist users in using PIPESIM or some of its modules.

The latest versions of these documents are available from any Schlumberger support office or can be downloaded directly from the Schlumberger web site in Adobe Acrobat PDF format.

1.2.1.1 Artificial lift Performance curve The optimizer module utilizes artificial lift performance curves to model the wells. These can be created by a suitable Nodal analysis software package.

18

Field Equipment

1.2.1.2 User Defined Multiphase flow correlation

The user can create their own multiphase flow correlations and link these into PIPESIM.

1.2.1.3 OpenLink

A collection of COM object that allows PIPESIM to be accessed from

3 rd party applications, e.g. Microsoft Excel, Visual basic, etc.

An up to date list of features and functionality can be obtained from the Schlumberger web site, along with all the necessary documentation.

1.2.1.4 PVT file format

The composition can be transferred from third party applications directly into PIPESIM, provide that it is supplied in the correct format. This document details that format.

1.2.1.5 Sentinel LM Security

The LAN version of PIPESIM utilizes Sentinel LM License manger as its security system The Sentinel LM Administrators Guide can be of assistance to IT personnel.

Note: This User Guide does not cover the menus or dialogs that are used within the software. These are covered, in detail, in the Help system, supplied with PIPESIM.

1.2.2 Case Studies

The PIPESIM installation installs sample models on to your hard disk.

1.2.3 Online Help

You can access Help through;

the Help Contents command,

by searching for specific topics with the Help Search tool

pressing F1 to get context-sensitive Help.

1.2.3.1 Help contents For information on Help topics, choose Contents from the Help menu or press F1 and click the Contents button. You can use the Contents

Field Equipment

19

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20

Field Equipment

Field Planning

 

Multi-lateral well

       

Multi-zone wells

     

This release of PIPESIM does not have all modules fully integrated, i.e. Production Optimization (GOAL), Field Planning (FPT), Multi- lateral well (HoSim).

1.3.1 Modules PIPESIM consists of the following modules:

Pipeline & Facilities

Well Performance Analysis

Network Analysis

Production Optimization (GOAL)

Field Planning (FPT)

Multi-lateral (HoSim)

1.3.1.1 Pipeline & Facilities A comprehensive multiphase flow model with "System Analysis" capabilities. Typical applications of the module include:

multiphase flow in flowlines and pipelines

point by point generation of pressure and temperature profiles

calculation of heat transfer coefficients

flowline & equipment performance modeling (system analysis)

1.3.1.2 Well Performance analysis A comprehensive multiphase flow model with "Nodal & System Analysis" capabilities. Typical applications of the module includes:

Well design

Well optimization

Well inflow performance modeling

Gas Lift Design

ESP Design

Gas lift performance modeling

ESP performance modeling

Horizontal well modeling (including optimum horizontal completion length determination)

Injection well design

Annular and tubing flow

Field Equipment

21

1.3.1.3 Network analysis module Features of the network model include:

unique network solution algorithm to model wells in large networks

rigorous thermal modeling of all network components

multiple looped pipeline/flowline capability

well inflow performance modeling capabilities

rigorous modeling of gas lifted wells in complex networks

comprehensive pipeline equipment models

gathering and distribution networks

1.3.1.4 Production Optimization (GOAL) This module allows production optimization of an artificial lifted (gas lift or ESP) oil field to be performed given a number of practical constraints on the system.

The module will predict the optimum artificial lift quantity (lift gas or ESP speed) so as to optimize oil production from the entire field. As an alternative to calculations based on produced oil the optimization can be performed on gross liquids, gross gas or revenue. The program models the full network on a point-by-point basis, and offers a choice of flow correlation options for multiphase flow. In addition to being able to optimize field production it includes a unique production prediction mode, which allows current field production rates and pressures to be predicted and the results compared directly against actual field data.

The module has been primarily developed for use by operations staff in the day-to-day optimization and allocation of lift gas for complex multi-well networked configurations.

GOAL has been designed with to allow answers to specific problems to be easily obtained. This could be, for example, when a well is shut- in and the extra quantity of lift gas or horse power is made available. The module can then be used to determine the best re-allocation of the lift gas to the remaining wells, while taking into account any production constraints, to optimize the total production.

22

Field Equipment

To allow the day-to-day modeling of the system to be performed quickly, modeling of the wells and the optimization process have been separated. This allows answers to specific problems, by examining a number of scenarios, to be generated in a very short time.

Input is taken from individual well performance models created from a multiphase flow simulator, in the form of well performance curves. These performance curves should be generated and checked before being included in the model.

To obtain the correct solution the pressure drop must be correctly accounted for along the surface network. This is simulated by the use of (tuned) industrial standard multiphase flow correlation's to predict the pressure loss and liquid hold-up in the pipeline.

In its production prediction mode of operation it can be used to validate the individual well gas lift or ESP lift performance curves by using them to predict current production rates.

Results are displayed in tabular form, graphical plots or by utilizing the sophisticated graphical user interface to display a variety of rates and pressures. The solution provides a comprehensive report that includes the required gas injection rate for each well or required operating speed for each well, the flow rate and pressure at each manifold in the system and economic data.

Full features of the model include:

interfaces with the well Analysis module

solves multi-well commingled scenarios

allows well production performance modeling

offers operator decision support functions

Black Oil only

1.3.1.5 Multi-lateral wells (HoSim) HoSim is designed to model horizontal and multilateral heterogeneous wells in detail. The software uses a rigorous network solution algorithm to solve horizontal and multilateral wells as gathering networks.

Field Equipment

23

The program enables detailed horizontal well models to be built quickly and easily through a graphical user interface. The user can define various IPR relationships, and specify a detailed well description. Certain equipment models, which are common to the pipeline and facilities module, are available such as chokes, gas lift, ESP’s and also separators, compressors, pumps etc.

Fluid description can be either black oil or compositional and different fluids can be specified which are mixed together using appropriate mixing rules.

Specifying either an outlet pressure or an outlet flow rate (or a range of values for a batch run) to run the model.

Results can be displayed either as text (point values) or graphically for any part of the model.

1.3.1.6 Field Planning (FPT) Allows the network module to be coupled to a “reservoir model” to model reservoir behavior over time. In addition conditional logic decision can be taken into account, i.e. bring well 56 on steam in year 5, etc. The reservoir may be described as either;

Black oil tank model

Compositional tank model

look-up tables

Commercial reservoir simulator

Commercial material balance program

1.3.2 Options In addition to the above basic modules a number of options are available.

1.3.2.1 Compositional option Allows a PVT package to be used to determine the fluid properties. Options are

SIS Flash (provided by Schlumberger)

Multiflash (provided by InfoChem)

24

Field Equipment

SPPTS (for Shell users only)

The compositional options have the following features;

Standard library of 50+ components

Petroleum Fraction

Phase envelope generation

Dew point line

Bubble point line

Critical point

Hydrate formation line (if present)

Ice formation line (if present)

Quality lines

EOS

Peng-Robinson (standard and advanced)

SRK (standard and advanced)

Corresponding EOS

SMIRK (limited access)

Stand alone flash (PT, PH, etc) details

Viscosity models

Pederson

LBC

In addition the Multiflash option has the following features;

Multiple Bubble point matching

Multiple Dew point matching

Multiple Viscosity data matching

Multi-stage flashing

Setting of BIPs

Emulsion options

User defined BIPs

1.3.2.2 OLGAS 2000 Utilizes the steady-state version of the multiphase flow correlation from Scandpower as used in OLGA Transient.

This option has 2 versions;

(i)

2-phase and

(ii)

3-phase.

Field Equipment

25

1.3.2.3 ECLIPSE 100

Allows the Field Planning module to use the ECLIPSE 100 (Black Oil) reservoir simulator to model the reservoir performance. The system has been designed so that ECLIPSE can reside on UNIX or PC.

1.3.2.4 ECLIPSE 300

Allows the Field Planning module to use the ECLIPSE 300 reservoir simulator (Compositional) to model the reservoir performance. The

system has been designed so that ECLIPSE can reside on UNIX or PC.

1.3.2.5 MBAL

Allows the Field Planning module to use the material balance program Mbal (from Petroleum Experts) to model the reservoir performance.

1.4 File Management

PIPESIM uses the following to store data;

ASCII files

Binary files

Microsoft Access Database.

Input data (*.BPS, *.BPN, *.PGW, *.FPT,*.HSM) Contains all the data that is necessary to run a model. This includes data for; units, fluid composition, well IPR, system data, etc. The support team requires these files when support queries are made.

Output data (*.OUT, *.SUM) Contains program output data in different formats.

Transfer files (*.PLT, *.PLC, *.PWH, *.PBT, *.TNT, *.PST) Files that transfer data from one PIPESIM module to another.

PVT table (*.PVT) A file that contains a single stream composition and a table of fluid properties for a given set of pressure and temperature values. This file can (if required) be created by a commercial PVT package e.g. Multiflash, Hysys, PVTSim, EQUI90, etc. or via the compositional module in PIPESIM.

26

Field Equipment

Database files (*.MDB) Microsoft Access Database file that contains;

Black Oil fluid data,

ESP performance curves

User defined pump and compressor curves

Units file (*.UMF) Units files. Used to store user defined unit sets. These files can be passed from user-to-user.

1.5 Security Stand-alone (single PC) versions of PIPESIM are protected from unauthorized use by means of either a license file or a hardware security module (generally referred to as a 'dongle' or 'bit lock'). Local Area Network (LAN) versions are normally protected via License Manager software.

1.5.1 Stand-alone security (dongle) When the program executes the dongle must be attached to the parallel port of the computer otherwise it will not run. The dongle remains the property of Schlumberger while in use by customers, and are not replaceable if lost.

You can connect another device (or more Schlumberger dongles) to the parallel port while the dongle is still attached to it without affecting the operation of the device or the dongle. Do this simply by plugging the device into the back of the dongle. If you already have another program protected by a similar dongle, they can both be plugged into the port at the same time, and should not interfere with each other. The dongle is quite robust, so no particular care need be taken in handling it.

Users are able to view the Schlumberger software modules licensed on their dongles by using the Dongle Utility. On start-up of the utility, the attached dongle license details for the various software modules are displayed. When renewing or purchasing additional software licenses you will need to update the licenses on your dongle(s) by receiving instructions from Schlumberger.

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27

The dongles have an internal timing mechanism to enforce the license periods. It is important NOT to set your PC’s clock into the future and run PIPESIM, as the dongle will prevent you from using PIPESIM after you have set your clock back. If you do accidentally do this, contact Schlumberger for information on how to “reset” your dongle.

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Field Equipment

1.6 New features

You are advised to review the Release Notes document supplied with your version of the software for a complete list of new features.

1.7 Schlumberger Support Services

Schlumberger offers full technical support for PIPESIM from our offices worldwide. Please see the web site for your nearest support center or contact the support centers in the United Kingdom or in

Houston (USA).

Center

Tel

United Kingdom

+44 1293 55 68 97

 

America

+1 713 513 2037

 

To offer the best and fastest support our preferred method for support services is via email.

1.8 What to do next

Depending upon your needs the following is recommended;

New users

Familiarize yourself with the all PIPESIM modules, their function and application.

Work through the case studies for your particular area of interest

Existing users

Read the Release Notes document to obtain an overview of new features.

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Model Overview

31

2

Model Overview

2.1

Steps in building a model

The steps involved in building a PIPESIM model are slightly different

for each module but follow the same basic steps.

Select units

Set fluid data

Calibrate data (optional)

Define components in the model

Well components (completion, tubing)

Pipeline component

Field equipment

Set heat transfer options

Select multiphase flow correlation

Perform an operation

Analyze the results

Graphical

Tabular

Via schematic

2.2 Starting PIPESIM

The PIPESIM GUI can be run from the start menu <start/program files/Schlumberger/PIPESIM>.

2.3 Units System

The built in units system allows you the flexibility to select any variable and define the unit of measurement to be used. Thus you can use this feature to modify the units system to match reports or data supplied by a service company or to simply customize the units system to suit your own personal preferences.

Two non-customizable unit sets are provided;

Engineering (oil field) and

SI.

In addition the customizable unit sets are available. Any number of customized unit sets can be created and saved (each one to a different external data file) under a new name. These customized files can be provided to other PIPESIM users.

32

Model Overview

The units system used for any particular model is saved with the model data, thus allowing models to be moved easily.

Any unit set can be set as the default for new models or new sessions of PIPESIM.

2.4 Fluid data

One of the first things that you need to do before using PIPESIM is to decide what type of fluid system you are going to use.

PIPESIM can model the following fluid types:

Gas

Gas condensate

Liquid

Liquid & Gas

Steam

The fluid can be described by one of the following methods;

Fully Compositional

Black Oil correlations

Steam tables

The fluid model that you use will depend upon:

Properties of the fluids in the system

Flow rates and conditions (pressure & temperature) at which the fluid(s) enter and leave the system.

Available data, etc.

For a quick screening study where the accuracy of the physical properties is not essential, we advise the user to use a Black oil fluid model specification.

2.4.1 Black Oil Black oil fluid modeling utilizes correlation models to simulate the key PVT fluid properties of the oil/gas/water system. These empirical correlation's treat the oil/gas system as a simple two component system - unlike the more rigorous multi-component compositional model methods. The hydrocarbon is treated simply as a liquid

Model Overview

33

component (if present) and a gas component related to stock tank conditions. All that is needed for most applications is a minimum of production data, oil gravity, gas gravity, solution gas/oil ratio and, if water is also present in the system, the watercut.

Black oil fluid modeling is appropriate for use with a wide range of applications and hydrocarbon fluid systems. In general, the basic black oil correlations will provide reasonable accuracy in most PVT fluid property evaluations over the range of pressures and temperatures likely to be found in production or pipeline systems.

However, care should be taken when applying the black oil approach to a highly volatile crude or a condensate where accurate modeling of the gaseous light ends is required. In this case, the user should consider the use of compositional modeling technique that describes the fluid as a multi-component mixture.

In order to increase the accuracy of the basic black oil correlations for modeling multiphase flow, PIPESIM provides the facility to adjust salient values of a number of the most important PVT fluid properties to match laboratory data.

These PVT fluid properties are considered the single most important parameters affecting the accuracy of multi-phase flow calculations. Calibration of these properties can greatly increase the accuracy of the correlations over the range of pressures and temperatures for the system being modeled.

This facility is optional, but the above calibrations will significantly improve the accuracy of the predicted gas/liquid ratio, the flowing oil density and the oil volume formation factor. If the calibration data is omitted, however, PIPESIM will calibrate on the basis of oil and gas gravity alone and thus, there will be a loss in accuracy. It should be noted that the black oil calibration feature is only applicable to oil fluid types, as it is not appropriate for a gas fluid type.

The following blackoil correlations are available:

Solution gas and bubble point pressure:

Lasater, Standing ,

Vasquez and Beggs , Kartamodjo, Khan, or Glasø.

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Model Overview

Oil formation volume factor of saturated systems: Standing, Vasquez and Beggs, or Glasø.

Oil formation volume factor of undersaturated systems:

Vasquez and Beggs, or Glasø.

Dead oil viscosity: Beggs and Robinson, Glasø, or User’s data.

Live oil viscosity of saturated systems: Chew and Connally or Beggs and Robinson.

Live oil viscosity of undersaturated systems: Vazquez and Beggs, Kousel, or None.

Viscosity of oil/water mixtures: Inversion, Volume Ratio, or Woelflin.

Gas viscosity: Lee et al.

Gas compressibility: Standing, or Hall and Yarborough.

2.4.2 Compositional For compositional fluid modeling of hydrocarbon fluids and associated gas and water components, PIPESIM uses a PVT modeling package.

Compositional fluid modeling is generally regarded as more accurate, but also more expensive in terms of time and computer resources than black oil modeling. It is justified for problems involving volatile fluids needing rigorous heat transfer calculations. However, the black oil modeling approach can often give satisfactory results with volatile fluids.

Oil systems contain in reality many thousands of pure components, consisting of a spectrum of molecules with different carbon numbers and large numbers of different isomers. It would be impossible to model the behavior of such systems by explicitly defining the amount of each of these molecules, both because of the excessive computing power needed and the fact that laboratory reports could not possibly supply all this information.

Since the alkane hydrocarbons are non-polar and therefore mutually relatively ideal, lumping them together in the form of a number of 'pseudo-components' results in fairly accurate phase behavior and physical property predictions.

Model Overview

35

Petroleum fractions are normally defined by splitting off sections of a laboratory distillation of the C7+ mixture. Curves of boiling point, density and molecular weight are produced from which the properties of the individual pseudo-components may be derived.

Petroleum fractions are characterized by either;

Measured Properties;

boiling point (BP),

specific gravity (SG) and

molecular weight (MW). T

Critical Property

critical temperature (T C ),

critical pressure (P C ),

acentric factor (Omega) and

specific gravity (SG).

Further details of the equations used, etc can be found in the PIPESIM help system.

2.4.3 Steam For steam systems (production and injection) PIPESIM uses the GPSA stream tables.

When modeling stream systems the pressure and quality are required. If the quality is superheated (quality =100%) or sub-cooled (quality=0%) then the temperature is also required.

2.5 Model components overview

A PIPESIM model is built (via the GUI) by adding components (from

the toolbox) to the model window.

Components are divided into 2 groups;

Node type components

Boundary nodes - Must be on the edge of the system and can only have one connection either leaving (source) or entering (sink).

Internal nodes - Cannot be on the edge of the system and can have any number of connections.

Linking type components - Joins 2 node type components

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Model Overview

Node type components are connected by linking components and thus must be added to the model first.

The components available depend upon the modules purchased. Details on the inputs for each component can be found in the help system.

A full list of components and their type is listed below.

Pipeline & facilities module

Component

Type

Description

Source

Boundary

The point where the fluid enters the system.

Node

Flowline

Link

A

flowline to a point where it meets

another flowline (with different characteristics) or another object.

Maybe horizontal or inclined and surrounded by air, water or both; insulated or bare

Riser

Link

A

description of the riser (vertical or

near-vertical - up or down) to a point where it meets another riser or another

object.

Pump

Internal

A

single or multistage pump for the

Node

pumping of liquids.

Multiphase

Node

A

multiphase booster.

Booster

 

Separator

Internal

Allows fluid separation to take place in the model. It is a two-phase separator, (i.e. gross liquids, water or gas).

The removed fluid can be re-injected back into the network model via the injection point component.

Node

Compressor

Internal

A

single or multistage centrifugal gas

Node

compressor

Expander

Internal

An expander.

Node

Model Overview

37

Heat exchanger

Internal

Allows a change in temperature and pressure to be modeled

Node

Choke

Internal

A device to restrict the flow of fluids.

Node

Generic

Internal

A general device that can alter the

Equipment

Node

pressure or temperature.

Injection point

Internal

Allows a side stream (compositional only) to be injected into the main stream. The incoming pressure and flowrate (along with the composition) are required.

Node

Multiplier/Adder

Internal

Changes the flowrate by the amount specified.

Node

Spot report

Internal

Allow key pieces of information to be retrieved at any point (between links) in the system. This component has no effect on the temperature or pressure in the system.

Node

Keyword tool

Internal

Allows engine keywords to be inserted into a model. A full list of the keywords can be found in the Help system under keyword reference.

Node

Connector

Link

Joins to nodes without having any effect on the calculations, i.e. a zero length piece of pipe.

Well Performance module

Component

Type

Description

Vertical

Boundary

Describes the well IPR and the reservoir static pressure for a vertical completion. These are then used to determine the bottom hole pressure.

completion

Node

Horizontal

Boundary

Describes the horizontal completion, the IPR and the reservoir static pressure. These are then used to determine the bottom hole (heal)

pressure

completion

Node

Tubing

Link

Joins the reservoir top the surface. The fluid can flow either through the tubing

38

Model Overview

   

or outside the tubing (inside the casing) or both. The tubing may also have down hole equipment installed.

Nodal analysis point

Node

The point in the system where the (nodal) analysis is to be conducted. The model is then broken into two parts; inflow to the NA point and outflow from the NA point.

Network module

Component

Type

Description

Production well

Boundary

Models the source as a production well. The well is (normally) defined from the sand face to the point where it joins another object, i.e. well head, manifold, etc.

Node

Generic source

Boundary

The point where a fluid enters the system. Can be used when a well is modeled from the well head.

Node

Injection well

Boundary

Models the sink as an injection well, including tubing and completion.

Node

Generic sink

Boundary

The point where the fluid leaves the systems. A model may have any number of sinks.

Node

Node

Node

A point in the system where 1 or more branches meets

Branch

Link

Connects 2 or more nodes, sources or sinks. Any combination of flowline, riser or pieces of equipment can be used to describe a branch. When connected between a well and a node the resulting branch has no physical meaning

Re-injection

Node

Connects 3 branches;

node

1 - the incoming fluid stream

2 - the outlet stream

3 - the stream removed by the

separator. All the fluid removed from the separator is re-injected. The re-

Model Overview

39

injected stream can be upstream or downstream of the separator.
injected stream can be upstream or downstream of the separator.

injected stream can be upstream or downstream of the separator.

2.5.1 Model & Component limitations The following limitations;

General:

Maximum number of components in a stream:

50

Pipeline & facilities

Maximum number of sources:

1

Maximum number of sinks:

1

Maximum number pipe coatings:

4

Maximum number of nodes for a pipeline or riser:

101

Well Performance

Maximum number of completions:

10

Maximum number of sinks

1

Maximum number tubing coatings:

10

Maximum number of nodes for a tubing:

100

Maximum number of geothermal survey points:

100

Maximum number of tubing strings:

 

Detailed model:

20

Simple model:

4

Network

Maximum number of wells / branches:

unlimited

Maximum number of nodes:

unlimited

Maximum number of PVT files:

500

Maximum number of compositions:

1,000

Maximum number of Black Oil compositions:

1,024

Maximum number of PQ data points:

30

Field Planning

Maximum number of stored timesteps:

256

Maximum number of auxiliary properties:

1,500

Maximum number of Eclipse models:

1

Maximum number of network models:

5

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Model Overview

Maximum number of events:

2,500

Maximum number of schedule 'bean' lists:

99

Maximum number of look-up tables:

500

Maximum number of data lines in all look-up tables: 1500

Maximum number of tank reservoirs:

50

Production Optimization (GOAL)

Maximum number of wells/branches:

500

Maximum number of nodes:

400

Maximum number of sinks:

1

Multi-lateral (HoSim)

Maximum number of multi-laterals:

500

2.6 Flow correlation

Flow correlations are used to determine the pressure drop and hold- up in the system

Flow correlations are split in to the following section;

Single phase

Multiphase - vertical

Multiphase - horizontal

A

number of flow correlations have been proposed over the years.

In

addition to the standard supplied flow correlations user's can

create and add their own multiphase flow correlation in to PIPESIM via the user DLL facility.

The linkages are documented in the user defined flow correlations document, which can be obtained from Schlumberger or down loaded from our web site.

2.7 Run an operation

Select the operation that is relevant to the model developed. The

simulation will commence and the post-processor can then be used

to analyze the results.

Model Overview

41

2.8 Saving & Closing PIPESIM

When PIPESIM is closed all files (models) that have been modified during the session are checked and an option to save any that have changed is presented to the user.

2.9 How to build models

This section provides a brief overview of the steps involved in building a model with each of the basic PIPESIM modules.

See the PIPESIM Help system " How do I…" section for full details on setting up the basic models.

PIPESIM can build the following basic models;

Pipeline and facilities

Production well

Single completion well

Multiple completion well

Horizontal completion well

Injection well

Sub-surface and surface Networks

Gathering systems

Looped systems

Distribution systems

Multi-lateral wells

Production

Injection

2.9.1 Fluid calibration 2.9.1.1 Black Oil The following basic steps are required to calibrate the black oil defined fluids;

Select the units set of your preference

Enter the basic fluid data

Enter the Bubble Point data

Enter the Advanced calibration data (optional)

Run the operation.

Save the model!

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Model Overview

In a network model the calibration data is "mixed" at junctions to provide average calibration data for the resulting stream.

2.9.1.2 Compositional

The following basic steps are required to calibrate the compositionally

defined fluids;

Select the units set of your preference

Enter the basic fluid data (library components, petroleum fractions)

Produce the phase envelop (for reference)

Select the quantity to match to; Bubble Point or Dew point

Enter the matching data

Select viscosity matching options if applicable

Enter the viscosity data

Run the matching operation

Update the composition

Produce the new phase envelop

Save the model!

2.9.2 Pipeline & facilities

The following basic steps are required to build a pipeline & facilities model;

Select the units set of your preference

Add the necessary components to the model (source, flowline, equipment, etc) and defined the necessary data.

Define the fluid specification (black oil or compositional).

Define the flow correlation to use.

Save the model!

One the basic model has been developed a number of operations can be performed or the model can be utilized in additional PIPESIM modules.

2.9.2.1 Correlation matching

The following basic steps are required to determine the most suitable

horizontal multiphase flow correlation;

Build the pipeline & facilities model.

Select the Correlation matching operation

Determine the boundary condition to compute

Model Overview

43

Select suitable Horizontal correlations

Enter any known measured pressure and temperature values

Run the operation.

Save the model!

Insure that the most suitable correlation is then selected from the horizontal flow correlation list for subsequent simulations.

2.9.2.2 Pressure/Temperature profile

The following basic steps are required to determine the pressure or

temperature profile along the system;

Build the well performance model.

Select the Pressure/Temperature profile operation

Determine the boundary condition to compute

Select any sensitivity parameters

Enter the sensitivity parameters

Run the operation

Save the model!

2.9.2.3 Equipment/Flowline sizing (1 parameter)

The following basic steps are required to size a flowline/riser or a piece of equipment;

Build the pipeline and facilities model.

Include the flowline/equipment/riser to be sized.

Select the Pressure/Temperature profile operation

Select the sensitivity parameter

Enter the data for the sensitivity parameter

Run the operation.

Save the model!

2.9.2.4 Equipment/Flowline sizing (Multiple parameter)

The following basic steps are required to size a flowline/riser or a

piece of equipment;

Build the pipeline and facilities model.

Include the flowline/equipment/riser to be sized.

Select the System Analysis operation

Select the multiple sensitivity

Select the x-axis and sensitivity parameters

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Model Overview

Enter the data for the sensitivity parameters

Decide if the sensitivity parameters are permuted or change in step.

Run the operation.

Save the model!

2.9.2.5 Multiphase booster design The following basic steps are required to complete a multiphase booster design;

Build the pipeline and facilities (including the well if required) model.

Include the multiphase booster.

Perform the analysis (nodal, PT profile, etc) with the booster inactive.

Invoke the generic Multiphase booster option and set the booster parameters. Details on efficiency factors are supplied in the help system.

Re-run the analysis.

Verify that multiphase booster van enhance production.

Decide upon the Multiphase booster type required (Helico Axial or Twin Screw).

For twin screw boosters

Select the generic twin screw module

Enter the required data and re-run the analysis

PIPESIM will automatically select the most suitable size of the twin screw booster.

Select the Twin screw booster module

Select the nominal booster as recommend by the previous operation

Enter the data required data and re-run the analysis

Select the vendor Twin screw module

Enter the data required data and re-run the analysis

For Helico Axial boosters

Enter the required a data and re-run the analysis

Save the model!

Model Overview

45

2.9.3 Well Performance The following basic steps are required to build a well model (single or multiple completion);

Select the units set of your preference

Determine the completion of the well

Single

Multiple

Horizontal

Add the necessary components to the model (completion, tubing, etc) and defined the necessary data.

Define the fluid specification

Define the flow correlation to use.

Save the model!

Once the basic model has been developed a number of operations can be performed or the well model can be utilized in additional PIPESIM modules.

2.9.3.1 Correlation matching