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CURS 3, AVANSATI, ANUL 3, 26 OCT 2009

I. GRAMMAR: PREPOSITIONS

Explanations

Movement Prepositions used with verbs of motion (come, go, run, etc) show the direction of the movement.

Jack ran out of the room.

She moved towards the door.

Other examples: to, into, across, around, along, up, down, past

Position and place Prepositions can show position. Ted was sitting next to Janet.

The bank is opposite the cinema.

Other examples: before, below, beside, in front of, near, on top of, under Prepositions can show place.

Other uses

I live in France.

Sue lives on an island.

John is at school.

Prepositions are also used in time expressions.

Prepositions cover a wide range of other meanings. This book is about Napoleon.

I

can’t drink tea with/without sugar.

Problems of use

To and at With verbs of motion to means in the direction of. At is not used with verbs of motion. It is used to say where someone or something is.

We went to the cinema.

We arrived at the cinema.

Next to and near Next to means very close, with nothing in between. It is the same as beside. Near means only a short distance from, which can be a matter of opinion. Peter always sits next to Mary. I live near the sea, it’s only ten miles away.

Above and over Both words mean in a higher position than, but over suggests closeness or touching. There was a plane high above them. Put this blanket over you. There may be little difference in some contexts. There was something written above/over the door.

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In and at: places In refers to towns, countries and the ‘inside’ of places.

She lives in Paris.

They arrived in Peru.

He’s in the kitchen At refers to points with a particular purpose rather than inside.

She lives at home.

Compare:

I’ll meet you at the bus stop.

They met in the cinema. (inside) They met at the cinema. (place)

* Prepositions at the end of a sentence. Study these common examples:

Who are you waiting for?

(question)

You are very difficult to live with!

(infinitive)

That’s the company that I work for.

(relative clause)

Prepositions without an object Some prepositions can be used without an object. Ted was walking along, whistling. In this example we mean along the street, but it is clear from the context or unimportant. Other prepositions used like this are: around, along, behind, opposite.

Prepositions with more than one word Examples: according to, on behalf of, by means of Prepositional phrases There are many fixed phrases containing prepositions. Examples: by mistake, on purpose, out of order

Practice

1. Choose the most suitable prepositions.

a) I got at/to the station just in time to see Jack getting from/off the train.

b) The

café

is

among/between

the

chemist’s

and

the

butcher’s

across/opposite the library.

and

c) Sue lives at/in Wales, which is a country at/in the west of Britain.

d) I was brought up in/on an island near/next to the coast of Scotland.

e) Travelling by/in your own car is better than going by/on foot.

f) Jack was leaning by/against the wall with his hands in/into his pockets.

g) Ann had a hat on/over her head and a veil above/over her face.

h) We arrived at/in England at/in Gatwick Airport.

i) I left my bags at/from the station at/in a left luggage locker.

j) Peter came running into/to the room and threw his books at/onto the floor.

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2.

Complete each sentence with a suitable word or phrase from the box.

according to in favour of

because of on behalf of

instead of

as for

apart from in case of

by means of regardless of

a) I think I’d rather have coffee instead of tea.

b) ………………….the danger, Paul ran back into the burning house.

c) ………………….fire, smash the glass and push the button.

d) Personally, I am………………

e) I would like to thank you, ……………everyone who was rescued.

f) …………………you, no-one else knows that I have escaped.

g) …………………Steve, he believes that we should stay where we are.

h) Jim managed to climb into the house……………….a ladder he found.

banning

cigarette smoking completely!

i) ………………

the

rain, the match was postponed.

j) ………………

the

timetable, the next train isn’t for two hours.

3. Decide whether it is possible to leave out the words in italics.

a) Most people are wandering around the streets, taking photos. Possible

b) I gave my bike to my little sister, when it became too small for me………….

c) The people who live in the house opposite our house are Italian. ………….

d) I left my coat on the bed in here but it seems to have disappeared. ……………

e) I’ll wait for you outside the cinema, on the pavement. ……………………

f) Peter took a deep breath, and then went under the water again. ………………

g) Don’t worry, the hotel’s quite near to where we are now. …………………

h) The children can sit behind you in the back seats. …………………………

4. Complete each sentence with a suitable word or phrase from the box.

at

without

by

for

in

on

off

out of

to

under

a) Policem officers don’t have to wear uniform when they are off duty.

b) I feel very tired. …………

c) The children were all upset, and some were ……….tears.

d) This factory needs modernising. Everything here is ……… date.

times

I consider giving up work.

e) Don’t worry, everything is ……….control.

f) Sorry, I seem to have taken the wrong umbrella……………mistake.

g) Please hurry. We need these documents ………….delay.

h) That wasn’t an accident! You did it……….purpose.

i) We thought the two films were very similar ………….each other.

j) We decided to take a holiday in Wales………

a change.

5. Choose the most suitable phrase in each sentence.

a) I can’t disturb John now. He’s at bed/in bed.

b) Tony always arrives exactly in time/on time for his lesson.

c) Two pounds for each ticket, that makes £12 in all/with all.

d) I can’t pick that last apple. It’s out of hand/out of reach.

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e) John and I met on the plane completely by chance/by surprise.

f) The children spent most of their time out of doors/out of place.

g) I’m sorry but Jane isn’t here at present/at a time.

h) How can Sam love Lucy? They have nothing in common/in general.

i) They should be here soon. They are in the way/on the way.

j) Terry isn’t here. He’s away in business/on business.

6. Complete each sentence with a suitable word from the box.

breath

fail

impression

secret

strike

costs

return

stock

a) This is important. You must catch the two men at all costs.

b) I was under the………….that you enjoyed working here.

c) Please hand your work in on Tuesday, without ……………

d) We can’t go by train. The train-drivers are on …………….

e) Martin is supposed to have given up smoking, but he smokes in ………

f) I’m afraid we don’t have your size, we are out of ……………

g) If I give you the information, what will you give me in ………………?

h) I ran for the bus, and now I’m out of…………….

7. Complete each sentence with a suitable word from the box.

average

profit

sight

detail

himself

practice

public

whole

a) Harry managed to sell his house at a profit.

b) What was he doing here all by …………… ?

c) Larry is so famous that he doesn’t appear in …………

d) That was a terrible shot! I’m rather out of………………

e) How many cars do you sell, on …………., every week?

f) The police are coming! Stay out of ………….until they leave.

g) I suppose I enjoyed my holiday on the …………….

h) Can you tell me about the plans in …………….?

very often.

8. Complete each sentence with a suitable phrase from the box.

by heart

in difficulties

out of work

by sight

in pain

in two

on sale

without a doubt

a) When I sat on the pencil, it broke in two.

b) This is ………………

c) Graham has been …………………ever since he came to London.

d) I know her ………………

e) The lifeguard dived in to save a swimmer ……………………

f) John learned his first speech …………………………

the

best washing machine on the market.

,

but I don’t know her name.

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g) You could tell he was …………………because he kept groaning.

h) Cigarettes and ice cream are …………………

in the foyer.

9. Complete each sentence with one of the phrases from the box.

at any rate in private

in person out of order

out of danger under orders

out of tune

from now on

a) Jim’s excuse was that he was acting under orders from his boss.

b) Things have changed ………………., no-one leaves before 5.00.

c) Thank goodness. All the passengers are now ……………………

d) The President would like to meet you and thank you ………………

e) Your violin sounds awful! I think it’s ……………………

f) It’s a warm country. We won’t need our pullovers, ……………………

g) Excuse me, but I’d like to have a word with you……………………….

h) You can’t use the phone. It’s ……………………………….

10. Look carefully at each line. Some of the lines are correct, and some have a word which should not be there. Tick each correct line. If a line has a word which should not be there, write the word in the space.

The psychology of accidents

 

Most people are under the impression that

v

doing something by a mistake is quite different

a

from doing something on purpose. In the fact,

1). ……

according to by some psychologists, many

2). …….

accidents do not, on the whole, really happen

3) …….

to by chance. There may be good reasons for

4) …….

actions which seem to be accidental. For an

5)……

example, someone who fails to arrive on time

6)……

as for a meeting at work may be worried about

7)……

his or her job, or be in with difficulties at home.

8)……

In other words, there are often good reasons for

9)…….

behaviour which seems at the first to be

10)……

accidental. Of this course, some people are

11)……

involved in more accidents than others. These

12)…

people are called ‘accident prone’. In the general

13)……

they either suffer from stress, or could have in

14)…….

a physical illness without knowing about it.

15)……

Key points:

1. There is a group of prepositions used with verbs of motion.

across, along, around, down, into, out of, past, to, towards, up

2. Some prepositions can be used without an object. Joan lives opposite.

3. A sentence can end with a preposition. Paul didn’t have a chair to sit on.

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II. VOCABULARY: TRAVEL AND MOVEMENT (1)

1. Choose the most suitable word underlined.

a) We managed to complete our journey ahead of/in front of schedule.

b) On our way to York, we divided/broke our journey in Peterborough.

c) As I wasn’t coming back by train, I asked for a single/simple ticket.

d) The two coaches collided, but luckily no one was injured/wounded.

e) We drove to the town centre and stopped at the library in the way/on the way.

f) My car skidded off the road and crashed/hit a tree.

g) The train was packed, and there was standing place/room only.

h) When her bike hit the rock, Jane was thrown over the handlebars/saddle.

i) The police accused Donald of breaking the speed limit/restriction.

j) My plane arrived in Paris dead/way on time.

2. Complete each sentence with one of the words given. Use each word once only.

book

change

direct

hail

pick

bring

come

grind

hitch

set

a)

Jim walked down the street trying to …………a taxi, but none would stop.

b)

We heard the old bus slowly…………

to

a halt outside.

c)

Fifty extra policemen were called in to…………….the traffic outside the

stadium.

d)

The mayor promised to …………

the

new buses into operation without delay.

e)

My old car takes quite a long time to …………

up

speed.

 

f)

The school bus always used to…………

the

children down opposite the

church.

g)

When her car broke down, Julie had to ………….a ride to the nearest phone.

h)

When I went to ……………a ticket to Athens, I found that the flight was full.

i)

This car is an automatic, so you don’t have to…………

gear

all the time.

j)

As our ship rounded the headland, we watched the town………….into view.

3. Choose the most suitable word or phrase.

a) The horse stopped suddenly and its rider was …………

to the ground.

A) dropped

B) flung

C) launched

D) tripped

b) After its engine failed, the small boat……………with the current.

A) waved

B) tossed

C) hastened

D) drifted

c) The only means of………….to the station is through a dark subway.

A) arrival

B) admission

C) access

D) approaching

d) When I enquired about the times of trains, I was given a………….

A) schedule

B) programme C) itinerary

D) timetable

e) I suddenly noticed that the runaway bus was hurtling…………me!

A)

over

B) nearby

C) towards

D) without

f) The plane’s engines cut out, but it…………

A)

floated

B) glided

C) swept

in to land safely. D) fluttered

g) There are roadworks at Junction 63, and long ………….are expected.

A) delays

B) halts

C) intervals

D) pauses

h) The next train at platform three…………at Gatwick Airport only.

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A) arrives

B) terminates C) calls

D) alights

i) I was running low on petrol so started looking for a filing ……….

A) station

B) garage

C) stop

D) area

j) Only a mechanic could appreciate the true…………

of

the damage of the car.

A) extent

B) rate

C) amount

D) affect

4. Complete each sentence with one of the words given. Use each word once only.

boat

fence

legs

run

walk

crossroads

foot

pace

stride

way

a) John took the loss of his job in his……………

b) After a hard day’s work in the garden I was on my last………….

c) Our relationship somehow got off on the wrong ………………

d) As far as this year’s championship is concerned, United have missed the ……………

e) There are people from every …………….of life in our local drama club.

f) Laura found it hard to keep………

g) I am sure that in the long ………….the decision will prove to be the best.

h) It’s time you stopped sitting on the ………

i) Choosing to work in Africa turned out to be a …………….in Helen’s life.

j) If you want to be a rock singer, my boy, I will not stand in your……………

with

the changes in her company.

and made a decision.

IV. READING AND TRANSLATING

will not stand in your…………… with the changes in her company. and made a decision. IV.

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IV.

The Media Equation

The Battle Between the White House and Fox News

By DAVID CARR Published: October 17, 2009 The Obama administration, which would seem to have its hands full with a two-

front war in Iraq and Afghanistan, opened up a third front last week, this time with Fox

News.

Until this point, the conflict had been mostly a one-sided affair, with Fox News hosts promoting tax day “tea parties”* that focused protest on the new president, and more recently bringing down the presidential adviser Van Jones through rugged coverage that caught the administration, and other news organizations, off guard. During the health care debate, Fox News has put a megaphone to opponents, some of whom have advanced far-fetched theories about the impact of reform. And even farther out on the edge, the network’s most visible star of the moment, Glenn Beck, has said the president has “a deep-seated hatred for white people.” Administration officials seemed to have decided that they had had enough. “We’re going to treat them the way we would treat an opponent,” Anita Dunn, the White House communications director, said in an interview with The New York Times. “As they are undertaking a war against Barack Obama and the White House, we don’t need to pretend that this is the way that legitimate news organizations behave.” Ah, but pretending has traditionally been a valuable part of the presidential playbook. Smiling even under the most withering* news media assault is not only good manners, but also has generally been good politics. While there is undoubtedly a visceral thrill in finally setting out after your antagonists, the history of administrations that have successfully taken on the media and won is shorter than this sentence. Not that they haven’t tried. In his second Inaugural Address, Ulysses S. Grant said he had “been the subject of abuse and slander scarcely ever equaled in political history.” President William McKinley labeled a gathering of the press a “congress of inventors,” and President Franklin D. Roosevelt assigned less favored press members to his “Dunce Club.”* Sometimes the strategy worked — or caused no lasting damage. McKinley, like Grant, was elected to a second term. Roosevelt also won a third and fourth. As Americans turned to TV for news, enmity from presidents soon followed. Vice President Spiro T. Agnew said “self-appointed analysts” at the Big Three networks exhibited undisguised “hostility” toward President Richard M. Nixon, subjecting his speeches to “instant analysis and querulous criticism.” Later, in the dispute with The Times over the Pentagon Papers, Mr. Nixon’s national security adviser, Henry Kissinger, accused the newspaper of treason. Neither of the Bush presidents had a particularly cozy relationship with the press. George H.W. Bush finished the campaign in 1992 with a bumper sticker that suggested, “Annoy the Media. Vote Bush.” And George W. Bush, in the words of ABC’s Mark Halperin, viewed “the media as a special interest rather than as guardians of the public interest.” Bill Clinton, too, distrusted the press, as did others in his administration. When

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Vincent Foster, Mr. Clinton’s deputy White House counsel, committed suicide in 1993, he left behind a note accusing the Wall Street Journal’s editorial page of lying. Even though almost all the critiques contained a kernel of truth, in each instance the folks who had the barrels of ink, and now pixels, seemed to come out ahead. So far, the only winner in this latest dispute seems to be Fox News. Ratings are up 20 percent this year, and the network basked for a week in the antagonism of a sitting president. It could all be written off as a sideshow*, but it may present a genuine problem for Mr. Obama, who took great pains during the campaign to depict himself as being above the fray of over-heated partisan squabbling. In his victory speech he promised, “I will listen to you, especially when we disagree.” Or not. Under the direction of Ms. Dunn, the administration has begun to punch back. On Sept. 20, the president visited all the Sunday talk shows save Fox News’, with Ms. Dunn explaining that Fox was not a legitimate news organization, but a “wing of the Republican Party.”[…] Tactics aside, something more fundamental is at risk. Even the president’s most avid critics admit he exudes a certain cool confidence. The public impression of him is that if anyone were to, say, talk trash on the basketball court with Mr. Obama, he would not find much space for rent in Mr. Obama’s head. Mr. Obama has also shown a consistent ability to disarm or at least engage his critics. When he eventually sat for an interview with the Fox News personality Bill O’Reilly two months before the election, it made for great television. But for the time being, détente* seems very far away and the gap seems to be widening. On the official White House Web site, a blog called Reality Check provides a running tally of transgressions by Fox News. It ends with this: “For even more Fox lies, check out the latest ‘Truth-O-Meter’ feature from Politifact that debunks a false claim about a White House staffer that continues to be repeated by Glenn Beck and others on the network.” People who work in political communications have pointed out that it is a principle of power dynamics to “punch up “ — that is, to take on bigger foes, not smaller ones. A blog on the White House Web site that uses a “truth-o-meter” against a particular cable news network would not seem to qualify. As it is, Reality Check sounds a bit like the blog of some unemployed guy living in his parents’ basement, not an official communiqué from Pennsylvania Avenue. The American presidency was conceived as a corrective to the royals, but trading punches with cable shouters seems a bit too common. Perhaps it’s time to restore a little imperiousness to the relationship.

tax day tea parties = The Tea Party protests are a series of locally organized, nationally coordinated, protests across the United States in 2009. The events are in protest of big government, President Obama, the federal budget and, more specifically, the stimulus package, which the protesters perceive as examples of wasteful government spending and unnecessary government growth. They oppose the increase in the national debt as well. The protesters also objected to possible future tax increases, specifically taxes on capital gains, estate taxes, federal income taxes, and cigarette taxes. Thus far, protests have been held on April 15, 2009 to coincide with the annual U.S. deadline for submitting tax returns, known as Tax Day, over the weekend of July 4, 2009 to coincide with Independence Day, and on September 12, 2009.

Withering = devastating

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Dunce = a stupid person; these words are used to express a low opinion of someone's intelligence Sideshow = a subordinate incident of little importance relative to the main event Détente = Détente is a French term, meaning a relaxing or easing; the term has been used in international politics since the early 1970s.

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