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CALCUTTA INSTITUTE OF

ENGINEERING & MANAGEMENT

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING

GROUP AUTOMATIC TRAFFIC SIGNAL


6 CONTROLLER

ANINDYA HOME
SUBMITTED BY---- CHOUDHURY(EE-421)
ANUP SINGHA(EE-422)
ARINDAM DUTTA(EE-423)
AVIK BAKSHI(EE-424)
CALCUTTA INSTITUTE OF
ENGINEERING & MANAGEMENT
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING

APPROVED BY----

Coordinator Project Guide


Head of Department
(Dr.Samiran Choudhuri) (Mrs. Reshmi (Mr.
Subhasish
Banerjee) Bannerjee)
PREFACE

We feel happy to present our final year project


report on “Automatic Traffic Signal Controller”. It
was a great learning process and was a great
experience to work together in a team. Our main goal
is to design this controller which Ensures orderly
movement of traffic in all directions and Provisions for
pedestrians to cross the street safely. We designed the
model in a bread board and with the use of proper logic
and accuracy we successfully completed it. We faced a
few technical hitches earlier but later it was solved with
the help of our teachers.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

Dreams never turn to reality unless a lot of effort and


hard work is put in to it. And no effort bears fruit in the
absence of support and guidance. It takes a lot of effort to
work your way through this goal and having someone to
guide you and help you is always a blessing. We would like
to take this opportunity to thank a few who were closely
involved in the completion of this project. Ingenuity and
popular guidance are inevitable for successful completion of
a project. We are indebted to all sources that helped me in
working out this project at each steps of its progress.
First and foremost Prof. (Dr.) Swapan Chandra
Sarkar, Principal, for granting permission to proceed with
the project and providing the necessary facilities/ We
sincerely thanks Mr. Subhasish Bannerjee, the Head of
department, Department of Electrical engineering, for the
valuable help provided to me. In particular we are extremely
grateful to Project coordinator Prof. Dr. Samiran
Choudhuri and Project guide Mrs. Reshmi Banerjee
lecturer, Department of Electrical Engineering for their
valuable suggestion and proper guidance to complete our
project. Above all we thank the lord almighty for giving us all
the confidence and ability to achieve this dream!
AUTOMATED TRAFFIC
SIGNAL CONTROLLER
This automated traffic signal controller can be made by
suitably programming GAL device. Its main features are: -
1. The controller assumes equal traffic density on all the
roads.
2. In most automated traffic signals the free left-turn condition
is provided throughout the entire signal period, which poses
difficulties to the pedestrians in crossing the road, especially
when the traffic density is high. This controller allows the
pedestrians to safely cross the road during certain periods.
3. The controller uses digital logic, which can be easily
implemented by using logic gates.
4. The controller is a generalized one and can be used for
different roads with slight modifications.
5. The control can also be exercised manually when desired.
The time period for which green, yellow and red traffic signals
remain ‘on’ (and then repeat) for the straight moving traffic is
divided into eight units of 8 Seconds (or multiples thereof)
each.
CONTENTS:
1. INTRODUCTION
History
Technology

2. THE PROJECT
Design procedure
The working of system

3. THE CIRCUIT
Circuit Diagram
Bread Board Layout
Components Used

4. Description of Major Components


IC-CD4011 Astable Multivibrator
74160 IC
7408 IC
7432 IC
7411 IC
7404 IC
Resistors &Capacitors
Light Emitting Diode

5. Advantages & Disadvantages


1. INTRODUCTION:-
Now a days due to ever increasing vehicles on the road,
it requires an efficient control on the four way junction of
road. In order to find a solution to this problem the concept of
an automatic traffic controller is conceived. Apart from
providing efficient control of traffic, it also eliminate chance of
human errors since it function automatically.

The automatic traffic controller automatically switches on


the four way junction for 15 seconds for direction control.

The main circuit components used are IC CD4011 and


4-bit binary synchronous counter (74160). The IC CD4011
generates a clock signal for 15 seconds. This signal is used
to clock counter circuit. Binary counter is converted to 3 bit–
counter to achieve 8 possible cases. The traffic light control is
done by different Boolean function of logic gate.
History:-
The modern electric traffic light is an American invention. As
early as 1912 in Salt Lake City, Utah, Policeman Lester Wire
invented the first red-green Electric traffic lights. On 5 August
1914, the American Traffic Signal Company installed a traffic
signal system on the corner of East 105th Street and Euclid
Avenue in Cleveland, Ohio. It had two colors, red and green,
and a buzzer, based on the design of James Hodge, to
provide a warning for color changes. The design by James
Hodge allowed police and fire stations to control the signals
in case of emergency.

The first four-way, three-color traffic light was created by


police officer William Potts in Detroit, Michigan in 1920.In
1923, Garrett Morgan Patented a traffic signal device. It was
Morgan‘s experience while driving along the streets of
Cleveland that led to his invention of a traffic signal device.
Ashville, Ohio claims to be the location of the oldest working
traffic light in the United States, used at an intersection of
public roads until 1982 when it was moved to a local
museum.

The first interconnected traffic signal system was


installed in Salt Lake City in 1917, with six connected
intersections controlled simultaneously from a manual switch.
Automatic control of interconnected traffic lights was
introduced March 1922 in Houston, Texas. The first
automatic experimental traffic lights in England were
deployed in Wolverhampton in 1927.
TECHNOLOGY:-
Optics and lighting:-

In the mid 1990s, cost-effective traffic light lamps using light-emitting


diodes (LEDs) were developed; prior to this date traffic lights were
designed using incandescent or halogen light bulbs. Unlike the
incandescent-based lamps, which use a single large bulb, the LED-
based lamps consist of an array of LED elements, arranged in
various patterns. When viewed from a distance, the array appears as
a continuous light source. LED-based lamps (or 'lenses') have
numerous advantages over incandescent lamps; among them are:
• Much greater energy efficiency (can be solar-powered).
•Much longer lifetime between replacement, measured in years
rather than months. Part of the longer lifetime is due to the fact that
some light is still displayed even if some of the LEDs in the array are
dead.
•Brighter illumination with better contrast against direct sunlight, also
called 'phantom light'.
•The ability to display multiple colors and patterns from the same
lamp. Individual LED elements can be enabled or disabled, and
different color LEDs can be mixed in the same lamp
• Much faster switching.
• Instead of sudden burn-out like incandescent-based lights, LEDs
start to gradually dim when they wear out, warning transportation
maintenance departments well in advance as to when to change the
light. Occasionally, particularly in green LED units, segments prone
to failure will flicker rapidly beforehand.
The operational expenses of LED-based signals are far lower
than equivalent incandescent-based lights. As a result, most new
traffic light deployments in the United States, Canada and elsewhere
have been implemented using LED-based lamps; in addition many
existing deployments of incandescent traffic lights are being
replaced. In 2006, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada completed a total refit
to LED-based lamps in the city's over 12,000 intersections and all
pedestrian crosswalks. Many of the more exotic traffic signals
discussed on this page would not be possible to construct without
using LED technology. However, color-changing LEDs are in their
infancy and may surpass the multi-color array technology.

In some areas, LED-based signals have been fitted (or


retrofitted) with special Fresnel lenses (Programmed Visibility or 'PV'
lenses) and/or diffusers to limit the line of sight to a single lane.
These signals typically have a "projector"-like visibility; and maintain
an intentionally limited range of view. Because the LED lights don't
generate a significant amount of heat, heaters may be necessary in
areas which receive snow, where snow can accumulate within the
lens area and limit the visibility of the indications.

Another new LED technology is the use of CLS (Central Light


Source) optics. These comprise around 7 high-output LEDs
(sometimes 1 watt) at the rear of the lens, with a diffuser to even out
and enlarge the light. This gives a uniform appearance, more like
traditional halogen or incandescent luminaries. Replacing halogen or
incandescent reflector and bulb assemblies behind the lens with an
LED array can give the same effect. This also has its benefits:
minimal disruption, minimal work, minimal cost and the reduced need
to replace the entire signal head (housing).
2.THE
PROJECT
Design procedure:-

The working of the system:-


The corresponding circuit automatically controls the traffic signal
during the day as well as nights.

In this system there are one 555 timer and one 74160 synchronous 4
bit counter, which is controlling whole device. Along with there are
some electronic equipments like 7404, 7408, 7411 gate, capacitor,
resistor, LED (yellow, green, red) etc. The time period for which
green, yellow, and red traffic signals remain ‘on’ (And then repeat) for
the straight moving traffic is divided into eight units of 8 seconds (or
multiples thereof) each.
This automated traffic signal controller can be made by suitably
programming a GAL device. Its main features are:
1. The controller assumes equal traffic density on all the roads.
2. In most automated traffic signals the free left-turn condition is
provided throughout the entire signal period, which poses difficulties
to the pedestrians in crossing the road, especially when the traffic
density is high. This controller allows the pedestrians to safely cross
the road during certain periods.
3. The controller uses digital logic, which can be easily implemented
by using logic gates.
4. The controller is a generalized one and can be used for different
roads with slight modification.
5. The control can also be exercised manually when desired

TRAFFIC FLOW DIAGRAM:-


Fig. above shows the flow of traffic in all permissible directions during
the eight time units of 8 seconds each. For the left- and right turning
traffic and pedestrians crossing from north to south, south to north,
east to west ,and west to east, only green and red signals are used.

SIMULTANEOUS STATES TABLE:-


Table I shows the simultaneous states of the signals for all the traffic.
Each row represents the status of a signal for 8 seconds. As can be observed
from the table, the ratio of green, yellow, and red signals is 16:8:40 (=2:1:5) for
the straight moving traffic. For the turning traffic the ratio of green and red
signals is 8:56 (=1:7), while for pedestrians crossing the road the ratio of green
and red signals is 16:48 (=2:6) In Table II (as well as Table I) X, Y, and Z are
used as binary variables to depict the eight states of 8 seconds each. Letters A
through H indicate the left and right halves of the roads in four directions as
shown in Fig. 1. Two letters with a dash in between indicate the direction of
permissible movement from a road. Straight direction is indicated by St, while
left and right turns are indicated by Lt and Rt, respectively. The Boolean
functions for all the signal conditions are shown in Table II. The left- and the
right-turn signals for the traffic have the same state, i.e. both are red or green
for the same duration, so their Boolean functions are identical and they should
be connected to the same control output. The circuit diagram for realizing
these Boolean functions is shown in circuit diagram. IC CD4011 (IC1) is wired
as an astable multivibrator to generate clock signal for the 4-bit counter 74160
(IC2).

BOOLEAN EXPRESSION:-
The time duration of IC1 can be adjusted by varying the value of
resistor or capacitor C of the clock circuit. The ‘on’ time duration T is
given by the following relationship: T = RC, IC2 is wired as a 3-bit
binary counter by connecting its Q3 output to reset pin 1 via inverter
N1. Binary outputs Q2, Q1, and Q0 form variables X, Y, and Z,
respectively. These outputs, along with their complimentary outputs
X’, Y’, and Z’, respectively, are used as inputs to the rest of the logic
circuit to realize various outputs satisfying Table I. You can simulate
various traffic lights using green, yellow, and red LEDs and feed the
outputs of the circuit to respective LEDs via current-limiting resistors
of 470 ohms each to check the working of the circuit. Here, for
turning traffic and pedestrians crossing the road, only green signal is
made available. It means that for the remaining period these signals
have to be treated as ‘red’ in practice, the outputs of Fig. 2 should be
connected to operate high – power bulbs. Further, if a particular
signal condition (such as turning signal) is not applicable to a given
road, the output of that signal condition should be connected to
green signal of the next state (refer Table I).

The traffic signals can also be controlled manually, if it desired.


Any signal state can be established by entering the binary value
corresponding to that particular state into the parallel input pins of the
3-bit counter. Similarly, the signal can be reset at any time by
providing logic 0 at the reset pin (pin 1) of the counter using an
external switch.
3. THE
CIRCUIT
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:-
Bread Board Layout:-
COMPONENTS REQUIRED:-

Components Specification Quantity


1.Capacitors 1μf,16v 2

2.Resistors 1MΩ 2
470Ω 1
18
3LED Green 10
Red 4
Yellow 4
4.IC CD 4011 1
74160 1
7432 2
7404 1
7411 3
7408 1
4.
Description
of Major
Components
INTEGRATED CIRCUITS:

Integrated Circuits are usually called ICs or chips.


They are complex circuits which have been etched
onto tiny chips of semiconductor (silicon).
The chip is packaged in a plastic holder with
pins spaced on a 0.1" (2.54mm) grid which
will fit the holes on strip board and
breadboards. Very fine wires inside the
package link the chip to the pins.

Pin numbers

The pins are numbered anti-clockwise around the IC


(chip) starting near the notch or dot. The diagram
shows the numbering for 8-pin and 14-pin ICs, but the
principle is the same for all sizes.
IC CD4011:-
These quad gates are monolithic complementary
MOS (CMOS) integrated circuits constructed with N-
and P-channel enhancement mode transistors. They
have equal source and sink current capabilities and
conform to standard B series output drive.

The astable multivibrator circuit uses two CMOS


NAND gates and thus giving a clock pulse to the
counter.
Astable multivibrator using two CMOS nand gates as
shown in the above figure
 C1=C2=C
 R1=R2=R
 The total period :
T = RC

Using R1=1MΩ, R2=1MΩ, C1=1uF, C2= 1uF


Then T= CR=1X10^-6 X1 X 10^6
T=1s => each unit of 1 seconds theoretically.
IC CD 4011=> DATASHEET
74160 IC:-

 74160 synchronous decade counter (standard reset)


 74161 synchronous 4-bit counter (standard reset)
 74162 synchronous decade counter (synchronous reset)
 74163 synchronous 4-bit
counter (synchronous reset)

These are synchronous


counters so their outputs change
precisely together on each clock pulse. This is helpful if you need to
connect their outputs to logic gates because it avoids the glitches
which occur with ripple counters. The count advances as the clock
input becomes high (on the rising-edge). The decade counters count
from 0 to 9 (0000 to 1001 in binary). The 4-bit counters count from 0
to 15 (0000 to 1111 in binary). For normal operation (counting) the
reset, preset, count enable and carry in inputs should all be high.
When count enable is low the clock input is ignored and counting
stops. The counter may be preset by placing the desired binary
number on the inputs A-D, making the preset input low, and
applying a positive pulse to the clock input. The inputs A-D may be
left unconnected if not required. The reset input is active-low so it
should be high (+Vs) for normal operation (counting). When low it
resets the count to zero (0000, QA-QD low), this happens
immediately with the 74160 and 74161 (standard reset), but with the
74162 and 74163 (synchronous reset) the reset occurs on the
rising-edge of the clock input. Counting to less than the maximum
(15 or 9) can be achieved by connecting the appropriate output(s)
through a NOT or NAND gate to the reset input. For the 74162 and
74163 (synchronous reset) you must use the output(s) representing
one less than the reset count you require, e.g. to reset on 7
(counting 0 to 6) use QB (2) and QC (4).
Connecting synchronous counters in a chain the diagram
below shows how to link synchronous counters such as 74160-3,
notice how all the clock (CK) inputs are linked. Carry out (CO) is
used to feed the carry in (CI) of the next counter. Carry in (CI) of the
first 74160-3 counter should be high.

IC 74160=> DATASHEET
7408 IC:-
The AND gate is a digital logic gate that
implements logical conjunction. In another
sense, the function of AND effectively finds
the minimum between two binary digits, just
as the OR function finds the maximum. The
AND gate with inputs A and B and output C
Implements the logical expression.

7408 IC=> DATA


SHEET
7432 IC:-
As its name implies, an OR logic gate performs an
”OR“ logic operation, which is an addition.
So, OR logic gate can be summarized by the
formula Y = A + B.

7432 IC=> DATA


SHEET
7411 IC:-
It is a triple 3input and gate. Its Boolean
expression is given by

7411 IC=> DATA SHEET


7404 IC:-
In digital logic, an inverter or NOT gate is
a logic gate which implements logical
negation.

7404 IC=> DATA SHEET


CAPACITORS:-
Function:-
Capacitors store electric charge. They are used with resistors in
timing circuits because it takes time for a capacitor to fill with charge.
They are used to smooth varying DC supplies by acting as a
reservoir of charge. They are also used in filter circuits because
capacitors easily pass AC (changing) signals but they block DC
(constant) signals.
There are many types of capacitor but they can be split into two
groups, polarised and unpolarised. Each group has its own circuit
symbol.
Polarised capacitors (large values, 1μF +)

Unpolarised capacitors (small values, up to 1μF)

RESISTORS:-
Function
Resistors restrict the flow of electric current, for example a resistor is
placed in series with a light-emitting diode (LED) to limit the current
passing through the LED.

Resistor values - the resistor colour


code:
Most resistors have 4 bands:
• The first band gives the first digit.
• The second band gives the second digit.
• The third band indicates the number of
zeros.
• The fourth band is used to show the
tolerance (precision) of the resistor,
this may
be ignored for almost all circuits.

= brown+black+green

= 1 MΩ

Light Emitting Diode:-


Circuit symbol:
Function
LEDs emit light when an electric current passes through them
Colours of LEDs
LEDs are available in red, orange, amber, yellow, green, blue
and white. Blue and white LEDs are much more expensive than the
other colours.

Calculating an LED resistor value


An LED must have a resistor connected in series to limit the current
through the LED, otherwise it will burn out almost instantly.
The resistor value, R is given by: R=(VS - VL) / I

For example: If the supply voltage VS = 9V, and you have a red
LED (VL = 2V), requiring a current I = 20mA = 0.020A, R = (9V - 2V) /
.02A = 350, so choose 390 (the nearest standard value which is
greater).

Advantages of this
controller:-
1. Simple and efficient circuit
2. Working requirement is easily met.
3. No instant and direct manual operation is needed.
4. Consumes very small amount of power for
Operation.
5. It also saves a considerable amount of power.
6. A very practical and low cost device.
7. It can make to work by using solar cell/wind cell
for power requirements.

Disadvantages of this
Controller:-
1. It is not applicable in case of unequal traffic
Density.
2. The circuit becomes a lot more complicated if it is
a 6 or 8 way traffic.

Future scope:-

• This is the basic circuit which is to be


implemented to control traffic signals automatically.
• In real time traffic density is unequal. A sensor
can be introduced to sense the traffic at each hour
and thereby interfacing it with a microcontroller
(8051)

• Instead of using digital logic microprocessor


based programming or PLC(programmable logic
controller)can be used to avoid complex circuitry.

• Fuzzy logic based traffic junction light simulator


system may be introduced to overcome the
difficulties in the real environment.

• Future of the traffic signal is named as RHODES


(Real Time Hierarchical Optimized Distributed
Effective System) which looks down the roads for
waves of approaching the traffic, estimates when
that traffic will arrive at that signal.
CONCLUSION:-

It gives me immense pleasure to write that project


was completed successfully. We hope this unique
opportunity provided to me by The Calcutta Institute of
Engineering and Management, Kolkata will in future
help us in designing different types of controllers. The
controller we designed as proved to be a cost effective
process and moreover solving the Conflicting traffic
movements, hence allowing normal flow of traffic
avoiding accidents. We are really grateful that got this
project and successfully finished it.
Bibliography:-

• 1.www.electronics.com
• 2.www.electronicsforu.com
• 3.www.google.com
• 4.www.kpsec.freeuk.com
• 5.www.wikipedia.org