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Напутствие автора

Уважаемые преподаватели и ученики, которые готовятся к сдаче ЕГЭ по


английскому языку самостоятельно!

В этом учебнике я собрала все грамматические темы, необходимые для успешного


выполнения заданий 19-25 из раздела «Грамматика и лексика». В этой книге я
постаралась не просто понятно объяснить грамматические темы, но и дать советы -
как избежать самых распространенных ошибок на экзамене, что делать, если не
знаешь ответ и как правильно заполнить бланк ответов.

Мой учебник подойдет как для самостоятельного изучения (из-за простой подачи
материала, разъяснений тонкостей экзамена и ключей), так и для работы учителя в
рамках подготовки школьника к экзамену (я включила в пособие перевод,
упражнения на выведение грамматики в речь и задания в формате экзамена). Ключи
находятся в отдельном файле, который становится доступен для скачивания вместе с
этой книгой.

Успехов в подготовке!

Эта книга предназначена для персонального использования и без разрешения


автора не может быть передана третьим лицам в соответствии с ГК РФ Статья
1229 п. 1.

© Кузнецова Ирина, 2020


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Оглавление
Напутствие автора ................................................................................................... 2
Раздел «Грамматика и лексика» ........................................................................... 6
Существительные .................................................................................................... 8
Множественное число ............................................................................................................................ 8
Составные имена существительные ...................................................................................................... 9
Исчисляемые и неисчисляемые существительные ............................................................................11
Притяжательный падеж ........................................................................................................................15

Местоимения ......................................................................................................... 19
Личные, притяжательные и возвратные местоимения .....................................................................19
Указательные местоимения .................................................................................................................24
Неопределенные местоимения ...........................................................................................................25
Количественные местоимения .............................................................................................................29

Числительные ........................................................................................................ 34
Прилагательные ..................................................................................................... 38
Степени сравнения прилагательных....................................................................................................38
Прилагательные, оканчивающиеся на –ing/-ed..................................................................................44

Наречие................................................................................................................... 48
Глагол ..................................................................................................................... 52
Active Voice............................................................................................................................................53
Present Simple .....................................................................................................................................53
Present Continuous..............................................................................................................................59
Present Simple and Present Continuous ..............................................................................................63
Present Perfect .....................................................................................................................................65
Present Perfect Continuous .................................................................................................................73
Present Perfect and Present Perfect Continuous..................................................................................76
Past Simple ..........................................................................................................................................79
Present Perfect and Past Simple ..........................................................................................................82
Past Continuous...................................................................................................................................85
Past Simple and Past Continuous ........................................................................................................87
Past Perfect ..........................................................................................................................................90
Past Perfect Continuous ......................................................................................................................94
Past Perfect and Past Perfect Continuous ............................................................................................96
Past tenses ...........................................................................................................................................98
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Будущее в английском языке .............................................................................................................101


Future Simple ....................................................................................................................................101
Going to.............................................................................................................................................103
Passive Voice ........................................................................................................................................107
Present Simple Passive ......................................................................................................................108
Present Continuous Passive...............................................................................................................109
Present Perfect Passive ......................................................................................................................110
Past Simple Passive ...........................................................................................................................112
Past Continuous Passive ....................................................................................................................113
Past Perfect Passive ...........................................................................................................................114
Future Simple Passive .......................................................................................................................117
Sequence of tenses ................................................................................................................................121
Косвенная речь ....................................................................................................................................123
Conditionals ..........................................................................................................................................127
Conditional 0 .....................................................................................................................................127
Conditional 1 .....................................................................................................................................128
Conditional 2 .....................................................................................................................................129
I wish .................................................................................................................................................133
Модальные глаголы ............................................................................................................................135
Can/could/be able to ..........................................................................................................................135
Must/ have to/should .........................................................................................................................136
May/ might ........................................................................................................................................138
Упражнения на все модальные глаголы............................................................................................139
Неличные формы глагола ...................................................................................................................142
Инфинитив/Герундий .....................................................................................................................142
Причастие 1 и 2 ...............................................................................................................................149

Краткое резюме ................................................................................................... 152


Тренировочные варианты................................................................................... 157
Тест 1 ....................................................................................................................................................157
Тест 2 ....................................................................................................................................................158
Тест 3 ....................................................................................................................................................159
Тест 4 ....................................................................................................................................................160
Тест 5 ....................................................................................................................................................160
Тест 6 ....................................................................................................................................................161

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Тест 7 ....................................................................................................................................................162
Тест 8 ....................................................................................................................................................163
Тест 9 ....................................................................................................................................................164
Тест 10 ..................................................................................................................................................165

Таблицы ................................................................................................................ 167


№1. Неправильные глаголы ...............................................................................................................167
№2. Трансформация ............................................................................................................................168

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Раздел «Грамматика и лексика»

Этот раздел экзамена делится на три части. В первой мы изменяем грамматическую


форму слова (7 заданий), во второй меняем часть речи (6 заданий), а в третьей (7 заданий)
выбираем из 4-ех вариантов подходящее к пропуску слово. По рекомендациям экспертов
весь раздел нужно выполнить за 30 минут, а максимум за него составляет 20 баллов. В
этой книге я уделила внимание грамматике, то есть заданиям 19 – 25.

Выглядит задание на грамматику в ЕГЭ вот так:

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Чтобы выполнить его на максимум – 7 баллов, нужно определить часть речи, которая
написана в колонке справа. И знать, как она может измениться на экзамене. Кратко эту
информацию можно найти в разделе ниже, а подробнее – в соответствующих главах этой
книги.

Но грамматика нам понадобится не только при подготовке к этому разделу, но и при


выполнении всех остальных частей экзамена – понимании текстов для аудирования и
чтения, написании письма, ответа на задания устной части.

Про виды упражнений

В основном разделе моего пособия вы встретитесь с несколькими видами упражнений:

 Transformation (изменение грамматической формы слова)


 Multiple choice (выбор правильного варианта ответа)
 Translation (старый добрый перевод с русского на английский)
 Speaking (задание на рециркуляцию темы в речи)
 Exam task (задание в формате экзамена)

Обратите внимание, что все задания, написанные после определенной грамматической


темы, будут именно на эту тему. То есть в задании на прилагательные вы не должны
пытаться образовать от него другую часть речи. Вы будете трансформировать его в
пределах своей части речи, например, в случае с прилагательным – поставите в нужную
степень сравнения.

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Существительные
С существительными в задании на грамматику может произойти следующее:
1) Они образуют множественное число (наиболее вероятный вариант)
2) Они образуют притяжательный падеж (это вариант почти не встречается в
экзаменационных заданиях)

Множественное число
В таблице представлены способы образования множественного числа в английском:

-s к большинству существительных cats, dogs, girls

заканчиваются на гласную +-o/-oo radios, videos, zoos

сокращения и музыкальные инструменты, autos, kilos, photos,


которые заканчиваются на -o cellos, pianos,

-es к остальным сущ., заканчивающимся на -o potatoes, tomatoes

к сущ., оканчивающимся на -s, -ss, -x, -ch, buses, churches, dishes,


-sh dresses, foxes

-ies к сущ., оканчивающимся на согласную + -y babies, cities, countries,


(y меняется на -ies) ladies, stories

-ves к сущ., оканчивающимся на -f/-fe (-f/-fe меняется knives, leaves, lives, wives,
на –v+es) wolves
Исключения: beliefs, chiefs, handkerchiefs, proofs,
roofs, safes

Исключения:
 Люди: child – children, man – men, person – people, woman – women
 Части тела: foot – feet, tooth – teeth
 Животные: deer – deer, goose – geese, louse – lice, mouse – mice, sheep – sheep, fish –
fish

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Составные имена существительные


 Если существительное состоит из двух существительных, то только второе
изменяет форму на соответствующую форму множественного числа: airplanes, boyfriends,
policemen
 Если существительное состоит из прилагательного + существительного, последнее
изменяет форму на множественное число: full moons, noblemen
 Если существительное состоит из существительного + предлога +
существительного, первое существительное изменяет форму на соответствующую форму
множественного числа: editors-in-chief, mothers-in-law
 Если в составе существительное нет другого существительного, -s добавляется к
последнему слову: grownups, outlets

Exam tip. Составные имена существительные в заданиях на грамматику почти не


встречаются. Также не встречается в тесте образование существительных путем
добавления окончания –s без каких-либо орфографических изменений в слове,
составители стараются вставить существительное, которое будет образовано
нерегулярным способом (-ies, -oes, -ves или исключение).

1) Transformation. Make plural nouns and put them in the correct columns:
bench, box, car, child, church, class, country, day, difficulty, exercise, family, fly, foot, fox, kiss,
life, loaf, man-of-war, mouse, party, person, play, puppy, radio, scarf, shelf, story, tomato, tooth,
watch, woman

-s -es -ies -ves исключения

benches

2) Transformation. Write the plural form of these nouns:


Example: son – sons
actress – monkey –
beach – mouse –
boy – nose –
box – peach –
butterfly – person –

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cat – piano –
class – potato –
goose – proof –
fork – sandwich –
fish – schoolbag –
handkerchief – wife –
man – wish –

3) Exam task.

In El Alto in Bolivia, an audience is sitting around a huge wrestling


ring. The (1) ___________ are getting impatient and so they start to PERSON
scream: ‘Bring them on! Bring them on!’ Suddenly, an announcer
speaks into the microphone: ‘(2) ___________ and LADY GENTLEMAN
(3)___________. It’s time for Yolanda and Claudina!’ The
(4) ___________ shout and applaud with excitement. SPECTATOR

Two (5) __________ enter. Yolanda and Claudina walk through the WOMAN
crowd like (6) _____________. I’m sure they have (7) CELEBRITY
__________ in their stomachs before the match. Both jump into the BUTTERFLY
wrestling ring and the fight starts.

Both Yolanda and Claudina are good mothers and (8) _______. WIFE
Yolanda is one of the top wrestlers. During the day she makes
clothes – mostly (9) __________. She also has two (10) _________ DRESS CHILD
who both look like her.

4) Exam task.

Kolkata (previously known as Calcutta) is the famous capital of West


Bengal in India and the home of nearly 15 million

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(1) ________. The traffic jams begin early in the morning with long lines of PERSON
private cars, public (2) ______, (3) _______, three-wheeled scooters and BUS TAXI
pedicabs.
When I crossed a small road on my first day in the city, I was surprised
because I heard a bell – it was a tiny man pulling a rickshaw. He stopped
and picked up two (4) _________ from the front door of their house and CHILD
then pulled them to school. Rickshaws are also very popular with local (5) SHOPPER
__________. The driver takes you from your house to the market and waits
for you. Then he loads all your (6) ___________ and drops you off outside PURCHASE
your home.
AUTHORITY
But not everyone thinks rickshaws are a good thing. Some local
(7) ____________ want to ban rickshaws on ‘humanitarian grounds’. DRIVER
However, there is a problem with this plan. Many of the rickshaw (8)
__________ come from the countryside with no job and no qualifications. If MAN
the city bans rickshaws, these (9) ________ won’t have a job or income.

Исчисляемые и неисчисляемые существительные

Ваше знание исчисляемых и неисчисляемых существительных прямо никак не


проверяется на экзамене, но проверяется косвенно:
a) при подстановке местоимений much/many/(a) few/(a) little. После местоимений
many и a (few) всегда будет стоять исчисляемое, а после much/ (a) little - неисчисляемое
существительное.
b) При подстановке глагола после такого существительного, потому что
неисчисляемые существительные всегда стоят в форме единственного числа. То есть,
сказать The chocolates are tasty нельзя, правильно будет The chocolate is tasty.
c) Перед неисчисляемыми существительными не ставится неопределенный артикль
a/an.

Логично, что исчисляемые существительные можно посчитать, а неисчисляемые - нет.

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Например, мы можем сказать деревья (trees), дома (houses), люди (people). Но не можем
посчитать сыпучие предметы, жидкости или абстрактные вещества. Если вы сомневаетесь
- исчисляемое перед вами существительное или нет, попробуйте поставить перед ним
цифры - один, два, три и т.д. Например: одна информация, две информации, три
информации - звучит глупо, следовательно информация - существительное
неисчисляемое.

Вот на такие группы делятся неисчисляемые существительные:


 еда и напитки (жидкости), например bread, cheese, salt, chocolate, water, tea, milk, oil.
 материалы, например gold, silver, wood, plastic.
 предметы изучения и языки, например mathematics, history, literature, Ukrainian,
Russian, English.
 болезни, например flu, cancer.
 виды спорта и игры, например football, golf, poker.
 абстрактные понятия, например music, advice, happiness.
 погодные явления, например snow, fog, rain.

Есть еще ряд неисчисляемых существительных, которые сюда не вошли, например: traffic,
information, money, homework, fruit, luggage, transport и т.д. Обратите внимание, что слова
news и advice, которые являются исчисляемыми в русском языке, в английском
принадлежат к категории неисчисляемых существительных. То есть, правильно будет the
news is interesting и your advice is rather useful.

Если мы хотим посчитать определенное количество неисчисляемого существительного,


нужно к нему прибавить соответствующее определение количества - a bar of chocolate, a
piece of advice/information/news, a slice of bread/cheese/toast, a cup of coffee/tea, a glass of
water, например.

Некоторые существительные в английском языке могут быть и исчисляемыми, и


неисчисляемыми, все зависит от их значения.

Исчисляемое Неисчисляемое

a tea/a coffee = a cup of tea/coffee tea/coffee = substance

chickens = animals chicken = food

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a chocolate = a sweet chocolate = food

a paper = newspaper paper = material

Russians = people Russian = language

a hair = one hair hair = all hair on our head

a rock = a piece of rock rock = material

1) Trasnformation. Choose the nouns that can be countable and write their plural form:
Example: bank - banks
accommodation, bank, bus, cheese, chocolate, cocoa, cotton, cup, furniture, hair, luggage, milk,
music, news, oil, piece, potato, sandwich, secret, spaghetti, work

2) Multiple choice .
a) Have you done all your homework/homeworks?
b) Good luck/lucks at your exam!
c) Mary has got long hair/hairs and green eye/eyes.
d) Buy meat/meats in the shop, and some egg/eggs too. Oh, we need bread/breads and
cheese/cheeses too.
e) You can't believe it, but these statues are made of paper/papers.
f) Good friend/friends are better than good money/moneys.
g) Have you heard the new/news today?
h) Let's make some cheese sandwich/sandwiches.
i) My friends always give me good advice/advices.
j) We would like to have two coffee/coffees and two lemon cake/cakes, please.
k) I am not working now, so I don't have much/many money/moneys.
l) If you want an/a/- advice, you must go to Carl - he's experienced in these matters.
m) The cheese/cheeses is/are really delicious, try them.
n) There are a few/a little car/cars in our street.
o) We've got a few/a little luggage/luggages so we can not check it.
p) Black sand come/comes from volcanic rock.
q) This music/musics is/are beautiful.
r) Could you go to the shop and buy a few/a little food/foods?
s) An/a/- education/educations is/are important.
t) Would you like a/an/- glass of orange juice?
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Притяжательный падеж

Притяжательный падеж в английском языке – аналог родительного падежа в русском. В


английском языке этот падеж отвечает на вопрос «чей? кого? чего?» в предложении,
например – my mom’s bag (сумка чья? моей мамы) или the leg of the table (ножка чего?
стола).

Вот как образуется этот падеж в английском языке.

Одушевленное существительное

в ед.ч. в мн.ч. + -s в исключениях во мн.ч.

Прибавляем апостроф (‘) и Прибавляем апостроф (‘) Прибавляем апостроф (‘) и


окончание –s после окончания -s мн.ч. окончание –s
father’s car teachers’ books women’s dresses
teacher’s dog girls’ bags children’s diaries
girl’s hobby doctors’ patients people’s rights

Exam tip. На экзамене вам может встретится одушевленное существительное, к которому


нужно будет добавить апостроф и окончание -s.
Неодушевленное существительное образуется с помощью предлога of, например: ножка
стола – the leg of the table. Обратите внимание, что в таких конструкциях стоит
определенный артикль the перед двумя существительными, потому что мы говорим о
конкретном предмете. Задания на образование притяжательного падежа от
неодушевленных существительных никогда не встречала, но мало ли.

1) Transformation.
Example: the wife of Frank – Frank’s wife
a) the house of Smiths –
b) the spoons of the children –
c) the cars of the boys –
d) the book of Sue –
e) the hair of the men –

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f) the name of the women –


g) the toys of James –
h) the sports events of the sportsmen –
i) the idea of Mark –
j) the cups of Mike –
k) the memories of the girls –

2) Speaking. Make up a story using the following words:


a) chocolate
b) silver
c) history
d) children
e) butterflies
f) wolves
g) bad luck
h) girl's amulet
i) ghost's eyes

3) Exam task.

Rich and Amanda Ligato worked hard. The (1)___________ careers were COUPLE
really successful. They often intended to do something fun and exciting at
the weekend but, in the end, there was never time. One day they asked
themselves, ‘Is this all there is?’
They realised that they wanted to stop working and to go travelling. But
first they needed to save some money. Every month they lived on the MAN
(2)________ salary and saved his (3)_________. Then they bought a WIFE
campervan to travel from the bottom of South America to Brazil and from
there they hoped to get to Africa on a container ship.
(4)____________ opinion was that they were crazy. Even their COLLEAGUES
(5)__________ view was similar but, finally, the day came. They left their FRIENDS
home and started to live their dream.

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4) Exam task.

People in different countries celebrate Mardi Gras with live music,


costumes, fireworks, (1)__________ and lots of good food. The most PARADE
famous (2)___________ are in New Orleans, Venice, Rio de Janeiro and CELEBRATION
Port-of-Spain.
New Orleans, USA
Small (3)___________ for Mardi Gras began in the 1700s. By the 1800s PARTY
they were huge events with masks, costumes and jazz bands. Visitors also
have to try ‘King Cake’ with its gold, purple and green decorations.
Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
The world famous parades started in the mid-1800s with decorated floats
and thousands of (5)________ dancing to samba. There is also the famous PERSON
meat and bean stew called Feijoda.
Port-of-Spain, Trinidad
The (6)_________ landed here in the 18th century and brought Mardi Gras FRENCHMAN
with them. Nowadays, everyone enjoys the parties and
(7)______________ concerts with the famous steel drums from morning to MUSICIAN
midnight.

5) Exam task.

The Masai are an African tribe of about half a million (1) ________. PERSON
Groups of Masai also live in other parts of east Africa, including north
Tanzania and they move their animals (cows, (2) ________ and goats) to SHEEP
different areas of the region.
Probably, one of the most colourful (3) _____________ for Masai is the CEREMONY
festival of ‘Eunoto’. This is a rite of passage when the teenage boys of the
Masai become (4)_______. MAN
‘Eunoto’ lasts for many (5)______ and Masai travel across the region to DAY
get to a special place near the border between Kenya and Tanzania. The
teenage (6)______ names are ‘warriors’. BOYS
BODY

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At the beginning of the ceremony, the teenagers paint their (7) _______.
The teenagers also have to change their appearance at ‘Eunoto’. Masai MEN
(8)________ hair is very long before the ritual but they have to cut it off. In
Masai culture, hair is an important symbol. For example, when a baby CHILD
grows into an infant, the mother cuts the (9) ______ hair and gives the BRIDE
child a name. At a Masai wedding, (10) ________ hair is also cut off as she
becomes a woman.

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Местоимения

Личные, притяжательные и возвратные местоимения

Местоимения в заданиях 19 – 25 на ЕГЭ изменяются по падежам. В таблице ниже


представлены формы местоимений.

Личные Притяжательные Возвратные

Им.падеж Косвенный с сущ. без сущ.


падеж

I me my mine myself

you you your yours yourself/yourselves

he him his his himself

she her her hers herself

it it its its itself

we us our ours ourselves

they them their theirs themselves

В задании вы увидите местоимение в именительном падеже, и его нужно будет изменить


на одну из форм, представленных в таблице.

Посмотрим на второй столбик таблицы, озаглавленный «Косвенный падеж». Этот падеж


включает в себя русские винительный, дательный, творительный и предложный падежи и
в предложении всегда стоит в качестве дополнения. Обратите внимание, что некоторые
местоимения переводятся на русский одинаково и в косвенном, и в притяжательном
падежах. Поэтому нельзя полагаться только на перевод при выполнении части
«Грамматика». Например, Let’s invite them to our party. It’s their book. В обоих
предложениях мы переведем местоимения как «их», хотя в первом случае нам точно
нужен не притяжательный падеж, это понятно по положению после глагола и отсутствию
существительного после местоимения. Или – I don’t like her. Здесь her стоит снова после
глагола и снова без существительного после. В отличие от предложения Her dress is really
beautiful.

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Колонки номер 3 и 4 в таблице отвечают за притяжательный падеж. Это аналог


родительного падежа в русском языке, и местоимение в этом падеже отвечает на вопрос
«чей?», «чья?», «чьё?», «чьи?».

Но! В отличии от русского языка, в английском есть 2 формы притяжательного


местоимения – для тех случаев, когда после местоимения стоит существительное, как в
предложении – These are my books. И для тех случаев, когда мы существительное после
местоимения не говорим, для краткости – These books are mine. В русском в этих двух
предложениях стояло бы местоимение «мои», а в английском – две формы
притяжательного падежа.

Возвратные местоимения обозначают действие, направленное на сам предмет и


переводятся на русский несколькими способами:
a) «Себя», «себе». Help yourself to some pizza. Возьми себе кусочек пиццы.
b) «Сам», «сама», «сами». My computer turns itself on at night. Мой компьютер сам
включается по ночам.
c) Окончанием глагола «-ся». Have you hurt yourself? Ты ушибся?

Exam tip. Чтобы не ошибиться с выбором нужного местоимения на экзамене, нужно


перевести предложение максимально точно к контексту – не выдумывая и не
приукрашивая, как любят школьники, и посмотреть, что вокруг местоимения и какую
роль оно играет в предложении.

1) Transformation. Insert a personal pronoun:


Example: I love them so much that I can’t stand a day without sweets. (they)
a) My neighbours are really nice. I like _____ (they) a lot.
b) You don’t understand ____ (I), ____ (I) am afraid.
c) ____ (She) likes apples. I like ______ (they) too.
d) Could ____ (you) tell ____ (we) when Tom will come?
e) Give _____ (it) to ____ (she).
f) This story is about _____ (they).
g) Who sold ____ (it) to ____ (you)?
h) This is Jane. _____ (She) is my wife. ____ (I) love _____ (she).

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2) Transformation. Insert a possessive pronoun:


Example: I live near my (I) school.
David, ____ (I) friend, and ___ (he) sister Nelly live far from it. David is in ____ (we) class.
____ (He) sister goes to a different school. Nelly's eyes are blue, ____ (he) are grey. Nelly likes
___ (she) flat very much. I like ____ (I), too. ______ (They) flat is small, but ____ (it) balcony is
large. What do you think about ______(you) flat?

3) Multiple choice.

a) John and his/her/him wife have gone to Greece.


b) Ann's lost she/her/hers keys.
c) That's not me/my/mine coat.
d) This coat is me/my/mine.
e) Their house is much bigger than our/ours/my.
f) That dog hurt it's/its/their ear.
g) They have taken my car: they/their/theirs isn't running.
h) Tina gave him/her/it to me.
i) Why are you looking at me/my/mine?
j) Please give me you/your/yours book.

4) Transformation. Insert a personal or a possessive pronoun:


Example: My (I) office is on the ground floor.

a) My (I) office is on the ground floor. When _____ (you) technician comes into the
building, tell ____ (he) ____ (I) door is on the right. Go through the first office and into the next
room. The broken photocopier is opposite the door.
b) Chris and Stephanie Hallowich built _____ (they) ‘dream house’ in the middle of the
Pennsylvania countryside in 2007. But at the same time, gas companies moved into the area.
Since then, _______ (they) have found chemicals in their drinking water and pollution in the air.
c) Donald Roessler has lived on ____ (he) farm for most of _____ (he) life. He hasn’t
earned much money from farming but two years ago an energy company wanted the gas under
his farm. ______ (they) offered Donald a regular monthly income and he agreed with ______
(they) immediately.
d) Dear Mum and Dad,
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I am really enjoying (I) ______ first term at college. The lessons are really interesting and I have
lots of friends. (I) ____ best friend is Simon, he is doing the same course as (I) _____. Simon
lives with (he) ________ family in a flat near the university. I visited (they) _____ yesterday.
(They) ______ flat is much nicer than (I) ______.
By the way, we did (we) _______ first project last week and got an A!
Lots of love,
Dan

5) Transformation. Insert a reflexive pronoun:


Example: Sue always behaves herself.
a) Mike is writing a book about ____________ .
b) Mary lives by __________, her parents live in another city.
c) Are you enjoying ____________ at the party?
d) They go to karate, they can protect ________________.
e) I love ______________.
f) We helped ____________ to dinner, don’t worry, we aren’t hungry.
g) You must fill in this form ___________.
h) My brother hurt _________ when he was playing football.

6) Translation.
a) Маша ушиблась, когда играла в футбол.
b) Моя сестра так любит смотреть на себя в зеркало, что полдня любуется на своё
отражение.
c) Тебе нравится эта книга? Если нравится, ты можешь оставить её еще на неделю.
d) Где Катина сумка? Это моя, Катина была желтая.
e) Мы скоро пойдем за нашим заказом в службу доставки.
f) Его тетя работает в фирме, где работает моя мама.
g) Где Коля и Вова? Наверно, они играют в футбол во дворе.
h) Дай мне твою ручку, пожалуйста. Я забыла свою дома.
i) Они любят своих домашних животных.
j) Почему ты на меня так смотришь? Я тебя обидела?

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7) Speaking. Choose 10-15 pronouns from the list and give a talk about your family using
these pronouns: I, she, he, it (about a pet), we, they, my, his, her, its, our, their, mine, his, hers,
its, ours, theirs, myself, himself, herself, ourselves, themselves.

8) Exam task

Pat Crisswell had a good job with the government. But he didn’t want to
do (1)______. So one day, he gave up (2) ___ job and moved to a ranch in IT HE
Texas, earning much less as a cowboy. He remembers (3)_____ work HE
colleagues in the city on the day he left. They all thought Pat was crazy.
Two brothers – Tyrel and Blaine Tucker – have lived on ranches and
worked with cows since they were children. (4) _____ mother had a ranch THEY
in Wyoming. Last winter, they looked after 2,300 cows. Eighteen-year-old
Tyrel Tucker says, ‘It was fun. You get to be by (5)_______.’ YOU
Blaine has a large moustache and Tyrel is growing (6)____. They wear HE
traditional cowboy clothes with the famous hat and boots. You could do the
same job in a baseball cap and a truck but Tyrel and Blaine prefer the
traditional cowboy culture: ‘It’s a real life about you, (7)_____ horse and YOU
the open country.’

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Указательные местоимения

Указательные местоимения указывают на предмет. В английском языке это пары this


(этот/эта/это) - these (эти) для единственного числа. Они употребляются для обозначения
предметов, находящихся недалеко, для ситуаций в настоящем и будущем и для
представления в телефонном разговоре.
И that (тот, та, то) - those (те) для множественного числа для обозначения предметов,
находящихся в отдалении, ситуаций в прошлом и разговоров по телефону, чтобы узнать,
кто звонит. На экзамене вам нужно будет преобразовать форму this в these и форму that в
those. Вот так просто.

1) Transformation. Insert a demonstrative pronoun:


Example: This is our last conversation. I don’t want to see you anymore.
a) _________ roses in our neighbour's garden look wonderful.
b) Could you show me __________ vases standing on the top shelf?
c) Do you like _________ ring? My fiancé presented it to me yesterday.
d) Tomorrow we are going shopping and then we are having a picnic with our friends.
___________ are our plans for the weekend.
e) - Do you remember ______ time when we didn't have the money to go even to a cafe?
- Yes, _______ were poor but wonderful days!
f) - Who's ________ ?
- ____________ is Sarah Jenkins speaking,
g) Petrol is really expensive _______ days.
h) Could you give me _________ papers on the farthest table?
i) What did you think of ________ film we saw yesterday?

2) Exam task.

Now I'm going to introduce you to my best friends - (1) _____________ THIS
are Nilo and Tom. I met them when we started going to school. In
(2)_________ days we didn't have any gadgets and we played football in THAT
the yard all day long.
One day Tom came to me and he was holding something in his hand. He
said, "Hey, I found (3) _______ in our secret cave". We had our own secret THIS

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place in the nearest forest, between two large bushes standing next to a big
apple tree, We used the leaves of (4)_______ bushes for our hideout. THAT
So, Tom was holding two coins in his hand, (5)__________ looked like THIS
some ancient coins the pirates used to steal and hide in their treasures.

Неопределенные местоимения

Последний тип местоимений, который может встретиться в заданиях 19 - 25 -


неопределенные местоимения some, any, no, every и их производные. В таблице ниже я
объясняю алгоритм их использования:

Типы Какой? Кто? Что? Где?


предложений

+ some somebody/someone something somewhere


(какой-то, (кто-то) (что-то) (где-то)
несколько,
немного)

? any anybody/anyone anything anywhere


(какой- (кто-нибудь) (что-нибудь) (где-нибудь)
нибудь)

- no/not any nobody/not anybody nothing/not nowhere/not


(никакой) no one/not anyone anything anywhere
(никто) (ничего) (нигде)

Все типы every everybody everything everywhere


(каждый) (все) (всё) (все)

Как видите, в колонке "Кто?" возможны два варианта - с окончанием -body или -one, и оба
будут правильными.

В строке "-" (отрицательные предложения) возможно также два варианта, в зависимости


от того, какое предложение уже дано. Например, в предложении I have no children, I don't
have ___________ to care about. возможно только местоимение anybody (или anyone),

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потому что оно является отрицательным (на это показывает частица no), а в английском
языке возможно только одно отрицание. А в предложении I have no children, I have
__________ to care about можно вставить только nobody (или no one), потому что нам
нужно отрицание, а anybody формально таковым не является.

Exam tip. Как это работает на экзамене? На экзамене будет дана начальная форма для
изменения - some, any, no, every и вам нужно будет по смыслу дописать по смыслу
подходящее окончание -one/-body/-thing/-where. Или будет стоять, например, some, а
предложение написано отрицательное или вопросительное, и нужно будет изменить на
any или no.

1) Multiple choice.
a) This term was really difficult. We had some/any/no/every difficult projects to do.
b) Some/any/no/every people like cats, and some/any/no/every people like dogs.
c) Some/any/no/every person in our family likes sunbathing.
d) Are there some/any/no/every sweets left?
e) Don't give him some/any/no/every cakes! He's already eaten 7!
f) Some/any/no/every students are allowed to use mobile phones during the exam.
g) Sorry, I have to go now, I have some/any/no/every time left.
h) Some/any/no/every person that I met at this conference could speak Russian so now I
have lots of contacts from my colleagues all over the world.

2) Multiple choice.
a) I have never been somewhere/anywhere/nowhere/everywhere more beautiful than Spain.
b) He told me something/anything/nothing/everything interesting about his life.
c) Somebody/anybody/nobody/everybody needs a good friend.
d) After his parents asked him to leave he had somewhere/anywhere/nowhere/everywhere to
live.
e) I told my parents something/anything/nothing/everything about my bad behaviour and
they decided to punish me.
f) I guess I have already met him somewhere/anywhere/nowhere/everywhere. I remember
his face.
g) Hi, have you heard something/anything/nothing/everything new about Charlie today?

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h) I came in the room, but I could see somebody/anybody/nobody/everybody in it - everyone


has gone home.
i) I am sure somebody/anybody/nobody/everybody is listening to us - we're alone in this
room.
j) Somebody/anybody/nobody/everybody likes to eat ice-cream in the summer.

3) Transformation.
Example: I want to go somewhere tonight. (some)
a) Let's do ______________ important for our classes. (some)
b) I don't have ______________ to wear. (any)
c) ___________________ knows where Harry has gone. (no)
d) There was ___________ strange about that man. (some)
e) _______________ loves a good film. (every)
f) He's so quiet and reserved. He can talk to __________ for the whole day. (no)
g) I haven't been _________________. (any)
h) I have ______________ new to read. (no)
i) I tend to try _______ new every day. (some)

4) Exam task.

The ‘Greendex’ is a survey of 17,000 consumers in 17 different countries.


It finds out how these people regularly spend their money. The four
categories for spending are: housing, food, transportation and ‘other
goods’.
LATEST RESULTS FROM THE ‘GREENDEX’:
• About ninety per cent of people in Argentina eat beef nearly every day.
Almost (1) ________ eats pork. NO
• Exactly half of all Russians use public transport every day (2)_________ EVERY
in Russia.
• Just over two thirds of people in Germany drink a bottle of water daily
and (3) ___________ also recycles the bottle. SOME
• Consumers in the United States have the most TVs at home. Well over
two thirds have four or more. They watch (4) _____________ every SOME
evening.

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• Nearly half of all Canadians regularly recycle electronic items.


(5)___________ they recycle is harmful for our nature. EVERY

5) Exam task.

Nowadays, (1)____________ we use in household – an old TV or EVERY


computer printer, or an out-of-date mobile phone we no longer need. But
when we throw (2) __________ away, (3)________ of us knows where SOME NO
these objects go. The journalist and photographer, Peter Essick, decided to
follow the rubbish to several different countries around the world.
In particular, Essick found a lot of e-rubbish goes to Ghana. There, he saw
mountains of old computers (4)__________ in the local markets. The EVERY
sellers resell some of them but usually (5)_________ works. Instead, they NO
recycle (6)____________ by melting the parts inside. These parts contain EVERY
a little metal such as copper or even gold sometimes. But they don't contain
(7) _______ silver. However, this process of recycling is dangerous for the SOME
workers because it produces a lot of toxic chemicals.

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Количественные местоимения

Перевод Исчисляемые сущ. Неисчисляемые сущ.

много many much

несколько a few a little

мало few little

На экзамене в конце строки может быть написано местоимение, которое употребляется с


исчисляемым существительным, и его нужно поменять на соответствующее местоимение,
которое употребляется с неисчисляемым существительным.
Если после местоимения не стоит существительного, то употребляют неисчисляемые
местоимения much, (a) little в значении "много" или "немного", например:
I can't say _________ about this place - I've never been there.

Обратите внимание, что местоимение many не всегда изменяется на much, оно также
имеет формы сравнительной и превосходной степени. Подробнее об этом можно
прочитать в главе про степени сравнения прилагательных.
Подробнее про то, как отличить исчисляемое существительное от неисчисляемого, можно
прочитать в соответствующей главе.

Местоимения a little и a few отличаются от little и few тем, что они обозначают большее
количество предмета. Например, I have a little money, I can buy something to eat значит, что
у меня все-таки есть некоторое количество денег. А предложение I have little money, I can't
even buy a ticket значит, что денег у меня недостаточно. Экзаменационных заданий на
трансформацию few в little, а также на разницу между a few/few или a little/little не
встречала, и вы вряд ли встретите.

1) Multiple choice.
a) I have many/much friends in my school.
b) My parents aren't rich, they don't have many/much money.
c) We don't have many/much snow this winter.
d) Did Katya give you many/much good advice?
e) I don't see many/much squirrels in this park.
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f) These shoes don't cost many/much. I can afford them.


g) Many/Much children will come to my daughter's birthday tomorrow.
h) There aren't many/much tourists in this town.
i) Are there many/much animals in this zoo?
j) I didn't eat many/much meat at the dinner, I didn't like it.

2) Multiple choice (More than 1 option is possible sometimes).


a) We have a little/little/a few/few time, we have to go, or we will be late for the bus.
b) A little/Little/A few/Few rain is good for the flowers.
c) A little/Little/A few/Few sweets is nothing to worry about.
d) I ate a little/little/a few/few at lunch, and I'm still hungry.
e) I disagree with you on a little/little/a few/few points of your presentation, about 2-3
question.
f) Today I got a little/little/a few/few bad marks at school - on Mathematics, Physics,
Chemistry, Russian and Literature.
g) I met a little/little/ a few/few friends in this shop and we decided to go to the cinema in
the evening.
h) A little/Little/A few/ Few people visited me at the hospital, and I wanted to see more of
my relatives and friends.
i) There were a little/little/a few/few messages in my inbox and I decided to answer them
later as there weren't many of them.
j) We drank a little/little/a few/few coffee before we went to sleep not to spoil our sleep.

3) Multiple choice (More than 1 option is possible sometimes).


a) There were only much/many/a little/ little/a few/few people at the conference, so I wasn't
asked any questions after my report.
b) Much/Many/A little/Little/A few/Few people know about my studies as much as I do.
c) I read much/many/a little/little/a few/few books by Agatha Christie, in fact, it seems to me
that I haven't read only 2 or 3 of them.
d) Dade did much/many/a little/little/a few/few homework, but the teacher still gave him "A"
grade.
e) Only much/many/a little/ little/a few/few tourists wanted to go on this trip, so our
excursion was cancelled.

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f) Much/Many/A little/ Little/A few/Few teachers in my school are ok, but much/many/a
little/ little/ a few/ few make my life really difficult.
g) Only much/many/a little/little/a few/few classmates signed our document and it was a
disappointment,
h) I don't see much/many/a little/little/a few/few sense in going there by train - going by car
would be cheaper and almost as fast as the train.
i) Much/Many/A little/ Little/A few/Few pupils passed the exam, and I was among the lucky
ones.
j) I know much/many/a little/little/a few/few about history because it has never interested
me.

4) Translation
a) Я что-то должна была сделать, но забыла. И я не записала, что должна была
сделать, в ежедневник. Теперь ничто не напомнит мне об этом.
b) Кто те люди? Я никогда их не видела.
c) Я не съела много, потому что порции в кафе были маленькими.
d) - Тима, ты слишком много играешь на компьютере! - Но мам, у меня очень мало
игр. - Да, но ты проводишь за ним много времени!
e) Ты кого-нибудь видела? Здесь должно быть собрание, но никого нет.
f) - Тебе понравились эти сендвичи? - Не очень, мне кажется, те были бы вкуснее.
g) Все, кто был на вечеринке, услышали какой-то странный звук и начали везде
смотреть, чтобы найти его источник.
h) Тот мальчик, что играет с мячом, кажется мне знакомым.
i) Мне кажется, в этом салате есть совсем немного петрушки. Да,моя сестра клала
сюда чуть-чуть.
j) В этом горожде много интересных достопримечательностей. - Да? А когда я туда
ездила, мне казалось, что там мало что можно посмотреть.

5) Speaking. Describe your town in 200 years. Say what:


 people
 pollution
 buildings
 trees
 animals
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 traffic
 noise
 shops
 entertainment
will be like using many/much/few/little/some/any/every/no.
Example: In 2218 there will be a few trees and no animals but many people.

6) Exam task.

The Plastiki looks similar to (1) ____________ other boats or yachts in MUCH
Sydney harbour. It’s eighteen metres long, six metres wide and it weighs
about twelve thousand kilogrammes. It carries a crew of (2)_________ A LITTLE
people and has an average speed of five knots. However, once you get near
to the Plastikiyou realise there’s a big difference. It’s made of MUCH
(3)__________ reclaimed plastic bottles - twelve thousand five hundred.
The environmentalist David De Rothschild was reading (4) ________ MANY
about all the plastic in the seas and oceans. He couldn’t believe what he
was reading. For example, humans throw away four out of every five
plastic bottles they use and plastic rubbish causes about eighty per cent of
the pollution in the sea - too (5)_________! Soon afterwards, Rothschild MANY
decided he wanted to help the fight against pollution in the sea
(6)_________. A FEW
It was important for him to make the boat environmentally-friendly and
user-friendly. The boat uses (7)____________ energy sources including A LITTLE
wind power and solar energy. The crew can make meals with vegetables
from the small garden at the back of the boat. They can take a break from
work and get (8)_________ exercise by using the special exercise bicycle. A FEW

7) Exam task.

At Stanford University scientists are studying a small animal called a


gecko. It’s an amazing animal because it can move very quickly up and
down a tree and it can even walk upside down on (1) ____________. The CEILING
scientists are particularly interested in the gecko’s (2) ______. They want FOOT

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to use the same design on (3)______ own robot. The metal robot looks THEY
very similar to the gecko. However, it still has a more difficult time when it
tries to walk upside down.
Animals and plants can teach (4)___________ a lot about design and PERSON
engineering. As a result, many engineers, scientists and designers spend
time studying them. When they have a problem, nature often has the
answer. (5)________ science is called biomimetics. THESE
Velcro is probably the most famous example of biomimetics. Most
(6)__________ have some Velcro on an item of clothing. It was invented MAN
by the Swiss engineer George de Mestral in 1948. He was walking in the
countryside when he pulled a (7)__________ seed from his trousers. He PLANT
noticed how it stuck so well to his clothes. He worked on (8)_____ idea HE
and the result was Velcro.
In 1982, Wilhelm Bartlott was another inventor who had a great idea when
he was studying the (9)__________ of a lotus plant. Bartlett noticed that LEAF
water always ran off the leaf. When he had a closer look, he also noticed
how the leaf cleaned (10)___________. Bartlott copied the (11) ________ IT LEAF
special surface and now you can find it in specialised paint products where
water and dirt never stay on the paint.
In conclusion, biomimetics has helped to design our world and there are
(12)_______ more future (13)_____________. Unfortunately, it might take MUCH
a long time to discover all the possibilities. This isn’t really surprising POSSIBILITY
because it’s taken nature thousands of years to design its animals and
plants.

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Числительные
В ЕГЭ нам понадобятся количественные и порядковые числительные при чтении текста
на устной части экзамена и в заданиях на грамматику. В последних нам нужно будет
преобразовать количественное в порядковое и правильно его написать. На практике, я не
видела преобразование числительных значением больше десяти.

Количественные Порядковые
1 one first
2 two second
3 three third
4 four fourth
5 five fifth
6 six sixth
7 seven seventh
8 eight eighth
9 nine ninth
10 ten tenth
11 eleven eleventh
12 twelve twelfth
13 thirteen thirteenth
14 fourteen fourteenth
15 fifteen fifteenth
16 sixteen sixteenth
17 seventeen seventeenth
18 eighteen eighteenth
19 nineteen nineteenth
20 twenty twentieth
21 twenty-one twenty-first
22 twenty-two twenty-second
30 thirty thirtieth
40 forty fortieth
50 fifty fiftieth

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60 sixty sixtieth
70 seventy seventieth
80 eighty eightieth
90 ninety ninetieth
100 a (one) hundred a (one) hundredth
101 a (one) hundred and one a (one) hundred and first
102 a (one) hundred and two a (one) hundred and second
200 two hundred two hundredth
253 two hundred and fifty-three two hundred and fifty-third
1,000 a (one) thousand a (one) thousandth
1,001 a (one) thousand and one a (one) thousand and first
2,250 two thousand two hundred and fifty two thousand two hundred and fiftieth
3,000 three thousand three thousandth
100,000 a (one) hundred thousand a (one) hundred thousandth
1,000,000 a (one) million a (one) millionth
2,000,000 two million two millionth

А теперь кратко посмотрим на особенности английских количественных числительных.


1. Составные числительные от 20 до 100 образуются так же, как и в русском языке,
например: 22 (twenty-two) - двадцать два, только пишется через дефис.
2. В составных числительных после 100 перед десятками, а если их нет, то перед
единицами, ставится союз and, например: 222 (two hundred and twenty-two), 202 (two
hundred and two)
3. Числительные hundred, thousand, million не имеют окончания -s как показатель
множественного числа.
4. В тысячах ставится запятая между тысячами и сотнями, например 125,678. То же самое
в миллионах – 1,052,879.

Теперь про порядковые числительные.


1. В составных порядковых числительных суффикс -th присоединяется к последнему
слову, например: the thirty-fourth кроме исключений (о них ниже).
2. Перед порядковыми числительными употребляется определенный артикль, например
the second.

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36

3. Десятки, имеющие конечное -y, меняют его на -ie-, например: twenty - the twentieth.
4. Исключения из общей модели написания (можно сравнить по таблице выше) - the first,
the second, the third, the fifth, the ninth, the twelfth.
1) Speaking. Read: 125; 1,771; 650; 25; 11; 1,992; 125,790; 2,017; 1,728; 256,320; 19.
2) Speaking and writing. Write and say the correct number that goes between these ones:
a) 4 _____________________ 6
b) 14 ____________________16
c) 25 ____________________27
d) 44 ____________________ 46
e) 79 ____________________81
f) 111 ___________________113
g) 667 ___________________669
h) 920 ___________________922
i) 3,022 _________________3,024
j) 12,300 ________________12,302

3) Speaking and writing. Correct the mistakes and say the numbers:
a) twenty two
b) four hundreds
c) two hundred twenty
d) 33678
e) five thousand and three hundred
f) seven thousand eight hundred thirty

4) Exam task. Read the text after inserting the correct words.

Five hundred years ago, Europeans arrived on a new continent. They brought
new cultures and languages to this place which they called America. However,
there were already people living there who had their own cultures and
languages.
As more Europeans arrived, there was a fight for the land with the native
American Indians. By the end of the (1) ___________ century, the Indian tribes NINETEEN
were moved to reservations. A lot of their children were taken away to boarding

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37

schools and these children were taught to speak English. By the end of the
(2)_____________ century more than half of the Native Americans in the US TWENTY
were living in cities.
The (3)_______ language of the continent is American English. The ONE
(4)___________ most popular lanuage is Spanish, and the (5)____________ - TWO
Chinese. THREE

5) Read the text out loud:


Nowadays, 85% of the world’s population communicate by writing, but 5,000 years ago people
only communicated by speaking. When words were written on a piece of stone for the first time,
the world changed forever.
3200 BC to AD 75. Cuneiform was used by speakers of fifteen different languages for three
thousand years. The symbols were made with clay.
3200 BC to AD 394. The Egyptians made these signs on the walls of pyramids which you can
still see today. They represented objects, ideas, emotions and sounds. Around 2500 BC,
‘papyrus’ was made from a plant and it was written on by the Egyptians. Later, the Romans also
used papyrus.
2800 to 1900 BC. Stone objects were found in the Indus Valley. They were possibly used for
people’s identity or symbols of a tribe.
1200 BC to present. The earliest Chinese writing was done on bone.
1050 BC to present. One of the first alphabets was created by the Phoenicians which became
modern Arabic. The Greek alphabet also came from this early form of writing and, eventually, it
became the modern Latin alphabet.
AD 250 to 900. Like the Egyptians, pictures were used by the Maya to represent dates and
times.
1450s. By the end of the fifteenth century, books in Europe were published with a new invention
– Gutenberg’s printing press. As a result, more and more people started to learn how to read and
write.
1874. The typewriter’s keyboard is still used on computer keyboards today.
2010. For the first time, more eBooks were sold by the online bookseller Amazon than
traditional paperback books.

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Прилагательные

Степени сравнения прилагательных


В задании на грамматику прилагательные изменяются по степеням сравнения.

Степени сравнения

Положительная Сравнительная Превосходная

Односложные cold colder the coldest


прилагательные cheap cheaper the cheapest
+ happy happier the happiest
прилагательные dirty dirtier the dirtiest
на -y

2+ сложные beautiful more beautiful the most beautiful


прилагательные expensive more expensive the most expensive

Исключения good better the best


bad worse the worst
many/much more the most
little less the least
far further the furthest
old older (по возрасту) the oldest (по возрасту) /
/elder (по the eldest (по
старшинству в семье) старшинству в семье)

Изменения в правописании:
1) Если прилагательное оканчивается на согласную + -y, то – y меняется на –ie,
например dirty - dirtier – the dirtiest.
2) Если прилагательное оканчивается на краткую гласную + согласную, то конечная
согласная удваивается, например big – bigger – the biggest, fat – fatter – the fattest.
3) Если прилагательное оканчивается на – e, то она отбрасывается, например nice –
nicer-the nicest.
Обратите внимание, что перед прилагательными в превосходной степени ставится
определенный артикль the, кроме тех случаев, когда перед прилагательным стоит
местоимение, числительное или притяжательный падеж, например Katya’s best friend, this
happiest person, one dirtiest shoe.

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Exam tip. На ЕГЭ задания сформулированы так, что артикль the уже будет написан перед
пропуском (если он там нужен), и вам нужно будет только написать форму
прилагательного, например:
Christmas is the ____________ time of the year. (HAPPY)
Правильный ответ: HAPPIEST

1) Transformation. Write degrees of comparison for these adjectives.


Example: beautiful – more beautiful – the most beautiful
a) big
b) dangerous
c) dry
d) expensive
e) far
f) good
g) happy
h) healthy
i) heavy
j) high
k) interesting
l) lazy
m) long
n) new
o) old
p) polite
q) rare
r) sad
s) safe
t) strong
u) weak
v) wet
w) young

Понять, какая степень сравнения прилагательного нам нужна, можно из контекста.


Ниже представлены конструкции, которые помогают понять, что именно нужно вставить:
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Степень Выражение Пример

Положительная as ... as ... – такой же, как She is as pretty as a picture.


not so (as) ... as – не такой … Mary is not as rich as Sonya.
как

Сравнительная than – чем Mike is taller than Ben.


much/a bit This dress is much/a bit prettier.
the ... the ... – чем …, тем … The earlier we leave, the sooner we get
there.

Превосходная ... have ever V(3) It’s the most beautiful place I have ever
... of all visited.
... in (place) It is the best place of all I’ve seen.
She’s the most intelligent girl in my
class.

Кстати, на экзамене, если вам нужно подставить превосходную степень прилагательного,


перед пропуском уже будет стоять определенный артикль the, кроме тех случаев, когда
перед прилагательным стоит местоимение, числительное или притяжательный падеж,
например Katya’s best friend, this happiest person, one dirtiest shoe.

2) Transformation
Example: Who is your best friend? (good)

a) Which season do you find ___________ beautiful – spring or autumn? (many)


b) The service in this shop is much ___________ than in that one. (good)
c) It is the ___________ place I have ever visited in my life. (bad)
d) Of all friends, Luke is my ___________ friend. (close)
e) Who is _____________ girl in your class? (clever)
f) Do you think the summer Olympics are _______________ than the winter Olympics?
(interesting)
g) This shirt is too tight. I need something a bit _______________. (loose)
h) The test was really difficult – _____________ than we expected. (difficult)
i) New York is ___________ city in North America. (big)

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j) Your mark on the exam is as ____________as Denise’s. (high)


k) The __________we go, the ___________ tired I get. (far, many)
l) This task is so difficult, can we try an ___________ one? (easy)
m) My room is _____________ in all our flat. (big)
n) My handwriting is _____________ than Lucy’s. (accurate)
o) Magazines are _______________ than newspapers. (interesting)
p) You are not as _______________ as I I imagined. (tall)
q) This distance is ________________ I have ever gone. (far)
r) Harry is ________________ of all our team. (experienced)

3) Translation
a) Все твои друзья хорошие, но Джон - лучше всех.
b) Это - лучшая женская баскетбольная команда в стране.
c) Моя мама ниже, чем мой папа.
d) Давай встретимся в библиотеке - это самое спокойное место в школе.
e) Моя спальня - самая холодная комната в доме.
f) Я думаю, Аня - самая умная в нашем классе.
g) Бразилия - самая большая страна в южной Америке.
h) Хоккей - более опасный вид спорта, чем теннис.
i) Баскетбольное поле больше, чем корт для тенниса.
j) Сегодня погода более солнечная, нежели вчера.

4) Speaking. Compare the following animals (elephant, crocodile, mouse, hamster, dolphin,
tiger, cheetah, dog, cat) using the comparative degree of these adjectives: small, tall,
heavy, light, dangerous, fast, friendly.
Example: Crocodile is more dangerous than mouse.

5) Speaking. Put the adjective in brackets in the superlative degree and answer the
questions:
Who is ____________ (good) singer on the world?
Who is _________________ (clever) person in your family?
Who of your friends is ____________ (funny)?
Who is ____________ (tall) person in your class?
Who is ____________ (talented) actor and actress in the world?
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6) Exam task.

Greenland is the (1)____________ island in the world but has a small population LARGE
of 56,000. Many of these ‘Greenlanders’ live (2)_________ to the coastline СLOSE
because a large part of the country is covered with ice and glaciers. (3)_______ MANY
than a quarter of all the people live in the capital, Nuuk. Since the 1960s, the
country has had economic difficulties and social problems. Its traditional
industry – and its (4) ___________ – is fishing but the country still imports BIG
much (5)______ than it exports. Now, however, life is about to change MANY
dramatically for many Greenlanders – and all because of the weather.
Most scientists agree that the world’s climate is getting (6) __________ and you WARM
can already see the difference in Greenland. For example, small icebergs – about
the size of city buses – are floating near to the coast. Furthermore, the huge sheet
of ice which covers Greenland is shrinking by about 75 cubic kilometres each
year. If all of Greenland’s ice melted, sea levels across the world would rise by
7.5 metres.
Farming will change. The growing season is (7)___________ with spring LONG
arriving earlier and (8)_________ summers. On the one hand, if the country LONG
produced more of its own food, it wouldn’t need to import so much. On the
other hand, some farmers are worried. They think the (9)_________ summers DRY
might create new problems. For example, last year, it was so dry, farmers
produced half the normal amount of food.

7) Exam task

During the seventies, Gombe became one of the (1)____________ places to DANGEROUS
work. It is on the border of four different countries and there was fighting
between soldiers and rebels. (2)______ foreigners fled the region but Jane MANY
stayed. In the end, she needed a military escort in order to continue her work. In
one of her diaries from this period she notices that chimpanzees can also be
violent: ‘I thought the chimps were (3)________ than we are. But time has NICE
revealed that they are not. They can be just the (4) _________ animals.’ AWFUL

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After 1989, Jane left her career in Gombe in order to do other work. She set up
sanctuaries for chimps which had been captured or were orphans because of the
trade in chimpanzee meat. Nowadays, she spends about 300 days a year giving
interviews, talks and lectures, meeting with government officials and raising
money for the Jane Goodall Institute which continues her research. She has LITTLE
(5)________ spare time than she had before but she still spends part of every
year in the forest in Gombe, watching her chimpanzees.

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Прилагательные, оканчивающиеся на –ing/-ed

К глаголу добавляют окончание –ed, чтобы получившееся прилагательное помогало


описать чувства, например: interest – interested (заинтересованный), depress – depressed
(подавленный).
Окончание –ing добавляют, чтобы указать на вещи или людей, которые вызывают эти
эмоции, например: interesting film/person (интересный), depressing film/person (вгоняющий
в тоску).
Приведу список частотных прилагательных с окончаниями –ed/-ing:

- ed Перевод -ing Перевод

amazed пораженный, удивленный amazing удивительный,


потрясающий

amused смешно amusing забавный, смешной

annoyed раздраженный, annoying раздражающий


раздосадованный

bored скучно boring скучный

confused запутавшийся, сбитый с confusing сбивающий с толку,


толку вводящий в заблуждение

depressed подавленный depressing подавляющий

disappointed разочарованный disappointing разочаровывающий

excited возбужденный, exciting захватывающий,


взволнованный волнующий

exhausted изможденный exhausting утомительный

fascinated очарованный fascinating увлекательный

frightened испуганный frightening пугающий

interested заинтересованный interesting интересный

pleased довольный pleasing приятный

relaxed расслабленный, relaxing расслабляющий


ненапряженный

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shocked шокированный shocking шокирующий

surprised удивленный surprising удивительный

tired уставший tiring утомительный

1) Multiple choice.
a) In my opinion, books are bored/boring.
b) I have worked all day. My work is really tired/tiring.
c) My small brother thinks his new toy is very excited/exciting.
d) This film is so dull, I’m bored/boring.
e) I don’t think your joke is funny. I am not amused/amusing.
f) The teacher was disappointed/disappointing with the behaviour of her class.
g) The news about this terrible accident was shocked/shocking.
h) Hi! I am very pleased/pleasing to see you.
i) I can’t stand horror films, I get frightened/frightening by them.
j) My friend said we would meet at 7pm, but it’s 7 already and he’s not here. Where is he? I
am confused/confusing.

2) Transformation.
Example: It’s the most exciting film I have ever watched! (excite)
a) I was absolutely ___________ by the special effects of this film. (amaze)
b) My roommate is rather ______________. He always disturbs me and asks me stupid
questions. (annoy)
c) This excursion was absolutely __________________. I’d rather go to bed. (exhaust)
d) It’s not __________________ that she’s so busy – she’s got two kids and a job. (surprise)
e) I like comedies with Charlie Chaplin. They are very _______________ (amuse)
f) The football match yesterday was ___________________ to watch – Ronaldo scored 3
goals! (excite)
g) I was _____________ when I learnt they moved to Australia, it’s such an unexpected
decision! (shock)
h) I’m _____________ in Italian history, I’ve read tons of books on it. (interest)
i) I was ____________________ with the film, it was too predictable. (disappoint)
j) The children are _____________ and they don’t know what to do. (bore)

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3) Translation.
a) Учиться больше 5 часов в день - очень утомительно.
b) Я упала в ресторане. Это было так неловко!
c) Когда я прилетела на остров, три дня лил дождь. Мне было очень скучно
d) Когда я увидела льва так близко, была очень напугана.
e) Книга была такая интересная, что я читала ее всю ночь.
f) Эти инструкции такие запутанные! Не могу в них разобраться!
g) Я работала сегодня 12 часов, я измождена.
h) Катя так подавлена, потому что вчера поругалась со своим бойфрендом.
i) Я так взволнована! Моя дочь выиграла чемпионат по танцам!
j) Я была очень заинтересована этим фильмом, у него такая непредсказуемая концовка.

4) Exam task.

- Hi, Nicole! Have you already read that book Mrs Fletcher told us
to read on holidays?
- The long one? No, I haven’t yet. I’m afraid it will be
(1)_____________! BORE
- Absolutely not! I finished it yesterday, and I can say it’s
absolutely (2)___________! The storyline is so (3)_______________ I AMAZE EXCITE
couldn’t put it down. And there are plenty of (4)___________ moments AMUSE
as well. I’m totally (5)______________ by it and advise you to read it as FASCINATE
soon as possible. EXCITE
- Wow, thanks for advice! You sound really (6)_____________, INTEREST
you made me (7)______________ in reading it.

5) Exam task.

- How was your weekend, Anna?


- Quite (1)_________. I stayed in and watched my favourite series RELAX
about vampires. And what about yours?
- I also stayed in and watched a football match.
- How was it?
- The game was (2)____________, very dynamic. They scored 5 EXCITE
goals and it was (3)____________ to watch it. INTEREST

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- Happy for you. All sports are (4)__________ for me so I neither BORE
do nor watch them. Also, I find football rules (5) _______________. CONFUSE
- Oh, we should try watching a game together one day. I’ll try to
show you how (6)____________ sport is! AMAZE
- Sorry, but don’t bother. I am not (7)____________ in that sort of INTEREST
thing at all.

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Наречие

Если в заданиях 18 – 26 вы видите слово, оканчивающееся на –ly (наречие), вам нужно


будет также, как и прилагательное, поставить его в нужную степень сравнения.

Группы наречий Степени сравнения

Положительная Сравнительная Превосходная

Наречия, early earlier earliest


совпадающие по fast faster fastest
форме с hard harder hardest
прилагательными late later latest

Обычные наречия easily more easily most easily


seriously more seriously most seriously

Исключения badly worse worst


well better best
little less least
many/much more most

Обратите внимание, что определенный артикль the перед превосходной степенью наречия
не ставится.

Понять, какая степень сравнения наречия нам нужна, можно по переводу и тем же словам-
индикаторам, которые были верны и для прилагательных.

1) Transformation. Write degrees of comparison for these adverbs.


Example: seriously – more seriously – most seriously
a) angrily
b) badly
c) beautifully
d) easily
e) hard
f) late
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49

g) many
h) probably
i) really
j) slowly
k) suddenly
l) well

2) Transformation.
a) Cheetah runs_______________ of all animals. (fast)
b) My Mom wakes up ______________ in our family. (early)
c) Olga speaks English ________________ than Helen. (well)
d) This type of activities I like _____________ . (little)
e) Who works ________________ in your company? (hard)
f) Mike’s essay is written ____________ than Igor’s. (badly)
g) Masha draws as _________________ as her sister. (beautifully)
h) Today you behave __________________ than usual, what’s the matter with you?
(quietly)
i) Sean does the work ___________________ than other students in our group. (carefully)
j) Nick comes to lessons __________________– he lives in another town. (late)
k) Sorry, speak ___________________, please – I can’t catch your words. (slowly)
l) My brother eats ________________ in our family. (quickly)
m) Women need _______________ than men. (much)
n) Mia dresses ___________________ of all our colleagues. (fashionably)
o) You need to take your exams _________________, they are very important. (seriously)
p) Could you explain your idea _______________? (clearly)

3) Translation.
a) Аня встает раньше всех, чтобы успеть погулять с собакой и пойти в школу.
b) Максим нервно листал книгу. Он хотел написать сегодняшний тест более успешно,
чем предыдущий.
c) Самое очевидное - Настя забыла про нашу встречу. Ее нет уже полчаса.
d) Алексей говорит на английском лучше, чем Никита.
e) Нужно работать больше всех, чтобы чего-то добиться.
f) Света всегда так танцует красивее всех! Ей все дается легко!
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g) Ваня катается на велосипеде очень быстро, гораздо быстрее меня.


h) Кто-то только что громко кричал на улице, ты не слышала? – Нет, наш телевизор
работает громче и я не слышу звуков с улицы.

4) Exam task.

I was so excited after I had found the holiday in the brochure. It said: ‘Enjoy
a week of sightseeing in one of Europe’s (1)__________ cities while staying BEAUTIFUL
at one of its (2)____________ hotels.’ Now I wasn’t so sure. I had waited LUXURIOUS
fifteen minutes at reception when I arrived and now the shower in my room
wasn’t working.
I called hotel reception. ‘Hello. This is room 308. There isn’t any water in
my bathroom.’
‘I’ll send our hotel engineer immediately.’
In an hour, the engineer came to look at the shower. He hit the pipes a few
times and looked worried. ‘Sorry, but I cannot fix it today. Maybe, it will
work (3)____________ tomorrow.’ Then he held out his hand. GOOD
I couldn’t believe it! He wanted a tip for doing nothing! It was the
(4)___________ service I have ever seen. But suddenly, I had a (5)_______ BAD GOOD
idea. Quickly, I gave the engineer a few coins. He hadn’t fixed my shower
but he had taught me something about staying in his country. Two minutes LATE
(6)________ I was at the reception desk. I explained the problem to the
receptionist and he apologised: ‘This is a terrible situation, but what can we
do?’ I knew exactly what to do. I gave the hotel manager a (7)________ tip GENEROUS
than I gave the engineer. Fifteen minutes later I moved into room 405. It was
twice the size of room 308, it had a wonderful view of the city, a comfortable
bed and, (8)_______________, there was water in the bathroom. IMPORTANTLY

Ниже в схеме представляю шпаргалку со всеми возможными трансформациями имени


существительного, местоимения, числительного, прилагательного и наречия на экзамене:

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Глагол

Преобразование глагола – самое частотное задание в грамматике на ЕГЭ. Ниже в таблицах


для общей информации представлю все времена, которые ученик должен знать к концу
11-го класса.

Active Voice (Активный залог)

Simple Continuous Perfect Perfect Continuous

Present I write I am writing I have written I have been writing

Past I wrote I was writing I had written I had been writing

Future I will write - - -

Passive Voice (Страдательный залог)

Simple Continuous Perfect

Present The book is written The book is being written The book has been written

Past The book was The book was being The book had been written
written written

Future The book will be - -


written

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Active Voice

Present Simple

To be

Глагол to be используется в английском, когда в предложении нет глагола, а связка нужна,


чтобы связать подлежащее и остальные члены предложения. Таким образом, глагол to be
перекидывает «мостик» между подлежащим и сказуемым, выраженным
существительным, местоимением, прилагательным или числительным. Например:
She is a doctor.
I am 18.
This book is mine.
Anya is beautiful.

Ниже в таблице представлены формы глагола to be в Present Simple, которые меняются в


зависимости от местоимения, которое с ним стоит. Обратите внимание, что позиция
глагола меняется в вопросительном предложении (последний столбик) – он будет стоять
на первом месте.

+ - ?

I am (I’m) I am not (I’m not) Am I … ?


You are (you’re) You are not (you aren’t) Are you … ?
He is (he’s) He is not (he isn’t) Is he … ?
She is (she’s) She is not (she isn’t) Is she …?
It is (it’s) It is not (it isn’t) Is it … ?
We are (we’re) We are not (we aren’t) Are we …?
They are (they’re) They are not (they aren’t) Are they … ?

1) Transformation. Insert the correct form of “be”. Then change the sentences into negative
and interrogative form:
Example: He _________ an engineer.
He is an engineer. He isn’t an engineer. Is he an engineer?
a) We ________ students.
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b) It ________ cold in our house.


c) Anna _______ 17 years old.
d) Tom ______late as usual.
e) They ________ students.
f) You ________ in Class 5.
g) This book _______ about adventures.
h) I _______ tired after schoolday.
i) It ________ interesting to visit museums.
j) Nick and Mary __________ not ready for the lesson today.

2) Exam task.

1) The Leakey family (1)_____ similar in many ways. Louise Leakey is an BE


explorer, but for her family that’s normal! Louise’s mother is Maeve and she’s an
explorer. Her father is Richard Leakey. Richard (2)______ also in East Africa, but BE
he’s a farmer. Richard’s half brother is Colin Leakey. Colin (3)______ in Africa,
but he’s an explorer and a scientist at Cambridge University in England. Louise’s BE NOT
grandparents (Louis and Mary) (4) _______ dead, but they were also famous BE
explorers. Louise’s sister is Samira, but she works for the World Bank. Their uncle
and aunt (5)_____ Phillip Leakey and his wife Katy. BE

2) Are you 16? Do you want to get a part-time job? If so, you (6)_____
welcome to our company! We (7)_____ a small but very friendly team of BE
animators who can offer you work with small kids. I hope you (8) _______ fond BE
of children? BE
I (9) ______ Ken and I (10)_________ afraid of saying children love me and I
love them! BE BE NOT
Phone +3456789 and join our wonderful team of animators!

Теперь посмотрим на образование Present Simple в предложениях, где глагол есть. В


таблице ниже представлена схема образования этого времени в утверждениях (+),
отрицаниях (-) и вопросах (?).

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+ - ?

I/you/we/they love I/you/we/they don’t love Do I/you/we/they love


pancakes. pancakes. pancakes?
He/she/it doesn’t love Does he/she/it love
He/she/it loves pancakes. pancakes. pancakes?

В форме Present Simple, которая сочетается с 3 лицом единственным числом -


местоимениями he, she, it – к глаголу добавляется окончание – s в утвердительной форме,
в отрицательной это окончание присоединяется к вспомогательному глаголу does, и оно
же остается у вспомогательного глагола в вопросительной форме. Посмотрим на правила
правописания глаголов с окончанием –s.
 Обычные глаголы прибавляют окончание –s: think – thinks, start – starts
 Как и в случае с существительными во множественном числе, если глагол
оканчивается на гласную – o или шипящую, например, -ch, -sh, -ss, -x, к глаголу
добавляется окончание –es: go-goes, fix-fixes, push-pushes, catch-catches, kiss - kisses
 Если глагол оканчивается на согласную + y, также добавляется окончание –es, а –y
меняется на -i: fly-flies, cry-cries
 А если глагол оканчивается на гласную + y, окончание остается неизменным: stay-
stays, enjoy-enjoys
 Исключение: have-has

1) Transformation. Write the –s form of these verbs:


Example: sleep - sleeps
a) carry -
b) do -
c) enjoy -
d) fix -
e) fly -
f) go -
g) hurry -
h) know -
i) live -
j) miss -

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k) play -
l) relax -
m) say -
n) take -
o) teach -
p) think -
q) try -
r) wash -
s) watch –

Теперь поговорим о том, когда используем Present Simple:


 Когда мы говорим о фактах
Almost all trees lose their leaves in winter.
 Когда мы говорим о постоянных, регулярных действиях
I always wake up at 7am.
 Когда мы говорим о расписании (школьном, кино, транспорта)
The film starts at 5pm.
 Когда говорим о чувствах и мыслях, с глаголами, которые не используются в
Present Continuous
I think she’s 18. I feel good today.

Вот список глаголов, которые не используются во временах группы Continuous:


agree, believe, feel, hate, know, like, look, love, mean, prefer, remember, understand, want.
Еще в любом времени есть так называемые “маркеры» - слова, которые показывают, что
в этом предложении используется именно это время. Для времени Present Simple это
слова: always, usually, often, sometimes, rarely, seldom, hardly ever, never.

Exam tip. На экзамене если вам и попадется глагол, который нужно будет поставить в
настоящее простое время, то к нему нужно будет приписать окончание –s или поставить
его в отрицательную форму. В последнем случае перед глаголом будет написана частица
not, например, NOT GO. Не может быть так, чтобы слово, подлежащее изменению,
осталось неизменным.

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2) Transformation. Insert the correct form of the verb in brackets. Then change the
sentences into negative and interrogative form.
Example: He _________ as an engineer. (work)
He works as an engineer. He doesn’t work as an engineer. Does he work as an engineer?
a) His wife _____ a motorbike to her work. (to ride)
b) Miss Smith ____ English fluently. (to speak)
c) My mother ____ red meat. (to like)
d) Mike ____ many friends at school. (to have)
e) His brother _____ from home. (to work)
f) She ___ very fast. She does cycling professionally. (to cycle)
g) The train _________ in half an hour. (leave)
h) She _____ lots of emails at her work. (to write)
i) They ____ the flowers every day. (to water)
j) We _____ football at school. (to play)
k) George_____ coffee every morning. (to drink)

3) Transformation. Insert the verbs in the correct form:


brush, eat (x2), go, have, like (x2), put on, study (x2), wake up.
Example: Every morning Tom wakes up at 7.30. He ________ his teeth, ______ his clothes and
______ to school. He ______ breakfast at home because he _______ breakfast at school. He
________ to school with his eldest sister. She ________ in the 9th class and he ________ in the
5th class. They _______ their school because they _______ many friends there. And _____ you
_______ your school?

4) Translation.
a) Как тебя зовут? - Наташа. - Откуда ты? - Я из Москвы.
b) Ты работаешь или учишься? - Я работаю в международной компании.
c) На каких языках ты разговариваешь? – Я говорю на русском и немного на
английском.
d) Какая еда тебе нравится? - Я люблю курицу и салат.
e) Вы водите машину? – Да, я вожу машину.
f) Ты смотришь телевизор? - Да, иногда смотрю программы про путешествия.
g) Ты ходишь в кино? – Я хожу в кино редко, у меня нет времени.

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h) Ты играешь в компьютерные игры? - Нет, я не играю в компьютерные игры, мне они


не нравятся.
i) Ты не хочешь кофе? - Нет, спасибо, я не пью кофе.

5) Speaking. Say what you usually do at weekends using these sentences:


a) At weekends I usually ...
b) At weekends I often ...
c) At weekends I sometimes ...
d) At weekends I rarely ...
e) At weekends I hardly ever ...
f) At weekends I never ...

6) Exam task

Top 5 food markets


1 St Lawrence, Toronto, Canada
St Lawrence food market, in the centre of Toronto, (1)_______ 200 years old. BE
There (2) ______ a lot of shops here (well over 100) with every kind of meat BE
and seafood. Shoppers visit from all over the world.
2 Castries Market, St Lucia
Naturally, this island in the Caribbean (3)_______ a market famous for fish and HAVE
fruit. Buy some bananas for lunch and some fish for dinner. And who _____ the TRY
local sauce will see that it’s very hot!
3 Kreta Ayer Wet Market, Singapore
There’s a lot of different food here and there’s also a great restaurant upstairs. A
tourist who (4)______ there at around 6 a.m. can have some tasty noodles for GO
breakfast.
4 La Vucciria, Palermo, Italy
There aren’t many markets in the world with live music. But in Palermo, a
musician (5)_______ and (6)_______ as shoppers buy their sausages and PLAY SING
kebabs. It’s a great atmosphere!
5 Borough Market, London, England

NOT BE

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This market is 250 years old and famous with food lovers. It’s open from
Thursday to Saturday and it’s good to go very early. There (7)_______ much
food for sale after 10 a.m.!

Present Continuous

Следующее время группы Present, которое встретится на экзамене. В таблице ниже


представлена схема образования этого времени в утверждениях (+), отрицаниях (-) и
вопросах (?).
am/is/are + V(ing)

+ - ?

I am studying now. I am not studying now. Am I studying now?


You/we/they are studying You/we/they are not (aren’t) Are you/we/they studying
now. studying now. now?
He/she/it is studying now. He/she/it is not (isn’t) Is he/she/it studying now.?
studying now.

Как видим, образуется это время путем прибавления глагола be в нужной форме
настоящего времени и окончания –ing к глаголу. Вот орфографические правила
прибавления этого окончания:
 Обычно к глаголам добавляется просто окончание –ing: studying, playing, reading
 Если глагол оканчивается на –e, она отбрасывается: dance-dancing, take-taking
 Если глагол заканчивается на одну согласную, а перед ней стоит краткая гласная,
то после согласная удваивается: ban – banning, swim-swimming, stop-stopping
 Если глагол заканчивается на –ie, то эти две гласные меняются на –y: die – dying, lie
– lying.
1) Transformation.
Example: see-seeing
a) bake –
b) carry –
c) feel –
d) happen –

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60

e) lie –
f) make –
g) play –
h) run –
i) sit –
j) sleep –
k) stay –
l) stop –
m) study –
n) swim –
o) take –
p) try –
q) use –
r) visit –
s) wait –
t) write –

Теперь поговорим о том, когда используем Present Continuous.


 Когда мы говорим о действии, происходящем в настоящий момент или на
протяжении настоящего времени.
I am studying right now.
I am using my Mom’s tablet because mine isn’t working.
 Когда говорим о запланированном будущем.
We are going abroad this summer.

А вот снова список глаголов, которые не используются во временах группы Continuous:


agree, believe, feel, hate, know, like, look, love, mean, prefer, remember, understand, want.

Еще в любом времени есть так называемые «маркеры» - слова, которые показывают, что
в этом предложении используется именно это время. Для времени Present Continuous это
слова: now, at present, at the moment, nowadays, currently, still, tonight, this summer, Look!
Listen!

* Слова now, nowadays, currently, still могут стоять в середине глагольной формы,
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например: They are now listening to music. I am currently reading a book. This shop is
nowadays selling everything at a discount. А также в конце или начале предложения: Now
they are listening to music. Currently I am reading a book. This shop is selling everything at a
discount nowadays.

2) Transformation. Insert the correct form of the verb in brackets. Then change the
sentences into negative and interrogative form:
Example: I am _____________ now. (study)
I am studying now. I am not studying now. Am I studying now?
a) It _________today so I ____________my umbrella with me. (rain, take)
b) I feel better so I _____________ to school today. (go)
c) It’s time to go home, it _______________ late. (get)
d) Ann ___________ (carry) her dog to the vet as it is ill.
e) We don’t have a lot of homework so we _____________ for a walk tonight. (go)
f) They look excited, they _____________ a good time at the party. (have)
g) My cooker isn’t working so I _____________ some sandwiches for myself. (make)
h) The cat ______________ some milk now. (drink)
i) We _______________ our holiday nowadays. (plan)

3) Translation.
a) Где сейчас твоя сестра? - Она в своей комнате, делает уборку.
b) Сейчас он чистит зубы.
c) Сейчас моя мама смотрит телевизор, а я учу уроки.
d) - Он сейчас не делает уроки, он обедает.
e) Сегодня Маша одета в джинсовую юбку и белую рубашку.
f) - Что ты смотришь? – Я смотрю новое реалити-шоу.
g) Что ты делаешь на этих выходных? – Мы идем в кино всей семьей.
h) Сейчас ученики в моем классе учатся лучше, чем обычно, потому что приближаются
экзамены.
i) Темнеет, давай пойдем домой!

4) Speaking.
Say 5 sentences about what you are doing right now using the words: at the moment, right now,

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now.

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63

Present Simple and Present Continuous

1) Multiple choice.
a) I don’t do/am not doing anything at the moment, I am bored.
b) In summer we usually go/are going to our dacha for a weekend.
c) I meet/am meeting Tanya at 6pm and we go/are going shopping. Would you like to join?
d) Why do you laugh/are you laughing? I don’t understand/am not understanding the joke.
e) I love/am loving fast food, and every weekend my family goes/is going to BurgerKing.
f) Do you enjoy/Are you enjoying detective stories? Which genre of books do you prefer/are
you preferring?
g) What do your parents do/are your parents doing now?
h) My Mum leaves/is leaving home at 8am every day.
i) What time does your plane land/is your plane landing?
j) What do you do/are you doing tonight? – I stay/am staying at home.

2) Transformation.
Example: I always read books at night, but today I am reading a book right now. (read, read)
a) My computer ___________ so I ______________ emails from Internet café. (work, send)
b) My grandma _____________ 3 languages. (speak)
c) My aunt _________ clients every week as part of her job. (visit)
d) It _____________ so we can’t go for a walk. (rain)
e) When Susan goes to the sea she ____________ with her grandma. (stay)
f) I _________________ because I have read a joke. (laugh)
g) ____ you _______ the food in MacDonalds? (like)
h) Sarah ____________ at home today, she’s ill. (stay)
i) We __________ bowling with my friends every Sunday. (play)
j) I ___________ this man, can you introduce me to him? (know)

3) Translation.
Привет, Маша.
Я пишу это письмо из Португалии. Я здесь отдыхаю со своей семьей и мы классно
проводим время.

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Прямо сейчас я загораю на пляже. Мой младший брат играет со своими игрушками в
песке, а моя мама смотрит за ним. Мой папа плавает в море.
Мне так нравится здесь! Каждый день мы встаем поздно и идем на пляж.
Сегодня вечером мы едем в город, чтобы посмотреть местные достопримечательности.
Потом мы пойдем в ресторан, чтобы попробовать местную кухню. Надеюсь, еда здесь
вкусная.
Вот и все, что я хочу тебе рассказать о своем отдыхе. Увидимся.
Всего хорошего,
Катя
4) Speaking.
Name 3 things that happen in an unusual way at present. Example: I usually wake up at 7,
but now I’m waking up at 9 because I’m on holiday.

5) Exam task

- Hi, my name's Julia.


- Hi, I'm Michael. Where (1)___ you ______ from, Julia? COME
- Romania. I (2)_____________ with my family here in London. STAY
- (3)____ you _____ it here? LIKE
- Yes, it's a beautiful town! I (4)__________ a great time. HAVE
- Your English is very good.
- Thanks! I 5)_____________ at a language school. STUDY
What (6) ____ you _____, Michael? DO
- I'm a firefighter.
- How interesting!
- My shift usually (7)_______ at night, but today we (8)__________in the START WORK
afternoon.
- Great, I (9)_________dancing tonight, will you join me? GO
- Sorry, I (10)_________ to the cinema tonight with my friend. But you GO
can join us!
- That would be great!
- The film (11)______ at 7pm. We (12)____________ at the cinema "Star" START MEET
at 6.30.
- Thanks for the invitation! See you at 6.30!

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Present Perfect

Последнее время группы Present, которое встретится на экзамене. В таблице ниже


представлена схема образования этого времени в утверждениях (+), отрицаниях (-) и
вопросах (?).
have/has + V(3)

+ - ?

I/you/we/they have been to I/you/we/they have not Have I/you/we/they have


Paris. (haven’t) been to Paris. been to Paris?
He/she/it has been to Paris. He/she/it has not (hasn’t) Has he/she/it has been to
been to Paris. Paris?

Как видим, это время образуется с помощью глаголов have или has и третьей формы
глагола. Так как третья форма правильных глаголов образуется путем прибавления
окончания –ed, рассмотрим правила его прибавления:
 Обычно к глаголу прибавляется просто окончание –ed: walked, talked.
 Если у глагола было свое окончание –e, оно пропадает: live – lived, move – moved.
 После согласной –y меняется на –i: fry – fried, study – studied. А после гласной –y не
меняется, например: stay – stayed.
 Если глагол заканчивается на одну согласную, а перед ней стоит краткая гласная,
то после согласная удваивается: ban – banned, travel – travelled, stop-stopped (как и в случае
с добавлением –ing).

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Но не забываем, что есть еще и неправильные глаголы, вот список самых частотных:

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1) Transformation. Write the 2nd and the 3rd forms of the verbs:
Example: go – went – gone
a) arrive –
b) break –
c) celebrate –
d) clean –
e) come –
f) cry –
g) drop –
h) have –
i) lose –
j) paint –
k) plan –
l) play –
m) receive –
n) run –
o) tidy –
p) try –
q) wash –
r) write –

Present Perfect употребляется:


 Когда мы говорим о жизненном опыте, и не важно, когда именно случились эти
события. Часто в таких предложениях мы употребляем ever (когда-либо), never (никогда)
и before (прежде): I have never been to Paris before. Have you ever been to the USA? Еще в
таких предложениях можно встретить прилагательное в превосходной степени: It’s the
best pie I have ever tasted!
* never и ever обычно ставятся в середине формы глагола, например: have never seen, have
you ever been ... ?

2) Transformation. Insert the correct form of the verb in brackets. Then change the
sentences into negative and interrogative form:

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Example: Sean ______________ Croatia. (visit)


Sean has visited Croatia. Sean hasn’t visited Croatia. Has Sean visited Croatia?
a) I ______________ golf before. (play)
b) Our cat ____________some milk. (drink)
c) My Mom ________________ abroad. (be)
d) My Dad _______________ in several companies. (work)
e) Kate ______________ in the village before. (live)
f) It’s the best film I ______ ever ___________ !(watch)
g) That’s the tastiest food I _________ ever ___________. (taste)
h) My family and I ______________ to Spain for holidays many times. (go)
i) We __________________ people to stay with us before. (invite)
j) I __________________ to some Englishmen in English. (talk)

 Когда мы говорим о действии, которое уже произошло, а его результат виден


сейчас. Часто здесь мы употребляем just (только что), already (уже), yet (ещё). Already
будем употреблять в утвердительных предложениях и вопросах, а yet – в отрицательных и
вопросах. Например: I have already washed up but I haven’t vacuumed yet.
Еще в таких предложениях можно употребить so far (по настоящее время, до этого
момента) и recently/lately (недавно).

* Recently, lately, already, just также могут стоять в середине глагола: have recently visited,
haven’t lately seen, has already done, have just dined.
Если действие только что закончилось, но время, когда оно происходило, совсем
недавнее, мы используем this morning/afternoon/evening, this week, today.

3) Transformation. Insert the correct form of the verb in brackets. Then change the
sentences into negative and interrogative form:
Example: Sean ______________ recently Croatia. (visit)
Sean has recently visited Croatia. Sean hasn’t recently visited Croatia. Has Sean recently visited
Croatia?
a) The plane ________ just ______________. (land)
b) I _______ recently __________ my driving test. (pass)
c) I ______________ my homework already. (do)
d) Your friend _______ just ____________. (come)
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e) Tom __________________ from holiday this morning. (return)


f) We _______ already __________ the flowers. (water)
g) You ___________ 10 km today! I don’t believe it! (run)
h) Mary ________lately _______ some bad food, she feels sick. (eat)
i) The post ______ just ___________. (arrive)
j) Our sportsman _______________ 3 important races so far. (win)

 Когда мы говорим о действии, которое началось в прошлом, и до сих пор


продолжается. В этом случае мы используем слова for (в течение) и since (с какого-то
времени). Например, I have lived here for 2 years. I have lived here since 2008.
Соответственно, вопрос, который мы задаем, когда интересуемся каким-то промежутком
времени, - how long? – тоже всегда будет сопровождаться временем Present perfect.
Также, чтобы показать, что что-то всегда было правдой, мы используем always, например:
You have always liked chocolate!

4) Transformation. Insert the correct form of the verb in brackets. Then change the
sentences into negative and interrogative form and insert “since” or “for” (except sentences g)
and j).
Example: I ______________ in this town _________ 3 weeks. (be)
We have been in this town for 3 weeks. We haven’t been in this town for three weeks. Have we
been in this town for three weeks?
a) Ben __________________ in this company ____ 5 months. (work)
b) I _______________ Steve ______ high school. (know)
c) Susan _______________ in that school _____ March. (study)
d) You ____________ ______ 8/30, go have a rest. (help)
e) It _____________ ____ 3 hours. (rain)
f) They __________ here ________ last Monday. (stay)
g) I ______ always _______ detective stories! (love)
h) We ______________ 5 tests _______ Thursday! (write)
i) You ______________ the house ______ 2 hours, have a rest. (clean)
j) Misha ______________ this club for 6 months already. (visit)

5) Translation
a) Ученики уже написали диктант.
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b) Мой друг помог мне решить эту проблему сегодня.


c) Я еще не выучила этот стих.
d) Ты уже смотрел новости сегодня?
e) Официант только что принес нам лимонад.
f) Что ты ела на завтрак сегодня утром?
g) Вы уже выпили чай?
h) Я никогда не была в Европе до этого.
i) Это самое красивое пальто, которое я когда-либо видела!
j) Я шью это платье с прошлой недели.
k) Я недавно открыла коробку с конфетами.
l) Мы живем в этом жоме уже пять лет.
m) Как долго ты работаешь в этой компании?
n) Я тебе рассказала еще не всю правду.
o) Мне всегда нравились абрикосы.

6) Speaking. Talk about what you have done today using these phrases: have breakfast, have
a shower/bath, go to school, have 6 lessons, come home, have lunch, do my homework, watch
TV, read a book.
Example: I have already had breakfast today.

7) Exam task

Every year, National Geographic has a film festival in the USA. It isn’t like the
Oscars and Bollywood because you (1)______ never ______ lots of famous film SEE
stars there. The All roads film festival (2) ________ always _________ films by HAVE
directors and actors from many different countries and cultures. So far we (3)
_________ many types of films including comedies, documentaries and WATCH
animation. Here are some of the films this year.
My Wedding and Other Secrets
This is a documentary by the director Aleksei Vakrushev. It’s about the life of
the Chukchi people who (4)____________ in eastern Russia since 17th century. LIVE
The Tundra Book

FALL

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This is a romantic comedy about a Chinese family in New Zealand. Their BEGIN
daughter (5)_____________ in love with a local man and the problems
(6)____________.
Grandma LEAD
Grandma is a short film by the Lebanese director, Merva Faddoul. It’s about a
teenage girl called Sarah who (7)______ always _______ a normal life with her
sister and grandma.

8) Exam task

Scientists (8)____________________ many things already: computers, space DISCOVER


travel, mobile communication. But there are a lot more things they
(9)________________ yet or we (10)________ in our everyday life. Are they NOT INVENT
all impossible or can we have them one day? NOT USE
Invisible objects
Many scientists have tried to invent invisible objects, but they NOT DO
(11)______________ it so far. One scientist at Tokyo University TEST
(12)______________ cameras on a coat now. The camera (13)_______ objects FILM
behind the coat and shows them on the front of the coat. The car manufacturer TRY
Mercedes (14)_______________ these cameras with a car at the moment. The PUT
engineer (15)________ the camera on one side of the car and shows the images
on the other side.

For thousands of years, humans (1) __________________ the Earth. EXPLORE


Nowadays, we have studied space. Astronomers are the modern-day explorers.
Currently, many astronomers (2) ___________ for new planets and new places LOOK
for humans to live in the future. But where do astronomers start looking?
First of all, astronomers look for a star. That’s because our own Earth
(3)_______ a star (the Sun). More importantly, it is the correct distance from ORBIT
the Sun for heat and light. So when astronomers have found the star, they look
at the planets around it. In recent years, astronomers (4) _____________ nearly FIND
400 new planets with stars. Unfortunately, many of these planets are either too
near to the star or too far away.

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However, if the planet is in a good position, astronomers look for three key NEED
things: water, air and rock. Water is important because all life (5) _________
water. Humans can drink it and they can also grow plants with water. DISCOVER
After many years of looking, astronomers (6) _____________ a planet that is
similar to Earth. It’s Gliese 581g and it’s near a star. The astronomers think it HAVE
(7) ______ water and rock and the average temperature is between –31°C and –
12°C. Gliese 581g is bigger than the Earth and a year on Gliese 581 is only 37 NOT THINK
Earth days instead of 365. But astronomers (8) _____________ these are big
differences and some of them think Gliese 581g will be a new Earth.

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Present Perfect Continuous

Это время, которое сочетает в себе черты Continuous (продолжительного времени) и


Perfect (завершенного). Вот как оно образуется:
have/has + been + V (ing)

+ - ?

I/you/we/they have been Have I/you/we/they been I/you/we/they haven’t been


drinking tea since midday. drinking tea since midday? drinking tea since midday.
He/ She/It has been Has he/she/it been drinking He/she/it hasn’t been
drinking tea since midday. tea since midday? drinking tea since midday.

То есть, это время имеет в себе формы Continuous (V + ing) и Perfect (been).

Это время употребляется, когда:

 хотим описать действие, которое началось давно и продолжается до сих пор. Как
правило, в этом случае будут употребляться два маркера since (с какого-то времени)
и for (на протяжении какого-то времени). Например: I have been doing my English
homework since early morning! Sue has been writing this essay for 3 hours already!
 описываем действие, которое происходило в прошлом какое-то время, и результат
нам виден сейчас. Например. I haven’t been watering my flowers for ages, and all of
them are dead now. I have been crying for 2 hours this morning, and all my eyes are red
now.

Exam tip На экзамене это время встречается довольно редко. Потому что есть спорные
ситуации – где употребляется оно, а где Present Perfect (подробнее о различиях в этих двух
временах я расскажу в следующем параграфе).

1) Transformation. Insert the correct form of the verb in brackets. Then change the sentences
into negative and interrogative form:
Example: I _______________ in the same house for 30 years. (live)
I have been living in the same house for 30 years. I haven’t been living in the same house for
30 years. Have I been living in the same house for 30 years?
a) I _______________ in this queue for 3 hours! (wait)
b) Joel _________________ with this team for months. (train)
c) Sam _________________ in this school since last year. (study)
d) We __________________ for you for 30 minutes! Where have you been? (wait)
e) You _________________ to me all morning. (listen)

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f) They ________________ here since the startup of the project. (work)


g) Masha ___________________ for the exam since morning. (revise)
h) I ___________________ all summer. (travel)
i) Jim and Cat _________________ all night. (work)
j) They ______________ a new gym since last year. (build)
2) Translation
a) Сэм работает в этой компании уже два года.
b) Мэри преподает французский с 1999.
c) Джулия играет на гитаре четыре года.
d) Дети смотрят телевизор уже два часа.
e) Джим весь день чинит машину?
f) Что ты делал весь сегодняшний день?
g) Сэм учится кататься на велосипеде три месяца.
h) Кэтрин делает покупки уже три часа.
i) Я занимаюсь рисованием с 14 лет.
j) Всю ночь шел снег.

3) Speaking

Remember these things:

a) social networking site


b) a club you are a member of
c) car/motorbike/bike/scooter you drive or ride
d) a cafe you often go to
e) a sport you play regularly
f) a gadget you have
g) the place where you live
h) your hobby

Say how long you have been doing them.

Example: I’m a member of CCCP fitness club. I’ve been going there for 2 years.

4) Exam task

Come on, Norway; this isn’t even a competition anymore! For the last eight
years, Norway (1)__________________ the highest quality of life among EXPERIENCE
the world’s nations. It is one of the wealthiest countries in the world – only
Luxembourg and a couple of others are richer. Its citizens

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(2)_______________ quite good salaries at their jobs. Norwegians can GET


also expect to get a good education. Schools and universities
(3)_______________ a great level of education. Also, Norwegians can find OFFER
the job they want – unemployment is only 2.5 per cent, so they
(4)____________________ as happy people since the beginning of this WORK
century. They also enjoy good health and live a long life. In fact,
Norwegians (5)____________________ for quite a time. People say the EXERCISE
prisons are quite comfortable too! So, people (6)_____________________ ENJOY
their lives in this country in all its aspects!

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Present Perfect and Present Perfect Continuous

Уверена, что когда вы читали про Present Perfect Continuous, то думали: а чем же оно отличается от
Present Perfect? На самом деле, одно и то же предложение можно сказать и в том, и в другом
времени, и оба будут правильны грамматически. Только акцент будет немного на разных вещах.

Вот например:

I have worked on this project since 9am. Мы просто приводим информацию, что уже с 9 утра
работаем над этим проектом.

I have been working on this project since 9am! А здесь мы хотим подчеркнуть, что уже с 9
утра работаем над этим проектом и мы устали/проект надоел/это очень долго. То есть,
концентрируемся на том, что эта работа заняла у нас именно очень много времени или
сил.

Но есть случаи, когда мы строго не можем использовать Present Perfect Continuous, а


только Present Perfect в таких ситуациях. Это когда:

 Глагол в предложении является state verb, то есть не употребляется в Continuous


вообще. Это глаголы: agree, believe, feel, hate, know, like, look, love, mean, meet,
prefer, remember, understand, want. Например, нельзя сказать I have been wanting this
toy since childhood. Надо I have wanted this toy since childhood.
 Когда мы говорим, сколько раз что-то делали. Например, I have visited this centre
twice. Нельзя I have been visiting this centre twice.
 Со словами just, yet, ever, never. Например, I have just finished this exercise. Нельзя I
have just been finishing this exercise.

1) Multiple choice

a) It has been/has been being a tiring weekend.


b) Sarah hasn't felt/ hasn't been feeling well since morning.
c) Psychologist has given/ has been giving me sessions twice already.
d) Who has eaten/ has been eating my piece of cake?
e) We have painted/ have been painting our house all morning and now everything is
covered with paint.
f) Has Alice taken/ been taking my pen again? I can't find it anywhere.
g) I have learnt/ have been learning German for 3 years, and I can speak it quite well now.
h) I have visited/ have been visiting this city twice.
i) We have worked/ have been working all morning and we want to rest now.
j) You have told/ have been telling me this story for ages! Are you going to finish it?

2) Transformation Open the brackets and put verbs in Present Perfect or Present Perfect
Continuous:
a) -Where's the bus? - No idea! I ___________ for it for an hour and a half! (wait)

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b) ________ you ________ Teresa? (meet)


c) -What's wrong with your eyes? - I ______________ all day - my dog died yesterday.
(cry)
d) Your hair's wet! - Yes, I ___________________ in the lake. (swim)
e) How many times ______ you ________ to Paris? (be)
f) Seila ________ already __________ dinner, hurry up! (cook)
g) -Mmm, lovely smell. - Craig _____________ cakes all morning. (cook)
h) I _____________ this man all my life. (love)
i) They _____________ this game all afternoon, they must be really tired. (play)
j) I ______never________ your wife, you must introduce us! (meet)

3) Translation
a) Посмотри! Кто-то сломал окно.
b) Ты выглядишь уставшим. Ты много работал?
c) Извини, я опоздал. - Ничего, я жду тебя недолго.
d) Дождь еще идет? - Нет, он перестал.
e) Я читаю книгу, которую ты мне дала, но я ее еще не закончила. Она очень интересная.
f) Эта кукла у меня с детства.
g) - Почему ты такой грязный? - Я ремонтировал велосипед.
h) Лиза пишет письма. Она пишет их все утро.
i) Они играют в теннис с 2 часов.
j) - Как давно ты учишь английский? - Уже 3 года, и я все равно еще его не выучила.
k) Погода просто ужасная. Весь день идет дождь.

4) Exam task

When is cleaning walls a crime? When you (1)_________________ it to DO


create art, obviously. A number of street artists around the world already
(2)_________________ expressing themselves through a practice known as STARTED
reverse graffiti. Inspired by the ‘clean me’ messages that you see written on
the back of some trucks, they find dirty surfaces and inscribe them with
images or messages using cleaning brushes or pressure hoses.
Brazilian artist, Alexandre Orion, turned one of São Paulo’s transport tunnels
into an amazing mural in 2006. He (3)____________________ away the dirt SCRAPE
for 3 months for this!
The anti-pollution message of the reverse graffiti artists
(4)________________ city authorities since the main argument against CONFUSE
graffiti is that it spoils the appearance of both types of property: public and
private. This was what Leeds City Council said about Moose’s work: ‘Leeds
residents want to live in clean and attractive neighbourhoods. We always

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(5)______________ this kind of advertising as environmental damage’ It VIEW


seems that they (6)_________________ no action against the advertisers. TAKE
As for the Brazilian artist’s work, the authorities were annoyed but could find
nothing to charge him with. They have no other option but to clean the tunnel
– but only the parts Alexandre already (7)______________. The artist merely FINISH
continued his campaign on the other side. The city officials then decided to
take drastic action. They not only cleaned the whole tunnel but also every
tunnel in São Paulo.

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79

Past Simple

Первое и самое распространенное время группы Past, которое встретится на экзамене. В


таблице ниже представлена схема образования этого времени в утверждениях (+),
отрицаниях (-) и вопросах (?).
V(2)

+ - ?

I/you/he/she/it/we/they Did I/you/he/she/it/we/they I/you/he/she/it/we/they


walked in the park walk in the park yesterday? didn’t walk in the park
yesterday. yesterday.

Так как вторая форма правильных глаголов образуется путем прибалвения окончания –ed,
снова приведу правила её прибавления:
 Обычно к глаголу прибавляется просто окончание –ed: walked, talked.
 Если у глагола было свое окончание –e, оно пропадает: live – lived, move – moved.
 После согласной –y меняется на –i: fry – fried, study – studied. А после гласной –y не
меняется, например: stay – stayed.
 Если глагол заканчивается на одну согласную, а перед ней стоит краткая гласная,
то после согласная удваивается: ban – banned, travel – travelled, stop-stopped (как и в случае
с добавлением –ing).

И не забываем про список неправильных глаголов на стр. 63 и в конце книги.

Past Simple употребляется, когда:


 Мы говорим об определенном действии в прошлом. Это действие, как правило,
имеет конкретный указатель, что оно произошло именно в прошлом: yesterday, the day
before yesterday, last week, a month ago, that weekend, in 2005, once, when. Например: My
father emigrated from Russia in 2012. I started school 5 years ago.
 Мы говорим о последовательности действий, и в этом случае можем использовать
слова then, next, later, after that, например: I woke up, put on my clothes, had breakfast,
brushed my teeth and then went to school.

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80

1) Transformation. Insert the correct form of the verb in brackets. Then change the
sentences into negative and interrogative form:
Example: Mom ____________ to the shop half an hour ago. (go)
Mom went to the shop half an hour ago. Mom didn’t go to the shop half an hour ago. Did
Mom go the shop half an hour ago?
a) Sarah ____________ with her boyfriend last weekend. (quarrel)
b) I ________ my friend at the dentist’s yesterday. (meet)
c) We ___________ a good film last night. (watch)
d) My brother and I ______ our homework and _________ games after that. (do, play)
e) Yesterday I _______ to repair my bike but I __________. (try, repair)
f) I _________ born in 2001. (be)
g) You _______ a cartoon in the cinema yesterday. (see)
h) Tommy ____________ his leg at football yesterday. (break)
i) We ________ to the beach last weekend. (go)
j) My Mom ___________ a fantastic meal yesterday evening. (cook)

2) Translation.
Во вторник я встала в 7 утра, пошла в ванную, умыла лицо и почистила зубы. Потом я пошла
на кухню и позавтракала. Я съела бутерброд. Я не пила кофе, я выпила чашку чая. После
завтрака я оделась и пошла в школу. В школе у меня было 6 уроков. Я пришла домой и села
обедать. Я съела суп и бутерброд. Выпила чашку чая. Потом я сделала домашнее задание,
и пошла гулять с собакой. Я встретила свою подругу, мы погуляли и я вернулась домой.
Моя мама пришла с работы и приготовила ужин. Я поужинала. Перед сном я почитала
книгу, посмотрела ТВ и пошла спать в 11 часов.

3) Speaking. Write 5 sentences about yourself in Past Simple. 3 sentences must be true, 2
sentences must be wrong. Your partner has to do the same. After showing your sentences
to each other guess which ones are true, and which are false.

4) Exam task.

Stanislaw Witkiewicz
Stanislaw Witkiewicz (1) ______ born in 1885 in Zakopane. He (2) ______ in BE
1939 but you can see his paintings in art galleries in Poland. Many people like DIE

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Witkiewicz’s paintings of people’s faces, but I prefer his paintings of nature and
landscapes. He (3) ___________ this one in 1907. It shows the Hinczow Lakes PAINT
in the Tatra mountains in southern Poland.
Ginger Riley Munduwalawala
In the past, Aboriginal people (4) _____________ pictures of nature and animals DRAW
on rocks. In parts of Australia, their Rock Art is 30,000 years old. Nowadays,
modern aboriginal artists also paint nature.
Andõ Hiroshige
Japanese art is famous for landscape paintings. You can often see the sea and
sky, and the mountains and trees. Andõ Hiroshige (5) ________ in the nineteenth WORK
century and he’s one of Japan’s most famous artists. He printed and (6)
_________ thousands of beautiful prints in his lifetime SELL
Damien Hirst Damien
Hirst is the richest artist in England. He is a painter, but he is more famous for
art with different animals (living and dead) including a cow, a sheep and a shark.
In one room of a gallery, he (7) _______ lots of fruit and real butterflies live PUT
there. They fly round the heads of the visitors.

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Present Perfect and Past Simple

Теперь посмотрим, как отличаются эти два времени, которые оба используются для
описания прошедшего времени. Разница в том, что Present Perfect не указывает точного
времени, когда это произошло, и оно нам не важно. Либо это действие еще не
закончилось. А действие Past Simple всегда остается в прошлом и есть указание на то, что
оно было именно в прошедшем времени. Вот сравните:
I have gone to the dentist this morning. (Утро еще не прошло)
I went to the dentist that morning. (Утро уже закончилось)
I have gone shopping. (Важен результат – продукты в холодильнике, а время не важно)
I went shopping in the morning. (Важно время, когда я ходил в магазин – сегодня утром)

1) Transformation.
Example: Last weekend Chris and Sue went shopping. (go)
a) I never __________________ to swim. (learn)
b) Last summer I ____________ to swim. (learn)
c) Lucy _______________ her project last Sunday. (finish)
d) Lucy ________________ her project yet. (not finish)
e) Sam and Jack ________________ one fish today. (catch)
f) Sam and Jack ____________ one fish yesterday.
g) I ___________ Paris in the spring. (visit)
h) I ___________ Paris lately. (visit)
i) Macy _______________ with her friends last Friday. (go out)
j) Macy _______________ with her friends since last Friday. (not go out)
k) I ________________ Paul for a long time. (not see)
l) My sister _____________ for Europe that weekend. (leave)
m) We ______________to the hospital yesterday. (go)
n) They ____________________ all questions so far. (not answer)
o) _______ you ________ Stacy the day before yesterday? (vist)
p) It’s the best play I ______________ in years! (see)
q) _______ Zach ___________ his driving test? (pass)
r) _________ you ___________ that new show on TV yesterday? (watch)
s) My parents ____________________ a wonderful vacation for our family last summer.
(organize)
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t) Our teacher _____________ us with plenty of tasks for our summer holidays recently.
(provide)

2) Translation.
a) Я никогда не была на велосипедной гонке.
b) Вчера я смотрела гонки по телевидению.
c) Джейк выиграл звание "Самый медленный велосипедист".
d) Ты уже пообедала? - Еще нет.
e) Вчера вечером шел дождь, и я промокла.
f) Он уже пересек финишную черту?
g) В прошлом году мы с семьей ездили в Испанию.
h) Я уже выучила текст, который нам задали по английскому.
i) Мы живем в этой квартире уже год.
j) Ты вчера не брала мою ручку? Я не могу найти ее!

3) Speaking. Fill in the sentences with true information about yourself.


a) Last wekend I ...
b) I haven't ... for 3 years.
c) I have never ...
d) Ten years ago I ...
e) I have ... alreadt today.
f) I haven't ... today yet.
g) In 2017 I ...

4) Exam task.

Tattoos (1)_____________ fashionable recently. On TV you can often see a BECOME


famous actor with a picture on her arm or foot. Many sports personalities
(2)_______________ them on their necks and backs. In the USA, tattoos are very PUT
popular.
However, tattoos (3)______________ modern lately. In fact, they are very old in NOT GET
human history. For example, archaeologists (4)__________ a human in ice from FIND
five thousand years ago. He had fifty-seven tattoos on his back, ankles, legs,
knees and feet. They were used for many different reasons too. In ancient Egypt,

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people (5)________ on tattoos because they were ‘beautiful’. But in ancient PUT
Rome, tattoos (6)_________ negative and put on criminals and prisoners. In BE
India, tattoos were religious.

Gillian Turner-Niles is a fashion photographer. She (7)_________ in different LIVE


cities and (8)____________ in various fashion capitals of the world so far. You WORK
can see her photographs on the pages of fashion magazines across the world. Her
clients (9)___________ Gucci, Dior, Ferragamo, even the sports clothing INCLUDE
company Nike. But yesterday she (10)___________________ to me by phone TALK
from the middle of Sudan.
‘I (11)______________ lots of photographs yesterday, of course!’ She explained, TAKE
‘I (12)____________ photographs for Vogue or anyone else. It was like a holiday. NOT MAKE
In my business, it’s easy to forget there’s another world out there. And I like
looking at clothes in a different way when I travel.’

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Past Continuous

Следующее время, которое представляет собой Present Continuous в прошлом. В таблице


ниже представлена схема образования этого времени в утверждениях (+), отрицаниях (-) и
вопросах (?).
was/were + V(ing)

+ - ?

I/you/we/they were I/you/we/they were not Were I/you/we/they studying


studying at 9am yesterday. (weren’t) studying at 9am at 9am yesterday?
He/she/it was studying at yesterday. Was he/she/it studying at
9am yesterday. He/she/it was (wasn’t) 9am yesterday?
studying at 9am yesterday.

Как и в Present Continuous, в Past Continuous нужно добавлять –ing к глаголу, так что не
забываем про правила орфографии:
 Обычно к глаголам добавляется просто окончание –ing: studying, playing, reading
 Если глагол оканчивается на –e, она отбрасывается: dance-dancing, take-taking
 Если глагол заканчивается на одну согласную, а перед ней стоит краткая гласная,
то после согласная удваивается: ban – banning, swim-swimming, stop-stopping
 Если глагол заканчивается на –ie, то эти две гласные меняются на –y: die – dying, lie
– lying.

Past Continuous употребляется, когда:


 Мы говорим о действии, которое было в процессе в определенный промежуток
прошедшего времени: I was sleeping at 11pm yesterday. Поэтому в этом времени можно,
как и в Past Simple, встретить точное указание на время, но оно будет точнее, чем в Past
Simple: at 9 o’clock yesterday, yesterday in the afternoon, from 5 to 7 yesterday, at this time
yesterday, all last night.
 Чтобы описать сцену в прошлом: It was raining. I had nothing to do, so I decided to
read a book. Как правило, с Past Continuous начинаются описания.

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1) Transformation. Insert the correct form of the verb in brackets. Then change the sentences
into negative and interrogative form.
Example: You ___________________ TV at this time yesterday. (watch)
You were watching TV at this time yesterday. You weren’t watching TV at this time yesterday.
Were you watching TV at this time yesterday?
a) I _______________ in the park at this time yesterday. (run)
b) Mum ________________ with my little brother all yesterday evening. (play)
c) Harry and Sally _________________ and Tanya ______________ a book at 6 pm
yesterday. (talk, read)
d) The music _________________ from 7 to 9 in the evening yesterday. (play)
e) They __________________ for you at 11am yesterday. (wait)
f) At this time yesterday I ____________________ on the beach. (lie)
g) We ____________________ a dinner at 8pm yesterday. (have)
h) Tomas _______________________ his home task at this time yesterday. (do)
i) Cecile and Charles ___________________ a cherry cake and their Mom
________________ the flat from 6 to 9 yesterday. (make, clean)
j) I _________________ to solve this puzzle the whole yesterday evening. (try)

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Past Simple and Past Continuous


 Чтобы рассказать о длительном действии в прошлом, которое было прервано
каким-то коротким в Past Simple: I was reading (длительное действие) a book when Mom
came (краткое действие) from work. Чаще всего в таких случаях урпотрбеляются слова
when и while.
1) Transformation.
Example: My cat was sleeping while I was doing my hometask. (sleep, do)
a) When Mom _______ home yesterday, I _________________. (come, sleep)
b) My sister ____________________ TV when I ____________________ the room.
(watch, enter)
c) I _______________ a book when the doorbell ________________. (read, ring)
d) My Dad ______________ a new film when electricity _____________ off. (see, go)
e) Everybody ____________________ the party when the news about the accident
____________. (enjoy, come)
f) Sasha and Sveta _____________________ in the garden when the rain _____________.
(work, start)
g) When I ___________ her in the street yesterday, she ________________ to the college.
(meet, hurry)
h) When Tim _____________ up, Mom _______________ breakfast and Dad
___________________his teeth. (wake, cook, brush)
i) I ______________ a pizza when I ____________ my finger with a knife. (make, cut)
j) Suzy and Jerry ___________________ when a policeman _________________ near
them. (talk, stop)

2) Translation.
a) Когда я встретил Тома, он ел мороженое.
b) Когда папа пришел домой, мы готовили ужин.
c) Когда я пришел из школы, мой младший брат рвал мою тетрадь.
d) Когда я вошел в класс, учитель сидел за столом и дети писали диктант.
e) Когда мама пришла домой, дети ели суп.
f) Когда я позвонила Мише, он учил стих.
g) Когда я выглянула в окно, мои друзья играли на улице в мяч.
h) Я гуляла в парке с собакой, когда встретила свою подругу.
i) В комнате сидело два мужчины. Один читал газету, а второй смотрел телевизор.
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j) Я сидела и думала о своих каникулах, когда дверь открылась и вошел мой друг.

3) Exam task.

I remember that day in Marrakech clearly.


We (1)___________with Mohamed over a cup of mint tea at a table outside the MEET
tiny Café ben Youssef, in the old city of Marrakech. We (2)________________ SIT
in an area bordering the exotic stalls that make the suq – marketplace. Vendors
with carts (3)______________ freshly squeezed orange juice, others OFFER SELL
(4)____________ dates or figs. Nearby were the back-alley workshops that SUPPLY
(5)____________ the goods to this world-famous market. While Mohammed
(6)_____________________ his tea, I (7)___________________ around me DRINK LOOK
with curiosity.
Later, when we (8)_________________ around, Mohamed (9)_____________ WALK
us to weavers and olive sellers, tile makers and rug merchants. He also INTRODUCE
(10)__________ the first of his bargaining tutorials for Sam. BEGIN

4) Exam task for Present Simple, Present Continuous, Present Perfect, Past Simple и Past
Continuous.

The sea almost (1)__________________ me a couple of times. It wasn’t her KILL


fault; it was mine, for not respecting her. I still remember the last time, a stormy
day off the Costa Brava of Spain, in early summer 2008. Every time I think
about it, my heart (2)___________ and my guts jump to my throat. Even now, RACE
at the moment, I (3)_____________ how wonderful it is. THINK
The cave where I (4)__________ every day in the past was hit by a storm with SWIM
strong eastern winds. Unfriendly waves (5)_____________ in chaotic patterns. BREAK
But beyond the surf zone the sea seemed swimmable. In a moment of bravado,
I (6)__________ on my swimming suit, mask and fins, and got into the water. PUT
It was crazy, but I did it. I (7)____________ for twenty minutes when the storm SWIM
got worse and I (8)____________________ to stop. I turned to swim back. DECIDE
Then I realised I (9)_____________ get to the beach. NOT CAN
Waves (10)_________________ all around me. I tried to surf one wave to the BREAK
shore, but it took me down under the water. When I surfaced to take a breath, I
turned around and a second wave (11)_____________ me just as hard, taking HIT

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me down again. I hit the sandy bottom. At that time I


(12)__________________ any closer to the beach. NOT GET
The sea is our mother, sister and home, and as such I love her. We get so much
from the sea. She (13)____________ us life, oxygen, food. She regulates the GIVE
climate and she in the sea makes life wonderful. But so far I
(14)________________ a hard time feeling thankful. HAVE

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Past Perfect

Последнее время группы Past, которое встретится на экзамене. В таблице ниже


представлена схема образования этого времени в утверждениях (+), отрицаниях (-) и
вопросах (?).
had + V (3)

+ - ?

I/you/he/she/it/we/they had I/you/he/she/it/we/they had Had I/you/he/she/it/we/they


already eaten lunch. not (hadn’t) eaten lunch yet. already eaten lunch?

Мы используем Past Perfect, чтобы показать предшествование. Предшествование мы


можем увидеть в:
o Предлогах by, before, earlier: By 6 o’clock I had already finished with my homework
o Других действиях в прошедшем времени: When I came home, Mom had cooked
lunch.
o Контексте, когда идет цепочка действий в Past Simple, а потом вспоминается
действие, произошедшее до этого: I finished typing my essay on computer and pressed
“Close”. After that I realized I hadn’t saved my document!

Также для передачи предшествования в Past Perfect могут использоваться и остальные


предлоги, которые встречаются в Present Perfect: already, just, yet, before, for, since, lately,
recently.

1) Transformation. Insert the correct form of the verb in brackets. Then change the
sentences into negative and interrogative form.
Example: They _______________ home by 1 o’clock. (come)
They had come home by 1 o’clock. They hadn’t come home by 1 o’clock. Had they come home
by 1 o’clock?
a) By 6 o’clock Alice ___________________ reading her book. (finish)
b) When my friend called me, I already ________________ not to go out that night.
(decide)
c) I _________ already ______________ all presents before the holiday. (wrap)

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d) I felt I _________________ goodbye to my childhood. (say)


e) We realized we __________________ our destination. (reach)
f) By the end of the evening, I __________________ to do everything myself. (decide)
g) I ____________ him to lend me some money before, but he refused me. (ask)
h) By the evening they ______________________ the results of the test. (announce)
i) We ______________________ married for 6 years by 2006. (be)
j) By the evening my son ________________ home yet. (return)

2) Transformation. Put the verbs in brackets in Past Simple or Past Perfect.


Example: When Mila came to school, the lesson had already started. (come, start)
a) I ________ in the Hermitage last weekend. I ________________ there before. (be, not
be)
b) We ________________ the agreement before we _____________ our discussion. (reach,
finish)
c) They ____________, _____________ and ____________ up after themselves. (cook, eat,
wash)
d) It _________ the most beautiful garden I ______________ so far. (be, see)
e) My little sister and I ________ to the zoo yesterday. She ________________ zoos before.
(go, not visit)
f) I ____________ recognize her when I ____________ her in the street. We
________________ each other for ages. (not can, meet, not see)
g) My great-grandparents ______________ together for 25 years. (live)
h) My grandpa _________ fond of travelling, he __________________ 12 countries by the
time he was 20. (be, visit)
i) When I ________ to the cinema, the movie _________________ already. (come, start)
j) Kevin ________ the job because he _________________ best at the interview. (get,
perform)
3) Transformation. Put the verbs in brackets in Past Simple, Past Continuous or Past Perfect.
Example:
a) Tony was sitting and watching TV when I came to help him with his work project. I (not
be)_____________ surprised as he usually (do) ___________things like this on weekend.
b) Samantha (be) _______really overweight but she (can)________ dance well. Last night
when we (come)___________ to the show, some people (stand)_____________ and (applaud)
___________during her last dance.
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c) This morning I (notice)______________ that my cat (disappeared)______________. I


(be) _______so sad but in few minutes I (hear)_________ some weird sounds that
(come)___________ from the tree. I (look) ___________out of my window and (see)
___________my cat that (sit)__________ there. My father (take) ____________a ladder and
(climb)_______________ the tree and (save) ____________ my cat. Neighbours
(be)_________ so curious that they (watch) _________________my dad all the time.
d) Roy (buy)_____________ a new bike yesterday. Today he (decide)________ to test it.
But when he (ride)_____________ it the bike (break)______________. Now Roy (have) to
return it to the store or fix it himself.
e) Yesterday while I (go) ____________ home from the gym I (feel)____________ very
thirsty. Luckily, I (see) __________ a little girl that (sell)__________ lemonade. I (come up)
_________ to her, (buy)___________some and (drink)__________it. I (feel)__________ very
refreshed.
f) A TV reporter announced: “Today there (be) _____________a robbery in Bank Delta.
The robbers (take) ______________5 million dollars and (disappear)_____________in unknown
direction. They (use)_____________guns during the robbery. They (tell) ________the personal:
“Give us all the money”.
g) When I (come)__________ to Josh he already (paint) ___________ the walls. He (ask)
_____________ me not to touch anything as the paint (be)___________ wet.
h) My father(be)_____ a mechanic and he already (work)________ with cars. When I
(come) ______________to him yesterday he (repair)_____________ his boss’ car.
i) Every morning Lisa (come)__________ up to her bathroom scales and (weigh)_______
herself. She (hope)_________ she (lose)__________ some kilos since her last check-up.
j) While Joshua (paint)______________ a portrait of his wife for her birthday as she
(be)______ away. Actually she (finish)__________ her work project at that time.

4) Translation for Past Simple, Past Continuous, Past Perfect:


Было чудесное весеннее утро, когда Эмма с папой решили посетить замок Ситон. Солнце
светило и птицы щебетали. Эмма была очень взволнована. Замок был очень старый и
сделан из камня. Они взбирались по ступенькам наверх. Пока они наслаждались видом,
они услышали какой-то шум. Они осмотрелись, но никого не увидели. "Забавно," сказала
Эмма, "Мне казалось, что я кого-то видела." Потом они решили посетить подвал замка и
Эмма осматривала старую бочку, когда услышала, как дверь подвала закрылась сзади нее.
"Папа, не закрывай дверь," попросила она. Но папа ответил: "Я не закрывал ее." Эмма
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повернулась и увидела тень на стене. Она поняла, что за ними наблюдает призрак замка
Ситон.

5) Speaking. Make up an end to this story using Past Simple, Past Continuous и Past Perfect
and retell it.
It was a cold evening. Mary came on a sightseeing tour to Scotland and decided to visit an old
castle not far from the city. She had forgotten to charge her phone so she took only a map. When
she was following the map she realized that she had got lost. Suddenly she saw a light behind the
tree trunks …

6) Exam task for Past Simple, Past Continuous и Past Perfect.

On 15 February 2009, Diane Van Deren was one of a dozen runners who
(1)__________________ part in the Yukon Arctic Ultra, a 700-kilometre race TAKE
across tundra in the middle of winter. Not a single woman
(2)_________________ it before. With temperatures of 30 degrees below zero COMPLETE
and only seven hours of daylight each day, it’s probably the toughest race in the
world. But, then, there is no woman like Diane Van Deren.
By 1998, Van Deren, a former professional tennis player,
(3)_________________ a serious operation when kiwi-size piece of her brain HAVE
was taken out. It was part of the treatment for the epilepsy which she
(4)________________ from. The operation was successful, but she noticed a SUFFER
strange side effect: she (5)______________ run without stopping for hours. CAN
At the start of the Arctic Ultra, icy winds froze Van Deren’s water, so she had
nothing to drink for the first 160 kilometres. She sucked on frozen fruit and nut
bars. On the eleventh day, the ice beneath her feet cracked and Van Deren
(6)_____________ into a freezing river. She managed to climb out but FALL
struggled to continue. Her boots (7)_________________to her feet. FREEZE
On 26 February 2009 – exactly twelve years after her surgery – Van Deren
(8)___________________ the finish line of the Arctic Ultra. She was one of CROSS
eight finishers – and the first and only woman.

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Past Perfect Continuous

Это время очень похоже на Past Perfect Continuous, только в прошедшем времени.
had + been + V(ing)

+ - ?

I/you/he/she/it/we/they had I/you/he/she/it/we/they had Had I/you/he/she/it/we/they


been studying. not been studying. been studying?

Как понятно из названия времени, Past Perfect Continuous показывает процесс, который
произошел в прошлом до какого-то другого действия, выраженного, как правило, Past
Simple. Чтобы было понятно, о чем я, приведу пример. I had been waiting for an hour before
you finally came!

Exam tip. Время это редкое, и в экзаменационных заданиях я его никогда не видела. Но
так как оно есть в кодификаторе к ЕГЭ, я его включила в этот справочник.

1) Transformation
a) They __________________ the barbecue when it started raining. (enjoy)
b) I _____________ to this gym for 5 years when I decided to give it up. (go)
c) My friend and I _______________ computer games for 2 hours when we realized it
was time to go to school. (play)
d) My sister and her classmate ___________________ all evening before Mum sent
them to sleep. (chat)
e) I ____________ this film for 2 hours when I got bored with it and turned it off.
(watch)
f) We _______________ for 40 minutes when the bus finally arrived. (wait)
g) We _____________________ for 2 hours when we realized we wouldn’t be in time
for the last bus. (sightsee)
h) I _______________ Chinese before I decided to start Italian. (learn)
i) Mom __________________ on the factory before she resigned.(work)
j) You _________________ for 4 hours when you decided to stop. (drive)

2) Speaking. Look at the picture and describe what the boy had been doing before his
parents came home using these phrases: play toys, play the guitar, read books, sleep, play
the keyboard, play baseball.

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Example: The boy had been playing the guitar before his parents came home.

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Past Perfect and Past Perfect Continuous

Отличие между двумя этими временами такое же, как и между Present Perfect и Present
Perfect Continuous. Past Perfect больше акцентируется на завершенности действия, а Past
Perfect Continuous – на процессе. Также не употребим Past Perfect Continuous, когда:

 Глагол в предложении является state verb, то есть не употребляется в Continuous


вообще. Это глаголы: agree, believe, feel, hate, know, like, look, love, mean, meet,
prefer, remember, understand, want. Например, нельзя сказать I have been wanting this
toy since childhood. Надо I have wanted this toy since childhood.
 Когда мы говорим, сколько раз что-то делали. Например, I have visited this centre
twice. Нельзя I have been visiting this centre twice.
 Со словами just, yet, ever, never. Например, I have just finished this exercise. Нельзя I
have just been finishing this exercise.

Exam tip. На экзамене в случае предшествования в прошедшем времени будет скорее


использовано время Past Perfect, чем Past Perfect Continuous. Хотя и Past Perfect будет
маловероятно.

1) Multiple choice. Sometimes 2 variants are possible.

a) Mary was feeling exhausted because she had run/had been running for 2 hours.
b) I hadn't slept/ hadn't been sleeping for weeks when I had this accident at work.
c) When I arrived at the party, everybody had just left/ had just been leaving.
d) My friends were still there, standing where they had stood/ had been standing before.
e) This spring I visited Italy for the first time. I had never been/ had never been being there
before.
f) As Kate walked away, she felt that she had said/ had been saying something bad.
g) We had worked/ had been working for really long hours before we became ill.
h) We hadn't saved/ hadn't been saving hard enough, so we couldn't go on holiday with others.
i) Jack and Jill were soaked when they arrived because it had rained/had been raining heavily.
j) Keira had been/had been being in the class for a long time before she realized she was in the
wrong place.

2) Translation
a) Когда мы пришли в кино, фильм уже начался.
b) Мы как раз говорили о тебе, когда ты вчера позвонила.
c) К тому моменту, когда я получила это письмо, я его уже простила.
d) Она повернула не туда, поэтому потерялась.
e) Я хотела сходить к стоматологу, но она уехала в отпуск.
f) Сью упала и ударилась головой. Она даже не помнит, как это произошло.
g) Здорово, что ты мне позвонила! Я так давно ждала твоего звонка!

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h) Вчера нашла у себя твой номер телефона в блокноте. Я даже забыла, что записывала
его!
i) Дети пришли с улицы все грязные. Они играли в саду.
j) Я уже ездила на Майорку, поэтому я знала лучший отель, в котором можно
остановиться.

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Past tenses

1) Multiple choice. Sometimes more than 1 answer is possible

a) He was/was being/had been/had been being happy because he wrote/was writing/had


written/ had been writing his test really well.
b) When we left the house, it stopped/ was stopping/ had stopped/ had been stopping raining
already and the sun shone/ was shining/ had shone/ had been shining.
c) I write/ was writing/ had written/ had been writing my project at 10 pm yesterday.
d) We didn't hear/weren't hearing/ hadn't heard from her for several months when a letter
from her finally arrived/ was arriving/ had arrived/ had been arriving.
e) Mark already left/ was leaving/ had left/ had been leaving when his brother came/ was
coming/ had come/ had been coming.
f) It was already dark when we came/ were coming/ had come/ had been coming to the
house. Cold wind blew/ was blowing/ had blown/ had been blowing and it got/ was
getting/ had got/ had been getting colder and colder.
g) I came/ was coming/ had come/ had been coming to live in this city in 2015. So, I lived/
was living/ had lived/ had been living here for 4 years already.
h) When Fill left/ was leaving/ had left/ had been leaving the house, his friends already
started/ were starting/ had started/ had been starting playing football and Jim already
scored/ was scoring/ had scored/ had been scoring 2 goals.
i) When my parents came/ were coming/ had come/ had been coming home, I left/ was
leaving/ had left/ had been leaving for school.
j) I read/ was reading/ had read/ had been reading this book before, so it wasn’t/wasn‘t
being/hadn’t been/ hadn’t been being interesting for me at all.

2) Exam task. Put the verbs into Past Simple, Past Continuous, Past Perfect, Past Perfect
Continuous

Kaziranga National Park in India is home to two of the world’s most


endangered species: the tiger and the single-horned rhino. Photographer Steve
Winter and writer Douglas Chadwick (1)_______________ there a few days WORK
when they (2)_____________ a rather frightening close shave with some HAVE
rhinos.
They (3)___________________ into the park to start filming, when their DRIVE
guide (4)___________________ the jeep to move a turtle from the middle of STOP
the road just ahead of them. Winter, Chadwick and their guard got out to
stretch their legs and watch. But when Chadwick (5) __________ to look up TURNED
the road, he saw something terrible.

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About 50 metres away, a rhino (6)______________ at them. Rhinos can CHARGE


sprint at more than 40 kilometres an hour, so there was no time to leap back
in the car. Instinctively, the guard fired a shot into the ground just in front of
the rhino. It got scared and ran away.
Shaken, but relieved the incident (7)____________ worse, they drove on. As NOT BE
they (8)__________________ the forest area on a raised section of road, three ENTER
young rhinos (9)____________ onto the road in front of them. The jeep CLIMBED
stopped hurriedly, but this time the animals seemed uninterested and
disappeared into the forest. Just then, however, the mother of the three, who
(10)___________________ an eye on her young, came crashing through the KEEP
trees from their left. No time to shoot this time. The female rhino slammed
into the side of the jeep and started to wrestle it off the road.
The guide (11)_________________ down a rule for his guests at Kaziranga LAY
– ‘No one is allowed to be scared.’ But his guests (12)_______________ the BREAK
rule. With the engine screaming, at last the vehicle skidded free. Even then
the rhino came after them and it was only 150 metres later that she
(13)_____________ up the chase. GIVE

3) Exam task. Put the verbs into Past Simple, Past Continuous, Past Perfect, Past Perfect
Continuous.

My great-grandfather Tomas (1)_______________ to America from Poland CAME


when he was fifteen. His mother (2)________________ ill and died, and his BECOME
father remarried to be able to take care of his seven children. Tomas didn’t like
his stepmother, so he (3)_____________ away to Belgium, where he boarded a RUN
ship to America – without a ticket. He got a job on the railroads in California
when he (4)_______________ to America with nothing. Then one day he saw ARRIVE
an announcement in a newspaper that was read by immigrants. It was from his
brother in New York who also (5)_____________________ his fortune in SEEK
America and was looking for him. Tomas got in touch and they had an emotional
reunion in New York, where Tomas already (6)____________. This is the story SETTLE
that my grandmother passed down to us, to my parents and all my aunts and
uncles. What that (7)______________ is that all of us – brothers, aunts, cousins MEAN

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– had a strong family bond and a strong sense of belonging to a group that
(8)_______________ and had been struggling together to succeed here. FIGHT

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Будущее в английском языке

На экзамене форму будущего времени просят вставить редко. Так что все, написанное
ниже, пригодится вам скорее где-то еще, но не в разделе «Грамматика и лексика».
В русском языке мы выражаем будущее очень просто – с помощью глагола в будущем
времени. В английском все не так просто – нельзя просто взять и перевести все, что мы
хотим сказать по-русски, глаголом will.

Exam tip. На практике в экзаменационных заданиях будущее время в тесте на грамматику


вообще почти не встречается.

Future Simple
will + V

+ - ?

I/you/he/she/it/we/they will I/you/he/she/it/we/they will Will I/you/he/she/it/we/they


go to school tomorrow. not (won’t) go to school go to school tomorrow?
tomorrow.

Future Simple употребляется, когда:


 Мы говорим о событиях, которые наверняка случатся. Тут мы используем certainly,
definitely, probably: I will definitely go to university after school. Или о событиях, которые
мы думаем, что произойдут, c think, probably, may be, believe, know: I think you will win the
race. (Prediction – предсказание)
 Когда говорим о решениях, принятых только что: - I will go shopping with you.
(Instant decisions – сиюминутные решения)
 Когда что-то обещаем: I will help you with your homework (promises – обещания).
Или предлагаем, но тут обычно используется Shall: Shall I open the window? (suggestions –
предложение)
 Когда что-то просим (request) или предостерегаем, угрожаем (warning, threat): Will
you help me with housework? You will regret it later!

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1) Transformation. Put the verbs in Future Simple and explain why this tense is used in this
sentence.
Example: I will phone you tomorrow and we will discuss this problem with you. (phone, discuss)
– promise
a) _______ I ________ for a taxi? (phone)
b) I ______ never _____ it again, I promise! (do)
c) It probably ___________ tonight. (not rain)
d) I ________ you with these bags. (help)
e) ________ I _______ you some water? (bring)
f) Lucy ______ definitely ______ in the evening! (come)
g) I am sure Stacy ________ late, she is always late. (be)
h) I know that Mike _________ me roses for my birthday! (give)
i) Denis says he __________ the cat while you are on holiday. (feed)

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Going to

Также для выражения будущего времени в английском используется


конструкция going to: am/is/are + going to + V

+ - ?

am/is/are + going to + V I am not going to the sea this Am I going to the sea this
I am going to the sea this summer. summer?
summer. You/we/they are not (aren’t) Are you/we/they going to
You/we/they are going to going to the sea this summer. the sea this summer?
the sea this summer. He/she/it is not (isn’t) going Is he/she/it going to the sea
He/she/it is going to the sea to the sea this summer. this summer?
this summer.

Она нужна, когда:


 Мы думаем, что что-то произойдет, основываясь на том, что видим или слышим
(prediction – предсказание): Look! The clouds are black, it is going to rain.
 Мы собираемся что-то сделать, но определенной договоренности у нас еще нет
(intention – намерение): I am going to visit Aunt Mary tonight.

2) Transformation. Put the construction “going to” into the sentence and explain why this
tense is used.
Example: We are going to get lost here, there are so many trees and it’s getting dark! (prediction
based on what we see)
a) Looks like a traffic jam. I __________________to be late for school.
b) We _________________ to play bowling tonight.
c) _____ we ________ to have a test tomorrow?
d) Be careful, you _____________ to fall down!
e) I____________ to leave the party at 10 pm.
f) What _____ you __________ to do with this stuff?
g) He’s running the first, so he _____________ to win!
h) Jane ______________ take 5 exams in summer.

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И, как мы уже знаем, мы можем использовать Present Continuous для выражения


будущего времени, когда говорим о спланированном действии в будущем (arrangement –
договоренность), например: We are going to the sea in summer. Значит, место у нас уже
забронировано, билеты куплены, и мы точно едем купаться в море!
Present Simple мы используем, когда говорим о расписании (транспорта, уроков в школе,
сеансов в кино) (timetable): The film starts at 7 pm.

Exam tip. На экзамене часто включают примеры предложений условия, и ученики делают
в них ошибку, вставляя будущее туда, где его быть не должно. Подробнее об этом можно
почитать тут.

3) Transformation. Put the correct construction for expressing future in the sentence and
explain your choice.
Example: Hurry up! The film starts in 20 minutes! (start) – timetable
a) It’s always cold in spring here, so it ____________ cold tonight too. (be)
b) – Do you think Phil ___________ to my party tonight? (come)
- I _______________ him and ask if he comes. (phone)
c) I ____________________ kids to the park. So I have to go now. (take)
d) I ___________ a course after school, I have already enrolled there! (do)
e) These bags look rather heavy. I ___________ you! (help)
f) Our classes _____________ at 9am. Hurry up, or you’ll be late! (start)
g) I think I ___________ by metro, it must be quicker. (go)
h) - What ______ you __________ in the evening? (do)
- Actually, we had no plans. Maybe we ________________ shopping. (go)
i) Tom _______ definitely _____________us a hand. He is really reliable. (give)
j) Tim _______________ the weekend with us, his parents have already allowed him to.
(spend)

4) Translation for Future Simple, be going to, Present Continuous.


a) Привет! Ты придешь ко мне в субботу? Я устраиваю вечеринку.
b) Я думаю, что не увижу его завтра, передай ему книгу сам.
c) Начальник решил повысить меня и я улетаю жить в Сан Франциско!
d) Ты завтра пообедаешь со мной?

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e) Что ты будешь завтра делать? - Ничего особенного, а что? - Пойдем вместе в


библиотеку, мне одной скучно.
f) Ты будешь помогать своей маме сегодня вечером?
g) Я собираюсь уехать в деревню на праздники. - Ты поедешь одна или с семьей? -
Конечно с семьей.
h) Куда ты идешь? - В магазин.
i) Что вы собираетесь делать в Египте? - Мы поедем на экскурсию посмотреть на
Египетские пирамиды, потом мы собираемся навестить мою подругу, которая вышла там
замуж и, конечно, будем купаться и загорать.
j) В это воскресенье я не пойду с тобой гулять, мы всей семьей идем в цирк.

5) Speaking.Talk about your plans and predictions for your life using will, going to and
Present Continuous. Consider:
 home
 family
 friends
 career
 studies

6) Exam task for Future Simple, be going to, Present Continuous, Present Simple.
Обращаю ваше внимание, что конструкция be going to вам вряд ли встретиться для
подстановки на экзамене.

-Hi, Carry!
- Hi, Melissa!
- Nice weather, isn't it?
- Yeah, but I'm afraid it (1)_________________ . The clouds look dark. RAIN
- What a pity! We (2)________________a picnic in the evening, we have HAVE
everything arranged, and I don't want it to be spoilt by bad weather. Maybe we
(3)____________ umbrellas and raincoats with us! By the way, what ________ TAKE
you (4)______________ tonight? DO
- My brother (5)___________ at 6pm by train and I (6)____________ him at ARRIVE
the station. MEET

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- Do you want to go to our picnic? You can join after 6pm!


- That would be great! I (7)___________ brother about it. ASK
- And I promise we (8)_________ extra umbrellas for you! BRING

Вот мы и рассмотрели все времена активного залога, которые нам могут встретиться на
экзамене, и переходим к пассивному залогу. Но перед этим – еще раз все времена
активного залога, которые нам могут встретиться на экзамене.

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Passive Voice

А вот все времена страдательного залога, которые могут встретиться на ЕГЭ согласно
кодификатору:

Simple Continuous Perfect

Present The book is written. The book is being written. The book has been written.

Past The book was The book has been The book had been written.
written. written.

Future The book will be - -


written.

Как видите, Passive Voice образуется по формуле be+ V(3). И глагол в третьей форме
никогда не меняется, меняется только глагол be в зависимости от времени, в котором он
стоит.

Exam tip. Неумение отличить активный залог от страдательного является очень


распространенной ошибкой на экзамене. Показателями Passive Voice могут являться –
неодушевленное существительное на месте подлежащего или предлог by. Но лучше
всегда переводить предложение максимально близко к английскому варианту, как бы
глупо он ни звучал. Это подскажет правильный залог.

Самые распространенные времена страдательного залога для подстановки в раздел


«Грамматика и лексика» на экзамене – Present Simple Passive и Past Simple Passive.
Остальные почти не встречаются в заданиях.

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Present Simple Passive


am/is/are + V(3)

+ - ?

The animals are fed every The animals are not fed every Are the animals fed every
day. day. day?

Present Simple Passive употребляется в тех же случаях, что и Present Simple Active – для
привычных, каждодневных действий или фактов.

1) Transformation. Insert the correct form of the verb in brackets. Then change the sentences into
negative and interrogative form.
Example: This book is read by millions of people every year. (read)
a) Cheese ______________ from milk. (make)
b) The World Cup _________________ by billions of people. (watch)
c) The euro ______________ in European countries. (use)
d) Many films _______________ in this cinema. (show)
e) Abroad most food __________________ at the supermarkets. (sell)
f) Most coffee _______________ in Brazil. (grow)
g) Smoking _____________ in this building. (allow)
h) BMW cars ______________ in Germany. (make)
i) Our homework ___________ every day. (check)
j) The flat _______________ every week. (clean)

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Present Continuous Passive

am/is/are + being + V (3)

+ - ?

The animals are being fed The animals are not being fed Are the animals being fed
now. now. now?

Обозначает действие, происходящее в настоящий момент или запланированное действие в


будущем.

2) Transformation. Insert the correct form of the verb in brackets. Then change the
sentences into negative and interrogative form.
Example: This book is being read by our class now. (read) The book isn’t being read by our
class now. Is the book being read by our class now?
a) The new attractions _______________ today. (test)
b) Our car _______________ now. (fix)
c) Liza __________________ music at the moment. (teach)
d) Plans for our next holiday _______________ now. (made)
e) A new concert hall ____________ at our street. (build)
f) A good film is ______________ on the 1st channel right now. (show)
g) Our works ____________ by the teacher. (correct)
h) This song ______________ by DJ now. (play)
i) Simon the cat ________________ for a walk in the courtyard. (take)
j) This exercise ________________ by a pupil now. (do)

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Present Perfect Passive

have/has + been + V(3)

+ - ?

The animals have been fed The animals haven’t been fed Have the animals been fed
already. already. already?

Обозначает действие, совершившееся к настоящему моменту и важное для нас сейчас.


Или начавшееся в прошлом и продолжающееся до сих пор.

3) Transformation. Insert the correct form of the verb in brackets. Then change the sentences into
negative and interrogative form.
Example: This book has already been read. (read) The book hasn’t been read. Has the book
been read?
a) Our flat _____________ this week. (clean)
b) I ______________ spoiled food today at the shop. (sell)
c) The truth ________________ by my little brother. (tell)
d) Three paintings ________________ from this museum at the weekend. (steal)
e) My small dog ______________ by her previous owners. (name)
f) We ______________ not to use our work laptops to send personal emails. (ask)
g) The soup _________________ by Mom. (cook)
h) This prize _________________ by me in a lottery last year. (win)
i) Kids ________________ by their parents. (wash)
j) You ______________ wrong instructions. (give)

4) Multiple choice for Present Simple Passive, Present Continuous Passive, Present Perfect
Passive. Sometimes more than 1 answer is possible.
a) Today we are taken/ are being taken/ have been taken on a wonderful city tour by our
guide. We are looking forward to it!
b) This fruit is grown/ is being grown/ has been grown in our country since ancient times.
c) Jeans are worn/ are being worn/ have been worn by men and women nowadays.
d) Mainly documentaries are shown/ are being shown/ have been shown on this channel.
e) My father's car is repaired/is being repaired/has been repaired at the moment.
f) Felicia is excited because she is offered/ is being offered/ has been offered a new job.
g) My friend Ann is very popular. She often is invited/ is being invited/ has been invited to
parties.
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h) Out game is cancelled/ is being cancelled/ has been cancelled because of bad weather.
i) This housework usually is done/ is being done/ has been done by my sister.
j) My friend is given/ is being given/ has been given many presents today. It's her birthday!

5) Translation for Present Simple Passive, Present Continuous Passive, Present Perfect
Passive.
a) Сейчас строят новый мост через эту реку.
b) Эта статья еще не была переведена мной.
c) За моими родителями послал учитель.
d) Книга еще не была издана.
e) Счета уже были оплачены?
f) На меня никогда не нападали собаки.
g) Вкусное мороженое продается в этом киоске.
h) Этот фильм очень много обсуждают в настоящий момент.
i) С собакой сейчас играют твои друзья?
j) Этот товар производится в Германии?

6) Exam task for Present Simple Passive, Present Continuous Passive, Present Perfect
Passive.

I’m a first generation American. Both my parents came here from Jamaica,
where getting a good education is a must. My mother always says that
education never (1)__________________away from you, it is always yours. TAKE
My father was a nurse in Jamaica, but he had an ambition to be a doctor in the
US; medicine (2)_________________ by him thoroughly and he has become STUDY
a doctor finally. My parents have a strong work ethic. My mum has always
worked as a nurse, but at the same time always (3)_____________ very much INVOLVE
in our lives also, helping with our studies and following our careers with
interest. Both my sister and I have followed them into the medical profession
and now I’m working as a doctor at the Mount Sinai hospital in Queens. One
important patient (4)_________________ on by me today. I don’t know if that OPERATE
kind of dedication is genetic or just something that you learn from your parents,
but that desire to get ahead (5)________________ certainly by both of us. The
great thing about America is that the opportunity to live those dreams too INHERIT
(6)________________ to us all. GIVE

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Past Simple Passive


was/were + V(3)
+ - ?
The letters were written in The letters were not written in Were the letters written in the
the morning. the morning. morning?
Past Simple Passive употребляется в тех же случаях, что и Past Simple Active – для
действий, произошедших в прошлом.

1) Transformation. Insert the correct form of the verb in brackets. Then change the sentences
into negative and interrogative form.
Example: This book was read by millions of people last year. (read) This book wasn’t read
by millions of people last year. Was this book read by millions of people last year?
a) Her dress _______________ in the studio. (design)
b) This building ________________ 4 years ago. (build)
c) Our school ______________ in 1990. (open)
d) The agreement _____________ this morning. (sign)
e) My mobile ______________ yesterday. (steal)
f) Gold _______________ in the USA in the 19th century. (discover)
g) Romeo and Juliet _________________ by Shakespeare. (write)
h) I _______________ by a dog when I was 5. (bite)
i) My homework ______________ at 5pm and I went for a walk. (finish)
j) We _____________ not to go home after classes. (tell)

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Past Continuous Passive

was/were + being + V(3)


+ - ?
The letters were being The letters were not being Were the letters being written
written at this time written at this time yesterday. at this time yesterday?
yesterday.

Это время употребляется, когда в определенное время в прошлом совершалось какое-то


пассивное действие над предметом.

2) Transformation. Insert the correct form of the verb in brackets. Then change the sentences
into negative and interrogative form.
Example: This book was being read by our class at this lesson yesterday. (read) This book
wasn’t being read by our class at this lesson yesterday. Was this book being read by our
class at this lesson yesterday?
a) I ________________ to play piano at this time yesterday. (teach)
b) This time yesterday our flat ____________________ for the party. (decorate)
c) These letters ________________ by me all yesterday afternoon. (write)
d) Dinner _______________ by Mom this time yesterday. (cook)
e) The film _______________ by us at the cinema at this time yesterday. (watch)
f) The meeting _______________ exactly at this time yesterday. (attend)
g) We ________________ at the cafe at 5pm yesterday. (serve)
h) I ___________________ instructions on my work all yesterday morning. (give)
i) Betty _________________for by us at the airport at this time yesterday. (wait)
j) The amazing story _________________ to us at Literature yesterday. (tell)

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Past Perfect Passive

had + been + V(3)


+ - ?
The letters had been written. The letters had not been Had letters been written?
written.

Это время употребляется, когда что-то произошло до определенного момента в прошлом.

3) Transformation. Insert the correct form of the verb in brackets. Then change the sentences
into negative and interrogative form.
Example: This book had been read before you came home yesterday. (read) This book
hadn’t been read before you came home yesterday. Had this book been read before you
came home yesterday?
a) All invitations _________________ by 3 o’clock yesterday. (send)
b) I ___________________ off for my bad behaviour by the evening. (tell)
c) This name ________________ several times by the end of our talk. (mention)
d) After the situation _____________ to me, I wasn’t worried anymore. (explain)
e) Nick _______________ to go home by the time Mom came back. (tell)
f) These cups ________________ in the cupboard by the evening. (put)
g) Two reports on this topic _______________ by yesterday. (make)
h) The kids ________________ to the theatre by the teacher and returned back to school in
the evening. (take)
i) Our cat _______________ all mice in the house by last month. (catch)
j) These essays _________________ by deadline. (complete)

4) Multiple choice for Present Simple Passive, Present Continuous Passive, Present Perfect
Passive. Sometimes more than 1 answer is possible.
a) Last year three foreign languages were taught/ were being taught/ had been taught in this
school.
b) She showed me the dress which was made/ was being made/ had been made by her
daughter.
c) Lots of money was spent/ was being spent/ had been spent at the auction yesterday
evening.
d) I realized I was watched/ was being watched/ had been watched when I got into
neighbours’ garden.
e) Before I got 7 I wasn’t asked/ wasn’t being asked/ hadn’t been asked to help in the house.
f) I was examined/ was being examined/ had been examined by the doctor in the evening
yesterday.
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g) My car was still repaired/ was still being repaired/ had been still repaired yesterday
morning.
h) When my kid was small every time she washed the dishes something was broken/ was
being broken/ had been broken.
i) New flowers were grown/were being grown/ had been grown by the time we arrived at
our parents’ dacha in May.
j) When I came into the room, the patient was examined/ was being examined/ had been
examined.

5) Translation for for Past Simple Passive, Past Continuous Passive, Past Perfect Passive
a) Что было сказано по поводу этого экзамена?
b) Ты знала, что за тобой наблюдали?
c) К концу отпуска все наши деньги были потрачены.
d) Это преступник был пойман еще год назад.
e) В квартире был идеальный порядок. Пол был вымыт, все было расставлено по
местам.
f) Перед тем, как ты пришла вчера, нам позвонил Коля и сказал, что не придет на
вечеринку.
g) Вчера в это время нашу машину красили.
h) Имя ребенка уже выбрали к тому времени, как он родился.
i) Эти открытки были присланы к моему прошлому дню рождения.
j) Пирог был испечен вчера.

6) Exam task for Past Simple Passive, Past Continuous Passive, Past Perfect Passive.

Change brought problems. Bella lived with her parents in a brand new
apartment in Shanghai. Her real name was Zhou Jiaying – ‘Bella’ was the name
that she (1)________________ by her English teacher. Her parents were GIVE
representative of a confused generation in a confused time. In Chinese society
of the beginning of the 20th century war (2) ____________________ by LEAD
different ideologies. Enormous material benefits (3)__________________ by BRING
China’s economic boom, but the debate was not about these; it was about
family life and values. Old values – the respect of family and the older
generations – (4)_____________ by new ones which place money as the REPLACE
critical measurement of one’s position in society. But at the same time these
new values (5)____________________. (6)__________ our lives QUESTION
_____________ richer by all our new possessions? (7)_______ Chinese MAKE

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culture ____________? As in all changing societies people were trying to find REPLACE
the right balance between the ‘new’ and ‘old’.
Bella taught her parents the latest slang. Her parents wanted to be supportive,
but they no longer helped with Bella’s homework; in spoken English she had
surpassed them. Much more already (8)_______________ about the world
outside than them. Her mother claimed that her advice (9)_________________ LEARN
to and it (10)__________________. Bella glared, but said nothing. In China NOT LISTEN
there was no concept of the rebellious teenager. NOT WANT

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Future Simple Passive


will be + V(3)

+ - ?

Mike will be called Mike will not (won’t) be Will Mike be called
tomorrow. called tomorrow. tomorrow?

Future Simple Passive употребляется, когда мы хотим рассказать о действии, которое будет
выполнено в будущем.

1) Transformation. Insert the correct form of the verb in brackets. Then change the
sentences into negative and interrogative form.
Example: This book will be read by me tomorrow. (read)
a) The bedroom _______________ tomorrow. (clean)
b) The deposit ________________ next week. (pay)
c) The problem ________________ later. (fix)
d) Unfortunately, our flight _________________ for 5 hours. (delay)
e) Exam in Russian __________________ tomorrow. (take)
f) Copies _____________ after the class. (spread)
g) Snacks _________________ during the flight. (serve)
h) Tom and Alice _______________ for in an hour. (send)
i) Requests for documents _______________ to our headmaster. (fax)
j) I am sure, Karl _________________ to the party. (invite)

2) Transformation for Present, Past, Future Simple Passive:


a) Where _________ souvernirs for foreigners _____________? (sell)
b) Our luggage ______________ at customs an hour ago. (check)
c) ________the Internet __________________ in the 20th century? (invent)
d) All this rubbish __________________ next week. (not recycle)
e) I _____________ to Mary’s birthday party yesterday. (invite)
f) New shoes __________________ for Kate tomorrow. (buy)
g) The new supermarket ______________ this weekend. (not open)
h) What __________bread ______________ from? (make)
i) Smoking ____________________ in this cafe. (not allow)

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j) __________kids __________ to the zoo tomorrow? (take)

3) Translation for all Passive tenses:


a) - Эти цветы просто великолепны! - Их прислал мне вчера один из моих поклонников.
b) - Почему мы не поехали через мост? - Потому что его сейчас ремонтируют.
c) - Эти картины великолепны! - Спасибо, они нарисованы моим отцом.
d) - Кто у вас в доме моет посуду? - Посуду моет мой брат, а вытираю и раскладываю
по полкам ее я.
e) - Почему мы не поехали на машине? - Мою машину сейчас обслуживают.
f) - Какая у вас красивая скатерть! - Мне ее подарили в прошлом году на день
рождения.
g) - Ты слышала про Кевина? - Да, его повысили до главного менеджера.
h) - Соня, счета за квартиру уже оплачены? - Да, мам. Они были оплачены еще к 6
вечера вчера.
i) Вчера в это время детей забирали из детского сада.
j) Помпеи - древний город Италии, который был разрушен из-за извержения вулкана в
79 г. н. э. Лава и пепел Везувия похоронила город со всеми его жителями. Сейчас
раскопки ведутся археологами, которые смогли извлечь из-под руин много
старинных предметов. Город сейчас посещается тысячами туристов каждый год.
k) Миссис Уилсон - богатая молодая леди. Она живет в большом доме на окраине
города с мужем и двумя собаками. Каждый день, ее возят в центр города. Ее машину
ведет шофер. Там она ходит по своим любимым магазинам, а ее сумки несет
охранник. Миссис Уилсон покупает много одежды каждую неделю. Ей нужно
столько одежды, потому что ее постоянно приглашают на вечеринки. На этой неделе
она приглашена на праздник в честь дня рождения. Все ее друзья будут там, и она с
нетерпением ждет этого события.

4) Speaking. Think about an invention which is quite useful to people. Say:


a) who it was invented by
b) when and where it was invented
c) how our lives will be changed by it
d) what it has been made of
e) where it is being sold
f) in what way it will be used

5) Exam task for all forms of Passive Voice

I first heard rap at a party in Harlem in 1980. It sounded like a broken record.
A kid chanted a rhyme about how he was the best disc jockey in the world. It
CALL

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(1)_____________ Rapper’s Delight. I thought it was the most ridiculous thing


I’d ever heard.
For the next 26 years, I avoided rap music.. I heard it booming out of cars and
alleyways from Paris to Abidjan, but I never listened. In doing so, I missed the
most important cultural event in my lifetime. This culture of song, graffiti and KNOW
dance, (2)_______________ as hip-hop.
Hip-hop began in the mid-1970s, in an almost bankrupt New York City. The
bored kids of the South Bronx and Harlem came up with a new entertainment.
This is how it worked: one guy, the DJ, played records on two turntables.
Another guy – or girl – served as master of ceremonies, or MC. Dance styles CREATE
(3)__________________. Graffiti artists also emphasised the I because the
music was all about identity: I am the best.
Initially socially-conscious songs that described life on the other side of the PRODUCE
tracks (4)________________, where people (5)_____________ the same DENY
opportunities as the rich.
These days most commercial rappers in America brag about their lives of crime BRING
and the things that (6)__________________ to them by fame and money,
among which women seem to be just another material possession.
In poor urban communities around the globe, rap music is a universal
expression of outrage at the injustice of the distribution of wealth. Its macho BORROW
pose it (7)__________________ from commercial hip-hop in the US, but for
most the music represents an old dream: a better life. ‘We want money to help
our parents,’ Assane, a nineteen-year-old budding DJ from Dakar in Senegal
tells me. ‘I watched my mother who tried to boil water to cook and have
nothing to put in the pot. Rap doesn’t belong to American culture,’ he says.
That is why, after 26 years, I embraced this music that (8)_____________ by REJECT
me before. Much of hip-hop, particularly the commercial side, I hate. Yet I
love the good of it. Even if some of it embraces violence, hip-hop is a music
that exposes the empty moral cupboard that we have left for our children. They
can hear it and understand it.

So, much fame (9)___________________ by this kind of music nowadays. EXPERIENCE


The question is: how (10)_____it ___________ in the future? DEVELOP

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Вот таблица со всеми возможными трансформациями глаголами в Passive Voice:

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Sequence of tenses

В английском языке много времен. Гораздо больше, чем в русском. И для того, чтобы их
как-то упорядочить и внести в систему логику, англичане придумали так называемое
«Правило согласования времен». И его очень любят составители ОГЭ и ЕГЭ.
Оно заключается в том, что если в предложении встречаются времена группы Present, то
там вряд ли окажется Past. И если мы захотим в этом предложении использовать будущее,
то мы сможем использовать только will.

Например, в предложении He doesn’t know where he has put his glasses мы не можем
использовать Past Simple во второй части, относящейся к прошлому, по этому самому
правилу.

А если мы что-то говорим в временах группы Past, то в этом же предложении вряд ли


окажется Present. Или will для выражения будущего. Англичане для выражения будущего,
о котором говорится в прошлом (Он сказал, что пойдет в кино) придумали особое время –
Future-in-the-Past (будущее в прошедшем). Оно формируется при помощи would.
He said he would go to the cinema. – Правильный перевод этого предложения, и во второй
части мы не можем поставить will вместо would. Вот примерно так можно кратко описать
это правило:

Present tenses + will


I don’t know what we will do at the weekend. I don’t know who has written this.
Нельзя: I don’t know what we would do at the weekend. I don’t know who wrote this.
Past tenses+would
I didn’t know what we would do at the weekend. I didn’t know who had written this.
Нельзя: I didn’t know what we will do at the weekend. I didn’t know who wrote this.

Кстати, оно же верно и для предложений условия.

Конечно, это правило нарушается. Например, при использовании прямой речи. “I will go
to the cinema”, he said. Но для ОГЭ и ЕГЭ оно нам пригодится. И пригодится в изучении
таких разделов грамматики, как косвенная речь и сослагательное наклонение, о которых
мы поговорим прямо сейчас.
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1) Transformation
a) It __________ (be) clear how the accident ______________(happen).
b) I ___________ (not know) your sister. I ____________ (not meet) her before yesterday.
c) He ____________ (understand) that if he ___________ (tell) his wife about it, she never
_______________ (forgive) him.
d) My secretary ______________ (talk) so quietly so that nobody _____________
(understand) that she ________________ (not work).
e) The policemen ______________ (not know) how the criminal _______________(escape)
from the prison.
f) By looking at him it ___________ (be) impossible to tell that he ____________ (be) a
serial murder in the past.
g) Mike _____________ (not go) to the party because he ____________(be) afraid that
Megan, his ex, ___________ (be) there.
h) I don’t know who ______________ (do) it! But it definitely isn’t me!
i) Yesterday I ___________(be) ashamed when I met my classmate in the street. I
______________(tell) him wrong homework the previous week and he got a bad mark in
his test!
j) Sam ______________(not tell) anybody the truth as he _________(be) afraid nobody
_____________ (believe) him.

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Косвенная речь

Самый часто встречающийся случай правила согласования времен - косвенная речь. Это
пересказ того, что кто-то сказал, своими словами. Например, Света сказала, что хочет
мороженое. И по нашему правилу согласования времен, все времена в косвенной речи
будут меняться. Внизу представлена таблица времен, которые мы встретим в ЕГЭ.
Обратите внимание, я добавила строчку с Future-in-the-Past.

Стрелочками показано, как времена сдвигаются в косвенной речи. То есть, если у нас
было предложение в прямой речи:
“I want some ice-cream”, Sveta said.
В косвенной речи оно будет звучать вот так:
Sveta said that she wanted some ice-cream.

Также происходят изменения и в некоторых модальных глаголах:


can – could
may – might
must – had to
will – would

Кстати, во многих грамматиках, особенно русских авторов, вы найдете информацию о


словах, которые меняются в косвенной речи (например, here – there, today – that day и т.д.).
Так как знание этих замен никак не проверяется на ОГЭ или ЕГЭ и почти не
употребляется в речи, я считаю его лишним и не буду приводить.

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1) Transformation. Transform direct speech into indirect. Pay attention that pronouns will
change with this transformation. For example: “I am going shopping” he said – He said he was
going shopping.
a) “I will go to the dentist’s tomorrow”, Sheena said.
b) “She has lived here all her life”, said John.
c) “We are going to the party tonight”, Mike and Anna said.
d) “Sheila can read the book”, her Mom said.
e) “I have a problem”, my little brother said.
f) “I have a strange feeling I saw him before”, Simon said.
g) “I am meeting Sean after school”, my sister said.
h) “You may not like what I am going to say”, Jim told me.
i) “If you don’t like my food, you may not eat it”, Dad said.
j) “I must finish this task today”, Keira told Hannah.
k) “Kyla isn’t speaking to me because we have had an argument!” my brother complained to
my Mom.

Переделать утверждение в косвенную речь несложно. Сложнее придется с вопросами.


Если перед нами прямой вопрос (без вопросительного слова в начале) – мы убираем
вспомогательный глагол, с которого начинается вопрос, и ставим на его место if,
например:
Do you like cookies? Jemma asked. Jemma asked me if I liked cookies.

Обратите внимание, что if здесь переводится не как «если», а как «ли». Джемма спросила
меня, люблю ли я печенья.
Еще одна частая ошибка – учащиеся во второй части предложения оставляют обратный
порядок слов вместо прямого.

Если же вопрос начинается с вопросительного слова, например Why do you like cookies?
Jemma asked. В косвенной речи он будет звучать вот так: Jemma asked me why I liked
cookies. И снова не забудьте, что при преобразовании вопроса во второй части
предложения идет прямой порядок слов.

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Не пугайтесь, в ЕГЭ вам не надо будет преобразовывать вопрос в косвенную речь, все
приведенное выше (как и упражнение на практику ниже) – просто для вашего
ознакомления.

2) Transformation into indirect speech.


Debbie: Mom, I am home.
Mrs. Anderson: How was school? How did you do on the test?
Debbie: School was OK, and I did great on the test. Mom, I was so worried about that test , but
now I feel great.
Mrs. Anderson: I am glad to hear that as you have studied so hard the past few weeks. Now, you
can relax and enjoy life.
Debbie: What are you cooking? It smells so good.
Mrs. Anderson: I am baking cakes. This is your favorite carrot cake.
Debbie: It looks really yummy. Can I have a piece of carrot cake? I want to enjoy life right now.
Mrs. Anderson: Will you wait until after dinner?
Debbie: It looks inviting, and I bet it is delicious. No, I don’t want to wait. May I try it, mom?
Mrs. Anderson: OK, go ahead.

3) Transformation into indirect speech.


Nancy: Thank you for calling Sports Center. May I help you?
Lisa: I bought an exercise bike from your store last year, and I am having problems with it. It
needs repairing.
Nancy: I will connect you to the Service department. One moment please. Karen: Service
department, this is Karen. How can I help you?
Lisa: I bought an exercise bike from Sports Center last year and it needs repairing.
Karen: What seems to be the problem?
Lisa: I am not very sure, but I think there is a problem with the bike’s computer console because
the LCD screen does not display the different features.
Karen: What was on when you pushed the Start button?
Lisa: No, nothing.
Karen: What is your bike model?
Lisa: It is a 126 Upright Ford Bike.
Karen: I can send a technician out to take a look at your bike. It will cost $75.00 for labor. Also,
if we have to replace any parts, that will be extra.
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Lisa: That is expensive. Isn’t the repair cost covered by warranty?


Karen: When exactly did you purchase your bike?
Lisa: About fifteen months ago.
Karen: I am sorry. The standard warranty only covers a year

4) Exam task

In the past, when explorers arrived in a strange place, they put up their tents or
cooked a meal. But nowadays, when explorers arrive in a new place, they log
on to their social networking site using a satellite phone. I wrote that I just
(1)________________. And I (2)____________ to relax for a few hours. LAND NEED
Explorers in the past wrote about their adventures in books which were
published months or years later. Nowadays, I post a message in seconds.
Sites like Facebook and Twitter also help if we have a problem. Someone in
our group touched a strange plant and suddenly his skin was red and painful. I
said on Twitter that my hand (3)____________ a strange plant. It TOUCH
(4)___________ red and hot. I asked if people (5)____________ any advice for BE
me. Minutes later, someone who knew the region replied that it (6)__________ HAVE
be a Pushki plant. And added that if it (7)____________ a Ouski plant, it CAN
(8)_________________but it (9)_____________ you!’ In the age of the BE
modern explorer, communication like this really helps to make decisions and HURT
sometimes it even saves lives. NOT KILL

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Conditionals
Предложения условия.

В английском языке есть несколько видов предложения условия, и для ЕГЭ нам нужно
будет познакомиться с тремя из них.

Conditional 0
Или нулевое предложение условия. Оно всегда обозначает общеизвестный факт.
Например, If you don’t water flowers, they die. Если не поливаете цветы, они вянут.
В английском языке в двух частях предложения стоит Present Simple, как и в русском
переводе.
Обратите внимание, что вместо Present Simple в предложении без условия (то есть, без if)
может стоять повелительное наклонение или модальный глагол. Например, If you don’t
water flowers, they can die. Или When you make the dog angry, better keep away from it!

Кроме if в предложениях условия еще могут встретиться – if, when (когда), as soon as (как
только), before (перед тем, как), after (после того, как), unless (пока не). Будьте
внимательны, когда увидите их в тексте! Многие ученики не замечают их их и пишут
будущее время после этих союзов.

Exam tip. На самом деле, в кодификаторе Conditional 0 не упоминается как конструкция,


проверяемая в экзаменационных заданиях. Но так как я встречала этот вид условного
предложения в заданиях, мы его будем тренировать.

0 тип условия редко встречается в экзаменационных заданиях.


1) Transformation
Example: If I stay up late, I feel sleepy the next day. (stay up, feel)
a) After you ________ this button, the car _________moving. (turn, start)
b) If a player _________ the ball, he ________ the game. (lose, leave)
c) As soon as I _________ tired, I ________ an early night. (feel, have)
d) If it ___________, we ______ wet. (rain, get)
e) When you _________ the tap, the water __________ out. (turn, come)
f) I ___________ curry, unless it __________ too spicy. (like, be)
g) If you _______ anything, please ________ me. (need, call)
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h) When Tom ___________ too much coffee, he can’t _______ at night. (drink, sleep)
i) Our teacher _______ angry if we _________ our homework. (get, not do)
j) If there ____ a fire, __________ the lift! (be, not use)

2) Speaking. Continue the sentences:


a) If electricity switches off ...
b) After my friends call me ...
c) If there is nothing on TV ...
d) If I get too much change in a shop ...
e) If I don't want to do my homework ...
f) When I feel sleepy during the day ...
g) Before I go to bed …

Conditional 1
Первое предложение условия обозначает возможное действие, которое произойдет при
каком-то условии в будущем. Например, if the weather is good, we will have a picnic. Обратите
внимание – после if стоит Present Simple, в отличие от русского перевода «Если погода
будет хорошая, мы пойдем на пикник», где будущее время стоит в обеих частях
предложения. Это – самая распространенная ошибка на экзамене в предложениях условия.

Как и в Conditional 0, вместо will в главном предложении мы можем использовать


повелительное наклонение или модальный глагол. Например, if the weather is good, we can
have a picnic. If the weather is good, let’s have a picnic

3) Transformation
Example: If you speak more slowly, it will be much easier to understand you. (speak, be)
a) If you ____________ me before 3pm, I ____________ the phone because I will be at
school. (call, not answer)
b) If you ___________, I ____________. (cook, wash up)
c) If our neigbours _________ noise again, I ____________ the police. (make, call)
d) When Max ____________ the exams, he __________ to university. (pass, go)
e) I ____________ you all the gossips if you ______________ me later. (tell, call)
f) Unless the taxi _______________ on time, Maya ____________ her plane. (come, miss)

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g) If you ____________ my flowers when I’m on holiday, I _________________ your


hamster when you are away. (water, feed)
h) If it _________ tomorrow, we __________ to the park. (rain, not go)
i) If you _________ to the registration early, we ___________ the best seats. (come, get)
j) When my plane ____________, I __________ you. (land, phone)

4) Speaking. Make chain sentences with the 1st Conditional as in the example:
a) If I pass my exams well. I will go to university.
b) If I go to university, I will choose the profession of an engineer.
c) If I choose the profession of an engineer, ...
You can start with: If I don't go to school tomorrow, ...

Conditional 2
Второе предложение условия обозначает нереальное действие, которое ну никак не может
произойти в настоящем или будущем. Например, If I Mike was rich, he would buy an island.
Если бы Майк был богат, он бы купил себе остров. Обратите внимание – в переводе таких
предложений на русский мы вставляем частицу «бы», чтобы показать нереальность
ситуации.

Вместо would в главном предложении мы не можем поставить повелительное наклонение,


но можем заменить would на could: If I Mike was rich, he could buy an island.

Раньше вместо was после if всегда ставили were: If Mike were rich, he would buy an island.
Чтобы показать, что мы имеем дело не с обычным временем, а с сослагательным
наклонением.
Остатки этой фразы можно увидеть и в английском варианте «на твоем месте …» - If I
were in your shoes ...
В ЕГЭ допускаются оба варианта – и was, и were.

Снова обращаю ваше внимание, что после if не может быть никакого будущего времени.

5) Transformation
Example: If Carry had enough money, she would buy those shoes. (have, buy)
a) If you _________ in the country, you ___________________ every day. (live, cycle)
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b) I _______________ this car if I ______________ more money. (buy, have)


c) If Sonya _________ more free time, she _____________ drawing. (have, take up)
d) It ____________ great if Christine ____________ me. (be, call)
e) He probably _______________ to you if you ______________ him like an adult. (not lie,
treat)
f) If Yan ________________ you to marry him, what _________ you _________? (offer,
say)
g) If I __________ an alien, I _____________him about his planet. (meet, ask)
h) If you _______________ calmer, Tom ________________ angry with you. (be, not be)
i) It ____________ great if we _____________ in time. (be, can travel)
j) If they ___________ on time, I ________________ so much. (arrive, not worry)

6) Speaking. Continue the sentences:


a) If I won $1 million in a lottery,
b) If I lost my phone,
c) If I inherited lots of money,
d) If I met an alien,
e) If I saw something strange,
f) If I were a superhero,
g) If I were a president,

Теперь приведу таблицу, наглядно показывающую способ образования и употребление


всех предложений условия, необходимых для ЕГЭ:

Conditional Form Use Example

o If + Present Simple, Facts, routines If you forget to


Present water the
Simple/modal/imperative flowers, they
die.

1 If + Present Simple, Real actions in the If the sun


Future future shines, we will
Simple/modal/imperative go for a
barbecue.

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2 If + Past Simple, Unreal actions in the If I were you, I


would/could + V future or present would buy that
dress.

7) Transformation for 0, 1, 2 Conditional.


Example: If you were a bit more careful, you wouldn’t be in trouble now. (be, be)
a) If they ______________ English, they _____________Spanish. (not study, learn)
b) My dad ________ angry if I _________ home late. (get, come)
c) If I _____________ enough money to travel to any country, I ___________ to Australia.
(have, go)
d) My voice is awful, but if I _____________, I ______________ a singer. (can sing, be)
e) If the lift _________________, _______________ the alarm button. (break, press)
f) When you ____________, _________________ to switch off the iron! (go out, not
forget)
g) We _____________ to the picnic if the weather _____________ worse. (go, get)
h) If I _______________ early, I ____________ during the day. (get up, yawn)
i) If I _______________ you tomorrow, I __________ you a call. (not see, give)
j) We _____________ all the tasks on time if the new film ____________ on at cinemas.
(do, not be)

8)Translation for 0, 1, 2 Conditional:


a) Если завтра будет хорошая погода, мы пойдем гулять.
b) Если разогреть мороженое, оно растает.
c) Если я не буду учить английский, я не найду хорошую работу.
d) Если бы ты был поумнее, ты бы этого не делал.
e) Если бы Джейн была богатой, она бы жила в Голливуде.
f) Если я не сделаю домашнее задание, то завтра не пойду в школу.
g) Если мы будем есть много фаст фуда, это испортит нашу фигуру.
h) Если хочешь найти хорошо оплачиваемую работу, нужно получить высшее
образование.
i) Если не чистить зубы, придется их потом лечить.
j) Если бы Мила знала математику, она бы решила эту задачу.
k) Если ты будешь хорошо себя вести, я куплю тебе шоколадку.
l) Если я буду хорошо учиться, с поступлю в этот университет.
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m) Если я не буду поливать цветы, они завянут.


n) Если я поступлю в этот университет, я найду хорошую работу.
o) Если я найду хорошую работу, я буду зарабатывать много денег.

9)Exam task for 0, 1, 2 Conditional:

For thousands of years, humans have explored the Earth. Nowadays, we are
exploring space. Currently, many astronomers are looking for new planets and
new places for humans to live in the future.
First of all, astronomers look for a star. That’s because our own Earth orbits a
star (the Sun). More importantly, it is good if the planet
(1)__________________ the correct distance from the Sun for heat and light. HAVE
So if an astronomer (2)______________ the star, he looks at the planets around FIND
it. In recent years, astronomers have found nearly 400 new planets with stars.
Unfortunately, many of these planets are either too near to the star or too far
away. BE
However, if the planet (3)____________ in a good position, astronomers look
for three key things: water, air and rock. Water is important because all life
needs water. If there is no water, people won’t be able to live there.
After many years of looking, astronomers have found a planet that is similar to
Earth. It’s Gliese 581g and it’s near a star. The astronomers think it has water HAVE
and rock on it. If people ever (4)____________ a big catastrophe, they could
come and live on it.

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I wish
Предложения после I wish также относятся к категории сослагательного наклонения и
выражают желания, чтобы что-то произошло или не происходило в настоящий момент. В
ОГЭ и ЕГЭ используется только один тип структуры после I wish – Past Simple, например,
I wish I could sing well – Я хотела бы хорошо петь. Существуют и другие времена, которые
можно поставить после I wish и поменять смысл предложения, но так как они не
включены в кодификатор, их мы рассматривать не будем.

Так как предложения с I wish относятся к категории сослагательных, после этой


конструкции возможно употребление were вместо was: Mike wishes he were rich.

1) Transformation.
Example: Sarah wishes she were more attentive. (be)
2) I wish I ____________ a celebrity. (be)
3) I wish we ______________ still on holiday. (be)
4) I wish I _______________ angry so easily! (not get)
5) Masha wishes she _____________ say sorry to Miguel. (can)
6) Sveta wishes she ______________ concentrate on her task better. (can)
7) We wish it ____________. (not rain)
8) I wish Nick and I ____________ in the same class. (study)
9) My parents wish they _______________ to the party. (go)
10) They wish they __________ a new car. (buy)
11) I wish I __________ younger. (be)

2) Translation.
a) Хорошо бы у нас сейчас были каникулы.
b) Соня хотела бы, чтобы у нее была кошка.
c) Я хотела бы, чтобы тебе нравилась математика.
d) Если бы я был свободен сейчас!
e) Мои родители хотели бы, чтобы у нас были деньги на новую кухню.
f) Жаль, что Коля сейчас не дома.
g) Я хотела бы, чтобы ты была повнимательнее.
h) Жаль, что я узнал об этом так поздно.
i) Я бы хотела, чтобы меня не критиковали так сильно.
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3) Speaking. Read the following situations and make up sentences with I wish.
Example: I want to eat so much, but I’m on a diet. I wish I weren’t on a diet.
a) You don't know much and the exam is tomorrow.
b) You want to have holidays and lie on the beach.
c) You don't know your friend's address, but want to send her a postcard.
d) You are late for school and the first lesson is with a strict teacher.
e) A new exciting film is on at the cinema but you don't have money for tickets.
f) You want a new phone but your parents don't want to buy it.
g) You play football not really well but a friend asked you to play with his team at the
match.

4) Exam task

Meet the Watts. They are a three-car family in the near future which uses
electric vehicles.
Bob is similar to most commuters. He charges his car at home overnight so it’s
ready for the morning rush hour. If he (1)____________ more electricity, he NEED
uses a ‘charging station’ in the office car park.
Sonia’s car travels about 30 kilometres on a full battery so it’s good for short
trips such as going to the shops or visiting friends nearby. The car also has its
own computer which will tell her if there (2)__________ traffic jams or road BE
works on the road ahead.
Justin works from home but enjoys going on a long journey in his sports car at
the weekend. Instead of going to a petrol station for petrol, he can change his
battery on the motorway or plug into a high-voltage charger. If he
(3)_____________ over the speed limit, a special device in his car beeps. GO
Their neighbours still use a car with a petrol engine but most cars have electric
engines. If everybody nowadays (4)__________ electric cars, the roads would USE
be quieter and there would be less pollution!
I wish I (5)___________ an electric car too! HAVE

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Модальные глаголы
Единственное, где вам может понадобиться знание неправильных глаголов на ЕГЭ – когда
вы будете их ставить в прошедшее время в рамках согласования времен, косвенной речи
или предложений условия.
Так что вся информация ниже – скорее для развития кругозора в английской грамматике.
Еще советую не забывать, что после модального глагола никогда не ставится частица to.
Нельзя сказать I can to swim.
И модальному глаголу не нужен вспомогательный. Он сам образует и вопрос, и
отрицание. Например, can you swim? I can’t swim.
Исключением из этого списка является have to, который не является в полной степени
модальными, и в предложении ведет себя, как обычный глагол. Например, You don’t have
to do all this. Do I have to do this?

Can/could/be able to
Если мы посмотрим на модальный can с точки зрения согласования времен, то по
временам он может изменяться следующим образом:
Present Simple – can
Past Simple – could
Future Simple – will be able to
Все эти глаголы обозначают возможность, что что-то произойдет в настоящем,
прошедшем и будущем соответственно. Также can и could могут использоваться для
вежливой просьбы.
1) Multiple choice.
a) If you want, I can/could/will be able to call you today after 9pm.
b) Sorry, I can’t/couldn’t/won’t be able to meet you at the airport tomorrow – I’ll be at
work.
c) I can/could/will be able to cycle when I was 7.
d) Can/Could/Will be able to you explain this rule to me once again, please?
e) Can/Could/Will be able to you sing well? – No, I’m afraid I can’t/couldn’t/won’t be able
to.
f) I hope I can/could/will be able to go to the gym tomorrow.
g) Can/Could/Will be able to you open the window, please? It’s so hot!
h) Soon you can/could/will be able to speak English pretty well.

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i) Their children can/could/will be able to read or write when they were 6.


j) I can/could/will be able to drive a car when I pass the driving test.

2) Speaking
Say what you could and couldn’t do when you were 5, what you can or can’t do now and what
you will or will not be able to do when you are 30. These phrases will help you:
write, read, draw, play computer games, ride a bike, win a competition, play the guitar, play
chess, take photos, play cards, speak English well, play football, cook.
Example: I couldn’t cook when I was 5.

Must/ have to/should


Глаголы must и have to могут изменяться по временам вот так:
Present Simple – must/have to
Past Simple – had to
Future Simple – will have to

Теперь посмотрим на значение этих таких похожих глаголов:


Must используется для обязательств, которые ты понимаешь, что нужны тебе. I must study
well. Have to используется для обязательств, которые навязываются нам другими людьми,
или правилами. I have to wear uniform to school.

Еще хочу рассмотреть отдельно отрицательные формы этих глаголов, потому что по
смыслу они немного отличаются от своей утвердительной формы.
Mustn’t мы используем для запретов. You mustn’t smoke here.
Don’t have to мы используем, когда хотим подчеркнуть отсутствие необходимости что-то
делать. You don’t have to wash up. I can do it later.
Should мы используем, когда что-то советуем или говорим, что необходимо сделать. You
should wear read, you look beautiful in it!

3) Multiple choice (Sometimes more than 1 option is possible)


a) I must/have to/should lose some weight. I’m getting too big.
b) You mustn’t/ don’t have to/should not write in red ink on the exam paper. You can use
only black or blue.
c) You mustn’t/don’t have to/shouldn’t clean the flat. I can do it later.
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d) We must/have to/should help Sasha with the project, she’s so stressed!


e) Yesterday I must/had to/should do my homework in English.
f) Probably people must/will have to/should live on another planet one day.
g) I must/have to/should phone Ken, I really want to speak to him.
h) I must/have to/should stay at home – delivery is coming soon.
i) If you need more money, you must/have to/should ask your boss for a pay rise.
j) You mustn’t/didn’t have to/shouldn’t behave like that last weekend. It was rather rude.

4) Speaking. Imagine you are a headmaster of a school. Write a list of rules for your school using
must, mustn't, have to, don't have to. Think about these things:
 mobiles and gadgets
 homework
 arrival at school
 school duties
 dress code
 security
 behaviour
 cafeteria and food
For example, You mustn't smoke at at school.

5) Translation
a) Сильвии приходится носить униформу, потому что она медсестра.
b) Генри приходится носить очки для чтения.
c) Кэролин должна больше заниматься, чтобы сдать этот тест.
d) Машина очень грязная, тебе нужно помыть её.
e) Ты должен закрывать двери на ночь.
f) Ты должен взять отпуск обязательно в августе?
g) Тебе не нужно брать с собой паспорт, достаточно будет прав.
h) Здесь нельзя курить. За это штрафуют.
i) Тебе необязательно приходить в школу, если ты себя плохо чувствуешь. Можешь
остаться дома.
j) Вам нельзя сюда входить, это вход только для персонала!

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May/ might
May и might существуют в настоящем времени. В прошедшем may меняется на might.
May и might используются для обозначения будущего в этой же форме, поэтом особой
формы будущего времени для этих глаголов не существует.
Present Simple – may/might
Past Simple – might
May используется для предположений или просьб – He may still come later. May I go out?
Might также используется для предположений, но тут менее вероятно, что действие
произойдет. Также might может обозначать упрек или совет. You might be more polite! He
might not come, it’s too late.
Need показывает необходимость что-то сделать.

6) Multiple choice. (Sometimes more than 1 option is possible)


a) The rain may/might/need start soon – look at those clouds!
b) I really don’t know what is painted here. It may/might/need be a woman’s face.
c) We may/might/need batteries and the small shop may/might/need not have them.
d) You may not/might not/needn’t do all the shopping yourself. I will help you.
e) We may/might/need never see her again.
f) We may/might/need some fruit, but I am not sure we can buy them today – the shops
may/might/need be closed, it’s 9pm already.
g) Why is my Dad so silent today? He may/might/need worry about his work.
h) She said she may/might/need become a teacher in the future.
i) Dan may not/might not/needn’t work so hard on the project – his brother is helping him
anyway.
j) You may not/might not/needn’t take any food with you – they will provide you with a
lunchbox.

Speaking. Say what you might/may or may not/might not do in 5 years. These phrases will help
you: go to university, fall in love, learn to drive, speak English fluently, get married, have
children, write a book, be on TV, live abroad, become a millionare
Example: In five years I might fall in love.

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Упражнения на все модальные глаголы

8) Multiple choice for can, could, be able to, must, have to, should, may, might, need and their
negative forms.

a) You ______________ correct everything in your work as the half of it is correct.


b) When I was younger, I ____________ run very fast.
c) That album you are looking for _____________ be in the cupboard, I haven’t looked
there for a long time.
d) Take some warm clothes with you. It ____________ be cold there.
e) _____ I give you money back on Sunday? I’m afraid I _______________ to give it back
earlier.
f) We _________________ be afraid to stay at home alone, nothing will happen to us.
g) You ____________ have a rest, you have been working non-stop since early morning.
h) It’s already 7! We ____________ hurry up if we want to be on time!
i) We ____________ wear uniform to school. But we ________________ switch off our
mobiles at lessons.
j) You __________ do it later, it’s not urgent.
k) __________ you help me with completing this form, please?
l) I _______________ to do all this by tomorrow! It’s impossible!
m) You ____________ leave your personal belongings unguarded. There _________ be
pickpockets.
n) Why won’t you go there? It ___________ be the chance you are waiting for!
o) We _______________ bring all these things back from the garden – it’s going to rain!

9) Translation for must/have to, mustn't/don't have to, should, can/can’t, be able to:
a) Я завтра не работаю, поэтому мне не нужно рано вставать.
b) Стив не знает, как выключить компьютер, и мне пришлось ему показать.
c) Медсестры обязаны носить униформу. Они обязаны любить свою работу. Иногда,
они могут работать ночью. Им нельзя опаздывать на работу. Они обязаны
говорить на разных языках.
d) Извините, мне нужно позвонить. Это не займет много времени.
e) Я не хочу, чтобы кто-то знал о моем секрете. Тебе нельзя о нем рассказывать.
f) Вам следует пить много воды, около 5 стаканов в день.

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g) Я не могу найти нужную мне улицу. Мне нужно спросить у кого-нибудь


направление.
h) Мы сегодня не заняты, сможем прийти к тебе вечером и помочь с приготовлениями
к вечеринке.
i) Я никогда не могла хорошо писать, а вот у моей сестры отличный почерк.
j) Мы не сможем приехать на твою свадьбу, потому что будем в отпуске.
k) Сильвии не нужно вставать так рано, но ей нравится это делать.
l) Если у тебя дома очень шумно, советую тебе пойти учить уроки в школьную
библиотеку.
m) Мне нельзя много есть, я на диете.
n) Мужчина пострадал из-за несчастного случая, но ему не нужно было ехать в
больницу - повреждения не серьезные.
o) Уже позже, чем я думала. Мне нужно идти.
p) Я не могу остаться надолго. - Во сколько ты должен идти?
q) Джейн занимает высокий пост в нашей компании. Она должна принимать
серьезные решения.
r) Ты не должен хорошо играть в теннис, чтобы понять правила игры.
s) В здании есть лифт, и нам не нужно подниматься по ступенькам.

10)Exam task

Lots of people do sport in their free time, but these people do extreme sports!

Cliff diving
Cliff diving is a very exciting extreme sport and Cyrille Oumedjkane is an expert
cliff diver. In this photo, he is in Kragero, Norway at the cliff diving world series.
He can jump between twenty and thirty metres into the water feet first. (Normal
divers (1)________________ do it only if someone helps them.) He CAN
(2)_______________ jump from any high place already when he was a teenager. CAN
‘I cliff dive because I like the adrenaline,’ he says.

Highlining
You can ‘highline’ in lots of different places, but to do it well, you must go to the
mountains. You (3)_______________ put a line between two high places and HAVE TO
walk across if you want to highline. In this photo, American Andy Lewis walks

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above a canyon in Utah, USA. It was evening so he (4)_______________ see CAN


well.

Paragliding
In this photo Justin Ferrar flies above Fronalpstock in the mountains of
Switzerland. The weather is perfect for paragliding and today it’s very peaceful.
But paragliding isn’t normally relaxing! Last week he HAVE TO
(5)__________________fly over 3,000 metres high and very long distances MAY
(over 300 kilometres). He (6)__________________ have a crash, but he did it!

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Неличные формы глагола

Инфинитив/Герундий

Когда два глагола стоят рядом в английском языке, перед вторым глаголом может стоять
to (want to eat) или ко второму глаголу нужно будет добавить –ing (like reading). В
некоторых случаях два глагола просто стоят рядом, без изменения. Это происходит, если
первый глагол – модальный (can swim) или make/let/let’s (например, let’s go).

Exam tip. Часто ученики на экзамене ставят вместо неличной формы глагола
полноценный глагол во времени. Чтобы избежать таких ошибок, я советую всегда искать
в предложении подлежащее и сказуемое. Если сказуемое уже есть в составе предложения,
а вам для преобразования дан глагол, – повод задуматься, что в пропуске нужна неличная
форма глагола – инфинитив, герундий или причастие. Также дословный перевод
предложения на русский может оказаться очень полезен.

Чтобы глаголы, после которых идет окончание –ing или to + infinitive, было удобней
запомнить, я их классифицировала и свела вот в такие таблицы:

Verb + -ing

likes and dislikes can’t help, can’t stand, dislike, I love playing volleyball.
enjoy, fancy, feel like, hate, like,
love, (not) mind, prefer

ideas and opinions admit, be worth, consider, imagine, I suggest going out tonight.
recommend, suggest

verbs that mark begin, continue, finish, keep, start, Let’s start reading!
beginning/continuation/ stop
end of an action

phrasal verbs break up, bring up, eat out, find I gave up eating fast food.
out, give up, grow up, look after,
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look for, look forward to, pick up,


speak up, show up

other verbs avoid, miss, spend time, I usually avoid speaking to


strangers.

Verb + to

likes and dislikes want, wish, would + hate, like, love, I want to go home now.
prefer

ideas and opinions agree, appear, choose, decide Do you agree to help me?

mental activity arrange, ask, expect, forget, help, I expect you to do my task.
hope, learn, manage, offer, prepare,
plan, pretend, promise, refuse

other verbs afford, fail, help, seem I can’t afford to buy this car
yet.

Есть глаголы, после которых можно вставлять инфинитив или герундий, без особых
изменений значения: begin, continue, hate, like, love, prefer, start.
После глагола help глагол может стоять в инфинитиве с частицей to или без неё.

1) Transformation.
Example: I have always wanted to become a lawyer. (become)
a) I never expected _________ top student in my class. (be)
b) I can’t join you tonight – I promised Mom ________ her with the cooking. (help)
c) Do you feel like ___________ out this evening? I want __________ that new play. (go,
see)
d) I’m finishing ______ this task. Let’s _____ for a walk! (do, go)
e) I’d love ___________ to this celebration, but Tim asked me _______ him out. (come,
help)
f) Derek has always wanted ________ abroad. (go)
g) When I was small, I loved __________ to circus. (go)
h) Most teenagers spend time ___________ in front of their computers. (sit)
i) My parents and I decided ____________ a cat for my birthday. (buy)
j) M y friend recommended me __________ their football team. (join)
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k) I failed ___________ that exam, unfortunately. (pass)


l) My grandma always looks forward to __________________ summer holidays because I
come to visit her every summer. (have)
m) You should stop __________ junk food, it’s bad for your health! (eat)
n) You should _______ that performance! It’s absolutely worth _____________! (see, visit)
o) I managed ____________ some money this month, so soon I will be able ___________
that pretty dress for myself. (save, buy)

2) Translation.

a)
Я не выношу, когда люди громко говорят по телефону. Ты не хочешь пойти в парк
погулять?
b) Тебе нужно практиковаться в английском каждый день, если ты хочешь хорошо
говорить на языке.
c) Мы ждем - не дождемся увидеть вашу новую квартиру.
d) Иногда, босс заставляет меня работать по выходным.
e) Пожалуйста, дай мне сказать!
f) Продолжай говорить, я тебя слушаю.
g) Если Сара пообещала это сделать, она обязательно сделает!
h) Я всегда с нетерпением жду новогодних праздников, когда можно отдохнуть от
работы и заняться тем, чем ты хочешь.
i) Мы договорились встретиться у входа в ресторан.
j) Я притворилась, что мне интересно слушать его рассказ о своей семье.
k) Миша бросил есть сладкое, потому что его доктор запретил ему.
l) Я всегда избегаю ездить в центр на машине, потому что там негде парковаться.
m) Надеюсь увидеть тебя скоро!
n) Я бы лучше поехала на поезде, я боюсь летать.

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3) Speaking. Continue the sentences. You must put a verb with –ing/to in the sentence.
Example: I like playing board games.

a) I always look forward to ...


b) My friend always promises ...
c) I can't stand ...
d) I want ...
e) I seldom manage ...
f) I gave up ...
g) I often spend time ...
h) I love ...
i) I often fail ...
j) Recently I have decided ...

Но есть и глаголы, значение которых меняется в зависимости от того, что стоит после
него – инфинитив или герундий..

Глагол + инфинитив + герундий

Forget Что-то должны сделать Воспоминания о прошлом.


remember I forgot to water the flowers. I can’t forget going to the sea.
Я забыла полить цветы. Я не могу забыть, как ездила на море.
I didn’t remember to do I remember visiting this place.
homework. Я помню, как посещала это место.
Я не вспомнил, что надо было
сделать домашнее задание.

regret Плохие новости в формальном Сожаления о прошлом


письме I regret moving to Moscow.
We regret to inform you about your Я жалею, что переехал в Москву.
unsuccessful application to our
university.

need Активное значение Пассивное значение


You need to wash the car. The car needs washing.

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Тебе нужно помыть машину. Машина нуждается в мойке.

stop Остановиться, чтобы начать Прекратить что-то делать


делать что-то другое I stopped playing football
We stopped to buy some ice- professionally 2 years ago.
cream.

try Прилагать усилия Поэкспериментировать


I tried to open this bottle but failed. I tried sleeping on the floor but it didn’t
help my back.

4) Transformation
Example: I regret to tell you Michael has already left and can’t meet you tomorrow. (tell)
a) Miranda stopped _______________ the horror film as it was getting too scary. (watch)
b) I was late for work because I stopped _______________ to some friends. (talk)
c) We regret _______________ you that our hotel is fully booked until the end of August.
(inform)
d) Max regrets _______________ so rudely to his girlfriend. (speak)
e) I clearly remember _______________ Grace at the party. She was talking to Charlotte
and Amy. (see)
f) Remember _______________ your grandmother tomorrow. It's her birthday. (phone)
g) Don't forget _______________ your swimsuits! There's a lovely pool at the hotel. (pack)
h) Amanda will never forget _______________ George Michael at the concert. What a
great night out! (see)
i) Try not __________ you brother, please! (annoy)
j) Why don’t you try _____________ this tool to fix the devise? (use)
k) I need ____________ harder if I want to pass the exam. (to work)
l) This bedroom hasn't been cleaned for months, it needs _____________ today. (to clean)

5) Speaking
a) Do you ever forget to switch anything off when you leave home?
b) What place will you never forget going to?
c) Is there anything you regret doing?
d) Is there anything in your flat that needs doing?

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e) Is there anything you need to do at the moment?


f) I often remember to do things when it's too late. Does it ever happen to you?
g) Have you recently stopped doing anything?

6) Exam task

Nowadays, every household keeps (1)___________________ electronic PRODUCE


rubbish (or e-rubbish) – an old TV or computer printer, or an out-of-date
mobile phone we finish (2)____________________. But when we throw these USE
everyday items away, not many of us know where these objects go. The
journalist and photographer, Peter Essick, decided (3)___________ this e- FOLLOW
rubbish to several different countries around the world.
In particular, Essick found a lot of e-rubbish goes to Ghana. There, he saw
mountains of old computers in the local markets. The sellers manage
(4)_________________ some of them but not much equipment works. Instead, RESELL
they recycle the broken computers by melting the parts inside. These parts
appear (5)________________ a little metal such as copper or even gold CONTAIN
sometimes. However, this process of recycling is dangerous for the workers
because it produces a lot of toxic chemicals.
As a result of his journey, Peter Essick thinks it’s important to stop
(6)_______________ e-rubbish. It’s bad for the environment and it’s bad for EXPORT
people’s health. Instead, he recommends manufacturers (7)_____________ PRODUCE
more eco-friendly electronics in the future; in other words, electronic products
which are worth (8)____________ cheaply, safely and in the country where RECYCLE
they were made.

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7) Exam task

Every year, readers of National Geographic magazine vote for their


adventurers of the year. Here are two of them.

THE MOUNTAINEER
As a child, Edurne Pasaban lived in the mountainous Basque region of Spain
and she climbed her first mountain when she was fourteen. At university, she
studied engineering but she didn’t want (1)______________ a nine-to-five job. HAVE
In May 2010 she finished (2)___________ the world’s fourteen tallest CLIMB
mountains. Nowadays she is famous for her many climbing achievements,
However, she didn’t consider (3)____________________ as a way to become CLIMB
famous. She says, ‘For me, adventure is a way of life.’

THE ROAD TRIPPERS


Steven Shoppman and Stephen Bouey were old friends who grew up
(4)_______________ together in Denver. But they knew each other a lot better PLAY
after their adventure. They both planned (5)______________ on a road trip GO
round the world. From 2007 to 2010, they managed (6)_______________ DRIVE
through 69 different countries during their 122,000-kilometre journey and had
many adventures. They even didn’t mind (7)______________ a big risk when TAKE
they went across a minefield. They also got help from lots of people and they
can’t help (8)__________________ that the world wasn’t as dangerous as they FEEL
thought!

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Причастие 1 и 2

Причастие 1 соответствует нашему действительному причастию и в английском языке


образуется путем прибавления –ing к глаголу.
She came home whistling a song. Она зашла домой, напевая песенку.

Причастие 2 соответствует русскому страдательному причастию и в английском языке


образуется путем прибавления –ed к глаголу. Для неправильных глаголов здесь
используем третью форму.
I don’t know the word written here. Я не знаю слово, написанное здесь.

На самом деле, во многих английских грамматиках вы не найдете термина «причастие» по


той причине, что для англичан это –ing-форма. То есть она очень похожа на герундий в
нашем понимании и на прилагательные на –ing/-ed. Поэтому в упражнениях вы найдете
несколько примеров, которые можно было бы отнести и в тему герундия и
прилагательных на –ing/-ed.

1) Multiple choice.

a) The man playing/played the guitar is my uncle.


b) The tea drinking/drunk after lunch was tasty.
c) I like boiling/boiled eggs for breakfast.
d) Frankly speaking/spoke, I would like to stay in tonight and read a book.
e) Who is that girl sitting/sat over there?
f) That is a cathedral building/built 5 centuries ago.
g) Why do you look so exhausting/exhausted?
h) Stealing/stolen paintings were returned to the gallery.
i) I saw breaking/broken glass on the floor. Who broke the mirror?
j) The email sending/sent to me yesterday didn’t have any important information.

2) Exam task.

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The small country of Bhutan in the Himalayan mountains is over one thousand
years old. In the past it was a poor country and not 1)_______ by many people. VISIT
But nowadays, it is becoming more and more popular with tourists. This
country now has constantly (2)______________ medicine and GROW
(3)________________ economy. King Jigme Singye Wangchuck, the king of IMPROVE
Bhutan until 2006, thought happiness is the way to measure the country’s
development.
But how do you measure happiness? Perhaps health is the best way because a
famous doctor once said, ‘Happy people generally don’t get sick.’ For example,
one survey says Iceland is the ‘healthiest country in the world’ because men POLLUTE
and women live a long time there, the air is not (4)______________________ WORK
and there are more doctors (5)________________ per person than anywhere
else in the world.
However, there was another survey of the happiest countries in the world and INCLUDE
Iceland was not near the top. The (6)________________questions on this
survey were: How much do you earn? How healthy are you? How safe do you VISIT
feel? After (7)______________ 155 different countries, the researchers decided
that Denmark feels happier than other countries.
So does happiness equal money and good health? Not according to the artist
Erik Krikortz. In his home city of Stockholm, Krikortz shows the results of his COLOUR
survey as different (8)______________ lights on the side of a large building in
the city. For example, red means the people of Stockholm are very happy,
green is OK and purple means many people are sad. ‘A lot of people look at the
building every day and see how “we” are,’ Krikortz says.

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Ниже в схеме представляю шпаргалку со всеми возможными трансформациями глагола на


ЕГЭ:

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Краткое резюме

А здесь я хотела бы еще раз кратко обобщить всю информацию по грамматике,


необходимой для успешного выполнения задания 19-25 и расписать схему его
выполнения.
 Если перед нами существительное:
1) Наиболее вероятное — образовать от него форму множественного числа (выучить все
исключения, типа foot — feet, а если мн. ч. образуется по общему правилу, то быть
внимательным — не меняется ли конечная y на i, не меняется ли f на v, не добавляется ли
-es вместо привычного — s).
Пример: Machu Picchu, often called “The Lost City of the Incas”, is probably the most famous
symbol of the Incan Empire. Machu Picchu is situated 7,875 _______FOOT________ above sea
level in Peru. (правильный ответ – FEET)
2) Менее вероятный — притяжательная форма существительного (вроде world —
world’s). Распознать этот случай легко — после пропуска будет стоять еще одно
существительное.
Пример: This was my ____FRIEND_____ worst habit. (правильный ответ – FRIEND”S)
 Если видите местоимение (например, I), ставьте его в падеж —
объектный (me) или притяжательный (my или mine). Еще возможна рефлексивная форма –
myself. В предложении ниже после пропуска стоит существительное (здесь и далее
примеры-картинки из демоверсии экзамена 2016 года), так что здесь единственный
вариант – притяжательный падеж, который ставится перед существительным.

Указательное местоимение (this, that) нужно ставить во мн. ч. (these, those


соответственно). Неопределенные местоимения (some, any, no, every и их производные) в
тестах встречаются реже, но кодификатор предупреждает, что они могут попасться.
 С числительными все волшебно просто — преобразуем количественное в
порядковое, помня все тонкости правильнописания (например, one – first).
Пример: My ___TWO_____ thought was that I had mistaken the number of the house.
(Правильный ответ – SECOND)
 Прилагательное или наречие ставим в какую-то из степеней сравнения.
Небольшой лайфхак – если перед пропуском стоит than или конструкция the … the …
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(например, the better you prepare, the better mark you have), это сравнительная, а если the, то
превосходная. Здесь нужно помнить, что the второй раз писать не надо, только саму
превосходную форму.
Пример: The ______BAD_________ moment was when I remembered that I had recently asked
staff members to give me their home numbers. (Правильный ответ – WORST)
Внимание! Ученики то и дело норовят в этом задании сделать из прилагательного наречие
или дописать спереди отрицательную приставку. Обращаем внимание, что так можно
делать только в следующем задании.
А вот с глаголами придется попотеть (поэтому и таблица ниже такая путаная).
И сначала понять — перед нами личная форма (та, которая изменяется по временам) или
неличная (причастие активное или пассивное, инфинитив или герундий).

1) Узнать неличную форму легко — в предложении уже есть сказуемое,


выраженное личной формой глагола, то есть наш пропуск стоит не на месте сказуемого, а
на другом месте в предложении, идеально – если перед ним запятая, которая явно
намекает на что-то отличное от сказуемого.
Рассмотрим пример из демоверсии 2017 года, первые два задания. Перед пропуском в
задании 19 стоит запятая, явно намекая на оборот, дополняющий главное предложение
“The name Alaska comes from the Aleut word alaxsxaq”. Осталось только понять – активное
или пассивное значение у уточняющего оборота. Так как слово само что-то обозначает,
делает вывод об активном значении причастия и пишем meaning.
В задании 20 также запятой отделен уточняющий оборот. При переводе становится
понятен его пассивный смысл, слово не само сформировалось, его сформировали, поэтому
добавляем к глаголу form пассивное окончание -ed.

То же самое грамматическое явление и в 22 задании. Но тут все облегчается семантикой


слова locate. После прорешивания n-ного количества примеров, становится очевидно, что
при виде слова locate нужно ждать пассивного значения – либо это личная пассивная

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форма глагола, либо причастие с пассивным значением located:

2) Если в предложении пропуск стоит после подлежащего, и сказуемого недостает,


перед нами точно личная форма.
Как и с причастием, решаем активный это залог или пассивный (переведя предложение) и
дальше думаем, в какое время его поставить. В этом же предложении (ну, или в
предыдущих) могут стоять слова-подсказки. Если их нет, смотрим на само предложение и
что его окружает.
Снова обратимся к демоверсии 2017 года. Понять, что мы видим личную форму глагола в
заданиях 21 и 23 можно, найдя подлежащее – оно стоит прямо перед пропуском, which в
задании 21 и structure в задании 22. В первом случае для понимания пассивного характера
глагола нам потребуется перевод, во втором случае – стоит предлог by, в большинстве
случаев указывающих на пассив.

Обойдя все подводные камни, не ошибиться бы еще в написании, выучив правила


орфографии и неправильные глаголы. В задании 24, например, мы видим личную форму
глагола (на месте сказуемого), понимаем, что оно стоит в активном залоге (участники
сами выигрывают соревнование), определяем время – прошедшее, потому что все
окружающие его предложения стоят в прошедшем времени, и по правилу согласования
времен мы знаем, что возле Past, как правило стоит, Past или Future-in-the-Past. Так как в
этом предложении нет определенных показателей времени, и оно обозначает просто
событие в прошлом, выбираем Past Simple.

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Также нужно уметь распознавать предложения условия (и конструкции с I wish)


или согласование времен в косвенной речи, которые также могут тут встретиться.
Пример: One day I decided to ask him why he always chose this type while driving. “Well,
sister,” he reluctantly replied, “to be frank, it’s mainly so you can’t sing along.” He added that he
_______LISTEN___________ to anything else if only I promised not to sing along.
(Правильный ответ – WOULD LISTEN, согласование времен в косвенной речи)
Обратите внимание, как нужно заполнять бланк к этому заданию – все
заглавными буквами и без пропусков. Если в ответе есть апостроф, например – didn’t
like, то он записывается в отдельную клетку. Вообще, госпожа Вербицкая советует
избегать апострофов в пользу полной формы – did not like, потому что “компьютер их
может не считать”.

Еще несколько общих советов по выполнению этого задания:

1. Читать ВЕСЬ текст сплошняком, потому что подсказка на грамматическую


форму может быть не в этом конкретном предложении, а в предыдущем. Или в
последующем.

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2. Если вы правильно определили форму, озаботьтесь еще ее правильным


написанием. При корявой орфографии не зачтут.
3. Глагольные формы могут быть полные или краткие (haven’t или have not), но
я советую писать полную форму глагола, потому что компьютер может не считать
апостроф.
4. Проверьте еще раз.
5. Если ничего не знаете, все равно напишите хоть что-нибудь, мало ли.

Если после внесения информации в бланк вы поняли, что допустили ошибку –


внизу бланка есть «Замена ошибочных ответов». Это поле заполняется также, как и
основное – без пробелов заглавными буквами. Обратите внимание – если вы вдруг туда
записываете неправильный ответ, а правильный ответ остался в основном бланке –
засчитан будет только ответ из нижнего поля.

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Тренировочные варианты

Тест 1

Once upon a time there lived in Germany two brothers who loved a good story.
At school they (1)____________ a wise man who led them to a treasure – a MEET
library of old books with tales more enchanting than any they
(2)_____ever_________. The brothers began collecting their own stories HEAR
listening to the folktales people told them. Soon they produced their own
treasure – a book of fairy tales that would charm millions in faraway lands for
generations to come.
The brothers Grimm, Jacob and Wilhelm, named their story collection
Children’s and Household Tales and published it in Germany in 1812. The
collection (3)________________ into more than 160 languages. TRANSLATE
Although the brothers implied that they were just keeping records of tales,
Wilhelm continued to polish and reshape the stories up to the final edition of
1857. In an effort to make them more acceptable to children and their parents,
he stressed the moral of each tale.
Yet despite all Wilhelm’s additions, the core of (4)____________ stories was THIS
left untouched. The cruel treatment of (5)______________ (Hansel and Gretel CHILD
are put in a cage by a witch and then fattened ready for eating), the violent
punishments handed out to the stories’ villains (in the original Snow White the
evil stepmother (6)______________ to dance in red-hot iron shoes until she MAKE
falls down dead), are too much for some parents.
So what accounts for their popularity? Some (7)______________ it is because SUGGEST
the characters are always striving for happiness. But the truth probably lies in THEY
(8)___________ origin. Grimms’ tales (9)___________ out of a storytelling BEAR
tradition without boundaries of age or culture. The brothers’ skill was to
translate these into the (10)_________________ style of writing that seems to UNIVERSAL
mirror whatever moods or interests we bring to our reading of them. And so it
was that the Grimms’ fairy tales lived happily ever after.

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Тест 2

The regular world presented to us by our five senses – you could call it reality
1.0 – is not always the most user-friendly of places. We get lost in unfamiliar
(1)____________; we meet people whose language we don’t understand. So CITY
why not try the (2)_____________ version: augmented reality (AR) or reality IMPROVE
2.0? AR technology superimposes computer-generated images on the real
world, via a mobile phone camera or special video glasses.
Early forms of AR are already here. With the right downloads, a smart phone
(3)____________ information about nearby ATMs and restaurants and other DELIVER
points of interest. But that’s just the beginning. A few years from now the
quantity of information available will have increased enormously.
This is where the next revolution in computing (4)_____________ place: not TAKE
in ever-more sophisticated games that exist in a virtual reality world, but rather
in the interface between the real world and the information brought to us via
the Internet.
Let’s jump ahead to ten years from now. A person (5)___________ to fix their TRY
car won’t be looking at a repair manual online or a book with illustrations; they
will be wearing a device that projects animated 3-D computer graphics onto
the equipment under repair, labelling parts and giving step-by-step guidance.
Such technology (6)______ already __________ by trainee mechanics in the USE
US marines.
The window onto the AR world (7)_________ be a smart phone or special CAN
video glasses that look like wraparound (8)___________. But in ten years’ SUNGLASS
time (9)____________ will have been replaced by contact lenses etched with THIS
tiny LEDs, which display text and images at a readable distance in front of the
eye. So a deaf person wearing these inconspicuous lenses will be able to see a
real-time transcript of what people are saying as they speak.
The question is: while we (10) _____________ in our new augmented reality ABSORB
worlds, how will we be interacting with each other?

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Тест 3

There once was a sheikh with big dreams. His land was a sleepy village
(1)______________ by pearl divers, (2)_______________ and traders who OCCUPY
docked their boats along a small creek through the town. It was here that FISHERMAN
Sheikh Rashid bin Saeed al Maktoum imagined creating a gateway to the
world. It was a dream he (3)______________ not afford to realise. So in 1959 CAN
he asked a neighbour to lend him many millions of dollars. He made the creek
wider, (4)___________ roads, schools and homes. With his young son, BUILD
Mohammed, by his side, he walked along the empty waterfront and painted
his dream with words. And some years later, it was as he had said. He built
it, and they came.
Then it was his son’s turn to carry on developing his (5)______________ FATHER
vision. Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid al Maktoum transformed Dubai into
an air-conditioned fantasy world of 1.5 million (6)____________. No project PERSON
seemed to be too ambitious for him. He built the world’s (7)___________
high-rise building, the 828 metre Burj Khalifa, the world’s biggest shopping TALL
mall and the world’s largest motorway intersection. He helped Little Dubai
become the shopping capital of the Middle East. In the last five years, it
(8)_____________ more tourists than India. Its most famous landmark, the ATTRACT
Palm Jumeirah, an artificial island built in the shape of a palm tree, provides
holiday villas for the rich and famous.
But the financial crisis in 2008 (9)_______________ people think again and MAKE
Dubai failed to sell many of its new luxury apartments. Up to then property
in Dubai had been increasing in value and it had been easy to get people to
invest. (10)__________ days, investors risk losing money. THIS

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Тест 4

Kai Kensavaong will never again walk along the muddy lanes of Sop On, the BEAR
village in southern Laos where she (1)__________. (2)________ old home SHE
now lies at the bottom of a reservoir of brown water created to feed a
hydroelectric power plant, the (3)___________ to be funded by the World ONE
Bank for over twenty years. ‘I’ll never forget that place,’ says the 41-year-
old villager. ‘It was my home. I picked my first bamboo stalks there.’
The World Bank stopped (4)_____________ hydroelectric dam projects in FINANCE
developing countries twenty years ago because of criticism that such projects
were harming local communities and the environment.
The bank says that lessons (5)______________ from the projects of the LEARN
sixties and seventies when people were forced to resettle and whole areas of
forest or agricultural land were flooded.
In 2010 the dam (6)_____________ $5.6 million in sales of electricity and it BRING
(7)_____________ that during the next 25 years Nam Theun 2 will generate ESTIMATE
around $2 billion in revenue to Laos, one of Asia’s (8)___________ POOR
countries, since most of the electricity (9)_______________ to its power- EXPORT
hungry neighbour, Thailand. The government (10)_________________ that PROMISE
this money will be spent on reducing poverty and both renewing and
improving the country’s infrastructure.

Тест 5

You probably don’t like the term ‘staycation’. Me neither. But you mustn’t be
put off. As a concept, it is quite attractive. Perhaps you already (1)____________
one, but weren’t aware that’s what it was called. Staycations don’t just mean HAVE
(2)_____________ in doing things around the house or just relaxing at home. STAY
They involve getting out more by taking day trips from your home to see local
sights. If you (3)______________ to stay at home, you will holiday locally – for NOT WANT
example, camping at a local campsite.
Staycations originally (4)______________ popular after the financial crisis of BECOME
2008, when people were looking for ways to cut back on their spending. Apart

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from the savings, let’s not ignore the other benefits: you don’t have any of the
problems associated with travel, such as packing, long drives, delays at airports
and so on; and you bring money to the local economy, by eating out, for example.
The only people who hope this kind of holiday won’t catch on are the holiday
companies (5)_________________. THEY
Some staycationers who base themselves at home like to follow a set of rules,
such as setting a start and end date, planning their (6)________________ ahead ACTIVITY
of time and avoiding routine. You don’t have to do these things, but it helps to
create the feel of a traditional vacation. Others take it a step further. A recent
example was Karen Ash, whose story appeared in the Wall Street Journal.
A resident of New York, Karen Ash decided not to go to Japan, as she originally
(7)_________________, but instead took a weeklong Japanese vacation in her PLAN
own city. This included buying postcards and souvenirs at a Japanese market,
admiring bonsai plants, eating the (8)___________ ramen (and even speaking GOOD
Japanese when ordering), all without leaving New York. (9)_______ itinerary
also involved joining in at a traditional Japanese tea ceremony, attending a taiko SHE
drumming concert and watching Japanese soap operas on DVD. I don’t think
many people would want to take this (10)___________ trouble to create their
staycation, but you get the idea. MANY

Тест 6

PRISON HOTELS
(1)____________ in 1905, Karosta naval jail in Latvia was originally home to BUILD
mutinous Russian sailors. In the 1970s it housed political prisoners. According
to their website this is ‘an opportunity to stay overnight on real prisoners’
(2)____________ and mattresses’. In direct contrast to (3)__________ hotel BENCH
publicity, the website goes on to describe Karosta proudly as ‘unfriendly, MANY
unheated and uncomfortable’. They are not lying. This is more a reality jail
experience than a hotel. ‘Reception’ is a dark corridor where a former prison
guard explains the rules to you and then fires (4)_____________ gun in the air HE
to show you he is serious. After a meal of bread and sweet Russian tea,
‘guests’ (5)________________ five minutes to wash before making up their GIVE

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own bed from a wooden bench and thin mattress. Sound unpleasant? It is.
Mind you, for $12 per night, what do you expect?
CAVE HOTELS If you had more primitive accommodation in mind, why not
try the caves of Sassi di Matera on the toe of Italy, which (6)________________
since the Bronze Age? During the Renaissance they developed into INHABIT
(7)__________________ rooms with stone walls, vaulted ceilings and INTERESTING
balustrades. But in recent history they are best known as the poor homes of the
peasants who lived there with their animals until as late as 1952. Now, however,
they (8)_______________ to provide hospitality in a historical setting. RENOVATE
Although visitors to Le Grotte Della Civita must do without television or
fridges, the rooms (9)_______________ with antique furniture and period FURNISH
terracotta tiles. The owners wanted the caves to still feel as authentic as
possible, so they built the furniture into the walls of the caves and
(10)_____________ in place the iron rings where peasants tied up their animals. LEAVE
Prices start at $300 per night.

Тест 7

One thing you do not expect an oil minister to do is to block the development of
his own (1)______________ oil fields. But that is exactly what Alberto Acosta COUNTRY
did when he was appointed Ecuador’s Oil Minister in 2007.
For a relatively poor country whose main income is from oil exports, this
proposal seemed like madness. But if Ecuador is not rich by economic standards,
in terms of biodiversity, it is one of the (2)__________ places on Earth. When RICH
scientists (3)______________ trees in the Yasuni National Park in Ecuador’s STUDY
unspoiled rain forest, they found over 650 different species of tree in just one
hectare – (4)__________ than the total number in all of the US and Canada MANY
combined.
Mr Acosta said he (5)___________ rather the oil companies did not destroy WILL
these natural riches. His innovative idea was to leave the oil reserves beneath
Yasuni Park untouched, in return for compensation of half their value. The oil is
worth more than $7 billion, so Ecuador asked the international community to
pay $3.6 billion not to extract it.

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But the plan (6)___________ with problems, both from within Ecuador and MEET
from outside. The state oil company, Petroecuador, opposes the scheme and
many suspect that President Correa now wishes he had never supported it. At
the same time only a few countries have shown interest, with only Germany
(7)____________ $800 million over thirteen years. PROMISE
Ecuador is not the only country trying to get richer nations to pay for not
exploiting (8)__________ forests. Both Nigeria and Guatemala are hoping they THEY
will (9)______________ make similar deals. A spokesperson for local CAN
environmental groups explained, ‘This is a fantastic initiative. If only people in
developed countries appreciated that these forests absorb a lot of the CO2 that
their industries produce. If we (10)___________ something to protect NOT DO
biodiversity and prevent climate change, we will all be losers – with
consequences I’d rather not even think about.’

Тест 8

Madagascar is an island – the world’s fourth (1)_____________, at over 225,000 LARGE


square miles – but an island nevertheless. Although all islands have their own
unique ecosystems, nature has blessed Madagascar with exceptional riches.
Roughly 90 per cent of its flora and fauna (2)_____________ nowhere else on FIND
the planet.
But (3)_______ rare beauty hides the desperate situation of its people. The IT
typical Madagascan (4)_________ on about a dollar a day, even though you LIVE
would not guess this from the attitude of the Malagasy, the island’s main ethnic
group, who are a cheerful and optimistic race. Since the first humans
(5)__________ in Madagascar some 2,300 years ago, loggers and developers ARRIVE
have destroyed nearly 90 per cent of the island’s original forest habitat,
harvesting it for timber or burning it down to create room for crops and,
(6)_____________, cattle. RECENTLY
Considering that Madagascar’s population is growing by three per cent a year,
this tension between rich land and poor residents (7)______________ day by INCREASE
day. Alarmed ecologists have named Madagascar a biodiversity hot spot,
deploring the practice of slash-and-burn agriculture. In 2002 the global

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environmental community rejoiced when green-friendly Marc Ravalomanana


(8)_____________ president. But only seven years later, in the spring of 2009, ELECT
the military replaced Ravalomanana with a former radio disc jockey who seemed
to have little interest in protecting the environment.
Needing money, the new government reversed a ban on the export of precious
hardwoods, making it legal to sell wood from trees which already
(9)_________________ down or had fallen during the cyclones that regularly hit CUT
the island. Yet in reality they did little to control the loggers who continued to
rob the forests of new wood. The main targets of this environmental crime are
the rosewood tree and the ebony tree. The wood from these majestic trees is in
high demand: in China it (10)_____________ to make exotic imperial-style USE
furniture for the new middle class; in Europe and America it is a valued material
in the manufacture of expensive musical instruments.

Тест 9

She remembers the moment the photographer took her picture. The man was
a stranger, but he asked if he (1)___________ and she agreed to let him take CAN
it. She never (2)_________________ before and until they met a second time PHOTOGRAPH
seventeen years (3)_________, she was not photographed again. LATE
The photographer, Steve McCurry, remembers the moment too. It was 1984
and he was recording the lives of Afghan refugees in a camp in Pakistan. She
(4)_____________ out of the school tent and he thought at the time that the STARE
picture (5)_____________ be nothing special. Yet the ‘Afghan girl’, as the WILL
portrait (6)_____________ now, became one of the most iconic images of our KNOW
time. McCurry used her intense expression, so untypical of an average,
carefree twelve-year-old girl, to warn us not to ignore the victims of war,
especially its young victims.
In 2002 National Geographic persuaded McCurry to return to Pakistan to look
for the girl. After (7)_____________ her photo around the refugee camp, he SHOW
found a man who had known her as a child and knew where to find her. He
offered to fetch (8)_____________ from her home in the Tora Bora mountains SHE

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and after three days returned with Sharbat Gula, a woman perhaps 29 years
old. McCurry knew at once that this was her.
Time and hardship had erased her youth. Her skin was weathered. Yet her eyes
still burned with the same intensity. Her brother explained the story of their LIFE
(9)____________, blaming the war for forcing them and many other Afghans
out of their homeland. When Sharbat was six years old, they fled to the
mountains, hiding in caves and begging people to give them food and blankets.
She married when she was sixteen and now her time is occupied with bringing
up her three children, cooking, cleaning and caring for them. Yet she does not AMAZINGLY
complain about having a hard life. (10)___________, she is not aware of the
impact that the photo of the young Sharbat with her sea-green eyes had on the
world.

Тест 10

Neil Armstrong, the (1)_____________ of the astronauts on Apollo 11, has FAMOUS
been called the ultimate professional. He was hired to do a job. He did the job
and then he (2)___________ home and kept quiet about it. In 40 years, he gave GO
two interviews. But how can the man who (3)_________ set foot on the Moon, ONE
a hero to millions of people, remain such a mystery?
People like Armstrong often develop their interests at a young age. He followed
a career built on a passion for (4)____________ that he developed in his FLY
childhood in the 1930s. He learnt to fly before he (5)____________ from high GRADUATE
school in Wapakoneta, Ohio. He then did a course in aerospace engineering at
Purdue University in Indiana, sponsored by the United States Navy, which
meant that Armstrong (6)_____________ to serve as a naval pilot for three HAVE
years. He saw action almost immediately, flying 78 missions in the war in
Korea.
He (7)_____________ for a space plane pilot training programme in 1960 but SELECT
shortly after news began to circulate that NASA was looking for astronauts for
their Apollo programme. Incredibly excited, he applied for the job and in 1962
was accepted. The rest, as they say, is history.

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When the astronauts returned from the Apollo 11 Moon landing of July 1969,
Armstrong was a worldwide celebrity and could have done ANY
(8)______________ he wanted – TV shows, public speaking. Instead, he
became a teacher at the University of Cincinnati and at the weekend went
flying to get away from all the attention. He subsequently worked for two COMPANY
private (9)_________________ until he retired in 2002. In 40 years he only
gave two interviews. Why? Certainly he felt fortunate to have had the chance NOT FEEL
to fulfil his dream, but he (10)______________ any more special than the
thousands of people who worked on the Apollo space programme. He was just
the pilot.

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Таблицы

№1. Неправильные глаголы

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168

№2. Трансформация

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169

© Кузнецова Ирина, 2020

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