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c c cccc

c
c c c c cc  c 

0c 4c 
5
6c c 2c c c  c
c
cc

c cccc 


c c c ccc

c

2 
r 

Part A. Effect on the Ionization of Acids/Bases c c&c  c   c c  c c c 
#c  c

c c c  cc 
cc
c c 
c c c c c  c c c
cc c c c c cccc
c ×able 1.Effect of Ionization of Acids/Bases based on pH level
c!c!"#c
ccc
c c!ccc$ 
#ccc r c c
c " c c !c !"#c c c c " c c !c c c ccc
c c!c!"cc c
$ " #c c c c $ "c c !c !"c c c c c 
ccc
c c!ccc c
$ 
c
$ "c c!ccc$ 
c ccc c
c
c
ccc" c c!c )c
c cccc c cc c
!"c
ccc" c c!cc 'c
Part B. Buffering Effect c$ " c
ccc$ "c c!c )c
 ccccc

c c cc cc !"c


 c c  c c c  c c c c %c c 
c ccc$ "c c!cc +c
c cc c
c c cc c c
c
c c$ 
c
cc c

c &c  cc cccc

c #c cc c r


cc* c7c c  cc 
c!c
c%cc$ "c c c c ccc c
c c
c  c ×able 2.Solutions which exhibit Buffering Effect

c &
c c c c c 
c
c &c  c'cc #c c

 c
c c cc c c
c
c c$ "c
 c ccc'cc" c ccc'cc$ " (cc
8!"c 9c )c c ::::::c
c c 'c c 
c c c c 'c c $ 
(c c c c 'c c c 'c 'c 'c 7 c
$")c ccc'cc$ $")(cccc'cc$ !*"+c c 7c c c c 7 c
c c 'c c $ !*"+(c c c cc 'c c $+"c c c c )c c !c $c7 c
c 'c c $+
c  c c
,
c c   c 
c c 8c 9c 9c 9c 7 c
c -  c 
c c c c c ,c c  c -c ;c ;c ;c 7 c
.
c cc cc #c c ccc%cc
c cc c c &c c
c cc c#c c  c c
c
!#c c c c c %c c $ "c  c c c   c c  c c c 
c)c

c
c c ccccc
×able 3.Effects of a Common Ion on the Solubility of Slightly
Part C. Effect of Common Ion on the Solubility of Slightly Soluble Salts
Soluble Salts <
cc$ "c=c )9c
c


0cc72c c ++cc
/0c c c 

c c 
c c c 1c c3 c4c, c
6c
 c  c 'c c c  c 2 #c $ %'""#c c


0cc72c c %+)!cc1)cc
 c c  c +c c 

c  c c 2c c c c2 c


c
0
c c c c c c  c  c c 3 c c
0
c c
c 
,#c  c 
c c  c 
c c >c?c@%'""1A@ Ac
c  c  c  cc c
c c %'""c†c%'""1c c c

c

c c
 cc c
 c cc
cc c ´   

   


 c c c c c '1c -
0c 
c c
c?c)+%;% c
cc
   

 c !c c c  


 
c  c 
c c  c c
 ccc$ "cc c
 cc1c ´ ´´ 

0c?c c?c%;);cc
´ ´´
1+ 1
>c?c!cc cc?c@%'"" Ac@ Ac?c4%;); 6c46c
cB c  c c%;);c cc?c%;);c

!cc1+c?c4%;);6c46c
c?c%+)!cc1)cc
c