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Technical submission.

Date : 08-03-2009
Client : ADNOC
Project : OIL Terminal, Sharjah
Contractor : MIS
Inspection :

Chapter : 01

With Reference To Your Tender For 95 Nos Storage tanks/Silos/Hoppers. M/s SUNIL
HITECH Ltd. is Pleased To Submit Technical Proposal For Your Perusal.

The Tanks Will Be Designed As Per API 650 Last Edition. All The Steel Plate Material
Used Will Be Astm A 516 Gr. 70, For Structurals It Will Be SA 36. Flanges Will Be
A105-N, Pipes A 106 Gr. B, Fittings Will Be A 234 Gr. Wpb, Studs & Nuts A 193/194h.
Consumables, Paints & Fastners Will Be Origin From Reputed Indian manufacturers.

Chapter : 2

Scope of Work :

The scope of work shall include Supply of Tanks materials to be prefabricated ready
for local erection, and all relevant facilities , including design and fabrication drawings
plates and structures, piping, fittings, valves, flexible joints, instrumentation, fire fighting
and & all facilities to insure safe and proper operation of tanks.

- The Tank will be Dome Roof Tank with Internal Floating Roof & Fixed Cone Roof.
- The tank shall be designed as per API 650 Add 4.
- Mechanical Design & Drawings
- Providing Fabrication drawing & As built drawing/documents after completion of
work
- Fabrication of Shell, bottom, Annular plates
- Fabrication of Wind girders, curb angle, foam supports.
- Fabrication of erection of Spiral Ladder, Platforms, Roof Handrail
- Fabrication of Structural for Platforms
- Fabrication of Internal & External attachments
- Surface preparation and painting.
- Third Party inspection during pre-fabrication

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1. Reference standards & specification: following standards & specification will
be followed while preparing detail engineering, fabrication, erection and testing of
the tanks.

o General specification : as per specification & API 650 Last


edition.
o Design & construction : API - 650 ADD 4
o Welding : ASME,Sec-IX.
o Plate Material : ASTM A 516 Gr. 70

2. Tools & tackles used for fabrication: hydra - crane, hydraulic jacks, chain
pulley, welding rectifiers, pug cutting m/c, grinding m/c, rolling m/c etc.

3. Procedure:

A) Engineering: this part contains design calculation and preparation of


drawings, based on calculated design, various mentioned specification and
standard. Immediate after that 3 sets of each drawing along with Tank design
calculation shall be submitted to client / consultant.
B) Softwares : Pvelite, E-Tank, COADE Tank, PDMS, CADWORKS,
CODECAL, Autocad 2007.
C) Drawings
Drawing under review category
Review code 1 - no. Comments
Review code 2 - proceed with manufacture / fabrication as per commented
drawings. Revised drawing required.
Review code 3 - drawing does not conform to basic requirements as
marked. Resubmit for review.
R - retained for record.
V - void.

D) Procurement of Raw Material: all the raw material will be indented as


well as procured as per specification and code of construction i.e. as per API
650 Last Edition. All incoming material must be correlate with manufacturers /
mill test certificate. In case if t.c. Of any lot is not available with in four weeks
counting from the date of material received, random sample (s) from the said lot
will be check tested from any approved lab. Materials, for which t.c. Is awaited,
may be used against positive assurance of contractor. All material related
documents should be maintained in the proper format and with client’s /
consultant’s approval and signature.

The steel will be procured from :- (1) ALCHEVSK Iron & steel Works - Ukraine;
(2) Daval unisor Group - France; (3) Ispat Sidex S. A. - Romania; (4) Salzgitter
Handel - GmbH; (5) Oxybel S.A. - Belgium; (6) AG Der Dillinger Huttenwerke -

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Germany; (7) Azovstal Iron & Steel Works - Romania; (8) Arcelor-Mittal - UK; or
(9) POSCO Steel - Korea. Mfg. Test Certificates are issued on purchase of the
material. Hence we will produce all manufactrurers certificate after confirmation
of Purchase Order.

E) WPS/WQR/PQR: as per approved wps, minimum 6 nos. Welders will be


engaged for qualification test. At least 4 nos. Welders for 3 g position of plate
welding and 2 nos. Welders for pipe welding (6g) will be qualified before
commencing welding work and further welder will be engaged as per
requirement and instruction of engineer in-charge. Any welder having qualifying
certificate (within valid date) may be directed engaged with client’s /
consultant’s consent. Either supporting pqr shall be approved by client /
consultant or should be established freshly (this shall be done with mutual
understanding between stl and client / consultant).

F) Edge preparation & joint fit-up: for butt joint up-to max. Plate thickness
of 16mm single vee with 600 angle, root gap 2 –3 mm, max. Mismatch 2 mm
shall be maintained. Vee shall be prepared either by pug cutting or by grinding.
Single vee butt joint, incase of bottom plate shall be fitted with backing strip. Fit-
up joint must be grinded and inspected by both stl and client / consultant before
starting welding form o/s. All pipe joints, shell to nozzle joints, bottom to shell
joints, shall be inspected by client / consultant.

G) Welding of joint: all single vee butt joint up-to 10mm thick plate shall be
completed with one root run (full penetration), one second run and one single /
multi pass final run welding from o/s. Root run and second run welding will be
done with 3.15 mm electrodes where as final run may be done by 3.15 mm or 4
mm electrodes. Back chipping from i/s, visual inspection and one final run
welding must be done for all shell (single vee butt) joints. All weld height must
be maintained within 2–3 mm. Roof butt joint shall be one sided full penetration
type welding. Sport having lack of fusion / lack of penetration must be back
chipped and welded from other side. Roof butt joint root run must be followed
by inter pass grinding and d.p. Test as specified in contract under inspection of
stl and client / consultant. All weld seam i/s the dm water storage tank shall be
flush grinded.

H) Inspection of weld joint:

a) Radiography method: soundness of welded butt joint of roof,


bottom shell shall be tested by spot radiograph as per api-650
requirement..
b) Visual examination: during visual checking of weld zone crater
cracks / arc strikes in or adjacent to the weld surface cracks under cut
beyond 0.4 mm for vertical joints and 0.8 mm horizontal joints, 0.4 for
weld that attach nozzle, clean out opening more than one cluster of

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porosity with max. 2.5 mm dia in any 4” of weld length should not be
accepted. If any weld fails to meet the above criteria, it shall be repaired.
c) Hydrotest: all weld joints of shell, shell nozzle, shell to bottom
joints etc shall be tested as per procedure for hydrotest of tank. If any
leakage of water found, the leakage area has to be repaired. (By Site
Contractor)
d) Vacuum, pneumatic, chalk diesel test: soundness of bottom
plate welding shall be checked by vacuum testing method where as shell
to bottom weld shall be tested with chalk diesel test. Soundness of roof
weld and r.f. Pad welding shall be tested with pneumatic test. (By site
contractor)

I) Repair of weld defects: weld defect shall be removed by grinding from


one side or both side of the joint as required and re-welding shall be carried
out. All repaired welds shall be checked by repeating the original inspection
method.

J) Pre-fabrication: as pre-fabrication yard shall be leveled near to tank


foundation (foundation carried out by client)

A site organizing office will be constructed to execute all construction activities.


Pre-fabrication of bottom, shell, roof plate, structural parts, nozzle, manhole etc.
As per drawing.

NDT of the pre-welded joint. Verification of tank pads with respect to level and
co-ordinate shall be done
.
K) MECHANICAL CLEARANCE: Mechanical clearance has to be obtained
in the proper format after completion of all mechanical work before to start of
hydro test.

L) TESTING / INSPECTION: Client / Consultant must be informed for every


stage wise inspection. Only after satisfaction of SUNIL HITECH In-house
Inspection, Client / Consultant will be offered for the same. All inspection sheets
must be signed by SUNIL HITECH and Client’s / Consultant’s Engineer.
Procedure for all type of testing shall be submitted to Client / Consultant well in
advance for approval.

After completion of all activities hydrotest shall be carried out as per approved
procedure. Hydrotesting of tank shall be carried out after mechanical clearance
and attending all checklists points if any.Water filling will be done in 4 stages.
After 12 hrs. as per procedure of each stage of water filling settlement reading
has to be recorded.

If any leakage detected during hydrotest, defect area should be repaired with
water level minimum 300mm below the same. Before draining water pneumatic

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test of roof has to be completed as per approved procedure. After testing, water
shall be drained at the rate of 3 M water column per day. Care should be taken
while draining water that sufficient no. roof nozzle are kept open.

M ) SURFACE PREPARATION & PAINTING: Sand Blasting of entire surface


including structure as per specification. Application of first coat primer must be
done within 4 hrs of blasting. After completion of first coat primer on entire
surface other coats will be followed one by one. Blasting as well as painting
must not be carried in humid weather.

Chapter 3.

Scope of Supply : The tanks shall include the following systems as required:

INLET SYSTEM:-

This system is Designed as per API-650 Last edition. This system include, manual
valves, expansion joints, nozzle and reinforcements, supports , flanges, elbows and
piping with all accessories until limits of scope. From the Tender we understand that the
the Inlet size is 36” Dia. The pipe size will 36” NB fabricated from Steel Plate ASTM 516
Gr. 70. The Flange will be SORF Flange size 36” x 150# Gr. A-105. The 36” Dia x 50
mtr long Inlet pipe will be connected with the incoming pipeline. The other end of the 36”
Pipeline will be connected to Tank Inlet Nozzle with 36”x150# Expansion Bellow in-
between. The Inlet Flow will be controlled using 36”x150# Manual operated Gate Valve.
The incoming Line+Inlet Valve+Inlet Nozzle will be Flanged Joint fastened with
studs/nuts. All the material used will be of USA, European or Japan origin.

OUTLET SYSTEM :-

This system include manual valves, expansion joints , nozzle and reinforcements,
supports, flanges, elbows and piping with all accessories until limits of scope. From the
Tender we understand that the the Outlet size is 36” Dia. The pipe size will 36” NB
fabricated from Steel Plate ASTM 516 Gr. 70. The Flange will be SORF Flange size 36”
x 150# Gr. A-105. The 36” Dia x 50 mtr long Outlet pipe will be connected with the
discharge pipeline. The other end of the 36” Pipeline will be connected to Tank Shell
Outlet Nozzle with 36”x150# Expansion Bellow in-between. The Outlet Flow will be
controlled using 36”x150# Manual Operated Gate Valve. The Discharge Line+Outlet
Valve+Outlet Nozzle will be Flanged Joint fastened with studs/nuts. All the material
used will be of USA, European or Japan origin.

DRAIN CLEAN OFF SYSTEM / DESLUDGING SYSTEM :-

A method for removing a sludge from a crude oil tank while recovering hydrocarbons
from the sludge. The method is carried in the crude oil tank. The sludge is studied to
determine a preferred treatment fluid. Once the treatment fluid is in place in the tank,
the contents are vigorously mixed and agitated. Subsequently, the contents of the tank

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are sampled and any recovered hydrocarbons are removed, followed by removal of the
treatment fluid.

This system consist Draw-Off Sump of size 24” Dia x 24”Ht fabricated flushed to
Annular Plate. 10” Draw-off nozzle with a manual valves & expansion joint. The nozzle
is connected with pump inlet for sludge removal & discharge.

In this system Leak-Proof Clean Out Door of the size 24” x 24” Rectangular shape
fabricated with ASTM A 516 Gr.70 Material for sludge removal & cleaning tank. The
section is fabricated with Davit Arm & the complete assembly is PWHT-Post Weld Heat
Treated.

RECYCLE SYSTEM :-

The Recycle system is constructed out-of 26” Pipeline. One end of the system is
submerged in Sump & the other end is extended out-of Shell thru 26” Nozzle Flange
Joint. This system include a manual valves, expansion joint nozzle and reinforcements,
supports, flanges, elbows and piping with all accessories until limits of scope .

EXCITING SYSTEM :-

This system include 2 nos 24” Dia. Mixers mounted at the bottom of the tank on First
Shell Course with motor and all accessories. The motor capacity will be approx. 25HP
explosion proof. Driven by a horizontally foot mounted electric motor which is mounted
above the main mixer frame on steel mounting plate connected to the Gear Box.

Tank mixer performance is dependent upon propeller designed and efficiency pitch
adjusted propeller is highly efficient, three blade, marine type propeller precision set and
permanently fixed at our factory to assure superior mixing performance in each
individual application. Standard Material of Construction :-

• Impeller – ASTM A-48 Gr. 45


• Shaft – AISI 1021.
• Mounting Flange – ASTM A 515 Gr. 65.

Gear Box – Driven by a vertically flanged mounted electric motor which is mounted on a
substantial support bracket. Above the gear box and coupled by all metal flexible
coupling enclosed by a guard. The gear box comprises a single reduction hardened
high efficiency spiral bevel gear having a min. service factor of 1.52 AGMA Gear Class
2. The gears and all bearings are splash oil lubricated and enclosed in a large gear
case for rapid. The mixer bearing have min. B10 life of 44,000 hrs.

The formation of crude oil sludge

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Most crude oils that are stored & then transported for refining have a propensity to
separate into the heavier and lighter hydrocarbons from which the crude oil is
composed. This problem is often exacerbated by cool temperatures, the venting of
volatile components from the crude, and by the static condition of fluid during storage.
The heavy ends that separate from the crude oil and are deposited on the bottoms of
storage vessels are known as “tank bottoms”, or “sludge”. Tank bottoms are a
combination of hydrocarbons, sediment, paraffin and water. Tank bottoms can
accelerate corrosion, reduce storage capacity and disrupt operations. Paraffin-based
crude oil sludge forms when the molecular orbitals of individual straight-chain
hydrocarbons are blended by proximity, producing an induced dipole force that resists
separation. These dipole forces are called London Dispersion Forces, or Van der Waal
bonds, and are responsible for like molecular aggregation. As the ‘heavier’ straight-
chain hydrocarbons flocculate (heavier meaning predominantly the C20+ hydrocarbon
molecules), they tend to fall out of suspension within a static fluid, where they
accumulate on the tank floor as a viscous gel. Over time, this gel stratifies, as the
volatile components within the gel are ‘flashed’ from the gel with changes in
temperature and pressure. This departure of the volatile components results in a
concentration increase of the heavier fractions within the sludge, resulting in increased
density and viscosity and decreased mobility.

Conventional methods of reducing crude oil sludge

Traditionally the cleaning of crude oil storage tanks can be done using one of four
methods:

Manual Cleaning

Manual cleaning is the most common and historically has been the cheapest method of
tank cleaning. The cleaning is completed by entering the tank and using manual labour
to move the sludge either out the door or to pumps stationed in the tank. Personnel
spend long periods of time working in a toxic, flammable environment. The sludge may
contain such harmful compounds as H2S, benzene and lead. This method usually takes
a long period of time, costing the tank operator money in lost storage capacity. Using
this method, it is difficult to recover the usable hydrocarbons from the sludge that is
removed. The majority of the sludge that is removed is usually disposed of as
hazardous waste or incinerated. During the clean-out period, the tank is vented to
atmosphere and releases vapours that can be harmful to the environment.

Robotic Methods

This is really a variation of the manual cleaning method, except that a remotely
controlled robot is used to enter the tank and complete the labour. This method is very
expensive and does not solve the venting and disposal problems. This is not a popular
method with refinery owners and is primarily used in very dangerous environments only.

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Chemical Cleaning

Chemical cleaning is gaining popularity and credibility as a method of tank cleaning.


Various surfactants, solvents or bacteria are used to break down the complex molecules
contained in the sludge and render them to their basic constituents – water, crude oil
and particulate. This method relies on a chemical reaction and the speed, efficiency and
thoroughness of the reaction are proportional the exposed surface area of the sludge.
Therefore chemical cleaning methods require some sort of mixing apparatus or method
of agitation.

Reduction through re-suspension and shearing by fluid jet

Recently, significant advances have been made in the application of high velocity fluid
jets that are introduced into the full crude oil tank for the purpose of re-suspending the
accumulated sludge and shearing the paraffin to prolong re-suspension of the heavy
hydrocarbon molecules.

The ‘Critical Energy Minimum’

The basis for agitation of static volumes of crude oil lies in the theory that it is possible
to introduce sufficient kinetic energy into the system to retard or prevent the formation of
the induced dipole (the Van der Waal bond). Preliminary investigations into sludge
deposition by Exxon in the 1980’s concluded that light crude oils require a minimum
continuous energy input of 190 Watts/100 m3 of volume in order to prevent sludge
deposition. Typically, side-entry propeller mixers used for storage tank mixing and
agitation are sized using this criteria. More recent empirical evidence suggests that the
continuous energy input required to prevent sludge formation in medium and heavy
crudes is 280 – 375 Watts/100 m3 of volume. This ‘critical energy minimum’ can be
related to a minimum critical velocity for suspension, or VS, which must be maintained
throughout the entire fluid volume in order to prevent sludge formation. The majority of
crude oil storage tanks in use today are under-serviced in terms of VS, resulting in
uneven sludge deposition. This manifests as a sludge-free area immediately
surrounding the propeller mixer, with substantial or severe deposition occurring beyond
a specific radius, rV, at which the fluid velocity drops below VS.

Submerged Fluid Jet Method.

The ability of a submerged fluid jet to resuspend crude oil “sludge” is dictated primarily
by two aspects of the sludge and parent fluid. These properties are the chemical
composition of the material (i.e.: what molecules make up the sludge) and the viscosity

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of the material. In relation to the effectiveness of a jet mixer, the temperature-viscosity
and composition-viscosity interrelationships and their effects on the efficiency of
resuspension and shearing are of primary interest. The ability of the system to “shear”
the paraffin molecules depends in part on the viscosity of the fluid, as viscosity is a
measure of the energy dissipated by a fluid in motion as it resists an applied shearing
force. Fluids can exhibit two types of viscous behavior – Newtonian or non-Newtonian.
When a fluid’s resistance to a constantly changing applied shear stress increases as the
shear stress increases and retraces the same curve when the shear stress rate change
is reversed, that fluid is said to be exhibiting Newtonian behavior. Paraffin-based crude
oil sludge (also commonly called “wax”) behaves as a thixotropic non-Newtonian fluid.
The behavior of the wax is classified as thixotropic because it physically displays
thinning properties when shear stress is applied. This thinning is a result of the shear
stress breaking the London Dispersion Forces that exist between. Typical Schematic of
Exciting System installed in Large Crude Oil Stoarage Tanks, normally above 40m Dia.

TEST SAMPLING SYSTEM :-

We have considered 1” x 300# NPT Full Coupling fabricated to the tank at 1mtr height.
This system include valves at each point for collection of sample parallel to spiral
stairway.

DEEP HATCH : -

The Tank shall be fitted with Deep Hatch nozzle made of ALuminium alloy flanged
and bolted on top of the Floating Roof Deck of size 8” of the Foot operated type with a

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spark-proof cover plate and flanged connection. The gauge hatch shall be positioned
near the top landing of a circumferential stairway.

HEAT SENSORS :-

It should be complete with all accessories, it should be of pnuematic type distributed on


the tank roof and connected with a site panel. A sensor is a device which measures a
physical quantity and converts it into a signal which can be read by an observer or
by an instrument. For example, a mercury thermometer converts the measured
temperature into expansion and contraction of a liquid which can be read on a
calibrated glass tube. A thermocouple converts temperature to an output voltage
which can be read by a voltmeter. For accuracy, all sensors need to be calibrated
against known standards.
Sensors are used in everyday objects such as touch-sensitive elevator buttons and
lamps which dim or brighten by touching the base. There are also innumerable
applications for sensors of which most people are never aware. Applications include
automobiles, machines, aerospace, medicine, industry, and robotics.
A sensor's sensitivity indicates how much the sensor's output changes when the
measured quantity changes. For instance, if the mercury in a thermometer moves
1cm when the temperature changes by 1°, the sensitivity is 1cm/1°. Sensors that
measure very small changes must have very high sensitivities.

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FEATURES :

• Utilizes Hart® protocol for configuration and monitoring; communicates


with Hart® communicator or modem
• Input-Output isolation – eliminates measuring errors due to ground loops
• Long term stability – 0.1% / year
• Accepts RTD and T/C inputs
• Sensor error correction – compensates for known sensor errors
• Customized 50 point linearization – any sensor can be matched
• Selectable sensor break function
• Full access to all features while in operation
• FM & Cenelec approvals
• NAMUR compliant

COOLING SYSTEM:-

The characteristics of the cooling system such as layout, diameter & thickness of the
pipes as well as flow rate and available head of the cooling water shall be indicated
in the tank technical specification. The numberof spray nozzles shall be decided
based on the diameter of the tank. The supply shall include all parts as per the
system requirements i.e. spray nozzles with appropriate supports. Supply pipes upto
the connecting flange positioned at 1mtr from the tank bottom and appropriate
guides on the shell. Pipe shall be hot dipped galvanized & may be of the welded
type. Provisions laid down in specifications shall be considered in our proposal. The

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distance between shell rings shall be kept constant consequently the external
stairway shall be suitably widened to comply with the min. width reqd.

The system is designed to perform cooling action to the tank shell above and under
the air girder by rate of ( 5 lit /min/m2) of shell area. The Ring will be 6” dia
designed & constructed according to API 650 Last edition & NFPA with flanged
joints. The water spray jet nozzles will be appropriately placed to cover the entire
shell area & will be made of brass. The cooling ring riser will be supplied with Drain
valve at the bottom of the tank 1mtr ht. from ground level. The control valve will be
situated outside dyke wall.

The cooling system is designed as per API 650 & NFPA standards. Plz refer our
Technical Offer - Construction methodology. The capacity is 5 lit/min/m2. The size of
cooling pipe will be 6" Dia & the length of pipe we can provide 6mtrs or 12 mtrs as
per clients requirements & approvals. All the pipe segments will be Flanged joints.

FIRE - FIGHTING SYSTEM :-

The supply shall include following :-

 Foam maker, Foam Tank, Foam Mixer & Foam distributor nozzles with
deflector sections.

 Manifolds with appropriate piping, nozzles, supports.

 Foam riser fitted 1m from tank with appropriate supports.

The Tank system is designed to automatically detect smoke or fire using


addressable Fire/Smoke Alarm system Integrated with automatic fire extinguishing
system water & foam spray/flooding and/or one of the following type of
environmental friendly fire agent ( CF3i / FE25 / FM-200) covering the complete
area. The whole system is designed & fabricated to comply API-650 Last edition &
NFPA Std. Worldwide Manufacturers of Cathodic Protection Components
Manufactrures from USA, Europe, Japan or equivalent are frunished below :-

B- Fixed Foam Compating Sys.

Fixed Foam consist of Foam Tank , Mixer, Foam Riser & Reflector provided at
appropriate orientation of the tank Top subject to the dia. Of the Tank. The entre
systemis designed as per API-650 Last edition & comply with nfpa 11-79 Std. The
foam discharge rate will be min. 15 Lit/min/m2 covering appropriate risk area. The
Foam Pourer is designed at pouring rate on min. 7-8 bars. The entire system is fitted
with electrically or pneumatically controlled actuators, & valves. All the electrical
wiring will be FRLS & control panels as per IP65. The entire system will be remotely
monitored & controlled electronically.

Standards

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All of the traditional recommendations and standards (NFPA, BS, API, VdS, EN, etc.)
suggest the use of ‘static tactical rules’ for fighting the fire of hydrocarbon storage tanks.
The foam application rate is independent (static) of the respected fire surface.
Experience shows poor success rate in extinguishment, while using low foam
application intensity values. Technical development, particularly the economical need
for large capacity storage tanks over 80–100 metres diameter, brought a new challenge
for the firemen. The extinguishment of such fire surfaces is not a simple quantity
question that can be solved by increasing the number of the traditional foam generators,
foam pourers, etc. New concept of fire extinguishing we developed & Implement is the
answer of known problems.

Conventional Foam Systems - In conventional foam systems a number of steps are


required to convert foam concentrate, water and air into foam. The foam can
subsequently be applied onto the burning surface. In the majority of cases these
activities take place close to the scene of the fire. Quite a team of trained manpower is
required to set up these relatively complicated systems. In view of the tense situation
during any fire, mistakes are likely to be made resulting in mal-performance of the
system. The user had, over the past decades, no choice but to accept this complicated
and expensive system. The on-going drive to reduce cost in the industry in general, has
in many cases resulted in very low manpower levels.

Foam Proportioning - The foam concentrate has to be proportioned into the water.
The operating range of the proportioning equipment is always limited. The range giving
an acceptable deviation from the set point is even more limited. The response of the
proportioner to quick flow variations is, generally speaking, not very good. Proportioning
systems range from very simple and not very reliable to electronically controlled
sophisticated and complicated devices.

Foam Generation - To make expanded foam, one requires air to be entrained into the
foam solution stream. Venturi-type aspirating devices are typically used for this purpose.
Proper functioning of such a device is determined by the delicate balance between flow
rate, upstream pressure and back pressure. Optimum performance can only be
achieved in a rather narrow operating range. Blockage or partial blockage of the small
bore of the foam solution nozzle and air inlet, often occurs in fixed systems in locations
where maintenance is not optimal, and results in mal-functioning.

Foam Introduction- The foam enters the inside space of the storage tank via foam
pourers or foam chambers in a ‘point-like’ pattern. These devices which are sensitive to
explosions in the tanks, usually get damaged by such an accident and do not work
when there is a need for them.

Conclusion

• The operating range of conventional systems is limited; • foam concentration is seldom


at its desired value;

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• system elements require frequent inspections to achieve an acceptable level of
reliability;
• the foam introduction devices are easily damaged by fire;
• the complexity of the systems easily leads to mistakes being made;
• a relatively large number of trained men are required to set up the system and operate
it;
• refresher training at regular intervals is required to maintain competency levels; and
• manpower levels in the modern industry are insufficient for reliable use of the labour-
intensive conventional systems.

Tank Fire Extinguishing & our New Recommendations, Tactical Rules

The application of the dynamic tactical rules is the answer to the challenge of the large
fires. A new foam application on foam supply systems called FoamFatale® realises it.

Design Rules

• The necessary total foam volume shall be determined, which secures a reignition-safe
foam blanket spread on the entire liquid surface. A safety factor of three shall be
considered in comparison with the sufficient foam volume of successful extinguishment
by the dynamic tactical rules.
• Two minute maximum foam introduction time is the criterion, the basis of determining
the dimensions of the foam distribution pipes by hydraulic calculations. The larger the
respected fire surface is, the higher the foam application intensity will be. The foam has
to run longer distances when extinguishing larger surfaces, is exposed to fire for a
longer period of time and the vastes of foam are bigger. The function of the foam
application rate versus fire surface is shown below. The difference between the static
(NFPA type) intensity and the a report by

Brief Description of the Foam Fatale System

Preparation of Foam

• Foam Fatale is prepared well in advance under calm and controlled conditions. This
eliminates the probability of an off-spec composition of the foam.
• The pre-mixed foam is stored in a pressure vessel until the moment of use.
• The pressure of the foam is about 16 bar. The pressure level determines the
expansion ratio.
• The foam remains homogenous for at least 10 years as experience has shown. There
is no need for regular replacement in a five-year period as is recommended for the foam
solution in the case of conventional foam solution storage.

Dimensions of Foam Solution Vessels

• Static Foam Fatale vessels can be very large, e.g., 100m3. The maximum quantity of
stored foam is determined only by the mechanical manufacturing limitations.

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• The maximum size of vessels on vehicles is determined by size and weight. The
limiting factor is most probably the maximum allowable dimension of the vehicle as well
as the maximum allowable axle load for the road system to be used.

Making Expanded Foam

• On release of the Foam Fatale the pressurized foam will expand. This in turn
eliminates the need for aspirating devices.
• The release rate of the foam from the vessel is not bound by the conventional
limitations, like capacity of fire water system, performance of pump, dimension of
proportioner or aspirating devices.
• The expansion ratio of the foam is independent of the flow rate, the pressure in the
foam is the only factor determining the expansion.

Operation of the System

Operation of the whole system is extremely simple. Only the opening of the isolation
valve between the pressurized FoamFatale storage vessel and the foam
application/distribution device is required. The simplicity eliminates the need for
specialists to operate the system successfully.

Advantages of the FoamFatale System over a Conventional System

The FoamFatale system:

• requires minimum manpower resources to set up and operate at the scene of the fire;
• is so simple that making mistakes is unlikely;
• uses a foam mixed under calm and controlled conditions;
• does not require any aspirating devices;
• does have an unlimited flow range;
• produces optimum quality foam at all flow rates;
• has only a few critical elements requiring regular inspection;
• requires considerably lower capital investment; and
• requires considerably lower maintenance effort and cost.

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Applications Where FoamFatale Concept Can be Used

• As foam supply for extinguishing systems on fixed roof storage tanks.


• As foam supply for rim seal fire-fighting on floating roof tanks.
• As foam supply on sites handling flammable liquids, which have no real firewater
system.
• As foam supply for road car loading facilities handling flammable liquids.
• As foam supply for medium and high expansion foam systems.
• In portable and wheeled fire extinguishers.
• As FoamFatale tanks on vehicles, replacing or complementing conventional fire-
fighting vehicles.

Instrumentation Package :-

The entire instrumentation system shall be “SMART” type field instrumentation & will
be as per ISO & BS Standards. Electrical & Electronic equipments will explosion
proof & comply to IP65, & components will be UL/CE certified. The system includes
smart sensors connected to safety systems & shall be write protected to prevent
unintentional modification from remote location. All electronic field transmitter shall
have cable gland entries of 20mm ISO and have integral mm indicator. Electronic
instrumentation will generally be 420mA dc, powered at 24V dc. Switch device shall
have a min. rating of 120V, 2A Non-inductive.

Primary Flow Elements – sharp, square edge orifice plates with flange taps shall be
used. Where range ability does not exceed 3:1, a single transmitter shall be used. An
absolute max. of two differential transmitters, suitable ranged and with overlapping
ranges may be connected to single orifice installation. Under this scenario the range
shall not exceed 8:1. Orifice plates shall be sized in accordance with ISO 5167 or BS
1042. The Beta ratio d/D range shall be 0.25 to 0.7.

The preferred differential pressure for sizing purpose shall be zero to 12.5, 25, 50,
125, 250 upto 2000 Bar. Appropriate meters shall be used for measurements. Flow
transmitters shall be provided with integral square root extraction and integral output
meter with square root extraction scale. Process connection shall be of ½ Inch NPT
Full coupling. Differential pressure transmitter shall be with integral output meter
showing a linear scale. Transmitter shall be able to withstand the max. pressure on
either side of diaphragm.

Radar Level Gauging System.

A method and a system for radar-based gauging of a filling level of a filling material is
disclosed, wherein the tank has at least one interfering structure. The method
comprises: transmitting at a first time moment a microwave signal towards the surface
of the filling material; receiving microwave signals as reflected against the surface of the
filling material and as reflected against said at least one interfering structure; calculating
based on propagation times of the transmitted and reflected microwave signals at least
two distances to reflective surfaces in the tank; and repeating at a second time moment

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the transmitting, the detecting and the calculating, wherein said first time moment is
timely separated from said second time moment. Based on the several repeated
measurements, the distance to the surface of the filling material is determined as the
calculated distance that exhibits the greatest change between said first and second time
moments. Based on this time difference analysis, it is possible to discinguish moving
surfaces very easy and acurate. The method is specifically advantageous in overfill or
high level alarm systems.

Our system is designed with SPR-Synthesized Pulse Radar system which enable
modulated frequency. The system will have ± 1 mm level accuracy FMCW range
measurement, DSP data extraction via dual FFT algorithm, integrated graphical remote
display panel with view select at control room, integrated temperature probe interface
with accuracy of ± 0.1°c, water level and density inputs indicators, compatible with NT
5000 tank gauging system maintenance through diagnostic interface tool & gas tight
process connection rated to 40 bar. The System Specification comply to high accuracy
microwave tank gauge non-intrusive FMCW radar level detection with auxiliary inputs
for temperature, density & water interface with Level accuracy of ± 1 mm, Working
pressure of upto 40 bar max. Level measuring range of upto 0-20 meters, temperature
accuracy of ± 0.1 °C, Temperature measuring range of- 50 °c to + 200 °C, having
Power supply of 24 VDC.

Displacer shall be used for all normal transmitting and controlling applications, upto and
including 60” range. Shutdown functions shall be activated by dedicated instruments.
Differential pressure transmitter shall be considered for all level range where presence
of viscous, turbulent or flashing conditions preclude the use of displacers and for ESD
services to minimize H2S release. Remote measurement shall be in accordance with
the specific requirements as optionals. Local indication of of tank level shall be
measured by means of guage glass or magnetic indicator. The gauges shell be supplied
with shut-off valve at top and bottom with drain valve.

Alarm and trip switch functions shall be derived from analogue level transmitter signals.
The level switch considered are LLLS, LLS & HLS. The transmitters will have integral
output meter showing linear scale. Pressure gauge shall be Bourdon type SS material,
150mm Dia. Safety pattern with flow out backs with Y2 Inch NPT connections. Pressure
switch shall be with diaphragm sensing elements connected with Y2 Inch NPT.

Transmitters – we have considered head mounted transmitter with 3 wire platinum


resistance temperature detector (RTD) 100 ohm at 0 Deg. C. with interval of 38.5
Ohms. The transmitters are coupled with thermowells. Local temp. indication is
measured using bi-metallic gauges with nominal 100 mm dial.

Typical Schematic of Radar Level Tank Guaging system Designed by our Engineering
Team.

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Recommended Mfg. & Vendors for Radar Tank Guaging System :-

• Mother well, UK
• Thermo Scientific, USA
• VEGA, USA
• Rosemount, USA
• KROHNE, Germany
• SIEMENS, Germany
• MAGNETROL, France
• Honeywell, USA
• L & G Technologies, USA
• Gauging systems Inc. USA

Thermowells –

Thermowells are used in industrial temperature measurement to provide isolation


between a temperature sensor and the environment whose temperature is to be
measured. They are intrusive fittings and are subject to static and dynamic fluid forces.
These forces govern their design. Vortex shedding is the dominant concern as it is
capable of forcing the thermowell into flow-induced resonance and consequent fatigue
failure. The latter is particularly significant at high fluid velocities. The ASME
Performance Test Code (PTC 19.3) is the most widely used basis for thermowell

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design. It is currently being updated to cover a broader range of thermowell designs and
fluid conditions.
Thermowells used shall be 1-1/2 inch on pipe flanged joint. A min rating of 300# with
material to suit SS 316, insertion level as per design parameters. Wake frequency will
be in accordance to ASME PTC 19.3 subject to velocity criteria. The wake frequency
shall not exceed 80% of natural frequency.

Thermowells are among the simplest yet least well publicized accessories used in oil
storage temperature measurement applications. There are many variations of two basic
kinds; low pressure and high pressure. They are used to provide an isolation between a
temperature sensor and the environment, either liquid, gas or slurry. A thermowell
allows the temperature sensor to be removed and replaced without compromising either
the ambient region or the process.
Illustrations of generic types of metal thermowells are shown below.

Threaded- Weldable - Flanged-Tapered Socket-

Straight Tapered Tapered

The most complex thermowells are made from drilled molybdenum rods with an internal
sheath of high purity alumina. The annular space between the alumina and metal has a
very slow gas purge of nitrogen+hydrogen to prevent oxidation of the moly surface.

Low pressure, moderate to high temperature environments are routinely provided with a
thermowell variant called a protection tube that can be made of metal or high
temperature glass or ceramic, again according to he conditions. Most high temperature
industrial furnaces use ceramic or metal protection tubes, according tho the conditions.

Thermowell reputed vendors from whom we buy products are :-

• Conax Technologies, USA; NOUVA Technologies, USA

• WATLOW, USA; BADOTHERM, USA

• OMEGA, USA; WIKA, USA

• Italcoppie, Italy

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Control Valves –

Control valves are valves used within industrial plants and elsewhere to control
operating conditions such astemperature, pressure, flow, and liquid level by fully or
partially opening or closing in response to signals received from controllers that
compare a "setpoint" to a "process variable" whose value is provided by sensors at
monitor changes in such conditions
The opening or closing of control valves is done by means of electrical, hydraulic or
pneumatic systems.

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Types of control valve

The different types of control valve may be categorized as shown below:

 Conventional Valve

 Severe Service Valve


The different types of control valve bodies may be categorized as shown below :-

Globe control valve with the pneumatic actuator and smart positioner
 Angle Valves

 Cage-style Valve bodies, DiskStack style Valve bodies

 Angle seat piston valves

 Globe Valves

 Single-Port Valve Bodies, Balanced-Plug Cage-Style Valve Bodies

 High Capacity, Cage-Guided Valve Bodies, Port-Guided Single-Port Valve


Bodies

 Double-Ported Valve Bodies, Three-Way Valve Bodies

 Rotary Valves

 Butterfly Valve Bodies

 V-Notch Ball Control Valve Bodies, Eccentric-Disk Control Valve Bodies

 Eccentric-Plug Control Valve Bodies.

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Valves that we recommend in our design for this project shall comply to ANSI 300 min
rating with flanged connection sizes varying from 25mm to 300 mm. For control electro-
hydraulic actuators shall be self contained unit comprising of power-pack. Semi rotary
actuators shall be fitted with limit switches and potentiometer fro receiving 4-20 OmADc
modulating signal. Power supply to actuators shll be 380 V 50Hz, 3 phase. Valves shall
be sized in accordance with ISA Std. S75.01. Valve noise shall not exceed 85dBA as
measured 1 mtr from valve, when operating at optimum level. The control valve
characteristic shall be Linear if level control in gravity service or where range is to be
increased or min. flow protection for pumps or pressure drops exceed 2/3 rd in closed
position. Otherwise equal percentage characteristic shall be used. If thrust is more than
diaphragm actuator then Piston type actuator will be used. SS 316 Electro/Pneumatic
positioner’s shall be used. Air regulators shall be provided with valves.

Reputed Vendors we recommend :

• Forbes Marshal, France


• Tyco Flow Control, USA
• Masoneilan Control Valves, Italy
• Emerson – Fischer, USA
• Kaye MacDonald, USA
• Bermad Control Valves, USA
• Leslie Control Valves, UK
• Flow Serve, USA
• Valtec Controls, USA

Safety Relief Valves – Pressure relieving devices shall be provided to protect the plant
against malfunction or fire in accordance with recommended practice included in API
RP520, APT RP521. The size shall be designed in accordance of process design & the
material will be carbon steel body, SS Nozzle & Dics & spring. Incase pressure relieving
device discharge to common relief header, a full area isolation valve shall be placed on
discharge side of pressure relieving device. An interlock shall be provided to ensure that
both relief routes are not closed or opened simultaneously. Relief valve shall have
flanged connection in accordance with requirements of piping.

A safety valve is a valve mechanism for the automatic release of a gas from a boiler,
pressure vessel, or other system when the pressure or temperature exceeds preset
limits. It is part of a bigger set named Pressure Safety Valves (PSV) or Pressure Relief
Valves (PRV). The other parts of the set are named relief valves, safety relief valves,
pilot-operated safety relief valves, low pressure safety valves, vacuum pressure safety
valves.
Safety valves were first used on steam boilers during the industrial revolution. Early
boilers without them were prone to accidental explosion when the operator allowed the
pressure to become too high, either deliberately or through incompetence.

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Function and design

Proportional-Safety Valve
The earliest and simplest safety valve used a weight to hold the pressure of the steam,
(this design is still commonly used on pressure cookers); however, these were easily
tampered with or accidentally released. On the Stockton and Darlington Railway, the
safety valve tended to go off when the engine hit a bump in the track. A valve less
sensitive to sudden accelerations used a spring to contain the steam pressure, but
these (based on Salter spring balances) could still be screwed down to increase the
pressure beyond design limits. This dangerous practice was sometimes used to
marginally increase performance of a steam engine. In 1856 John Ramsbottom
invented a tamper-proof spring safety valve which became universal on railways.
Safety valves also evolved to protect equipment such as pressure vessels (fired or not)
and heat exchangers. Safety valve term should be limited to compressible fluid
application (gas, vapor, steam).
The two general types of protection encountered in industry are thermal protection and
flow protection.
For liquid-packed vessels, thermal relief valves are generally characterized by the
relatively small size of the safety valve necessary to provide protection from excess

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pressure caused by thermal expansion. In this case a small valve is adequate because
most liquids are nearly incompressible, and so a relatively small amount of fluid
discharged through the relief valve will produce a substantial reduction in pressure.
Flow protection is characterized by safety valves that are considerably larger than those
mounted in thermal protection. They are generally sized for use in situations where
significant quantities of gas or high volumes of liquid must be quickly discharged in
order to protect the integrity of the vessel or pipeline.

In the petroleum refining, petrochemical and chemical manufacturing, natural gas


processing and power generation industries, the term safety valve is associated with
the terms pressure relief valve (PRV), pressure safety valve (PSV) and relief valve.
The generic term is or Pressure Relief Valve (PRV) or Pressure Safety Valve (PSV)
Relief Valve (RV): automatic system that relief by static pressure on a liquid. It
specifically open proportionally with pressure increasing.
Safety Valve (SV): automatic system that relief by static pressure on a gas. It
specifically open almost straight to full lift after a pop sound.
Safety Relief Valve (SRV): automatic system that relief by static pressure on both gas
and liquid.
Pilot-Operated Safety Relief Valve (POSRV): automatic system that relief by remote
command from a pilot on which the static pressure (from equipment to protect) is
connected.
Low Pressure Safety Valve (LPSV): automatic system that relief by static pressure on a
gas. The pressure is small and near the atmospheric pressure.
Vacuum Pressure Safety Valve (VPSV): automatic system that relief by static pressure
on a gas. The pressure is small, negative and near the atmospheric pressure.
Low and Vacuum Pressure Safety Valve (LVPSV): automatic system that relief by static
pressure on a gas. The pressure is small, negative or positive and near the atmospheric
pressure.
RV, SV and SRV are spring operated (even said spring loaded). LPSV and VPSV are
spring operated or weight loaded.
In most countries, industries are legally required to protect pressure vessels and other
equipment by using relief valves. Also in most countries, equipment design codes such
as those provided by the ASME, API and other organizations like ISO (ISO 4126) must
be complied with and those codes include design standards for relief valves.[1][2]
The main standards, or directives are:

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• ASME (American Society of Mechanical Engineers) Boiler & Pressure Vessel
Code, Section VIII, Division 1

• API (American Petroleum Institute) Recommended Practice 520 and API


Standard 526, API Standard 2000 (low pressure -Storage tank)

• ISO 4126 (originated from from European Union directives)

• EN 764-7 (from CEN - European Committee for Standardization - originate from


European Union directives)

• PED 97/23/EC (Pressure Equipment Directive - European Union)

Reputed Vendors we recommend for Safety Valves :-

• Motherwell Tank Protection systems, UK


• SARASM RSBD, France,
• SAPAG, France
• CROSBY, UK
• Consolidated, USA
• Anderson Greenwood, USA
• FARRIS, Canada
• ARI-Armaturen, Germany,
• LASER, Germany, BOPP Reuter, Germany
• BESA, Italy

Cathodic protection system

Cathodic Protection System is a process for inhibiting corrosion of an aboveground


crude oil storage tank comprising of positioning a slotted tubing and at least one
impressed current anode within a slotted casing which is beneath an aboveground
storage tank, said at least one anode being positioned outside of and adjacent to said
slotted tubing; and transmitting electrical current to said at least one anode so as to
cathodically protect substantially the entire surface of the bottom of said aboveground
storage tank. In this process at least one horizontal bore beneath the storage tank is
made and a slotted casing and one anode is positioned within at least one horizontal
bore. Petroleum coke breeze is injected into the casing. To prevent drying of anode,
water is injected in the slotted tubing. This process is generally implemented for
detecting leaks from and cathodically protecting an aboveground storage tank
comprising: positioning a slotted tubing within a slotted casing beneath an aboveground
storage tank; monitoring fluid transmitted via said slotted tubing to determine leakage of
fluid from said storage tank; positioning an impressed current anode within said slotted
casing; and transmitting electrical current to said anode to cathodically protect said
storage tank.

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Cathodic Protection Design Considerations

1 •Safety
2 •Codes
3 •Economics
4 •Performance
5 •System Life
6 •Interference
7 •Monitoring and Maintenance
8 •Codes, Regulations and Standards

Types of Cathodic Protection Systems

1 1) Galvanic (Sacrificial) Anode


2 –Magnesium Anodes in rod or ribbon form
3 –Zinc Anodes in rod or ribbon form

1 2) Impressed Current System


2 –Consists of a transformer/rectifier and anode system
3 •Mixed Metal Oxide Anodes –linear or grid
4 •Platinum Anodes –linear anode
5 •Conductive polymer –linear anode
6 •Graphite –rod form
7 •High Silicon Cast Iron –tubular form
8 •Scrap metal –mesh or grid

Galvanic Protected AST

Impressed Current System Layouts

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Considerable attention has been directed for preparing optimal design to cathodically
protect aboveground storage tanks in addition to monitoring such storage tanks to
determine if fluid is leaking or has leaked from such tanks, aboveground storage tanks
have been cathodically protected by the use of sacrificial anodes positioned within the
ground about the periphery of the storage tank. Where current requirements are
significant, impressed current systems have been installed to cathodically protect
aboveground storage tanks. Anodes for impressed current systems have conventionally
been installed in one of two manners. First, impressed current anodes have been
installed in deep well or remote ground bed configurations which may be remote from
the storage tank. Deep well designs involve placement of anodes in generally vertical
bores at depths of 100 feet or more. Secondly, impressed current anodes are installed
at relatively shallow depths about the periphery of the tank either juxtaposed to the tank
perimeter or at a site which is distant from the tank.
Typically Cathodic Protection system Consist of Polymeric Anodes, Anode Cable (1 x
35 sq.mm), RE Multi Core Cable, Permanent Typ Cu/CuSO4 Electrodes, Anode
Junction Box, with Resistors, Shunts & Fuses, Cathodic Junction Box, Anode Lead
Wire, Cathode Lead Wire, End Splices, Inline Splices, Thermit Weld, Epoxy
Encapsulation, Marker, PVC Pipes, GI Slotted Tubes etc. The Quantities are calculated
on the size of Tank & Scope of Limits. Worldwide Manufacturers of Cathodic Protection
Components Manufactrures from USA, Europe, Japan or equivalent are frunished
below :-

Cathodic Protection Manufacturers

• 3-M (www.3M.com)
• Advance Products & Systems

27
• Anotec Industries (www.anotec.com)
• Asbury Carbons (http://www.asbury.com)
• Borin Manufacturing (www.borin.com)
• Brance Krachy Co.,Inc.
• Erico Cadweld (www.erico.com)
• Carsonite
• Central Stac Wrap
• Cygnus UTG
• Dairyland (www.dairyland.com)
• DeFelsko Coating Thickness Gauges
• Denso North America Inc. (www.densona.com)
• De Nora Tech / Eltech Systems / Eltech Lida (www.eltechsystems.com)
• Erico Products
• Fisher Research Laboratories (www.fisherlab.com)
• Fluke, Inc.
• Galvotec Alloys
• Gas Electronics
• Graphtek LLC
• Oxbow Calcining (Great Lakes Carbon)
(http://www.oxbow.com)
• JA Electronics (www.jaelectronics.com)
• J.M. Huber
• Kalas Mfg.
• Kris-Tech Wire
• Kirk Cells
• Loresco (www.loresco.com)
• McLaughlin
• Metrotech Corp.
• Nilsson Electrical Laboratories
• Pigs Unlimited Inc.
• Pro Mark Utility Supply (www.promarksupply.com)
• Royston Labs
• Scott Instruments
• Service Wire & Cable
• SGL Carbon
• TELPRO
• Thermoweld
• Thunderline Link Seal
• Tinker & Rasor (www.tinker-rasor.com)
• Trantex Products
• Wavetech
• Wilson Walton

We can provide

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(1) Galvanic (Sacrificial) Anode i.e. Magnesium Anodes in Rod/Ribbon Form or (2) Zinc
Anodes in Rod/Ribbon Form.
(2) Impressed Current System : which consist of transformer/rectifier and Anode
system, mixed metal oxide anodes-linear or grid, Platinum Anodes - linear anode,
Conductive polymer - linear anode, Graphite -Rod form.
API Standard 650 Last Edition alongwith :
b. API Recommended Practice 1615.
c. API Recommended Practice 1621.
d. API Recommended Practice 652.
e. API Standard 653.
f. API Specification 12B.
g. API Specification 12D.
h. API Specification 12F.
i. NACE RP0169.
j. NACE RP0193.
k. NACE RP0285.
l. NFPA 30.

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