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Interpreting the Constitution ............................................................................................................................ 4
Levels of Review ....................................................................................................................................................... 5
The Constitution ...................................................................................................................................................... 5
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ÿudicial Review ......................................................................................................................................................... 5
The Establishment of ÿudicial Review (pp. 1-21) ..................................................................................... 6
The Power to Review State Court ÿudgments (pp. 21-29) ................................................................... 7
The Adequate and Independent State Grounds Doctrine (pp. 29-) ................................................. 8
The Operation of ÿudicial Review (pp. 35-47) ........................................................................................... 9
Courter-Majoritarian Role (pp. 36) ................................................................................................................ 9
Limitations on ÿudicial Review: (pp. 49, 65-66, 98-118, 122-25) ..................................................... 9
The Proper Role of Federal Courts (pp. 65) ............................................................................................. 10
The Eleventh Amendment (pp. 122-125).................................................................................................. 12



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Federalism............................................................................................................................................................... 14
10th Amendment ................................................................................................................................................... 14
Police Power ........................................................................................................................................................... 14
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General Scope (pp. 153-72) ............................................................................................................................. 16

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Pre-1937 Commerce Clause (pp. 172-81)................................................................................................. 18
New Deal Expansions (pp. 181-91) ............................................................................................................. 22
Whatǯs the Law Today? (pp. 191-204) ....................................................................................................... 25
External Limits on the Commerce Power imposed by State Autonomy (pp. 204-26) ......... 30
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Taxing Power ......................................................................................................................................................... 31
Spending Power .................................................................................................................................................... 32
Treaties, War-related, Foreign Affairs and Civil Rights ..................................................................... 34
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Development of the Doctrine (pp. 253-60) .............................................................................................. 37
Discrimination against Interstate Commerce (pp. 260-70)............................................................. 38
Neutral Burdens on Interstate Commerce (pp. 270-83).................................................................... 39
Facially Neutral Regulations with Discriminatory Effects (pp. 284-300) ................................. 40
States as DzMarket Participantdz Exception (pp. 300-08) .................................................................... 43
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Executive Action: Domestic Affairs (pp. 335-55) .................................................................................. 49
Executive Action: Foreign Affairs (pp. 355-83)...................................................................................... 50
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General Themes (pp. 383-97) ......................................................................................................................... 52
Specific Limitations (pp. 397-413) .............................................................................................................. 53
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Property ................................................................................................................................................................... 57
Liberty ....................................................................................................................................................................... 58
Determining the Process That is Due ......................................................................................................... 58
 
 
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Origins: Contraception (pp. 472-83): ......................................................................................................... 67
Abortion (pp. 483-516): .................................................................................................................................... 70
Family Relationships (pp. 516-23)............................................................................................................... 73
The Right to Die (pp. 523-35): ....................................................................................................................... 75
Consensual Sexual Choices (pp. 535-49) ................................................................................................... 76
Methodology........................................................................................................................................................... 78
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The Public Use Requirement (pp. 552-62) ............................................................................................... 81
Regulatory Takings: When Does Regulation Become a Taking? ................................................... 82
Conditional Regulatory Takings (pp.587-92)......................................................................................... 87
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Introduction ........................................................................................................................................................... 89
Levels of Scrutiny ................................................................................................................................................. 90
Over-inclusive/Under-inclusive ..................................................................................................................... 91
Classifications ........................................................................................................................................................ 92
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Means: What is Not Rational? (pp. 612-19) ........................................................................................... 93
Ends: What Purposes are Not Legitimate? (pp. 620-29) ................................................................... 95
Same Sex Marriage? ........................................................................................................................................... 96
DzEnhanceddz Minimal Scrutiny: Means? Ends? Both? (pp. 629-40)................................................ 97
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Overview (pp. 640-42) ....................................................................................................................................... 99
Purposeful Discrimination Required (pp. 642-49) .............................................................................100
Official Racial Segregation (pp. pp. 649-58) .........................................................................................104
Affirmative Action .............................................................................................................................................106
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Gender Discrimination ....................................................................................................................................115
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Introduction (pp. 743-49) ..............................................................................................................................122
Voting: Denial, Dilution, Gerrymandering (pp. 749-75) ..................................................................123
Access to Courts (pp. 775-80).......................................................................................................................127
Penalties on the Right of Interstate Migration (pp. 781-87).........................................................128
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Coverage: Public or Private Conduct? (pp. 1165-70) ........................................................................129
Content: Remedial or Substantive? (pp. 1170-91) .............................................................................130

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