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It͛s a phenomenon of heat transfer where the heat flows through a medium without the
movement of the particles.
Each molecule follows 3 types of motions :
a.? Translational Motion
b.? Rotational Motion and
c.? Vibrational Motion

Electrical flow and thermal flow are analogies to each other. Good thermal conductors are
good electrical conductors.

  

It is a phenomenon of heat transfer where heat flows through a medium with the motion
of the particles.

 

It is defined as transfer of heat flow without any medium in the form of electromagnetic
waves.

  

dq/dA = -k dT/dx

dq/dA = Heat Flux

Thermal Conductivity is not always constant. It maintains linear relationship with temperature.

k=k0 (1+ɴT)
‰ Î  
 ‰
= ‰
 

Î  
= [T2-T1 + (T22-T12)]
  

 !!"# 

 The rate at which thermal heat is diffusing is called ͞Thermal Diffusivity͟.



‰


ɲ= 
 

ɲ = 
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& 
  
" " 

ilver 410

Copper 385

Aluminum 202

Nickel 93

Iron 73

Cu-teel 43

Chromium-teel 16.3

& " 


 

Glass 0.038

Window Glass 0.08

'(" 
 

Water 0.556

)"" 
 

Air 0.024
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*+$, """  !$-|+./$ 0/$-


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Î 
 = [(T2-T1 ) + (T22 ʹ T12)]
  

Kavg =

q = -


Î
=-


= 15.75 KW

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Thermal conductivities are ka, kb, kc

Thicknesses are Ba, Bb, Bc

Temperature drop in the 1st slab A is Ó  

 
  !Ó  

 
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Î
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1234
= 56 58 59
 0767879

Heat flow is analogous to electrical flow

   1234


= % % = 
 4 4 4 444

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q=
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MGDE;EDC>?@<AB<=>@C=<DEFF<=<GH<
=
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ÎN Î Î ÎN


q= = = =
444 4 4 4

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From the fig,



q/A = 44

but R1= B1/k1A

R2 = B2/k2A

R1 = 0.114/0.138*1 = 0.826086

R2 = 0.229/1.38*1 = 0.16594

q/A = 683.4/.826086+.16594 = 688.8932

q = 688.392 W/m2. (A = 1m2)

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Given

q =1900W , A = 1m2

q/A = ÓToverall/ R1+ R2

R1 = BA /kA

R2 = BB/kB
Î
1900 = RS 

TRU

0.02173 + B/0.38 = 0.668


B=0.2455 m

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ol:

Kasbestos = 0.129 Btu/hr-ft0F

=0.129 * 1.7303 = 0.22326 W/m-oC

Kcu = 218 Btu/hr-ft-0F= 377.2 W/m-0C

Kfibre glass = 0.019 Btu/hr-ft-0C = 0.0322 W/m-0C

ÓT = 6000C, A=1m2

q/A = ÓT/R1+ R2+R3

R1= BA/kasb A = 0.02/0.223 = 0.0896

imilarly, R2 = 9.72 * 10-6

R3=1.8248

R1+R2+R3 =1.91442

q/A = 600/1.9142 = 313.4096 W/m2

1-? % <|/$78$:
%6<.$ 78$:
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6< 

 R1=B1/KA . A = 25/150*0.1 = 0.00166

RB=BB/KB. AB= 0.075/30*0.05 = 0.05

RD = BD/KD . AD=0.075/70*0.05 = 0.0214

R2= RBRD/RB+RD = 0.075*0.075/0.05*70*0.075+30*0.075

= 0.015

imilarly, R3= 0.050/50*0.1 = 0.01


q = (Ó   V.*.*."

= 370-66/0.00166+0.014+0.01 = 11875 = 11.8 KW

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B1 = 200 mm, B2 = 100 mm, B3 = 6 mm

T1 = 11500C, T4 = 300C
q/A = 300 W/m2
k1 = 0.113 Btu/hr-ft2 = 0.19557 W/hr-m2
k2 = 0.765 Btu/hr-ft2 = 1.324 W/hr-m2
k3 = 41 Btu/hr-ft2 = 70.9599 W/hr-m2
q/A = T1-T4/(R1+R2+R3) = T1 ʹ T2/R1 = T2-T3/R2 =T3-T4/R3= 0.765

q = NWWWNNNXV

WN
300 =
NNWXV

1.14648+B/0.113 = 6.4614

B/0.113 = 5.3149

B = 0.6m

"! , 4  ,

Let us consider long cylinder with inner radius ri and outside radius of ro. The length of the cylinder
is ͚l͛. The cylinder is so long that the length is far greater than the diameter of the cylinder. The inside
temperature is Ti and outside temperature is To. The inside temperature is Ti is greater than the outside
temperature To in such a way that the heat flows from inside to outside. As the length of the cylinder is
very high when compared with diameter the flow of heat is in radial direction r

As per the Fourier͛s Law of Heat Conduction,

dq/dA = -k dT/dx

dq = -k dA. dT/dx

= -k 2ʋrl dT/dr

In the above equation, we cannot take either ri or ro as the radius of the cylinder and the lines of
heat flow are not parallel to each other because of curvature in the cylinder compound to plane in wall
Hence consider a differential element of thickness dr. dr is very small and hence the lines of heat
flow are parallel at a distance r from the centre

T = Ti r = ri

T = To r = ro

q/2ʋrl = -k dT/dr

q/2ʋrl dr = -k dT
=E E
=J V = -2ʋkl/q J 

 V = -2ʋkl/q (To ʹ Ti)

?EÎJ
q = YZ
 
Y[

but q = ÓT/R

=J=E
R= ?

D
q = -k A D\

Î ] Î
q =
=JÎ=E

here ÃL = Logarithmic Mean Area

ÃL = 2ʋlřL

řL = Logarithmic Mean Radius


=JÎ=E
řL = =J
=E

"! , 4 5 

Let us consider a composite cylinder with 3 layers.

The inside radius is ͚ri͛, immediate radii of the layers are ͚r2͛,͛r3͛ and ͚r4͛.

The temperatures of the junctions are ͚T1͛,͛T2͛,͛T3͛,͛T4͛ respectively. The length of the cylinder is ͚L͛. The
length of the composite cylinder is very high when compared to the diameter of the cylinder. The
thermal conductivities are k1, k2, k3, k4. The heat flows from inside to outside
 Î
q1 = ==

 Î
q2 = ==

 ÎN
q3 = =N=

By rewriting these equations


_`
^ a 
_T
T1-T2 =
 

_R
^ a 
_`
T2-T3 =
 

_`
^ a 
_T
T3 ʹ T4 =  

By adding and simplifying the three equations we get


_` _R _b
 ^ a  ^ a  ^ a 
T1-T4 = [ _T

* _`

* _R

]

In a steady state heat flow

ÎN
q= _` _R _b
de^ afT de^ af` de^ afR
c _T  _`  _R h
gT g` gR

J;<=>??   


q= = = =
iK K K K

By simplifying the equations we get,

ÎN
q= _` _R _b
de^ a de^ a de^ a
c _T  _`  _R h
gT g` gR

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?EÎJ
ol. q= YZ ,
 
Y[
Î
= bj
 
`j

q = 134620.27 W/m2.

"! , 4  ,"5:

Let us consider a hollow sphere, the inside radius is ri , the outside radius is ro,

Inside temperature is Ti , outside temperature To, ͚k͛ is the thermal conductivity of sphere.

Heat flows from inside to outside in radial direction. Because of curvature of sphere lines are not
parallel. Hence consider a thin element ͚dr͛ between ri & ro at a distance of ͚r͛ from the centre between
ri & ro and ͚dr͛ being very thin line of heat flow .

From Fourier law of heat conduction,

dq/dA = -k dT/dx

dq = -k dA. dT/dx

dq = -k (4ʋr2)dT/dr

dq/r2 = -k 4dT/d