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ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS TO CHAPTER 4 REVIEW QUESTIONS

Multiple Choice

1. A
The law of inertia states that no net force is needed to keep an object moving at a constant
velocity.

2. C
The net force is 26 N – 5 N = 21 N, and the acceleration is
Fnet 21 N
a= = = 7 m / s2
m 3 kg
3. A
Only the x-component of the force accelerates the sled horizontally: Fx=(100 N)cos45˚=
Fx 70 N
70 N. Then a = = =1m / s 2
m 70 kg
4. C
T2y + T3y must equal the weight of the block (30 N), since the system is in equilibrium.

5. E
The net force acting on the system is 5mg – mg = 4 mg. Then
2
Fnet = 4mg = ( 5 + 1) ma , and a = g.
3

6. B
The weight of the 2-kg block is the net force accelerating the entire system.
2
2mg = 3ma , so a = g = 6.7 m/s2.
3

7. C
Friction acts on each of the surfaces in contact that are moving or have the potential for
moving relative to each other.

8. B
Since the block is in static equilibrium, the frictional force must be equal and opposite to
the component of the weight pointing down the incline:
f = mg sin θ = ( 2kg ) (10 m / s 2 ) sin 30 = 10 N

9. D
The greater the mass, and the smaller the separation distance r, the greater the force
according to Newton’s law of universal gravitation.

10. B
GM E
Since the acceleration due to gravity g = , it does not depend on the mass of the
r2
satellite.

Free Response Problem Solution

(a) 2 points
Fnet
Newton’s 2nd law states that m = . This ratio is the slope of the F vs. a graph. So,
a
∆F 15 N − 0
m = slope = = = 3kg
∆a 5 m / s 2 − 0
(b) 2 points
The block will just begin to move when the force F overcomes the maximum static
frictional force:
Fmin = f s = µ s FN = µ s mg = ( 0.2 )( 3kg ) (10 m / s 2 ) = 6 N
(c) 3 points
Once the block begins to move we must use the coefficient of kinetic friction to
determine the frictional force.
f k = µ k FN = µ k mg = ( 0.1)( 3kg ) (10 m / s 2 ) = 3 N
Then the net force acting on the block is F – fk = 6 N – 3 N = 3 N to the right.
The acceleration of the block is
Fnet 3N
a= = =1m / s 2
m 3 kg
FN 3
(d)
F
i. 3 points mgsin
θ
fk
mgcosθ

mg

ii. 2 points
As the block sides up the incline, the normal force FN is no longer equal to mg, but
mgcosθ.

f k = µ k FN = µ k mg cos θ = ( 0.1)( 3kg ) (10 m / s 2 ) cos 20 = 2.8 N

iii. 3 points
The net force is now

3F − f k − mg sin θ = 3( 6 N ) − 2.8 N − ( 3kg ) (10 m / s 2 ) sin 20 = 5 N


Fnet 5N
a= = = 1.67 m / s 2
m 3 kg

ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS TO CHAPTER 5 REVIEW QUESTIONS

Multiple Choice

1. B
The velocity vector is always tangent to the path and in the direction of motion, and the
centripetal force and acceleration are toward the center of the circle.

a
v
2. D
At the instant the ball is in the position shown in answer (E) in the previous question, it is
moving tangent to the path, down and to the right.

3. C v
6s
Period T = =2 s
3 rev
4. B
2πr 2π ( 4 m )
v= = ≈ 12 m / s
T 2s

5. D
F =
mv 2
=
( 40 kg )(12 m / s ) 2
= 1440 N
r 4m
6. B
The frictional force provides the centripetal force that causes the car to move in a circle.

7. D
mv 2 mv 2 v2
f = µFN = F
, and N = mg , so µmg = , and µ =
R R gR
8. A
From section 5.6 in the textbook, v= gr = 9r = 3 r

9. C
Kepler’s 3rd law (section 5.5 in the textbook) states that the square of the orbital period is
proportional to the cube of the orbital radius. Thus, the farther away a satellite orbits, the
longer orbital period it has.

Free Response Question Solution

(a) 2 points

FT

mg

(b) 2 points
mv 2
FT = 2mg =
R
Solving for v we get
v= 2 gR = 2(10 m / s 2 )( 0.75 m ) = 3.9 m / s

(c) 4 points
Position I Position III

i. ii.
FT

FT
mg
mg
(The lengths of the vectors are not
necessarily drawn to scale.)

(d) 3 points
Choosing up as the positive direction:

ΣF = ma
FT − mg = ma

The net force and the acceleration are directed toward the center of the circle.

v2 
FT − mg = m
R 

 
v2
FT = mg + m

 = ( 0. 25 kg (
) 10 m / s 2
+)( 0.25 kg )( 5 m / s ) 2 = 10 .8 N
R  0.75 m
 

(e) 2 points
i. At the instant the ball is at position IV, its velocity vector points upward, and therefore
when the string breaks, the ball will rise upward against gravity. When we describe the
motion of an object, we discuss its velocity (speed and direction), its acceleration, and
any path it would follow. In this case, the ball would simply move straight upward,
accelerating at – 10 m/s2 and decreasing its speed, reach a maximum height where its
velocity is instantaneously zero, then accelerate downward and increase its speed as it
falls to the ground.
ii. 2 points
The ball is projected straight upward a 3.9 m/s, and at maximum height h, the speed of
the ball is zero.

2
v 2 = vo + 2 gh = 0

h=
vo
2

=
( 3.9 m / s ) 2 = 0.76 m
(
2 g 2 10 m / s 2 )