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Tuckman’s Team Development Model

• Achieve effective and

satisfying results
• Members find solutions
to problems using
appropriate controls

• Members work
• Members care about
each other
• The group establishes a
• Members agree about unique identity
roles and processes for
problem solving • Members are

• Identifying power and • Decisions are made
control issues through negotiation and
• Gaining skills in consensus building
• Identifying resources

• Expressing differences
• Establish base level of ideas, feelings, and
expectations opinions

• Identify similarities • Reacting to leadership

• Agreeing on common • Members independent or

goals counterdependent

• Making contact and
• Developing trust
• Members dependent

• Each step builds on the previous one.

• Each step prepares for the performing stage.
• Skipping any step effect performing negatively.
• With every new challenge, the process repeats
Stages of Team Development

Stage 1: Stage 2: Stage 3: Stage 4:

“Forming” “Storming” “Norming” “Performing”
• Individuals are not clear on • Roles and responsibilities are • Success occurs. • Tea members feel very
what they’re supposed to do. articulated. • Team has all the resources motivated.
• The mission isn’t owned by • Agendas are displayed. for doing the job. • Individuals defer to team
the group. • Problems solving doesn’t • Appreciation and trust build. needs.
• Wondering where we’re work well. • Purpose is well defined. • No surprises.
going. • People want to modify the • Little waste. Very efficient
• Feedback is high, well-
• No trust yet. team’s mission. received, and objective. team operations.
• High learning. • Trying new ideas. • Team confidence is high. • Team members have
• No group history; unfamiliar • Splinter groups form. objective outlook.
• Leader reinforces team
with group members. • People set boundaries. behavior. • Individuals take pleasure in
• Norms of the team are not the success of the team – big
• Anxiety abounds. • Members self-reinforce team
established. wins.
• People push for position and norms.
• People check one another • “We” versus “I” orientation.
power. • Hidden agendas become
out. open. • High pride in the team.
• Competition is high.
• People are not committed to • Team is creative. • High openness and support.
• Cliques drive the team.
the team. • High empathy.
• Little team spirit. • More individual motivation.
• Team gains commitment • High trust in everyone.
• Lots of personal attacks.
from all members on • Superior team performance.
• Level of participation by
direction and goals. • OK to risk confrontation.
members is at its highest (for
some) and its lowest (for

Action Steps: “Forming” to Action Steps: “Storming” to Action Steps: “Norming” to

“Storming” “Norming” “Performing”
• Set a mission. • Team leader should actively support and • Maintain traditions.
• Set goals. reinforce team behavior, facilitate the • Praise and flatter each other.
group for wins, create positive
• Establish roles. • Self-evaluate without a fuss.
• Recognize need to move out of • Share leadership role in team based on
• Leader must ask for and expect results.
“forming” stage. who does what the best.
• Recognize, publicize team wins.
• Leader must be directive. • Share rewards and successes.
• Agree on individuals’ roles and
• Figure ways to build trust. • Communicate all the time.
• Define a reward structure. • Share responsibility.
• Buy into objectives and activities.
• Take risks. • Delegate freely within the team.
• Listen to each other.
• Bring group together periodically to work • Commit time to the team.
• Set and take team time together.
on common tasks. • Keep raising the bar – new, higher goals.
• Everyone works actively to set a
• Assert power. • Be selective of new team members; train
supportive environment.
• Decide once and for all to be on the to maintain the tea m spirit.
• Have the vision: “We can succeed!”
• Request and accept feedback.
• Build trust by honoring commitments.