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\. Hardening, Tt!mpNmg .mrl 6. Sh!.>,'1 Ml'tdl ''''brA: I',. l'Vorkho/ctmg In ,h(' Uthp
He.JI TrPc1tmpnt R. f W.lkt'lord I uO.:l1 (am
TulMI Lain q So/ch-ring ,md Bt,Jl'Ing lb t.1(,!lrIC \totors
2 'vPffic.1i Milling In thl' Home' Tubal (am \i ) (.ox
Worlc~hup T- (,t'¥5 ,md (.(,,If (uttmg
Arnold Thtop 10. Soli"'.' .Jnd5.,wm;;
1.10 Bradlt>y I. Llw
1 <;crt'wcuttmR In ,hE> Utll(' 1rJ:. Sime Bem hwork
M.lrtm Clecvp 1 I f Ii'( troploJt/O~
Lt'S Oldru/g('
I PoynPr
"' Foundf} work 'Of the '\mdtf'lJf I'J SprlllR ()coslg" ,lOci Ai.1nuf.Rture
IJ, I A.Splfl 1;> 0,,/1, Tap50 .md IJ,(>S
TlIh •• 1 elln
:'; ,\1illmll OperJtlons m the L.Il/)(' Tubal ( din
lO. ,\I<>t.J/w(lrk ,,"ri t\1,l("/unmg
luhal LIIn I i W(l,*~h"fl Draw/nu Hmt.~ .lIld r11)5
f, M(',l~uflng .m" ·\fclrkmg \I,'U!\ TL1ball.lin 1.ln Brold!('v
IVdn I ,Iv.' 1-1 M.,l..inR Sm.J1/I,\orlohop
~ The"" of Weldmg Too/~
\V A. VilUse 'lo. Bray

11. Electroplating
The techniques of depositing a thin metallic layer on dn object lor
decoration, corrosion protection. electrical conductivity, wedr resistance
and so on have been known for many years but have been developed and
improved to a remarkable extent in the second hali of this century. This
book sets out to discuss the principles and practice of those forms of
plating most suited to the amateur and small workshop. using relatively
simpl and inexpensive equipment to procluce results virtually
uncletectable lrom work carried out by major plating concerns.

Jack Poyner, a professional involved in all forms of plating for many years,
is also a keen model engineer able to recognise the dividing line between
what his average fellow enthusiast would consider practical and
worthwhile and what is really better leit to experts in the field. The result is
a really useful and practical book which will be of value to both dmateur
and light industrial users in many diverse fields.

ISBN 0-85242-862 -6

Br •
(1) Busy Bee
-r-" -,-- ..-

UK on y 9

J . A. Po yn er

....,~d"., ilia.,
Ilcn_.h,.. 1I1'27ST


Chap'''' , IntrOduction and princip'H

0/ electroplating
Chap'''' 2 Th" electrical Supply 6
Chapter 4
The e'eo;lropia ling lank
Th, el.,nlng of 'he s"bSl,ata ""
O A.pa IIoob "'d. 1987
R.,... •• .., I • • 199(1, '991
Chaptet 5
Chap'''' 6
Th" "Kt,olyle
EIKtrofOfming and .'ecuopl.ting
0" non..:(lnducto"
All .;p..... ""d. No ~ '" ,bit po, ... -.,.......y be "' ............ I. aD)' Jomo, by pn.... Chllp.et 1 EIKt,ol,," .'ea,opll,ing
pIooo..........,..a t .011'" or any <><1>0, _ "hou. "'"'teR ,..,.......... r..... 11,. ,..,1>1;_
...... Chap'",8 An example and Ihe c;:on,ide.atlorl 0'
ISBNOU142W626 Chapte,9 50
The finishing of aluminium and ill.llor-

1'toM....",., by ............ .t. Daip ""d., ' , Je" WCI

"" •• «Iand' .... bJ 000 ...... lid.. T_~. Wiloslli ....

CHAPTER 1 cal • . Cenain chemicalS Ire ,.st.lettd. .Impler lor c.r1ain compon.nts by g'v,
and ,.,Iricllons Ire pl..:ed on th.m in lng lhem a $COlI' with .brHive pOWder,
",nlit. The electrical eq"ipm.nl Ihen rinsinll In cold ....el...
needed can be adapted from othe, Aftar these pretrHtmenll, lhe com·
so.."':.. - electrical t.1I eq ... ipm.nt. ponents Ir. electrOplated '" ......,.tev..
Avom~erl. Or bauerv charg... or larll. lIIectrolyte is dIoHn.
capacity electrica l cell,. If desired I pe •• For In e/ectricallUpp!y a 12 YOIt bit
man.nl rig can be made. Thi. I, uMf ... ' IIrv, or a battery chllg.r of 12 volt. or 6

Introduction and Principles of for I comin",0"5 vol"m. of componenll

Ihel hay. to be f,ni.hed . A wiring dia·
gllm i. inCluded in the chapl.r on the
VO!II. may be used.
AI the othar a"!reme. for varied com·
ponents and IlIga volume. one could
Electroplating supply of current.
Wilh ,egard 10 the lanks req ... i •• d.Thi,
UII In .Iaborall line of pr'lfellm.m
and rinse \Inks, wilh a line 01 electro·
is depend.m on the lile o f Ihe compo, plllinll "nh all combined wllh the
nent to be .11CI.oplaled. A uIII ... IIII. I, c ... stom·b ... ilt rectifier.. healer, and
Present d.... electropl,tlng h.. become which hive varioul r... bllers bonded 10 Ihe 5 litr. plastic ice c.e.m conla iner. .gilllion. The cost oflhi ..... o ... ld be con·
I _II -utabli,he<! br.neh 01 metal fin- Ihem. Thell are ... ,.f... 1for mOlt pre·If.llmenl ,iderlb le. and Ihere wo ... ld be Ill. prob·
il.hing. Elect,opll,ing i. • multi· Over the IISI fift .... yea.s develop- Ind elect.opllting 501 ... lion •. For ..... rm lem 0 1 dispoling 01 eftl .... nt .nd tpenl
ditcipline of ."g'....'ing. mechllniCIII menl hat beln carried OIl! on Ihe plating or hot 501 ... lion5 • ..... y • • nd m.an. of chemical •.
.nd elec1rieaJ. in co-o,dinllion w;m liP. 01 plastics.. The lechnolog.,. of primed heatinll the SQiution may be conlldered.
plied chemistry , boa.ds in lhe elect.onif;$ ind ... strv 1111 .... 1;11 IS fish lank heat ..... or. it "',1"111 a PftINClPlES Of ELECTROPlA.nNG
In the ..,Iv dr(a 01 electroplating the added impel .... to IlIe developm&nl aod lIatnl'" steel or mild 51eel tank, • 11" The fundamental la_ ol.lect,opl.ting
indulllry 1It'"1'd with wooden VIIS. D,e. many ptasl~ can be lIICCusfull.,. elae- ring or electrle h01 plale may be used are bllsed on Faraday'. two la-. TkeM
lIen"."o.., •• perienee .nd "ule of "opllled. Wtlll Ihe vlrious processes Chemical glass beakers mede 0 1 heat· lilt.'·
thumb' method. 01 pfocess control. involved In elect,oplating aod c ... r.. nt rllilling IIlall may be ... sed and Cln be
Ove, the yea,. _ m,,,.t finIshes heve req ... iremenll of lIealtll and safety, h.ated on an .Iectrle hot plate or oYer. (1) The weighl of melll d.poaited IS
been Int.odu"d. Automatic pll"t has 'ppropriate preca ... tionl must be ... nde,' e... nlln boJrnerwith .....itabl••tend and prOpOr1ionaJ to the quantIty 01
been dflveloped 10 copt! with the in_ taken to avoid Icxidenll and redu"., pol. ga ... te. Thi. 8<\ ... ipment c.n be pur · electriCity passed.
c.eased volume 01 parts to be finished IUlion of IlIe environment. These ... chased" most laborltory eq ... lpmeot (2) For the same quantity 0 1 elec'
Bnd 10 oonlrol Ihe DroceSl, ensu';"1I a deall with In one of the following chap· .... ppli •••. lricity. The waight of metal de·
conlllm quality 0 1 linish. Inc'eased tell. The mod.1 engine.r mUSI dec:id40 on posited i. propor1lonal to ill
use. o f metellllee', .II,nI8.1.leel) Ind Wilh mOll of Ih a processas ... sed in .... hll .ile Ind volumeof compon.nll he electrO-Chemical eq ... ivlleot.
vlI.ioot plas,lee h,,,. beeo SHn in the model englneerinlllhere i. ready·made wanll to elect,oplate, .nd .... hlll.nllh ••
m8~inll 01 tquipment for thlll finishing eq ... ipmenl $Old on the marlce!., obvio .... h ..... Ints 10 ... SI. These points w illll.ve TheN two 1__ need • liule expla·
shop. lumpl.. being lalh.., milling aod drill. 10 be conlidered. """'ether he Wlnll a nallon to ... ndersllnd their implicatIons.
Pr_m dav finllh,,,,, shops off". I ing mldlin.., alonll .... lh Ihe material •. ",dlmenlary Of 1 more .... bsllnlial.1ee- Thi. is best provided by definIng Ihe
WIde end "."ed r.nge of finishing 1"0- m~all and plallle • . I" CQmpa.ison, wilh !fopl"inll facility. The Olh.. relev.nl un;IS.ln I..... 1.lhe_lIhllwll.lngraml
.......,.; ion end g •• pl"ing. high spIed Ih. eleclfoplating proc-M Ih ••• i. verv lectOfl.re the space eVlllllbl., COII,II<>d Of ounces and the q .... ntily of .Iect,icity
sellICt..... pleling •• nodlli"glrKI electro- little choice av.ilab'- on the market. the conveni.nce of "sing Ih. 8<\ ... Ip- is in coulombs ..... hich Is .mpsla) x time
pla,ing on at ... mini ... m. Vlriol!. electro- Ipa" from UIS for electroplating. This is menl. For example. con.idering one fin· lse«lnds) It!.
lell fi"i.h .. cov....... ide •• nge of en· d .... to Ill ... limited "N 11 compared to ilh 10' IImll., sile componenll and I Thereto..... is ptoponionallo I x I.
ginee.ing .eq... iremenl •. Various alloy Ihe machining Ind fabricatinll oper. lIeedy vol ... m •. it .... ould .uffice to hlv, In lew 2, the electro":hemical eq ... iv.·
plallog. . . . carried OI.JI •• u<:h II ~Id ations in model .nllineering and in I .imple facility 01 en alkali cl.a"er•• '.1"11 i. defined as the weight an el.ment
eob.lt ..... hich gi..... herd thickness of small worklhoPt' lIen..ally. plc~le made of diluted Kid . .... Ith e rln .. .... ill ,eplac. or combine .... ilh eighl p.r11
gold. There II aiM! b.a.. plallrlg for elll(;' Th. Olh.r main ,e..on, ho_"" •• is tank conteinlnll cold .... lIer or p.ele,ably by weight of oxygen in a reection .
I.oplellng safety pin •• ,nd components Ihe deg,.e o f avail,bllity 01 the chem l. r... nning .... ater. It co ... ld be made even The vllency is defined 11 Ihe number

, ,
EIect.olY'. tha anode olllllt partlculllr metal, wIlich
A o;onducting medium for mOlt electro· thus r&duca. the concentration 01 the
plllling. An IIqUoroUI 100ulion wilh mltallic ion In solulion, causing an im·
water·soluble chemicllls of Ihe m'lat 10 bal,ne. in the elect.olyte. The olher l.,;-
be deposiled. These chemical. dllsolve to. aflected by In inert .node is Ihe p.H;
in _Ier Ind fo.m ionl which lCquire 11 thl' will change and Ifleet Ihe efficiency

posilive $ o< neglllive 6ch,rgt. li>d phYlieel chlfecteristics of the elec-
troplated deposil. The mlin elecltoplllt-
'no procel." Ullng lnen llnodll$ I.e
chromium elecl'09lall (decor"ive and
Is en Ilom. Or etoml. wt>!ch "'ve g,ined lIard ). u.ing I,ed .nodl• • end gold elec·
losl electron, IInd in consequenoa

t.oplating, alklline and acid elec!.olvtes ~-
carry 11 polilive (!) o<r>eg"''''
6ch,rge. respectively. _.lI...n~ . ..- '
The posilive chlrged ion I. called , IQ_ N I~ ' _ _N
CJllion, which .. d iseh,rgoed " tha CURRENT DENSITY
cathode, The negltive charged ion il Thi. term is defined a. the amounl of
call&d en aniOll. wh.ch i. diacl1argtcl It cu".nl (limp') pe. unilarel of cathode
the Inode. (componenl l, usullllv e~p.ass&d as
.mounll of CUffent ,amps) pII' squa.s
The use of the te.m p.H will be men·
foot o. aquare decimet .... abbravill1ed
. ... f. or 11 dml. .~,

tioned In th. book In VlnOUI chapte.,.
Th' definilion of th' te.m p.H it defined
liS the log to the baSil 10 oflhll concan·
The firll Ihing thet must be known
lbout th. electroplating electrolvte il
the preferred cur .. nl density .ange.
trelion of the hyd'ogen Ion. Of p.H • - Thi. v,.lu wilh ellCh elocl.olvte. Tha
tog ,oIH+I.
In elecl.Oplallnll il i. uI&d to d.lln,
Ihe acidily or alkalinity o l an el.,;t.olvte.
In prllctical le.ms 8 p.H of I 10 6 I.
acidic ; p.H 7 is neutrlll ; Ind p.H 8 10 14 is
second considaralion i. Ihe tolal sur·
laca lIfea olthe components you a.6 go·
I"g 10 electroplale. The third Ihing 10
con,ide r;' the shape of Ihe comPOnenl
o. components and it s position ,,, .e·
.o,!!( ~ . , .
!?U"P( • • "tw'f

.1~lIline . A good e~lImple of neu t.,1 tol · IlIion 10 Iha anode, in Ihe lan k.
ulion is pure W.tl' whic h i, p.H 7.
The tinge 01 cu"ant density will
InMt. o.lnsoluble .no<le
This i. when ,,, .node ,ue h U lI, i"I...
'" be givan for Iha electrolvtes In Iha
ch.ple. 0" elecl.olvtes.
$Ieel , plallnlsed illinium or leid I. usad (2) The measurema"t o f Ihfl surfaca
in a" electrolvte I"d Ihe a"odI don 110\ arN o l lhe componenlslo be "lac:·
d issolve ,nto Ihe elect.olvte to keep Ihe Iropllled require .n elemenlary
concenlrll,on in bllanee. Th i. 11 II d i,·
IIIlC! f.om tM coppe•• nodt' in Ihe
k"owl&dge of mensu.al;O<l. Some
h, lpful examples for work,"g OUl "
,- ,
coppe. elactrolvte. Ih' lurf8al IrflU ..11 shown Wtg.
Th. ,ne" anode h.. an advanll(je in 31.
cartain elect.olyt.. for electropl"ing . MOll components Ire shaped ill a
However, t'ghta. control i. nuded in comb, .... lion of Ihe IisllId shapes. -.., . .........
mon ito.ing Ihe bll,nee of Ihe elklro·
Iyts, due 10 lad! of repl.ni,hment from
o. appro~j ",,"ng ID Ihese shapes.
SO ul'''I,ng Ihe .pp.oprillte form· .." ,
ul. . III 5lIrface ar•• ~n
I"..-d 10 achieve. good pllll'ed
be ob- 011"1 high current dflnsil\l area mav be
moved 10 one alde of lI>a ~mponent. 0<
appell.nce WIt" the requillte the bonom high w ..... t densilY ..e.
t!'l,dlne". In 011'1 •• words, It il nol may haV1l I "'ob/)t, " IUIIICt>ed. wh ich
.blOlulely nacosur)' 10 be ace ... • take$ the excess current. Fo. the low
tlte to III fraction 01 ,1'1_ , ••• ID current dens'ty area the anode is bent
obialn Ihe corroct elewoplaled al· Or a sub-anode attached nep, •• the .'"a
f&eland thickness. of the component. Another method Is 10
131 The .h.pe of the component. Or redL>C<l Ill. tu" ... t density to 11'11 lowe.
wmponenls. end position 10 11'1,
Inodn In the elllC'l'OpI"'~ {tOnk
part ollhe tange, and IncreaSfl lhe "m.
for eleclfopl'ling
The Electrical Supply
can *1 IH! explained by • dia" The~ met/>oclll'f. bosed on the an of
gram . elec:t.opllling. and WI\h • bulld·up of
I(IlIpe,ienCllhey w>1I not be too d,ffICult
Fig. 4 shaWl In electroplatong 'ank w"h to eccomphll'l.
enodes lInd 11 ~lI'hode !Wspendtd in The However. mOSI ~ompanenlS are of. Met.,s I .. mllnlv electrodeposiled bV lI.te Ylfietv, diodes etc., 0' Ihl older
elect.olvte. Th" ~8lhode i, so Ihaped srraighlfofWlrd shape and will electro- the action of In electrical CUffenl. Direcl copper o~lde or selenium typet.
Ihat it h1l5 "US labelled h'gh current plale qune well when luspended in a current IOC) I. l"lnlilll for electro· Alo de."ibed in chapler one, Fara·
densnv lInd low current den,i'v. In elec · bath. dlposition. Alle,nating curren, (AC) will d'V'1 L,w Sl81es Ihat the mall 01 el ·
I'opl"ing Ih" component wnh,n Ihe The olhe' Imparl.nl shapes in elec- not deposil mel.I •. However, th ..1 Irl ement. In Ihis CilS8 m"ll deposited, is
IInge of Ihe currenl densilV la. the Plr' troplaling are blind holll5. These p'ove vlI,iltiOJll on IlIlrnlting ,yslams which directlv p.opoftionallO the quanti,v of
lieul., el«iroIVl" 'hG wmponent may difficull, leaY,ng 11"nl .round Ihe hole Ire slill bting developed. These electrical ch.rge. coulombs or (.mPS x
Nove I coa'M. 'ough depol'l bu,1'II in The best waV 10 ,tdu~e this ploblem ,. methods g,ve .....ooth.. IInd denser lecon,",l. The .ectifie. should be ,uit·
Ih' h'gh current density ,rel Ind Intll to filllh" hole w'th Wlx Or sim,l.!Jr ml- metal depotll .nd Ire used in ~in eble 101" rectifying 12 voll •• nd ~lIing
0' no depOsol ,n the low CUfflfl1 dens,ty le,i.l; IhlS will ,n .ffect "OP eleo;tropllll ' lpe<;:illised engineering applications . 12 .mps withoul htolling .ff«;t. and be
• r... To Impro ... the depoln V'fOOUI ing in th. holl. but w-II .edtJGe the The mlin conlideration for an eleclrl. of Ih. double W'VltyPII giving lull wa""
m"ans If. pos"bll. The Inodl in front staining effect On Ih' rompanent. ClI supplV in ,h. workshop 0, lighl In· rectilicaTion. thus giving' ...sonably
gin..';ng lacihtv will be derived from ,mooth OC output.

- the normallingle ph... AC supplV.

The supply volllgel. immalerial. as I
transformer I. uled to ronvert it 10 •
working AC O!J'PUt.
The Ir.ns1~, Ihould givllhe chlf-
The nexl illm 10 comple" ths package
of elllCl,ical equipment i. I varilble ...
,illenee. This usually ronli," of a ro-
lICIeristics .. follo_ ' \.Iry Iwn~h sel 011 I halNesisl,ng
board. Fo. high lImPII'ege lhe varillble
CHOICE Of' OUTPUT VOLTAGE ...illlnee board is often mlde 01 melal
Ona mllin continuous winding tapped al 0' .Ilfe. Set in'o tha board are b,ass
4,6,9,10 and 12 YOlll, capable of giving a lIud •• rranged in a ~,,~Ia, with Islid,ng
subllanllel ~Ufflnl of !Jp to 10 Imp. conlle! with I hlndl' m.dI 01 bflu.
continuoul. Aft.nged .nd connectad behind the
lIud. are coils of metallic wire, Ylrying
RECT1f1CATION OF THE CURRENT OF In .Ila Ind sh~ptI 10 p'oduce differsnt
TlfE AC SUPPL V rlli.tlnces 10 obtain the dllired amptlr·
The /undion of 11>1 'ect,tier is 10 convarl .g• • The vlri.ble ,..illlnee i. Ihan
Ihe AC CUff"" from tl>l l,an.IOfme. 10 COnflicted up with In Immele. and ... olt·
"'. DC CUffenl. Rectil .... Cln be 01 the solid matef to permit ronvenienl monlloring

of the ampt.ege and voUage r.,ding •. nltCled up with a vollme"" ammeler
IAg.61. and variable resistance.
On lome mod •• n oo.,dl,lnl,.ad 01. The home bene<y ct."ge. normally
r--------~,--------~ ,liding I;I)rltact on bl... ,Iudt • , .. i$' - h .. only en ammet ••, and lometimH'
ence wire I, uted, with ~ • • nd 6 10 12 volt plug. the maximum output
,witch.t inltrlperled. which ... being 4 10 5 amps. If you !>eve. 6 volt
pr,Sled down fOf u.. delired Imper·
Ig'. Thi. i. when JO amps or mOre
.eqUlled, end by placlr>g the coil. in ~r·
.r. output. use thi, for normal llea,opl.,.
11>11. A 6 voll control unit must be made
IS • Mparat. item ••,the. on its own
,JI.llAltead 01 M,i.., I,.. hut is gene.· chHSis or in ils 0Wll metlll bolt. If m.c:le
,ted '1Ih, coils for Ihe high amperlge. in ils own bo~. do nollorgello prOVIde
(Fig. 7). .c:Iequale venlilallon, as quile I 101 of
An ideel smell electropl.ting elact,j· hell is generated wIlen using m ... imum
eIIl supplv cen be Ht up UI'"g' battery .mps.
Ch'f~ on ill own. 0' bettl!f "ill con- The 12 volt unit un .Iso be made IS.

A rypou/ '-')'CHI' '" ,,,. -,«!,JcM .uppIy and .,. ~ropY"Iti/ ""k wi." an eiKf'"""" /N"'}.
!JI! _It"" "~I>d,,./Id com~n'."';Iti/ /hrMJ

.... ":'--'- -~ _ _" _ _ 'I

ro ..a - R y ODH'~T

v A

) •

-- - --,
,. ,,

o ,-
" " ' - . 111
' ....... D

, ...... Uo

, __ ~
________________ - l 2 3
. . t1VI"< O .....OU

.. ' (O.veysellypet hive bottn used by the

Ivtho.). mile. and switch. The limitflion of this
The simplest way of supplying 11 cu.· llthet the bll!lIry ha. 10 be .eo(:h~.ged
",pa"ta Itlm il dn"ld. but If you hava
Inoogh loom Insldl thl battlry Chlfgll
component 'equiflng I," than one
amp, lu.n th' pOtantiomlte. right down
,ent fa. elect.opllling is I 12 or 6 volt
battery connactlldln .er'" with 10 am·
.fter I period of time, depending of
C(\une on thelmperag. d.awn.
casing. you ean flltha COnl.ol Itlm.lnto 10 uto put minim ... m voltage In thl cir·
thIS. Thin, whin thl Unil i, 0Ieded ... cuit, open thl SWItch S ,W.. and with ll'Ie
battlry ch •• glr, w,nd Ikct polllmllomlllf .nodes ami componlnll (cathodes)
knob to fTMlI!mum vohs, maklng ..... .I••.,ty in thl electrolytl, connect the
thlll 11'11 one .mp meter is shOf1I1d 001 control unit OOlput to the <espec1ive
us'ng IhI 5 Imp switch, and you "1 .node and eathodl connectIons. Then
,e.dy 10 ch••g•. w,nd up the potentiomete. unlll the .e·
Should you m.ke the control unit IS. qui.1Id .eading on thl ono amp am·
sapa.ata item, .. m.mbat 10 connect the mete.;s shown,
ehaui, o. metal casa to tha matsl case The normol convention for a control
o. chaUit of tha battary cha.ge •. knob is clockwise la. ma~imum, Ind
F.g. 8 shows thl ci'cuit dl.gr.m Inti.clockwise fa. minimum, and If ll'Io
which is vlry IImple. clfcuit is connecllld U fig. 8, this should
The potentJomlt.r is corlOectlld come out correctly, Should yoo fiml the
ac.oss tha ootput of lhe battary cha.ge., 'IVlrse happening, brllk the contact
numbe.1Id 1 and 2 on the diltg.am, and bet_n the voltmate. and I, (snown as
the slidlng .. m 3 taps off the voltlog. I f X on the diagram), .nd couple the volt·
.equ"IId,.mI is shown on th. voltmlllf meter connection. to pOint 2 on the d,a,
gram. This Iho ... ld correct thl fault.
11 you are electroplating a compon.nt Fig. 9 -shoWllhl back vi.w of. potan.
thal .equi••• mo .. than one smp, then (iometo', Tlgs 1 and 2 arlthl two ends
th. one .mp .mmete. must be .honlld of the varlabll resisto., .nd tlg 3 is the
oot by (IO$'ng the 5 .mp switch S.W. sliding a.m.
The higher .mpe"gl can then be teld Othe. methods of p.oviding • DC
on tne ch.rgar unil'. inllmal ammate •. • ... PP .... fa. llect'OpI",ng are I..ge 3D
When you "";sh to electroplata a small amp battery chargers IOf milk noalS.

" "
CHAPTER 3 Table 1 Recommended Malerial for Tan~s
Electrolytes Remar~s
N°' Zinc Plastic. propylena Iype Mildlyacid, e
Pyrex glass, stainless steel electrolyte
N"2 Zinc Mild S!eel, Plastic. propylene type Alkaline
Pyrex glass, stainless steel
Dull N ickel Plaslic, propylene type, Pyrex gla ss
The Electroplating Tank Semi.brighl Nickel PlaSlie/rubber lined sleel, Pyrex M 'ldlyacidic
Dull Copper Plaslic, propylene type. Pyrex glass.
stainless sleel.
Sem;· bright Copper stainless steal. Plaslle/rubber Acidic
rned sleel
Tho electroplating tBnk, VDI, or bsth, most usual are polythene a nd Ti, Mild sleel, Plastic, propylene type, Alkaline
whatever ;t is called, contains the "IIIC' polypropylene. These plastics Pyrex glass, slainless steel
trolyte. However. other pans o f the pro- come under various trademarkS.
and can all be used. Good u · Alumrnium Plastic, propylene type. Acidic
cess Ilove 10 be considered, such as
amplllS of these are half and one Anodise Pyre~ glass, Lead·!ined
cleaning end rinse lanu.
The electroplating and cleaning tanks gallon ice cream canons. Oiher
BrS the most imponant, because U'e)' good plastic containers for tanks Pretreatment SOlutions
hold corrosive solutions of chemicals. are cut·down 2.5 li lre Chemical
The rinse tanks. as their name containers o. len gallon carboys.
Using mild Or stainless sleellanh N°' Soak All this group All Alkaline
suggests. arS merely suitable v9ssels (2) Cleaner mild steel
containing plain waler. has Ihe edvanlage that they can be
The main pOints 10 consider are Ihe healed easily wilh a gas ring . They NG l A Electrolytic Plsstic, propylene N°'A Mild Stoal
materials. Ihe const ruction, the Size. elso have more rigidity. especially Cleaner can be used
end if requiting to be healed. This app- when heated. This applies to tha lor Anode
N°2 Cleaner Pyrex glass.
lies to bolh cln";"g and electroplating alkaline clean8n.
Aluminium slalniou steel and Cathode
tanks. 13) Pyrex· type glass is quoted be·
TakIng Ihe points in order:- C8Use it is heat resistant. When it is N° , Hydrochloric
In Ihe form 01 chemislry lebore· Acid Pidle All this group All Highly
MATERIALS tory squat beakers it can be healed N°' A Hydrochloric PlastiC. propylene Acidic
Most chemical solulions are either add Qn an electric hotplale or a Bunsen Acid Pic~le typa, Pyrex glass
Or alkaline. The only neu tral substances, burner. CustQm· made plastic
tanks cen be purchased from elec· N"2 Sulphu ric Stainless sl eel
i.e .. p.H 7.0, lire usuelly organic solven(s
troplating supply hous.es. Acid Pickle
(used in the Initial cleaning) and waler.
Lisl ing the cleaning solutions and Small plastic tanks Can be heated N"3 Pickle Eanhenware (glaledl
electrolytes used in various chapters by low watlage aquaria plastic· Aluminium
with the relevant materialS will illuslrate covered haalers. For larger vol· N"4 Slight Dip
what can and cannOt be used fQr a par· uma tankS, varying Siled watlage
of siHea sheathed beaters up to N"5 Bright Dip
ticular sQlution (see Table ' I.
2KW. or stainless steel or tilanium Aluminium
NOTES REGARDING TABLE , immersion heaters 01 similar wan· Zincate Dip Plastic. propylene type. Highly
(' I Where plastics 8re mentioned, the 8ge, can be used. Pyrex glass, stainless steel Alkaline

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, ' --- ,.
~~~------------~.~'~ -'--i-;-----+,~

TANK CONSTfl UCTION '01 Inlullled holder. for .node IInd

In the construction of electroplil!lng .nd ea,hode bar •. usually m.d, 0'
~".ninlllanks lor professional finill"",,, porcel"n Or pllSlie.. 11 the link i.
ShOPI, 11111&1 and most plastic link. ,.,
med. by moulding, end these ••• pul '
ch...d Iccordmg 10 \h, " l e .nd vol.
kHP "'It
.... de 01 Sleel. theW holders Ihen
anodll and o;alhodll ba,.
In.ul.ted. These ,r. boiled or
holde" for the v.nou. heater.
and agilallon eqUIpment.
This is Ihe CIIlhode. Or compOnent
ume requited. Som. plfStic tan t>.
weld,d, SUCh" poly!hene Ind poly.
screwed onlo the lI.nge5. for
plulic. the lank matedal providel
'" to be electroplated. It can .ithe. be
wired on Wilh eopp"r wir" o. alu·
p.opylenll. Be <:lllIlullo check tll.1 Ihese in.ulllion. minium will 'or pleting 0' anodil-
tin'" h'V8 no ,....,.. h i, good p.-.:Iice 1>, Th" .node ,nd o;alhode bar • . ing_ Th" CGmpO<>I'Inl o;an be jigged
10 fill ,"-m wllh Wile, ,nd allow to ulU.11y .... d" of copper or brass. or hooked. A "1fIfu! method for
Ital>(l fot 11 dllV. 10 .... il any 1111" .p- typical d,emel" .. being I,(o;n. ~n . small compon"nts is 10 pr«lean
pear. to Iln, end l'hin .. depending on and spread Iham oul on. piece 0/
For metal 'snh thlt h8" 8 been Ih" size of Ih" lank ,nd Ih" weighl "8inles$ ItHI mesh shaped lika.
welded Il'Ie S8mt1 checkmg for leak, of Ih" .noda Ih"ywill h,v" 10 sup- busket, wilh I wire or hook
For stl,nl"ss ,,"'tenks mike lu" 11
Anode. These o;an be .h.... l. drilled
through Ihe middlelfig . 12). Ah".
Ip<eading th"m over U>e IUrf_
good lI<ld8 01 st.'n!eft steel i. used.
13' and hooked. or hooIIltd .node• . 01 lhe meah. lhe b,sI<lII it im·
fuch el 317512. Thi, will .Iand Ihe eor· M,k" .u .. Ih" hooua.. OUI of lha mersed In Ihe electrolyt" .u • •
'Olive nltu.e of Ihe brlgl>t dipl .nd
pickl ••.
A typical Ulnk i. iIIu.I,"ed IInd th, fol·
,., eleclrolyte.
Thl fim. or Ih" tlange ..ound Ihe
lOP o f Ih" lank. ;,ulfllul/or hand·
pended by Ih" hook from Ih"
cathode bar, Shlke Ih" bllklll 11
various tim", to mo"" Ih" corn·
Iowing numbers rei". 10 the' shown 1<1 ling .nd affi.ing Ih" hold"'l 10. pOnents. Thi, will pt_n! 'r"a.
Fig 10: Ih. anode and CIIlhCHk bars. end be,"g unpl'led.

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Thl Cllco.olelion Of Ihl voluml of I bubbling action. which agl"t..
lank i' :- thl 101I,Ilion. Care - regulate well. CHAPTER 4
Voluml lV) in gallons with Ihl dimen- ar ,I" it wIll froth .nd bubble
sions ln inc:he,. 0 .....
V _ IInglh. width x hlight cu -,"ch..
276.5 (Inches). Ho usekeepin g with electroplating
V _ IIngth K width ~ height cu -felt prOCll-l llnh
0.18 I.
(1) Alwa .... remOVI Ihe anode and
V In liv..
cethodl bar •. and dean down by
Nbbing WIth SCQIJring powder. The Cleaning of the Substrate
Scotchbrite or dOlh . Rinse in
""'- '11 100al will< and rel>l_. Check all elac-
volume to lhe mU5Ured hlighl of Ihe tricel contact. on the tenk for he".
lenk. The .etual volume il to Ih' height If hOI. make lure Ihat a beller COn-
of tha IOlution. nlClion i. Obt.ined. (Heat dissl'
If agitation of the elaclrolyt81 i, pate. the current). The mOlt imponanl p ..t of thl lIact.o· taining haloglnated hY<lroc.rbons such
needed Ilh,. depending on whit t',Ipe of (2) Mak. lure III the sOlutions ere up pl aling P'OCI.. i. Ihl preperatlon and .. trichloroethylene. The.. Ire used
finish II required) two methodl are 10 the requirld volume. If nOllhey cleaning 01 the substrala. i.e. Ihe SUrfacl withIn Clrtain hl81th and u let',l
luggUlld :· a.elopped up wllh clean wale'. or of the componlm prior 10 Ihe elact.o· regulations. which mikes them en e~·
distilled or daioni"d weler. plating Op!lrallon. pensive cepital process.
(11 Fo< nic:lcel and copper Ilacllolyt... m Makl sura III Ihl anodH ..I This Plrt of the p.ocess delefminl' Fo. general use, 10 •• move SOil.
.. _11 " !he anodiling . !hev Cln cleln, and thl eonllct. 10 thl the appearlnce Ind the adhesion Ollhl g ..... Ind oil (IIC. 'Ill being IOlubla in
be aglllled by an ,Iactrit; ~dle Inodl ba. a'l cl. .n. In all Ihl" electroplate<! dlpo$lI, as well u ils anli_ organIC soIventsl Ihe COmPOfllnIS are
1I",er sitUlled 11 Ihe tide of Ihe lreas Ihl currlnt denSIty will v.ry corrosion prOptniU. wired. hooked 0< pI~ in I melal
tlnk. if Ihere i. I bed CCH'IlIct. The important polnl to remember bI.kll. usually 51.,nless ""1, which i,
121 A good method ilia pllce Iplalllc 141 Ensur. III 'aetifier alact.icll con· lboul a cl"ning cycle i, to makl it 11 th.n immersed in a metal conllinlf con-
pIpe Illhe bonom olthe link. WIth tact5 a .. claln. .imple 11 POlllbll within thll confin" taining thl soIvenl and aglllled from
small hole. drilled in. Anached 10 IS) Removl Ihl anode. and rinse of the compon8fl1tO be cleaned, thl"_ one to len minutes. depending on lhe
thl •• by means of a nll.ible pipe. i. whIn thl Ilact.olyte Is nOI in USI. quired appe ••• nC1l ollhl ellCl.opllled amount of g.e88e and loll . ThlY a ..
I regulaled compressed air 161 Cove. th, ellctrolytes with lids depooit, and whet melal ilia be electro· then ,hakln end allowed 10 .ir dry.
lOurCI. When I" I. pened whIn nOl In u... deposited. Elabor.llon of Ihl cleaning Larga componen" can be wiped Wllh a
"'r()IJgh the pipes. Ihi. glv.. I process cen Ilad to I poorly finished $OIvent-lOaked cioth befofa dipping.
component. and (:Ontequently lead 10 I Great Cl.. mull be liken WIth IOI ... nll
waste 01 mall.ial,. 11 they Ite/llmmabfeo. gi ... 011 dlnger·
The fi'$1 pen of lilY cleaning cycll i. ous vapours .nd remOVI gT"" f.om
da-greasing. Th" pan of thl deaniflg lhe Ikin and o;:Q\Ild Cl"" dermat.IIs. I1 is
ope.alion;' carried out wilh an organic bell la CI.ry OUI Ih" ope'"ion In an
solvent Ind refe"ld 10 IS the sol ... nt open IImOlptllrl. wllh no naked /lImes
clean. There Ifl various de-g.ening end uling glOVes.
agenls "sed In Ihi, Plrt of Ihe cyde and The IOlvenl clean l• • preilmi"arv
Ihey a.e ulu.lly lome form of paraHin. clean which is c.... led 0"1 on III metals.
white spi"I, indUII';al alcohol, o. h.lo-
genated hydrocarbon. luch 11 Gen- A lKAUNE CLEAN ERS
kle ....
In indullri.1 fin"h,ng II>ops a vlpour ....... linl Sootk a.. .....
clean is used in cUllom-buil\ tan.. (:On- Thi' cI"nlng solulion Cln be used for

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To malll up an Inhibt"ted Pie.,.,
III f.rrou. m.tll., eoppe. Ind its III~.
It ,.mOVH Ih. IUI trKH of g.ease aMI
oillnd ,Hidual poIi.h compouMls f,om
ova. thlsurfac. Ollhl cathodl. i_I. Ihl
compon,nl. th' IIIrface of which Is
"ICrubbed" by Ih' hydn.gen gls Ind
Th. nll<l Plrt of Ihl cleaning cycl. I, Ihl
pidcling P'OCIA. Pickling mellls mlanl
mlkl up 10' Ihe h~drochlo.ic pidcll Is
used w"h 0.5'4 by _ighl H.x,m,nl ad.
lhe! componetttl. Ihi, in conllqu.1IOI IfflClS I clean.ng Ihl 'Imoval 01 impu.ilies IUd'IIII $CIII. dition .
action and, in Ihl case 0 1 steel, rust, from Ih.
aurflCe, with lin l. 0, no .nadc o ••,. No .HA) Pickle
No.l Alkllin. Cl ...... ' Fo. copPl< and it. IlIoys Ihl same 0.80>:. pe. galJon o. Sg.ml. PlO' hlrl of
Mak. up :· p.ocedU'1 Is used IS for Ih... f.....ous mo~al of the actuII melal undemlalh
Ihl impufilils. Hlxaminl.
SodIum Hydrfll.ida 6ol. pe. gallon 40 mllall. bullhelompe.alu•• usedil6O'C TlIa flIU!! 01 adding thl Hlx.minl
grms. pe. lit •• . (14O'f), th' low.. Ind of Ihl Ilmpera· PidclH "I fo.mulotted !tom ml .... ral
adds .uch 11 hyd.ochlo.ic .nd 1111· will be Ihe 'Imov,1 ol lh. teel, by Ih.
Sodium Cartxw.ra 40.1 . pe. gellon 25 lurl r,ngl. The CUHent d ... nsity i, .150 pickl •. bul lh ••t! will be no action of Ihe
g.m • . per 1i1.1. 10WI. a t 5 a, • .f. (O.SIIldm'), for a pe.lod phu.ic acida.
pickle on lhl cll an mllll surfacl. In
Sodium Tri.iUCiI,a 4oz.pe. gal1o" 25 01 tw,ntv 10 fo rty slconds. o lhe. wo.ds, Ihlaction o f Iha pielll, will
grms. per lit.e. To finish off Ih •• pi" o f till cycle for No. 1 Plckll
Hydrochloric Acid Pickla.
ceasl Whin Ihe seall het been 'a·
Thi. can be m.dl up w llh w ellr 10 thl Dolh farrou. mal..ials lInd coppe. Ind movld . NOTE -Ihil inhibited plckll e.n
'UQuirttd volum •. Carl must be lakan copper alloy. Ih l pola, ity is .evlrsed. Mike up: ·
Conct/n/fllr/ld Hydrochloric Acid only be utell on flfrous mltlrials.
wilh sod,um hyd.o~,dl which,s vlry al· 1.1. Ih. component made anodk and
kalina; glo~H .nd gogglas must be cleaned fOf I furthl' \on teConds allh. 31511.oz.200 mls. No. 2 PiclIl.
usttd. ,a",. CUHlnl dln,itlH IS fOf flrrOUS Wirer ma.dcl up 10 one gallon (0' 200m1 Sulphuric kId Pickl•.
Th. cll.n,. ,. used 'I ,tempe.lturl • nd coppe •• nd coppe. Illoys respect· in 0111 lit,,) . Ma~e up:·
of betwN" 6O'C Ind 8(f(:, (14O'F 10 ively. Th...emov •• I ttny amount of This pidcll is used a\ .oom IlITtpe,,· Conctml,.,1rI Su/phunc Acid 9fl.oz. !Y.;
176'f). fOl II"ous m.lals it .. besl 10 mllll. 111Il0l giving I clean and ICIIVI tU'I . The .ecommlndadlank 10 uM is of m,.
usa Ihllemperalurl of 80'(:. 11 is .ecom·
mended 10 un IIIHI conl., ... r for Iha
surfKI. plllttc, usually polyp.opylene, Of gl.u.
11 I 11. .1 link i. used. it mull be lined
W., ...hIt.).m.de up 10 onl gallon (SSml in
eI ••".,. Th. «lmpo~IS.,,, imm".StId Alkali", CI.. n.. fo< Aluminiu m ,nd w ith rubbe. Of plestic.1t i, p'ller.bl. to Thl uml mlll".1 " used for Ih.
Irom two 10 I.n minutls. Zinc DlI Clltlng l hlvlllid onwhan nol in uM beClUM of lanu IS in No.1 Pickle . Thl procedU'1
fo •• SfICOnd SIIga CIa.net o. EIf1c. Thlse 1<1 cll.ned in • Iow '1~11i Ih, fumH, which will cauM ,ulling 01 10' m.king up Ihe pidll i•• Iso IhlUml
It()/yTHl Cle.ne. Ihl lbove blJlh can be Cllanl •• wh;eh g,vl •• dull. f.osty .p. 11111 objects In clOSI p.o~imity. 11 No. 1 Pickll, bu l lotk. ca.. with lul·
used . It can be used in Ihe lam" tlnll pellrallOllo Ih. componlnts but off,,, a Thl prOCedU'1 for making up is 10 hili phuric lcid - use goggles, glovH .nd
wh.n m.dl of 11111. I1 is conside.ed good cll,n .u.lac. p.ior to electroplel' flll lh l lank w ilh cold waler. Ihln pour In oVlrllll. as Ihis is co.rosivl. and wh.n
good praclice lo pilei lWO links in tan · ;ng Of anodIsing. the measu.ed volume of conclnt.aled addld 10 wale. Ihe lemperatu'l of the
dem, the fi<lllor a 'o.~ cleanl •• and \hl hydrochloric acid slowly. Tak. ca'l 10 'Olulion .isos ropidly, so stir contlnu ·
stK;ond an "ICI'Olytic ell ........ No. 2 Alklllnl CI..nl. un glov.s, goggl ... s Ind ov... II •• nd ou.ly whill.lowIy .ddingthlacid. (SII
Fo. Ilrrous mltll, Ihl IInll is mlde Mak. up:' carry oul in an open Spacl. Aft .. the lhl difflrlnCI with No.1 Pickll whlll no
Inod,c. Ihll is the U,nk i. connlCled 10 SodIum hrd,oxidl 31». pe. g.lIon Kid illS bIIn eddttd, makl up 10 Ihl fl· h." i'glnefllttd) .
Ih. po5Il,vl part of IhllllCl"CitI supply 2Og.ml. pe. lil'e. qui.td volume. Tilt! ,.action of hyd.o· Aft .. cooling, Ihl pickll i. ready fOf
end Ihl WI.,d Of hooked compon,nts Sodium c.t,boII,,11 40.1. per g.lIon Chlo<ic acid wilh watl' dOlI nOl ..ise uu. It il used 11 room l.mpe.lIIu'l.nd
CQnnlCled 10 Ih' cathodIC: nag.at,ve pi" 2Sg.m • . PIt hlfl. !he tlmpe.atu ••. used bolh 10. i.on and liNt ,nd COpPl<
of lhe .1Ict.ielllUpply. Mtk. su •• Ihll Th. eI.....,.. " used .t a lamplfllu •• 01 This pidcll can be used boIh 10' f••• and brill.
Ihey I'. ,n.ullled, by IIp'ng tterOS'S Ih ... 6O'C /14O'"F). Howev.., il can be used" rOut matlfials and eoppe. .nd ill Fo. normal 5Cl11 removal. OnllO Iou.
lOP 01 Ih. link. • IOWlr Ilmpe'alu'l if. ,eduction in Ih. .lIoys. m,nutH imm ... "ion liml i•• equired .
T1'II high and of Ih. tamperllu •• !tO$ty appea •• nee i. desired. Thl im· The imm.,,'on lim. VII", ~ding
.Ing. it utell, Ihll '. 8O"C al a cUffenl me<lion time i. I.om Onl minull 10 10 how much seal. is presenl on Ihl No. 3 Pickle
denllty of 10 I • .f. - 30 • .•.1. (1 .0a 'dm~ - lit... m,nul", depending Iga in on Ihl componlnll. FOf normal tee!e ,lmov,I, Aluminium and AJluys PI·eIIll.
3.0a ·dm'l from on. to two minutes. Ippearance'lqui,ed. on. 10 fou . minules i. thl ulual I, ml. Maka up:-
The mechan,sm o l lhlS type of clean· Thl lank fo. this cllana. can be 0 1 Thl compon ... nls are u5ually wi.ed up Concentrated Nitric Acid 3911 ,01
ing i, thll hyd'ogen gH is lib •• etttd plastic. 11111 Or glal •. with copper Wi'I, hooked, 0' on iiO" 2SOmls.

Sodium FIIIOr/de 1.SoI. 10grm•. amount 01 corocent.ated hydrochloric phospho.ic acid Ind hydrogon peroxide cen or Ih, masking m_v Dllak down
Wa'" m.cle up 10 one gellon 12SOm1 in acid .cIded, arl corro.' .... therefore gJOVH. gogglos during p<ocessing.
OMli"e). It i. good p<actiC1ll0 st,nd plntic can· and oVflfatls must be WOM. The alu·
Thi. i.used 81a picklalo•• Iuminium. tainer. in an ou ter tank containing cold minlum componan'. lIa immlrsed POINTS TO REMEMBER
or 10' da'lmoWng "",n, in aluminlom wa(a •. from ten IICOnds to ona minUle. dep- Alway. add acid to water, not VIce va ....
.11oyI. and gen,,.lIy imlNrls a cl.. n Ca.e. whan m.king op thi. b-IIth, Th. ending on the btightnlll required and Afler mi.lng with wale. il i. uwally IHs
surlae.. concentrated minefllacidl era corros· the perticular Iluminium aUoy being tIa.lardou • •
The b-II(h ~n be mllde up In e gl/l51 o. illl ,nd ~u" burns, ther.for. gloves. dipped. Imm.cli"lly ,Itar dipping th. Always _"gloves, goggles and ov".
plestic link. La. polyp.opylenl. gogglasand olllrall, mOll be WOM. eomponen,. ,ra rlnlled in cold wlter 10 .Ils.
To mltl op Ihe pickle. hatl fill the lint The bright dip is uH<! et room tem· removl traces ollha dip. I! there i, 'ny spiltaoe on P3rt. of thl
with water. add the mlllo.1d amoont per&lUII lor copper and copper allo.,. body. wash with running cold Wit ....
of cO~nt'3ted nitric acid to 'hi werlr. and nickel lillll' only. The imme ..ion OUllinad in this chapter aral number Work in tha open 11., or halll good lIan·
slowly. continuou,ly slirring. Next add tima i, 11 matter of second •• Ihls being 01 chemical elealling methods. Thlse 11I1(ion.
tha sodium lIuoriM and Illr Will ontit dependenl on the surl,c:e .equired. give I chBm~lIy claan wrlace. prior to
dio.solYed. Finally. mlk. up '0 the •• Alter bfight dipping. O>ey must be fm· electroplating. whid> is thoeideals/tuation. TABlES
qoirod \IOluma wilh wat ... CARE with merH<! in I cold water rinse 10 remOlla Howeva •• vllious ph~ic.rrl methods The accomlNnying tables <;OlIlr tha
ni,fic 3cld. being corrosiv.; use glov ... Ih. acid. Put, ,malllmounl of sodium can be used with Or in IOml CIIII in· cleaning .nd Ihl alectrolyles uMd in the
gogglal.nd 0 ....,11 •. ~.bonlll in thoe IrnSflto neullllin. lily .tead of chlmi~1 cle.nlng. deposition of thl metal •. I1 J. alum .
Th. pic:kJe i$ uH<! et room lempefl ' 2ou. per galion . Thtr cornponentllO be We! seouring powder. Scotchbfitl mary of chapl'" lour and flVa. aod INn.
ture. wUh imm .... ion tim. of betweln bright dipped Irl wired with copper ped. and wi,. wool can be uMd on of chaptlr, ,i. and nine.
(hirty ncondl and one mino!a. will. $m,1I COmPOIlOll1I can be dipped compon"nl$, Hpacially copper or DII" It shOWl thl SIIDII"te mlllri.11 with
in lJt,in!ess IIHI beS",.. This process OnH. Th"se CIIl than be rinsed lod di· (he combinllioo of Ihe cl,aning cyclll.
8ri;ht Olps mu" be -'I ventilat.cl, or done in tha ractly alectroplated, or put throogh the the alectrolytes•• nd the optioos to
No. 4 D,p. open ail. becaUM when diPPlllg th, lIarious chemic,rrl etesning p.oc...... achill'le which finiSh you require.
Mak, op:· compononta, r~ fume. of nllrog'll di. G.it or wet Dlesling I. an excellenl
Concenll.fed Sulphuric Acid 8011 ,0' , oMiM III gillln oH from the dip. which mathod of deeoing COmponlnll. es· Key to raference number5 on f/le fables.
Nitne Acid 3011.0 •.
..a ",,"me1y h....dou • .
For Brlllht Dippi ng of Alu minium
peclllly caS( i.on, Cllt componanl. o'
healllly rulled "eet articles. Com·
ponants cl..nad thil way ~n be directly
" , The preflrred cI..n is I gill, or wel
bllIl. prior to electroplating.
Concentrated Hydrochlorit: Acid No. 5 Dip. alectroplated. In the caSI of casl To Ilect'oplate eithlr of tha acid
0.511.01. 15m1s. M ••• up:· componants. thi. reduCH tha lilk of 12' coppers I minimum 01 I /llIh 01
Warer 5OIl.o,z. JOOmII. Conc.rrfraferi PtrosplK>rit: Acid 15."ll.o,z. occluded cleaf'HIl$ IllChing out alta, oil!>er 01 the nidell mull be de·
IMaking one gallon or onl li(ra re· 44Om1 •. electroplating. posited.
lpecI;lIaly). AfI" the .ollllnt clesn process. I! dal'
Tha lint cln be m.cle of gins. pla'lic.
potyl/l_, P.V.C" or I good qU31ity
Hydrogan Perox;do 120 lIolumes)
O. UfI.o,z. "mlL
W.f .... O.73f1.Q.r.21ml •.
Ired. clrtain aress which m_V not nettd
to be Ilectroplated m.y be 'masked off.
This I. carried out by uling muking
'" Fo. tin Ilectlopla(iog. to 13cilita'l
$Olda.lng. it la recommended that
, flash of nicl<aJ be depo.ited be·
"ainl....teel loch as 317512 glide. Tha IOlution i. operal~ &I I tempers· lorl tin electropllling. Thia is pa ••
To mlk. up the Drlght dip, th, w3ter 1I (ur. 019O"C 119!i' f). tape. PVC. O. simil., plaslic llpe. O. ti<:ula.IV neeH18ry 00 bliSS,
poured In (ha tank..nd the COrocent'31ed The link uH<! is m/lde 01 gl,.. O. 'lIopping off' lacqu"l. The$ll "1 lac· bee&un il prll'lenls d.·~incing 01
.olphoric acid Iddad slowly. stirring pI3.IIC. i.e. propylenl. The weter is quell m3de 01 synthelic IHinl. auch IS brlN alter tha told ... opelltion,
coot inuou.ly; witch for ollerheating. polyu."h.ne lIamish. They III peinted
The lolouon illlllowed to cool to room
tamper3t U,.. The mtlaSllred amount 01
poured in tha link. Ind con<:e<ltreted
phosphoric aCid added Ilowly, stirring
continuously. Alter miMing, the IOlution
on .nd allOwed to dry. It I, best to use a
tllpe or lacque. commensur8t" with tha
hotte.t pen 01 the electropl3t;ng pro-
'" Tha l1nc&ta dip ia nece'''ry when
Ilectroplating ,Iuminium wilh
nick,! ,nd other malal daposits
concen'flted nitric ,cid i. eddad. lIi •• is allow.<:! 10 cool. then thoe hydrogen ftlectrOIVl ically.
ring contInuously. then the measu.ed peroxide i, added. Call. Concentrlled


SUBSTRATE Solvent N° ' Soak N" ,A N" N' , N° 1A N" N"

MATERIAL Clean Cleaner EleC1rolylic Alkaline Hydrcx:hloric Hydrochloric Sulphuric Pickle
Cleaner Cleaner Acid "Id Acid Aluminium
Alum inium Pickle +Hexllmine Pickle

IRON V.. V.. V" Yesor lA or2 Yes or 1 or 2 Yes or 1 or lA

STEEL V.. V" V" YesorlAor2 Yes or 1 or 2 Vesor1 or lA

Vu V.. Optional - Yes or lA, 2 Yesorl , 2 Yes " lA

V.. V" V" Yes or lA, 2 Yes or 1. 2 Vesor' , lA

lit AllOYS
Vu V" V"

OlECA5TING V" - V" - V"

BRASS V.. V.. Oplional - Yes or 2 - Ves or 1

COPPER V.. V.. Optional - Yes or 2 - Yesor 1

BRONZE V.. V" Optional - Yes Of 2 - Vasar 1

SILVER V.. V" Optional - Yes or 2 Yes or 1


The Electrolyte
The term elec;lrolyte i, delloed .. thil A good eK,mpla of Ihi. is Ihe dipping
eond ucu"lI medium lor mOl' elect.o- of , ; """I in ac:idk copper .1,11·
pl'ling processes. The mOl' common rHul1I in an Immersion
91ectrolyta i. IIn IIqUflOU. IOlut lon w it h
water ..oluble chemical •• When I CUr-
rent i. allowed 10 flow through the .al-
ution vi. Ihe anode and CiOlhode, • is:-
deposilion of metlll ooeurt " \h8 &~ 01 rJlJ" _ ~v"l _ NmJ·1lrig1ll nlclce/. r .... bo:>Ir;, """~'Ied Wlrh 1<f>C,
cathode. The l1ecuolyt", v.ry in p.H
end mav ~ Kid,,, solution., neutral.nd
_ bIu, plUiV.rfd. rt.. ~or;, .,."fOI1I....:J _rh "",~I>""hr NC/t;e/ from r.... ,1..
dpm'_ ill lion ~, ...
elkali ... lIOIu\ions..
The elecl.olyte mUll conl.i" the di.- CoIII or m.lle.bl. ilon. 11 i. OpItl'atad &I TlIfIlIOlUlion i, now ready for UM. It is
lolved Hit of the melllla b.- d'p<"iled. room IImperalure. Ih."lo<e no healing ,dvi .. bl. 10 mark Ih. on. g.lIon leval.
The lilt' dissolve in wlte. end form <", costs Ire incUrred, .nd the deposits Ira Or whallv.. volume you use, OOlhe out·
lonl. For eumple. copper lulph&'e di,· is:. easHy tre&lad with o;e",in chemical. to ,Ide 01 Ihe tank wilh , walerp.oof
solved in wale. form. Cl,j·~ + SO--, '" cop per
g ive , coloured lini.h (p8Ss;v&tel. marke. pen . .., Ihat as Ihe level o f the
the Ion. of eu' • IInd 50.--. The fo.mulat.on of the elea.olyle link lall. thr()l.lgh avaporation 0' d.ag
Iulphate electrol yte ;1:.
Generally. the more complex the ion, ()1.11 il tin be lOPped up Iglin.
200gmlllilre Zinc Ch/o,;dtl3oI; pe. g.lIon 2Og.ms pe.
the more effICient, ,nd , much G"'fl BOgml of coppor. I1 you eIIn keep. lid on I". IInk....t>ef1
tmootllar deposit o llh, m.~1 ooeurs. iit ••. nOl ,n uM Ihi. will m'fllmise .... lpo •• I-
Coming 10 more practie&1 I.,.,.,. lor Ammonium Chlrmd. 200. pe. gllllon
Mot' pro'es,iornol electfolytH .r. of the electrOlylfl. Ihe mosl common ..e Ihe Iog.oo pr....""1 dustl,ni"" iflto Ih.l4I-
c:y.nide ion. which is compte"... di.· 120grm. per hue. ulion.
ones uNd 10r linc pilling, in their vlri- To make up OM g,lIon 01 electrolyte
li~ from the ,imple ion of co~r 1... 1.
()I.IS form •. The one Ihat I h''''' uNd, 'nd Idd ,i~ pinls of liP wI, a. 10 Ihe pl .. I;ng Oper&ting Condition.
ph" • . The mein rflasOn why CVlnide is considered rellonably ... fe lor 1,1. . In
electrolyte. are commonly 1,114<:1 11 Ih.I link, Ihen Idd 1he 200. of .mmonium Th. link i, conneaed up 10 1"'1 power
,workshOj) or g ..ege . i. a l ine chloride chlo.ide, $Iirrlng w,ll until complelely
w;Ih I eomple .. ion, Ihe Ictual COnlanl of bath. supply. Ihe po"live connecled to Ihe ,n·
Ihe metal In Ihe ion I, re llliYl ly low diuolved. od... In this eIIse piecH ol ll<>e 4in. ~
compared 10 • limple ion. ,nd Ihi. r. In .nOlhe. com,ine •• pu t two pinl& of 3in .• Or perfor.ted zi<>e Ih"l Sin. ~ 600.
"reil Ihe form&lion olln immertion de- ZINC ctllOftiDE BATtt Wlrm liP Wile •• Ind ,dd 30•. of zinc boughl from you. 10<:11 ironmongefl.
polil when Ih eIIllIodt i. pi~ In Ihe This i, , .Imple .Iectrolyte to u. . .nd chloride. slirring until di'soIved. Pour Pre-d •• n Ihe componentl, lOO 'm-
eleclroIyte, whim eIIn CoIU .. problems m.inl,in ,nd h.. Ih I(Iv,nllgtl of &lee- the two pint, Inlo Ihe ,i .. pints al.eady in mene in !he el&<:trQlVle. Tu.n Ih. cur-
Wilh IIdltMion. I'opt";ng on dilflCUh m'tals, aud! .. !he pIIoling link ,od mi~ well. .enl on, ,nd rotgul&te 10 Ihe """lOt you

require whhin the current density ronge test paper in the electrolyte for a couple To ma ke up the solution add the ammonium chloride to the SOlution 8t
for the electrolyte. of seconds, and note thal the strip be- weighed ·out amount of sodium hydro~· the rate 2 to 40z. per ga llon . For No.2
For this electrolyte the platIng current tween 6 and 7 ch a nges colour. M2 t~h ide (9,00>:.) to ai~ pints of water and ati, zinc electrolyte 0.250z. of linG o~ide and
should 00 ootween this colour to one of the numbered col· until diSSOlved. Ne ><l, add the weiGhed· lto 1.50!. of sodium hVdro~ide pe, gal .
14.4 a.s.1. to 28.8 a.s.f. ours either si de of the ~entre strip. and out . inc o~ide (1.00>:.) and stir until Ion of solution.
or 1.S4 aldm' to 3.1.,dm'. the number that matches is the p.H o f dis50lved. The last to be added IS the
The electrolyte is operaled ~t rOOm the solution. The p.H can also be de~lfin. Th is is stirred in until dissolved . FA ULT Electrolyte appears to be a rusty
temperature 15',2O"C. measured by ona of a numoor of p. H The volume is then made up to one gal· colour ..
At 14.4 ~.,.I. the zinG depOsited will 00 mete rs and ponab\e p.H 'sticks' avail· Ion with water, and the electrolyte is REA SON Iron from the components
Iloolin. or 25 microns. at a plating time able on tho ma,ket. These ~ary in pr,ca, ready for use. OOt. as mentioned in the being electroplated is di~solved inlO the
of 83 minutes. and the ponable p.H Slkks are reason· previous zinc electrolyte, it must be solution.
At 28.8 a.s.1. a depOsit of 0.001 in. or 25 ablv priced between ( 40 and £130. 'plated out" oofore it i, usable. For this REMEDY For No.1 zinc electrolyte add
mic'ons is 42 minutas. To obtain a satisfactory deposit in solu lion the 'platinG out' requirements 50 millilitres of hydrogen paro~ ide. st"
Using the lower end of Ihe currenl most electrolytes it is necessary to ·elec· a re O.2amps for 12 hours with a piece 01 welt and leave to 58l1le. When settled,
density r.nge for electroplaling will troplate the electrolyta In'. This is done steel 2in. ~ 2in. carefully decanl of/ the clear solution.
give a finer, more even depOsit 01 zinc . by hanging 8 pieco of scrap steel in the
The faster the deposition. the more un· solution, and. using a current within the Operating Conditions FAUL TThe deposit is patchy.
even and coarse the deposit becomes. current de nsity range. leave it electro· The same con ditions apply 8S lor the REA SON The pre·trealment clean ;s
OccasIonally It may be necessary to pl ating for about one hour . This electro· prev ious !lnC chloride electrolyte. The faulty.
electroplate a component of small area, lyses the solution, and ta kes out some eleclfoplating currsnt density range i$ REMEDY Strip the deposit off to the
such as a small washer Or pin. The cur· of tho impurities. Howe ver. 10 ta ke out between metal by immersing the component In
rent ou tput may 00 tOO large at the low· impuritie'!l as e speci fic o peration. tho 2 and 20 a.s.I. or 0.2a 'dm' to 2.0a, dm~. 30% sulph uric acid 0' 15% hydrochloric
ItSt range of the supply. In thIS ",se, electrolyte Is plated oul a t a very low The electrolyce is operated 81 room ecid untll ,11 the zinc is removed. Go
hang a piace 01 steel plate or twO pieces current. Tllis induces the impurities to te mperBlure 15' - 20'C. bad th,ough the p re·treatment, and ,e·
of plate Irobbersl each side of tile com· deposit out l,rst on the scra p piece. then a eing al kaline p.H 12 - 14, Ihe conltol plate.
pOnent. This will InGf8ase the surface the no. mal me tal of the electrolyte is de- of the p.H is not needed with this sol· CARE A small amount of hyd,-ogen gas
araa to correspOnd with the electroplat· posited. ution. is given oH, so ma ke sure the area IS well
ing current, and thus bring it into the ven tIlated. Using sulphuric or hydro·
current density range. The robbers will ZINC HYDROXIDE 8ATH GENERAL FAULTS IN ZINC chloric add. goggles and gloves must
also carry out a second lunction by re· This is an al kaline zinc electrolyte made ELECTROPLATING be wOrn.
moving the high current density, giving up with sodium hydro~ ide. Thi, chemi· FA UL TThe deposit is rough or COar5-8 in
a more \!Ven and smooth appearance. cal is e ~tremely caustic. and care must te><l ure, and ma y be discoloured. COLOURING ZINC ElECTROPlAnNG
i.e. prevent "burning". be e~ercised when using it GOGgles, REASON Cu"enl density too high. Colouring linc. electroplating is usually
gloves and overalls must 00 worn when REMEDYReduce the currant density. called passivating the zinc surface. As
The p.H of the electroplating solutio n handling, and also koep away from we!! as berng decorative with the vari·
The optimum is between p.H:I to p.H 4. children and animals. Whe n nOI in use it FA ULT Rough deposits can also be OUt colours. it enhances the perform·
but the solution performs quite well up is kept in 8 tightly closed pl astic or glass cau~d by suspended matter in tile elec· ance of Ihe electrolyce by incre ning its
to p.H 1. Strip papers can 00 used to jar, bec ause it ta~es in water f'om the at· trolyte. an!I-COffosive properties.
check Ihe p.H. These can be purchased mosphere and decomposes to SOdium REMEDY Filter the electrolyte through a Zinc, along with cadmium, ara
from chemical su p ply houses and large carbonate end water. fi lter paper or fine cloth. classed as ',ac,ifi"ial coatings' on ler·
electroplating equipment suppliers. The formulation of the electrolyte is:· rous materials. This means Ihat the elec·
Atwavs koep the test papers we ll 5-8aled Zinc O~ide 1.00>: per gallon 6grms per FA UL T Deposits rou gh. and electroplat· troplated deposit will be o~idised to
wllen not in use. To use the papers you litre ing slug g ish (i.e. lack o f thickness), atmosphere instead 01 the component
will 508 tll el they ara numbered I - 14, Sodium Hydroxide 9.Ooz per Gellon REA SON Low conductivity of electro· ,usting Or forming iron 0~id8. bu t ova' a
universal type, and thal between the 55grms per litre Iyte. period of years the electroplated de-
numbers 6 and 7 Is I strip. Immerse the De~trin 1% ad dition by weight. REMEDY To No. t zinc electrolyte add posit WIll disappear from the compo·

nenl. To .educe the Kt .... deposit, e 1I.1I0n 2OmJ •• per "tr • . becomes cathodic ""'th!he zinc dislOl\I· alec!ric he.,er ;. und.
'pauiYe' I.ye •• usually of ch.om,um D,uol.... the sodium dichrom.le In ir>g i.e. lICfiflCi.1. 1lMI ev."nT clantlTY .. ~' is from 10
ion •. i• • pplied. This .educe. tM lie- ooe IIt.e of Wile •• then add Ihe nlt.ic A good .11 round nick" .lectroIyt. is •.•.1.104O . ..... or l .oa.dm 104.0. dm'
tiviTY, hence p.oIonginll the lile of the add car.lully. "i"lnll well in .Iowly " lollows :. Thi. i, as pr.viously m.ntloned. The
depos't .nd enhenc,nll thl .nli. The balh ;. ope.. ted at room lemper •• pan 01 tM ,.nga chosen il dependant
corto,ive p.operties. tu.e. Th, immersion time \ 0 to 20 w.tt'. Nickel on th. shape of Iha companlnl and the
Fo. the diffe.ent colourinll' th. b3ths seconds. Nickel Sulphlla 38.50z.pe. gallon t.~lu.e of th. daposit required. Th.
..e m.de up IS lollows:' 240g.ms pe.lil ••. low •• tha Current danSlTy Th. lin •• the
IrId ...... nt CoIoo r (Pauivete) Nk:kal CII/on"de 7.2oz.pe. 1I.llon 45grms daposit.
Black Mate up Sodium Dichrom't' l00.r. pe. per "Ita. Thi, ,lectrolyt. w ill dapo.il:.
M.k, up Ammonium Mo/ybd". 40>:. 1I.llon 6Og.ml pe.lit.a Boric Acid 4.80 •. pe, 1IIIIon 3()g.ml per 0.OOOlin.(2.5microns) 11 lOa.'" in 15
per II.UOn. 25grms pe. ""e. C~ntr.red Sulphurit Add 0.511uid lil, • . minutes or o.OOOlin.(2.5micron.) at
C«N:.nrr.ted Ammonl. 1.880 S.G) 6 oz. pe. 1I.llon 3.Omls. pe. litr. To mike up tM< ,Iecuolyt •. w.rm up lOII ... 1. in 5 minUles.
fluid oz. pe. gallon. 375ml,. pe. lot ••. 011101\1. tM sodium dichromat. in three qUlrte .. o ltM< 'tOluma 01 w.ter. Thil electrolyt. gl_ a llood dull 10ft
W.,..-Io mlk. up to '1I.11on (0' litr.). th. voluma r~uired. th.n add tM< con· Idd The w.illhed .mount 01 n,cIt;.lsul· dePOSlI which will polilh up to I hlllh
Le.v. tha eomponenl In the IOlut,on e.nt.ated lulphu.ie acid slowly and ph"., sti, .•nd WI.m until dissolved . IUllrl. III p.opetli •• 11 •• not lI.eatly
unt,1 th. desirBd sh.d. I, obt.lned. for ca.elully. Itl.ring continuoosly. Th. Then add tha weillhed Imount 01 nick.1 Iffected by I wide ch.ng. In p.H, tarn.
d •• p bllld.s, h.allh. IOlul'On. bUI nole baTh i. ope.atad .t .OOm tamper.lu ••. chloride. r.pelt until d'ssolved. Finally. peratu.a Ind balance 01 ch.mical com.
Ih ' ammonia w\ll lume and lIiv. olf • Tha imm ...ion Ilm. is 8to 10 lOCOnd, ,dd the bo.ic acid, which willt.ke tima position In tha bath.
'''onll smell, Ih ••• fo.e it mutt be w.1I CARE WiTh nItric acid Ind sulphu.ie to dissolv•. AIt.r '"lh, chemicals Ira in Wh.n this deposit i, ov.r"lectro_
.... ntillted o. done outdoors. acid, IIlov•• , 1101111181 .nd ov...1I1 mUll IOlulion, maka UP 10 th. required 't01. pI.ted w'lh decorative chrome illllves.
In both cases, wh.n IIM COI.ect coloo. beWOfn. ume with W.I .... plea,inll dull chromo effect. IImilar to
;. obt.ined •• inse in cold w.t .... ttHIn in Th' Iln !WO formulations ' .. pU" Th .. p.H thould be checked by wh.t· the finish on mic.om.t..-. Ind simil••
hOt w"e'. and lelve to h..den olf the pnsiv"a coatinll'•• nd It. left for 24 ...... mean •. papefl O. p.H meter. Tha tool • .
leye •. 00 not touch the colou.ed surfac. hoofl la hltden off belo •• funh..- 1,1111. p.H Ihould be 3_5.
until h •• dened. Afta. hafCMning off th.y CIOn be plinted It is recommlnded th.t th;. soIUI;On
if requ ired. Th" combinl!ion 01 l ine. be 'plat.d oot' I1 • Iow curr.nt with Seml·8rllilht Nickel EIac!.olytl
Brown pluiv"e Ind pllnt olf... llood CO" tom. scrap lleel pllla IImilar to Th" Thl. Is baNd on I Wail's Formulllion
M.k, up Double Nick.1 S,II, O.5oz. pe. .0slon '.Iilllnce 10./0"01,11 malals. No.2 zinc alectrolyt., Till . will .emov. with tha .ddition of an orllanic b.illhT·
1I.1l0n 311'mS pa' "t ••. th. diSSOlved Imputitias in Ih. nickll en ••.
COP{H' Sulpllat. 0.5o.r. par lIallon NICKEL ELECmOLYTES ulll. Nick" Sulphltl 38.~.pe. lIallon
3grml per lit ••. Nickel off.r. llood corrosion r,"i,"nce The anod •• uMd in Ihis electrolyte 240g.m. per litre .
Pot.mum Clllonte 0.5o.r. pe. 1I.llon whon ,IKt'OpI.,ed on bolh let/oul and ..I 41n. ,,4in .•'11lI 01 pure n,cIt;.1. Thelll Nocllel Chloride 7.2oz.pe< ".1I0n 45g.ms
3grms pe. litra. non-Ietfoo, ma'.I, .uch as copper .nd can be Obtained Irom .Iectroplatlng PIf'ille
UM Ih.lOlution al6O"C. "",th In Int •• • .110.... of copper. .upply hou,,". Thi •• izl 'pproMim" •• BorIC AcId 4.80z..per "lIl1on 3()grm. pe.
medlat. we, scr.tch-bfulhinll to even 1lMI mec.hlnitm of nickel. copper .nd to tha .nodes uMd on Hull c.J1 Appa ••
811,1,. How ....... for. 1"lIa Nt·Up bas_ Saccll.n"n. 0.32oz.pe. 1I.,IOn 2.Ogrms
outlh. colou •. W.Minll off imp.O'I.' Ihe tin .Iectropl.ting 11 thlt """ d<!POllllltl
colour Nor. Potassium Chlo •• le i. e more 'nobll' thin lleel, ~nd $\eel be keled nlckal.hot o. hoolt;ed Inodes may pe.lit.a.
powerful oxidisinll Ig.nt, and Ihe pow. comas anodic and the.alo.a dilsolves. be used. buttha.. eln be •• pens;"'e. Th, alectrolyt. IS m.da up .. for Ihe
d., mull be kept in • well SIOppe/Bd Thus il il Impotlanl to lIava good p'. The ope .. tinll t.mpe.atu.a for this prevloul nick.1 eleclrolyt. (Wall.), but
cont.lne •. el •• ninll .nd to avoid pOrK .nd di.· el.c1tolyt. Is 5O'C 113O'FI. with th. addilion at Th. end 01 the
continuities on tha alectropl".d Thl hea,inll m.y be accomplished by waillhed .mounl of sacch,"ne. Thil is
81ue Colou. (P,uivata) .urf~. vllious method •. If • "ainless steel con.tantly "irrBd wh.n wa.m, unlll dis·
M.ke up Sodium OH;/!romlte 0.8o.r. pe. This;' dilllnct f.om th. mech.ni.m 01 COntlina. is used, I 1111 ring i. placed IOlvad. Th .. d.ssolulion may t.ka some
g.11on Sg.ml pe. litre. tlM IInc .lectrOpI.t., which 11 I... nobl. underneath, If th. con",in.. is Pyrex lime because SI (h~.in.I'I'IOI.-.rv ..,1-
COfI(;"''''Ied Nitric Acid 3.2 fluid al. pe. ,h.n steet, .nd in COnseqU.nClt,", "'" 111.15 o. pI.stic, Ihln.n aqu.rium TYpe ubi • •

The ..me current deflsity .anges ap- ;ngly. and conSlantly Shrred a"d O....dm·IO 3.08Idm·. O,OOOlin , (2.5micron') al 10e.•.1. in 12
ply lor Ihi. I. for the ptIYious electro- checked. CARE - Wilh aqueou.lOdium Tl\is ,lectrolyte will deposil :· mInute.. O.OOOl in. (2.5micronll 1\
lyte. u ~II uthe IImperllu<8 .ange hydro.'de and hydrochloric: and .ul- O.ooolin_ 12.5 micronl) al 10..s.f in 12 2O •. s.!. in 1 m inutes.
Thi. llectrolyte wIll depoSit :- phurlC acid., gloves and goggles MUST minUles. Agltalion I1 recommended 8<lher by
O.OOOlin (25 micron.) II 10 a .s.f. in 18 bewom . O.oool ln . {2.5 microns) 1I 201 ..... if! 6 lIofling, Or bubbling comPfHMd 8"
minUllSOt Nickel depolltS from bolh elect.olytes m inutes. Ihr!)Ullh thl5Olution.
0 .0001in 12.5 ml(fonll at 30 a.s.f In 8 can be buffed or polilhed 10 • good Allltllion is recommended at lhe lOP Th, lime anodes Ire used • • In the
mlnules . IU'I<8. It mull be remermberld Ihal .n end of Ihe currenl density range . Pure dull acid copper electrolyte.
Wilh Ih,.. elec1rolyte. ag'I81ion i, enO""flCI on Ihe th,ck...,ss muSI be copper may be used for Ihe .nodes. AI Fo. deposiling copper fTOm lhen
recommended , it ha. by sli"ing or com · mlde for poli,hi"9. lIig h current densilies Ihere i. a rilk 01 elldrolytu on copper and ill .1I0y.,
pr"Hd air bubbled IhrOl.lgh Iha Sol· the anodes polarising. with a reduction and on zinc diecastingl. Ihe pre-
utlon. COPPER ELECTROLYTE In Ih' currlnl. The recommended .n· cle.nlnglrealmenl as givan in Ih' chllp ·
Tha mOll u"d Ileclrolytes of copper odes lor Icid copper elactrolytes ale th e lar on cleaning is used, and Ihen the
FAULTS IN NICKEL ELECTROPLA nNG Ife Ihe CYlnide copper and Ihe acid ph01phorrled IYpe. These are purified copper deposiled on the lurface.
FAUL r PIttIng of d.posit. copper. copper uling. process of ramoving the For fe"ouI melals, 'Ieel etc .• 11 differ_
REASON Acldlly of soIulion 100 high . The main distInction between Ihe two impuritie. 01 0><\'98n ""ith pho.phoric ent procedure .ppli"". After pre-clun-
nick.1 conll"llow, boric acid 100 low. Ilectrolytes i, Ihll Ihe cyanide copper ICld in the anode making slage. lnglhe component, il i. electroplated in
REMEDY Adlust p.H 10 between J.nd 5. c.n be used 10 deposil coppe. on bolh The electrolyte is ope.alad It I tem- e ither of Ihe nickel electrolytll. usually
Adjust p.H Wllh aqueous solulion of 10- ferroua and non·f8<rous mer"ll. The plrllu,a of JO"C (86"F). For Ihin depO.1t1 at medium current density. until a 'nuh'
dium hydro.ide until between Ihe acid coPPIIr un only be u.ed 10 deposn 01 copper 11 CIf! be used at room lem- of nic .... is deposited - O.ClOOOSin. Th'
I;mltt. Add lm. per gallon of nlCkalsul· coppe. on non·ferrous metals. For !he ~IU". The h,"Mr lemperature of compofllnl is removed . quicllly rinsed,
phall. Add 0.501. per gallon of borIC Imaleur in Ihe home. Ihe use of CYlnide JO"C gIves • smoother depOSIt of and ... hile lIi11_1 is immersed In .'Ih.r
lCid . .. a conslde"ble I\llard, and ... ilh the ."",.,. acid copper electrolyte .•nd coppe. de
difficulty of obtaining Ihis ~hemical I po. ited.
FAUL T NOI enough coverllge of Ihe have nOI ,nclUded any p,ocesns in the ..... 1.Brighl Coppe< Elecuolyte The .enon for this is Ihal copper de·
componenl. te~l . However, a method can be Uled 10 M.ke up :- po,ited f.om an ecid electrolyte ... ill cor ·
REASON Electrolyte I8mpe.alure loo finally depOsit copper on a lerroul ma· Copper SulphBte 320L pet IIllIon rode Ihe lIeel 0' iron surface. If nic k.1 i.
low. or low currenl denlity. teri.l .... hich ...1II be described. 200grml pet litre. depOliled prior 10 Ihe copper electro·
REMEDY l~reaH electrolyta tempera· A good lI,neral copper eleetrolyte Con~lIntra/ed Sulphur;'; Acid 1.40z. per plaling. no corrosion ta~es pl.ee.
tU<8 10 5O'C - 55'C. lncrene currenl den· ... hl(h c.n be buffed Ind pOlished:· gallon 27 mls per IlIre. 80lh these eleClrolytes ... ill depOsit.
• ity. Copp.r Sulphll/II cry!lIl. 3201. per gal · Thlourell pinch O.OOSgrms per liue . Ihick Ilyer of pink coloured coppa' Ihlt
Ion 200grml per lItre. Welfmg Agent IT_pal} one drop Iml can be polished or buffed to I high
FAULT Poor .dhellon 01 Ihe nickel 10 Concenrra/fd Sulphurk acid 4.5011.01 per lilre. IUltre.
lhe componenl • • nd may be of bumt ap- per g.lIon 3Qm11 per litre. The electrolyte is mllde up the ume
pe... ~ . To m.~e up the electrolyte .....m u p 11 Ihe dull ecid copper, bul wilh lower
REASON Poor pte·deaning of Ihe com- thr. . qu."e .. of the volume of .... Ier . concentration of sulphUric acid. BefOfe
ponenl. Too hIgh p .H (alkllinity). Too and add Ihe ~Ighed .mounl of coppe' the bllh is mfde up 10 ill final volume, Oflhe
high amlnl density. sulphltl C!'fllll • • • nd SI;r constanlly the Ihlour,. and wetting agenl ....e
REMEDY Strip off lhe nickel pllte. dep- unlll d"solved. To the cooled coppe' ~. After making up 10 lhe final vol-
ending wheth" 18<rou. or non-I8<'Oul. sulpha" aoIUlion edd very slowly d.op umelhe elect.olyte is ready IOf uH, N.B.
Go IhrOl.lgh Ihl pre--cln" and re·plate.
To .edU(:ll Ihe p.H to betwee" 3 ,nd 5.
wiH the COflClntrlled lulphuric acid .
previOl.lsly me.. ured. SI;' ... 8'11 un\lt
ml.,d ~II InlO Ihe 5OIu l;On. Ne"', top
"'" Ihi!)Urn al 0.005 grml- un be ragll-
dad 11 I ' pinch'. ,
add diluted hydrochloric or sulphuric The electrolyte lIIould be opereled al 10 Ihat rlCommended lor Ihe electro'
acid. until Ihe correcl p,H rangl i, ob- UP ... ,th ... lter 10 the required volume 23'C (14' F) for Ihe beSl resultl. Allow.r Iyte. Thl, fault mey be a combinllion 01
la'''ed. In th, correction of acidity or Ind Ihe electrolyte il ready for uH. Th . lIrnperelUre Ih. IXIppar depOsil I, In. Ihe two lea sons, 10 ... ilh 11 small re
alkalinity Ih. raagenls ar, added ape. · Curtenl denlitv i.4 .•. I. f. 10 30 a.l.!. brighl. The electrolyte will depO.lt :· ductlon In currenl density, end Incr""

" "
on .empereture.•he depO.iI 01 copper grms. par li"", e lect.opllled Immtdlately, Al lhe seme FAUL T Th, solution turnl I slighlly pink
will be uti,factory. PoIassium Hydro)Cidfl20~ per glllon 12 time a.the se.ap PIece i. elecl.oplating. colou,. with I spongy tIn depollt.
grml. pe. lit.". wi" Or hook the companentt 10 be elec. REASON A build up of POlalllum
FAULT F.II in CUff,nl. and riu In "0'" To make up theelecl.olyte ttl'H qu a r- Iroplaled to 'he calhode ba •. This is car. "snn"eln the solution.
.ge. and. bleck Him formed on 'he an- ters of 'he yoluma of distilled Or de· rild Oul w i'h th' current s w ilched on . REMEDY Add I smlll amount of hyd.o.
odn. Ionised water is wlrmtd up in the bath. Th is procedure p. oduces an ;.idescent gen peroxide dropwise. Ind SI .. until
REASON Lact of lulphuric acid ,n the The weighld amount 01 pot.allium gold coloured film on 'heanodes. w hich the pink ooloor diuppeefl. SI"p lhe tIn
SQlution. "snnete il added 10 Ihe w arm Wile •• is pen 01 the mechanism of llIe electro- ciePOSlt. pre-de"n. and re-pia. . . I1er
REMEDY Add dilule .ulphuric acid in and "i ..ed continuoully until di,· plating process. Mode.a la Currenl den_ .dding the hydrOgen peroxide.
smell .mounts untilthl anode 10sltS its solved. NeKI, the w eighed a mount of l ity II used on Ihe scrap piece.
black film. potassium hydrOKide 11 added. and
I1I ..td un,lI dissolved. CARE- with POl· FAULTS WITH STANNATEnN
FA ULT Poor coverege of thl compo- allium hydroKide la IIrO,"", Ilklli) ELECTlIOPlAn NG FA UL T Anodes coye.ed in a bllck Iilm.
nent. gloves. 1I001lles and overelll mUll be FA UL T Elect.olyl e works sluggishly. .nd currlft' drops oH
REASON Poor pre-clnning or leek of worn. a nd th. anodes Ira I grey colou., REASON The InOO.. have become
sulphuric ecid. After the chemical. are dissolved. lhe REASON Initial currenl denllty lOO low polarised. and become cove.ed in tin
REMEDY Slrip Ihe COPP81. (10 bad<
'h rough ' he cycle of pre-cle.ning Ind
eleclrotyte 1I made up to the final
ume wilh dillllled Or de-ionised w.'er.
\/0'. to form Ihe corfKllilm. FrH patnsium
hyd.o.ideloo low.
o.ide. u ..... lly b.ooghl ,bout by too
high Cllrrent denllty.
re·plele. Add e .mell amount of dilu te Thaelect.olyl e is now rlady fo. ule. but REMEDY Remova anodes one 11 a timl. REMEDY Reduce currenl d ensity. Re-
• ulphur;c acid. If .he faullls cauted by a il i. r.,.;ommended ,h.t soma Krap a nd r'p lace tham in Ihe elect.olyte . moye Inodu one" I 'ime. and ICOur
combinat,on of th' two r"'sonl. then pieces of Ileel o. copper are wi rld up Somet,me. a llighl increlU In (he cu.- Ihe .nodes with. sIIH brush until the
add th' ,ulphuric fCld first. lAd connacted up to the calhodtt. and rent density is benefICIa .. Add O.50l. pe' fIlm is .emoved. R,pI_. until III the
'he electroryle 'plated in' .t medium cur- gallon o f po"uium hydrOXIde. snodes h,ve bMn scoured.
FA UL TNodular Or ,plky depo.'!. rant d e n,ity fo. " bauI one to 'wo hours.
eleclrolyla with un· The .nod" used In 'hi. procesl are
pu.e tin .nodes. usually in Ihe form 01
;;;"h. filler paper o. II,bs 'hll can be CllIIO tha ruqu;.1d lile.
The elecl,olyte i. operaled 11 I ,em·
pe.alure betw&en 6O"C and 8O'C. (14O"F
TIN ELECTROLYTES and I76"F). No ellilll10n I. required.
nn depollted from "n electrolY'es i. The el-.;uolyte will deposil :- O.oool;n.
used for pre"nf1ling corrosion on both (2.Smicronl) at 10..1.1. In 10 minutn.
non·ferrous .nd ferroUI metel ••• nd il O.ooolln. 12.5micronl) at 21la.I.I. In 6
Ilso u.ed '0 f"cill"" Ih" SQlderlng of minutes.
compOnln,.. In some cases illl ultld as The current denlity il between
'decorll..... finilh. 10..•.1.•nd 408.1.1. U.Oaldm' and 4.081
The pollssium lIannall eleclrolY'e dm").
producel a depoli, of tin thal I, colou· The p. H of 'he solution i. highly Ilka·
red light grey, mitt in eppear.nee. bUI line. and Itays alkalin,. Whe n opetlting
can be buffed to. Ill",.." finl.h. Thi' i,a Ihi, solution it mUlt be remembered
good all roond e'eclrolyte for use IS an Ihlt It is best Ihll befota electroplating.
anli~ffOllon f1nl.h on "HI. Or for use I piece 01 Ktlp mlteri.1 (ItHII. i. con·
on bo,h I ' HI and bra.. for soldering nKled 10 Ihe cathode bar in tha fllecI'O'
purpoMl. Thl ma~e up i ... follo_:· Iyte. The eleclrical ,upply is .witched
on. and th' anodes .ta placed in the
Potltllum Stennlla ElactrolY'a eleclrotyte. and connecced 10 the ,node
PoIISllum Sumnar. 1Sol. per gallon 95 bar. The K.ap pi8(:e should Slafl being

" "

Electroforming and Electro-

plating on Non-conductors
ELECTROFORMING The most common metals deposited
Elec'uoforminll " • p.oc;eSll 01 electro- in electroforming". copper and nickel.
plll"ntl1h1t I. used in the manulac\ure Ho_,. 1Il0l moSI essential pll" of
of int,ice'. components Ih".re difficult \h, proc;e.... n(! sometimes Ihe moat
to I,b';';"e or machine. 11 is an idoll ._pen.,ve, i, \h. mllnd.el. which i. th.
method la< m.klng c;QmponenlS 10 tight shaped material \h. metal i. deposited
lolerenen.oo dimensions. ~.

of metal deposited ;,
M'I>I:l <el. ~n be divided into two CM·
I more Ihan conventional ego.iH.
(.nythin; from 0.0121n. .1 Dispoubl. M.ndrels.
Thue 'f' • type of mandr..1 Ih81

A m",,/d mMJ. from " m.~1 I>y ./«;t,,:>forming..., In 11 wckmg d'e .1I0wo~ 1I 10 W uH<S
for m'~"'Q ' q".nl,'y of mouldlnQ' In v.r/ou. moulding m.,.".lo.

cannot be eHtr&eted by pulling OUI 01 the These mand.els lI'e e"t'lIC1eble by pull ·
,'eClrolo,m. due 10 being either I bend. ing on a press.
o. hiving smaller dim,msion. at th' Other forms of aleet.olorming .. ,
\ ,nd • •
Th, mate",' used cen be Pe,speH.
qune ueeful. such es building up worn
,hllhs, 0' ,hllhs \hlt hlJYl been meeh ·
low melting ,lIays. (Celrobend. CellO' inod down 100 fll'.
cestl. end some gredes of WaH. All these Small moulds can be mllde for ..... ,.
m,t"i." cen be melted 0, diuo"'-d in 00. other processes, by milking I ''P'
IOIven ... The e55enlial piece of equip' lica. elearoforming, .amoving Ih,
menl fa' thi, mllnd.eI;' I mould to cell raplice .nd seuing the elec!.ofOfm in I
in. However. with Perspex Ihi. i. usullly blocking die. Thl, mould can be ulld 10_
machined to shape. IInd nol moulded. making' quantiry 01 componentl. From
b). Pe,manem Mandrels. • mould liklthi. ilems can be made .nd
TheM lI'e u,ulllly made of ,,"nlell UMd on, lor , xllmpla, modal boat • .
An IKl mple 0/. cl'opMlf>I. m.ndr~ m.~ 'rom low m"lmp (JOIn' alloy. N(I1. ,,,.. in"", ".el 01 nickel electroplated Ileel. The two elect'olytel used In el&et'o'
mw/lied in 10' e H'Klng Pe ..".,,, Windows, and COMHI<:""II'N CI'_ b8r Sometlml1 certain plaslics are used. lorm ing are coppe, and nickel.

Th. copPe' .I.,;trolyt. is th. dull Nickel Electroformong Electrolyte A simple example o f .Iectrolormingl. If low melting ,lIoys ..a uNd. lhe pre-
eo~ Ii.t~ In th. dlapler on electro· Mllkeup: · I funnel Ihaped component. Sea I~­ treltment 11 a light cle.n WIth scou,ing
N,,;k.t Su/pMmala n~. per glllon u,,,'3Ind,1I. powder or Scotdlbrile. then a dip in the
"'~ 450grms pe. hl.e. Figure 14 is me assembly lor ,1«'1,0- alkaline cleaner and electrolytic cleane._
Co~ El«'lrofOfmln9 Electrolyt. &wr: Add Soz.pe. gallon ]0 grms per IOfmlng tha shape. The mandril ia but the electrolytic deaner " opltOnal.
Make up;· I,tn>. The mandrel f;g is rinsed on wlter Ind
macla wrth insert. \lIUewadl. if
Copper Sulphal' Crysla/. 320.<.per gal- The um. !ank can be u5eCI as 10f t"- moulded. from low melting point IIIOYI. Immersed in the particular elearolytl.
lon 200grms per litre. dull nickel, and ma~ up t"- samOit. with If made from Per5pe~, the ho," are Ind gfown to thtI required thickn....
Concenlratfd Sulphuric Acid 4.Sfl.oz the n,ekel .... Iphamate dissolved firsl. d.iI1ed and tap ped. 11 Pe .. pel< is used. thit it mlde con·
per gellon ]Oml. per !iUOit. Ihen th. boric .cid Idded and dissolved P"lpe~ windows are affixed al each ducti"e with either. layer 0 1 aqueous
A Imlll Imount of phanol dissol"ed and made up 10 the final volume. and, the hanger attached. and th' ,r," grlphite. 0'. preferably. sllver·IOlded
up In wal" can be added. This gi"e. The p.H i. 4.0. To reduce p. H 8dd sui· that ara conducting are 'stopped olf' conductive paint. whic'" i, p,lnted on
graln·fellnlng propenle. to the electro- phemic acid. To increase p.H add am · with molten 'Clamea' wax, o. Ilmll.. the .urface of the Perapex, m,' inp 'uti
lyte. The current density is between monil O.880SG. Howe"e •. being stable. material. the conlaet lor Ihe hanglflg bar I1 well
10..1.1. - 201 .•. /. 1.0a.dm' - 2.0a.'dm'. it usu.lly ... yl 11 about p. H 4.0.
The OJ)8rltong temperatu,a is 3O'C. The soIullon IS oper81ed et 45'(:-SO"C ,An ex,mpI, ol.n eIect",·lomti"flrn.nd", Wllh "'~tH" window and a/hods /HI, _"«10Id
!86"fl (ll3'"F - 12O'FI. with 19'1allon if POSI'
Ible. depending on the thicknen re-
.-od_.0Id. /lot> '-hi. r"" ngh • ...
OOM«f'fItI /H, 01 ~
_1d/'rI"" with ctMducfi"fl
{»in. OIl I'" ItdoIJ. r".
si/wT tyifll. {No" ",.
of ,htt pho/Of1t1ph
Doff.,... ;,," P,awI 'he
For nidel, the Dull Wltt's electrolyte
can be ulUld. but a good elect.ofonning quired. eIect",fo<....-J .n.p.s. in lit.. a ... , ~ and lid electro-fDnnMI it> si_
electrolyte la one fOfmulaled as The cu ..... t denlllty is between
follows :- 10..• .1 -SOl .•.! 1.0.dm'-S.Oadm'.

........ ________
-F'... " -,-?;...:
~-- ~""---
....... -,,-;,:,." /' -------

" "
ElECT"AOPLATING NON . llneale SOlution
CON~UCTORS Make up:·
Included in this section is Ihe electro- SQdium Hydroxide 701n. per gallon 440
plating 01 aluminium. This is n01 strictly grms. per litre.
a non electricel conductor, but neve'" Zinc Oxide 130l. pe'gallon 87 9rms. per
Ihelen it will nOI electroplate like con- IIt'e.
veOlionat metals. The solution ;s made up in hall Ihe
Ana, going through tha lisled pre- volume 0Iw8te., adding the sodium hy"
cleaning cycle lor aluminium, as in droxide slowly. and slirring conl;nu.
chlptet Iou., lincale solUlion is re- oUlly. Aftef dlssolv;ng the sodium
quired. This is made up as follows:· hydroxide, aod While still warm, add the

A" e"~mple "f ,JeclrDplarl"fI 0" .lumi"i<Jm 10 I.cllitare .oI~""f1' 1'1>1. uti/iSM z,,,,,.r, JOlu·
Iron, loIlowf<l br' I.ye, of "", w,rh r;""ed C<JPfJ'" ruboo JOldertId olllo rite fl".1 rin I.~, on
rhe .Iumlnlum.

painted. The conductive SutfaC6 is al· dissolved up. It mey also be eXlracted by
lowed to dry, ~nd is immers&cl in the holding Ihe elec{rofo.m snd pulling OUI
particular el&<:lrolyte, end grown la Ihe the Persptl" mandrel.
required thickness. Nickal-plared s/&£II or Slainless slooI.
I1 nickel·plated st&£ll or SUlinless steel This is e"'racted the same as Perspex,
mendrels are used, i,e, permanenl man" putling lrom the wide end.
drels, the .."me procedure lor cleaning
aa for low melting painlllloy mand'els PoinU t o 'emember on e lectroforming
is fOllowed. and growing i! the same. (1) If 8 18rge quantity o f al&<:l,olorms
Ahe, growIng, Ihe wa" and windows ara required, slainless steel man-
are removed, and depending On what drels are more economical.
Ihe mlndrells made of, il is e"'ractad by (21 Wilh permanent mandrals (ex-
Ihe following processes. tra<:tabb.l), Ihe511 can only be used
on el&<:lrolorms that have shapes

Low melting III/oy. This is melled. either
in an oven, o. hot oH unlil the aUoy Ilows Ihal can make Ihem axtreclable. A mOiJld<Id A'8IdM (fIsin li.
oul. (3) A small d.aughl 8ngle should be gU(fI. "".irised wtln
Pe,Spa". The mandrel is immaf'!led in I included on permanent mandrels /cuded ~Inr, and "ecrrop.

solvent Such as warm Genklene unlil 10 aid extraction. 1.led.
zinc o~;de, stirring unti! dissolved. Make hole" on printed circuits. Briefly, this is
up to the final volume and aUow to cool. wllen the COPPII' dad plastic is driUad. CHAPTER 7
The solution i. tllen ready for use. The holes through the middle have plas·
Idaal containers are Pyre~, glass Or tic faces. This has to be sensiti$8d wilh
plut~. Thll solution is uslld at room various chemicals, such as stannous
\emPllr~!Ure . Chloride. then palladium chloride. to
To imprOlie \he deposit. that is to make tile surface conducive to a layer of
make a mOra even deposil, a small copper from an alectroless copper 601·
amount of ferric chloride crystals (a uti on. After rinsing. the leyer of copper
large pinch, approximatllly O.5grms PIIr
litrel and 5 grms of Rochelle salt are
is built up in the holes with high throw
electrolVlic copper, followed by 8 tint
Electroless Electroplating
addlld. However. tile aulhor has found lead electroplate.
the original formula satisfactory for A simpler method for electroplating
most finishes on aluminium. on non·conductors was mentioned in
The immersion time is between len the lI!ectroforming section. namely aQu, The r&8son for the tWe ollhis chapter is Sodium Hypophosphire 1.5 - 1.60. per
and thlr1y seconds. After "nsing in eous graphite and silver·loaded paint. Ihat tha deposition of metals can be car· gallon 1Ogrms per litre.
watar Ihe aluminium should have a grey Silv8r·jo~d8d paint can be purchaslld rilld OUI without using an electrical Sodium Acetate Crystals Sol. PIIr gallon
apPllarance. 'rom paint or chemical supply houses. current. No electrical equipment is in· !;O grms per litre.
While still wet from the rinse, im· and comes in quite a few formulal ions. volvlld in the actual electro·deposition.
men;e in either of the nickal elactrolVles Some can be painlad On and air dried. It is somatimes referred to as chemical The Sodium hypophoaphiTe is the re·
to deposit approximataly 0.0002in. - Some can be fired, or even be put on plating, because the chemicals in the ducing agent in the $Olul ion. The best
0.0003in .• remove, and rinse, and Irans· with 8 silk scree n process. formUlation effect the metallic depo· method for using Ihis SOIUlion is 10
fer to any other electrolVl8 you would For ceramics, the firlld·on variety is sil ion. The main consti tuents of the make up a solution of the nickel chloride
like 88the finish. usefuf. After firing. the surfaca Can solu tions ar8 an aqueous solution of the and keep in one glass bottle, and make
This is \I useful aid to soldering on alu · lIither be elllClrolVlic plaled. provrded chemical containing the metal to be de-- up a solution of th e sodium hypo'
minium. either all over Or selectiVflly. Ihere is a contact for the current. or elac· posited. and an equeous solulion con- phosphite and !:IOdium hydroxyacetale
with the lid of masking. The process is troless plated wilh nIckel, COPPllr, gold taining a chemical .lIducing agent . tOGether. • nd keep in anOlher glass
as mentioned, bUI after depositing or even tin . These Can be mi~ed together to form the bo"le. These can be stock solutions.
nickel, the final finish i. a deposition of An idea for making decorative pl,,;ng solulion, but before any depo· When required. enough volume Is
tin O.OOO31n. epproxim,uely . This finish jewellery is 10 dry leaves from trees or sition takM plaCfl, a catalyst must be mi~1Id to plate the componant. The ideal
is ideal for applying solder. use clean seashells, paint with silver. present. In this process the COmponent container W plate with Ihis !:IOlu tion is 8
Non-conductors ere usuaUy classed loaded paint. air dry, and bright copper is the catalyst. No anodes are used. !t is heat rasiatant glass bea ker, healed by a
as plastics and caramics, but these can electroplate to 0.001 in. merely a tank containing the electroloss Bunsen burner, lIas ring or electriC hot
be electroplatlld when they have been Also moulded epoxy figures Or busts 50lution, wilh 0. wilhout agiTation, set plate.
made electricaUy conductive. can be made in 8 similar wav and this is 10 tile cOrr8CI temperature, with the Thll oPllrating temperature for this
In industry the classic of electroplat· an inexpensive means of making component immersed in the solution. solUl ion i, 88'C - 94' C flSS"f - 200'F) .
ing non-conductors is the process in the ornam ents. The most popu!ar and usolul e!ectro· Some agIt ation is required. bulan oc·
electronics industry of 'plating through less solution is for depositing nickel. casional sh8ke of the 'Nirlld CQmponent
Usually this is depositlld 8S an alloy of will release the bubbles of hydrogen
nickel and phosphorus. appro~imately that collect On tha component as ~ prod·
12% phosphoru$. uct of the .eduction process.
The deposilion rale for the solution at
Make up:· O.OOO6in. (IS microns) in sil<1y minUles.
Nickel Chloride Crystals. 5 Ol. per gallon However. to mainlain this rate of de·
30grms pe. litre. position, small addilions of the stoc~
solullon. of niCkel cllloride . nd tile to- Ferroul mal.ls ean be plated In thl, Tile eleclropll1rnlil lupply lIoule. of. For immllrsion coating tin 0" IUtel,
dium lIypopllolpllne wllh lOdium solutIon a fte r Ihl pre-<:Iean fiiled in Itrr In e Kcellenl ranlile of elecl roless IhIIlollow ing solutio" i. used.
lIydfo><vlcell" h,v, 10 be added.t in· ch'pter four. Coppe' and its alloys ean nickel •.
tefVals, 10 keep the balance of th, .Iso be pl'led, but, being no~talytic, For d.po..;tinll on Iron and . ,N1
501 .. uon wtllle pllling. p.H should be nMd to be touched w ilh iron or .Iu· TIN ElECTROlfSS PlATING EIKtroleu tin for i.on , r>d dNl
ma;n\llned between 40 end 6.0 by mlnium wife 10 .UI., the plallllg oper· The followlrtg two formul.e are uHful Make up:·

addltionl of aqueoullOdium lIyro"ide. a lion. AlumInIum ean be pI.ted direct for pulling' thin Ilyer of lin oyer ferroul Stllnnou.f Sulplt-alll 0.24ol per "allon
B~u .. there il no eleclfOlytl KIIon. WIth Ihis solulion, no zincale dip being metlland coppel.nd ill.lloys. l.5grml per lilll.
i.e. anode w,tll ootlid, elkl"ClI ",pply. Oeposili"g ti" o. copper by IlIi. Conc/Inrrlled Sulphuric Acid 0 14n.0J!
tllere is no pfobiem wIth 'tllrow'. m'l· Th' ",-"llu rlilCaI p' 0p8rties of Ihe m"lIod makes it useful for solderirtg, pe. gallon 4m1. per lilrl.
kIng 0, lIigll .nd law CU"lnt denlllY pllllng .., Inleo"ting. As plaled il has , espec.. lly on prinled ~.cun., whanl Wllllno make up the voluml.
.reas On the componenll n.. deposit IIlfdneu of 500 V.P. N. By heallreallng Ihlle .. no common co"necllon '0' elK· UM Ihe pre--dean for steel as set out in
of niclcel .lIay il of lVen IlIockneu all up 10 4OO"C the h..dness ean be in- trolytoc ti" 11e<:t.Opllli"liI <;hapter foo •• then immerse i" the IIn
over !.lie component Tllis 01"0«111 is erea.ed 10 900 V.P.N . The appearance of soh.I\io" 81 I temperlh."e of Il2"C
uleful fOf nickel ,flay pilllng down n'f· lhe dePOSIt ean va'V from dull 10 semi· For d.positl"lI on eopptf ,r>d tu .lIoys "8O"Fl,
rOw holes, oflficelor tuba. brlglll melll. EllCtroleu TI" The time of immlrsion will YI'V WIth
M,k,up: · thl 'Urlace co"ditio" o . ttlll mlteril1.
An D.~ 0' mild ~wI ~"n, roI.o<1lO1eu ndM "u.fId. This depos,t wilt 11''' .,. Stannous Chloride 1.60z per g.11on Thi. could be between one Ind le"
...... I_".,,_..u ,''' WI''''' o"IHJ cornPOl....~ 110', •• _ corn"I........, rIHJ sh.".. lOa.m. pe. litre minulH.
• T/'rjoorllll 13.60z per g.lIo" 85grml per
Cofltli"ers for immll ..io" tin plall""
..I hel l·resiSlant gl ass. or plastic con·
COflC/ln!r,ted Hydrochloric: /Wld 2.311.02 IIiners, usu ally polytllene o. propyll"l.
per 1iI.lIo" ISm1. pe. litre. Fo, these conlainftrs Ihe aqullia 1111111.
W"lIrto makll up Ihll volume. cln be used.
The soh.llio" i. uled 11. tempeflturll The Ihickness o f deposit from electro·
of 5O"C ,t22"F). less Iln solution is Ihin.
Thll ululllmme •• ion timl i. fiYII min· CARE with the aci ds used - glovel,
ules. Notl : thil formula ia patented, gagglH a nd overalls musl be w o'''.
For. quiek pra-<:Iun on prinlad dr· Tile electrollss tin solution for copper
eu;ts, giYI a li"ht rubbing wilh a Ilurry being ralhe, solid, w he" heali"g I.om
of scouring powder, rinM. Ind immer50 cold some 'bumping' w ill tak8 pilei<, un·
in IlIe lolut;on . tilthe solid chemicals ara d isSOIYed.

.. "
The hub ~pt; boting m.<ko 01 mild pan 01 Iha rectifie •. Thi. gIves a
CHAPTER 8 lleel. the eleelroplating WIll bot O.OOOlln. cathodic clean.lWatch 10. glSllng
01 S.mi Bright Nickel and O.OOO5in . 01 on the eomponen1l, Ihi. glves.n
Stlmi B.ight COpPer. indicallon of tha cloning eHeeI)

An Example and the The cu"..,1 density in both .Ieelro-

Iyte. will bot 10. .• .1., (Me ch.pter fiv.!.
Afte. one minute, rev .... the p0-
larity, i.•. connecl lhe e poa.l iva
reel,lier clip 10 the eomponenll
Th.r.lor•• 10. nickotl ,nd copper the
Consideration of eleel'Opllli"ll C\lrr.nl will be: ·
10 x 13.68 . 0 .95 .mperes.
and anodic cion IOf .bout ten
Electroplating '"
Remembtfl"ll on. $qu ... loot _ 144
Aft.. the alkali cleaning. rlnu in
cold water fOf thirty wo;onds .nd
$qulralnch... !tansler to No. 1 0' No. 2 pickll,
TlM Ilm. IOf thl Ilee1roplatl"ll for imme'te lor one minute 11 .oom
nielel - 18 minUles. lemperetu ...
TIll lime for Ihe .Iact.oplltong 10' R,nte in cold wale. 10' thirty sec-
copper _ 60 mlnut". ISM ch.pta. livel . onds.
All the chlJPters dea!! wllk IJO la' lIava The .... XI pan oltheope.alion isto cal-
been set down in • kind of logical ... cullte IlIe surf.ce • .,tll of the corn- Conneel lhl reeli!;e. 10 Ihe nielal tank.
quence 01 tile processes of 818(:"0918'- pon.nll 10 be electroplated. This Un be Th.t compl".. Ih'lhlO.eli~1 pert of positiv. $10 the nickotl .nodH. calhoda
ing. So, IIl$uming Ih. IV8'fge ••..cI•• ;,
Itarti"9 on • smell loCale . end may be 11
dont f.om the di"9fllrnl. 0. the pans
menuted by hand. Either way il is the
Iha eleel,opllling p,oce.., .nd now e neol1ive, 10 Ihe cathode be,. ChICk
come. the p'8Cl1c11 pe ... . the circuit by switching on Ihl reelifie.
model eng'nHr, he Or Ih' Win .. to elee- .. me. Th. hub cap. are buffed to the deslted on sm.1I adjustment of currenl. and dip
ifopl.ilt I bitch of ,milt campo"e"". To cal\:ul"e,he .rea ohlle hub cups ;- lus!te with a mop O. Olher polishing Ihl clip Irom the cathode blI. into Ihe
TakIng Ihe hub cups of • ,",,11 IrK-
tion engine 11 en ."empt.,. The
components hive Ihe I hape and dimen.
-, "-
1) Fo, "'11'. di, thurea in,.>' _ 22 x 9' 1001 . Attar polishing. Ih. compon.nts
• r. immefled In an organIC solvlnt. e .g .
aleel.olytl. 11 curranl rlading i. ob-
tained, thl circui l i.,he correct polarity •
- 0.99 Iq in white .pirit. for live mlnullI. th.n wiped Wtlh Ihe eleelrolyte 81 tha .equi.ed
sion. set DuI In Fig.15. tempe."ur, 01 5O"C l \3O'FJ and Ihe .ec·
2) T,king ci I"(:um fe renee x height 01", '" n. with. rag ",.ked In tha Ipirit. The com-
The component. hev, bun mach o 2" K' x height ponenll are thin .ir dried. They .ra th en tifler III to approximately one ampe.e.
ined 10 11 good surface lini.l>, end .re 2a x 'i,K ." . hung vi. one of the sm,lI KreW hole. connect the wired componenl. to Iha
reedy lor electroplating, efte. bei"; Tot.1 a'ea i, _ (0.99 on copper wire 1I the requlfed length to cathode ber. immersing in Ihe eleelro-
510red in e dry ere •. In Olher words, Both inside and outside _ '"
. ~sqln
. . fit the dapth of the cleaner•• nd the elec· Iyte 11 Ihe lime time. Afte. Ih e com·
IlIefa;. no heavy 1..,.leee .u.t. Fo'lourhubcaps K13.68sqln. \folyll. ponents hava been wired onto the
Aher wiring. lmmer.. b.ck in Ihe cathode ba. Ihe currenl il .dJusled 10
whila fpillt 10f thirty MConds .• nd .lIow 0.95 Or 1.0 .mpe.e•.
to air dry . Thl. i. to m.ke 'ure the.e Ife Tha comp.essed.i. agitalion I•• djus-
no flng,r m.rU. ted 10 •• steady bubbling action. thIn
,I OU.,.mv. 0"
............ _DS .. ~ '
Being m.de 01 mild .teel. Ih' cl"nlng
cycla i. . . lollow •• from tha tlble. in
left 1o. eighteen minutll to lleeI.oplate.
WhIn Ihis lime hnelapHd. Ihlwi.ed
r--- ---- --, ch. pte. four. componenlS ..1 removed .nd ,inHd in
, I' • 111 Immern in alk'line SO.k cleane •
cold watar.
Whilti they 1'8 ,inling conf1.l'Cl Ihe
11 8O"C 117f1"F)lo. th," minUIII. 'eelllie. to Ihe copper eleel.olytl IlhI
121 Immer.. In .Ikallne .Iect.olytlc same procedure IS 1o. the nickll elec-
clll"" ., 8O"C 07frFl. Ior one trolyta). The cirC\lIt polarity it ehedted
minutl. Wllh 1"- compolWll't1l con· ( _ nickel electrolyte). With thl eleel'o-
,. """" necled to lhe ~Ihoda e negl1ive Iytl I1lhe r&qui.ed temperllU,e 01 23'C

(74"Fj. end the fectili .. set el one Imp. the stripper thl $Ubstrate will ..ert to 6). Fo r Itrlpplnt tin trom steel end cold wit.. rinse must be carried out
Ihe _fed componenll Ife 'l'Il'Iove<! diuol"l.way. c:GpJl4f Ind Its ello.,... Thi' cleans the component.. end stops
Irom Ihe ,inse lInk Imd connecte<!IO the The lollowing lOIution C4n be used:- the .Netion, and pr_nil C4rrv-over 01
cathodl bar. immefling in Ihe electro- 2). for " ripping COpper depr;>li1a trom Meke up:· the solutions, thus pr_nting conllmi_
lyI. 41lhe SIImel;me. IIHI I nd eoppe • • nd its 1110.,... CopPlr sulphete errsfe/s. 6 Ol, per gal· nllion.
When alllhe componenll heve been Use Ihe recommended nickel ,tripper. Ion 50grms per litre. All of the lormuletion. hive I~c!uded
wi,ed onto the cathode bar. Idjust the INot). Concentrated sulphuric e"id. 1611.0:.pI. ,1I\h' cyanides end chromic ,cld. They
currlnt to 0.95 or t .D emp. The com- glllon loomls per lit ... hay. "-en mentioned in Ihlle~t. but the
pr..nd elr is edjuste<! for e steedy bub- 3). For "ripping 01 copper with nick. 1 Water. to meke up 1 gellon Ho make 1 '8Ison lor excluding the.. elect.olyles.
bling ection end teh fo, ...Iy minUles. undlrccNrt. lit ..), auch .. silve, end gold. 11 because they
Aller "><IV minutes the c:omponents Use the recommended niclel Strlppe •. The solulion is used et room tampe'l' COnllln cyanide. You might be eble 10
Ifl remove<! end rinsed in cold wlter. (Noli- ture. purd>.SI !h.m from th' VI"OUI IUpply
IhIn in hol wat ... TheyereU...n dried oH housel. but td>edule<! poilOns , .. only
in hOteir All tha listed IItippers can be used in mIde ",eilabi, to genui.,. indu'triel
4 ). Fo. Ittlppi"i! nlckellrom I lu mlnlum.
Alter drving. Ihl componlnts e,e un_ Imm.... in SO% equeous nitfie acid. o. plntic con"i.,..,. lik, pOlylhllne. CARE ,It<;t.opllle.s.
w"ed. end lightly rubbed WIth multon concentrated nllric ecid at room I.m- w ith sulphufic Ind nitr~ Kidl, both .rI Th•• ~clu,ion of r;h.omium electro-
clOlh 0' "milar s.oft 'Ig. 11 neede<!. I perature, unlillha nlcklll dllposil is di', corro.i~a. Use goggl •• , glovtr$ Ind plating 11 because ch.omic acId il uslld
light bull enhances the eppearanCI. solved off the Iluminium, OVllralls. Add acid to water. nOI ylce· in the p'(>CfIss. In Industrlel .Ieclroplet·
versa. Watr;h fo. h"1 generated by the ing mendatory ,egul8110ns apply. and
CON$lOEAA noNS IN 5). Fo • • t rlpplng enodlll. f41Ci;On. After .ach Plft 01 the pro' thl haurd, with chromium ,Iect.oplet·
ElEC'TAOPLA nNG cessing. i,l. belween 1114 cleaners. Ing, wh.n ClIrrirtd out in In un'l9ullled
Thil i. by way of Illn.1 word on som.
thl espects mentioned. but not elaborl'
The loIlowlng .alulion can be used; .
Meke up ;- pickle, bright dip. .ndthe electrolytes. 1 ..... cen be verv con,id..ebl • .
Ccncenlref«/ .ulphurit: K,d. 1611 ,01
ted on in verious ch,pI ... ollll4 book. loomls pe. ti" • .
M.ntion is mede of slripping the llee. PoreuJUm FIIJOF'cH. 6 01_ 40grms pe.
Uopl"e<! deposits for leulty Ippel"1l«I litr,.
Or u.d .dhelion. Ther. fOllow some W'fer. to mlk. up I gellon (to mek, 1
met,l.trippe"ormulation.: USEFUL INFORMATION
Iilr'.1 To convert ' Fto"C {Temp "F -32) H'I.
The SOlution Is mad. up by adding
11. Fo. 'tripping nlcllel Iro m 1, ,,ouI wale, tQ e h.1I r..ist ant glass Or pl..tic To convert"C to "F (Temp "C" -If) + 32
m"er1ell. end C"pP4'I' e nd tu 1110.,..:- tank 1pc>lylhen, Iype). The sulphuric To convert ounc.. pergtllon 10 gramm..
Nlckelllrlpper. acid il Idded ,lowly. Ind stirred con. per 1i1re multiply by 6.25

M.kl up:· tinuously. All,. lhe Idditlon ollh. Kid. To conveft gramm.. pe. lilreto ouncet
Th... pens OI1nCfffltreted ,ulphu.ic add the potelllum fluo.rd., slIrrrng con . per glnon mUltiply by O. 16
linuously until dllSOl"rtd. Allow to COOl To cony.rt "uid ounces 10 millilt".. o. CC muluply by 28.35
Two pertl W4ler. by "olum• . to .oom tl'll'lperature. Adjust to linll "01. Nickel Sulphete CryStalS formule NiS04 eH.O
The ".ipper is use<! et .oom Ilmpere. ume wi!h W81er. Use Ihe stripper It Nickel Chloride NiCI.6H.o
cu.e. wllh Ihe components lood1c. posi. room temper.lu... Allow the com . Sodium Hyd.o)(id. (Caustic Sod.t NoOH
tivI ID Ind uling lead "ripe .. e4lh. pc>nen15 to '''nd In Ih. ''';PP'' untIl the Potassium HydroHide lCaustic Potuh l KO"
od •••e negat've. Vohe\le4 - 6 volt •. 11
required. 30,. per gallon 01 glyc.fine
anodise i, d,llolvtrd off. The info, . Sodium Carbonata (Sode Ash)
Concentrated Sulphuric Acid (SG 1.841
N •• C03
H.S0 4
mat ion on stripping d.fedive Inodi ..
may be Idde<!. This prevlnll elching. in chapter nine i, IIill rele~enl, but e Concentrlied Nitric Acid S.G 11.36) HN03
"peclllly on st ..... l. The nickel'pl4led separe" .Uipper mey be needed, es- Hydrochloric Acid "Cl
c:omPOnenlllr. left in Ihe ItllPpe' until pecielly WIth dyed pen" which would Copper Sulphate C~tal. CuSO.5H.O
Ihe nldtel il completely dissolved 011, colour the !he lnodise pre-trutment Hydrogen P.. o~J.de ",0,
Ihowing IIIe lubst,ete. 11 I.ft 100 long in This glvtrl e choice.

CHAPTER 9 ""'" "', ,

The Finishing of Aluminium

and its Alloys
1"", tl

The linllhlng of Ilumlnlum can be 8C- laver is dependent on liml, Thl InOdI,. Solution Prep • •l1lon would g,vI • 10"1. ,ulphu"c .cid con-
eompli,tu,d by e ilh •• an anodising p,o- ing proee.. Iccele rlt.. Iha lime and To make up an anodising bath a 111891 o. cemration.
cess 0( I conllltf'SiOtl coating. allO giv.. a denser unblOk"n 11";'. 01 , polythene Iype DIUlic link i, .ecom- li the Iunery acid I, dilulld 1 voluml
The MIOdi,ing ~U. Thl. a1n be oxidl, whICh enhanc:a till p.opetIies 01 mended A good link 10' domg small 10 1.5 volumas of dj'lllIad w ...., Ih"
divided inlO 11II).ptOCflnes:_ Iluminiu m againsl oo.,o,ion.ln Ihl .ul. componlnts il • IlIge icl crllm con- would giVfl I 12"4 Mllphuric .clll Con·
phu ric acid process il .dd, a mordlm IImar. These havI. tlpacity of about 1 cenlrllion.
layer which can be used for Ihe dyemg gallon 14.5 lilrll). Hall fHl Ihe tlnk with For. g.lIon 10lUllon the dllulion i. 3
SUlPHURIC ANODISE AND CHROMIC 0<' colOUring o f aluminium. Ho_er distilled or de.on."d waler, .nd th.n p,nts of bl"lry acid 10 4"., p.nll 01 dis·
AOOAHODlSE for colOUring lhe maIn IUenl;al i, t~ slowly add lna necesury voluml of sui. 1.llad wallf. giving I total of 7"., p,nts
Sulphuric ~d _nodi .. i. the mote p•..,_ h.v" a good laver of alumin;um oxide. phu.ie acid. constanily stirr ing. CAREI lotal volum". JUSI undar Ihl g.lIon. If
lio;al PfOC'" for th. ,mlteu•• nd mode l Mlgnified 1000 .. thl laver w ould loo k Tha aCId must be added to Ihl wlte. and measuring1n "I". or ml •. the dilullon IS
englnee., Most g ..des 01 ,Iurninil,lrn likl Fig. 16. not vice ver~. h I1 adviUble 10 wl .. 2 lit". or 2000 mll. to 3 litres o. 3000
lOO aluminium alloys GIn be anodiHd Thl impOrt.nt ch"lCIerilllc$ are Ihl prOlectivl gloves and ufllY glasses. mls .. giving I t01l1 volume of Slit..s Or
by rhlt proc,," ; the pur., Iha alu- ~"tfi layer and Ihl pOrI . izl. Thl Altar allowing Ihl IOlution to cool Ihl 5000 mll .• which i, jU$! ov,. the 4.5
mi nium the bene. the 81lodiMd film. Ih.ckness of the bl"'I' I.ver i, p.o. volume 11 coulded by Ihl addilion of htres; Ih' equivallnllO a gallon.
The 1I1.10UI aluminium alloy COn- portlonll 10 Ihl voltage. The pore.lzl Is mar. di,tolled wate •. An I .. ample of Ihl
l tituenll. I.• . silicon .nd m'nglnase, dependem on Ihl conclnlralion of Ihe dilution i, as foIIOW' :- Sen lng up 01 th, anodll lng la nk
lend 10 'M'td the process o f Ih • •no. Iltctrolytl iMllphuric KId). !h" Ilactro. 10*4 volume IOlution for h"d .nodi.- AIt" th, required volume of IOlulion 01
dind film, elll'I" in the pn",re.lment Or Iytl IImpe"lur. and Ihe applied cur. ing. lulphu.ic: Kill i. midi up (IIIher 10% or
the actual,nodl,lng. rent. 450 m's per 4.5 "t"•. 12%) !wO piec". of cllln sh..tlead 1'1
MOll labric"ionl from I"",
8l<lru~on. and 10",. calling. GIn be
0. Two faclors emergl whiCh make lor a 16 flu.d al. per gallon.
pl.~ed down two oppo.ite sodll of Ihe
tlnk. TheM "I bent OVIf the lap Olthl
PIIrtlcul" anodising film •
.ucceufully lnodiMd. HOWlIYflt, some Lower c:on.;."lration. 1.1. I~ MlI. 12% volume IOlutlon lor general tank 10 po'lil.on lhem and to mak'll>Im
,lIays lrod IOmtI clltlngl fire not con- phurlc ecid. and low temperatU.I glvI a anodiSIng. conVflnient to connect to thl llectric.1
ducive 10 Ihl anodl"ng proces •. C... 'mall pore .izl bul produce a h.rd S40 ml. per 4.5 lit.... supplV ThIS/! a.. Ihe cathode.. The
tlng. .r. usually anodised by Ihe • nodiled film . 19.2 fluid oz. per glllon. anode bar i. pllced down the m.ddle •
Chromic KId p.oceu;. High"r con.cenlf.tion. 1.1. 15% MlI. For else Ind convlnilnce balllIV and the componlntl to be anodised are
The Pr1lCKf; of afl(ldi,ing il,h. laying phurlc acid • • nd higher lemperatu.I acid .old 11 g ...g .. ~n be used. This i, connectld to this. Thau.ual WIV to con·
down or tha grow ing of a film of Ilu. ~ive • '.,'ger pora ,iH which prodUCI •• of I d ilu tion of 33"<0 of sulphuric acid In IIecI Ihl aluminium components for
mln;um oxida over Ihe turf,ca o r Ihe f.lm ,ulllble ' or dyling • distillld Wit... IpproMimlte specific Inodismg i. 10 Jig them in a I.lln.um
• Iumlnlum . Aluminium lonn •• Ilyer of grl~lly 0 1 1.275/1.280. made .prung jig. The.. come in differ'
A good compromise I, 12% vtv lul.
the oxide very quickly, 0118<1 alter • phuric: acid which mi kes. good g_ral If Ihl balllry aeid i, dilulid 1 volume enl sh.paslor variouI components. but
dlemlelol clnn, but lhe !hidul_ of the ,nodising bath. 10 2.0 volumes 01 dislollad wlt"r. Ihi, are a>cpanliVIIO buy To1anium rod Ind

surface Irea 10 be 'nodll8<l. Th. volllge
i. to be between 12 and 20 volt • • Al IS
ampI per squI.e fOOl lhe d.po.it o f ano·
dise will be O.OOOlln. in 6.S minules.
HOWl .... '. lhi. w,1I Ilk' lonller depend·
ing on lhe ,moum of "!Iita tion. Wi!h no
lIIitllion il will tau 10 minules to de-
po,It 0.00011n . of ,nodiH.TtHr temperl'
lure of the proceu 11 betwe&f1 20 - 2S
dlll'_ C, 70 _75 dag'_ F, If !he elee· fit. " s..t.d".". ..'_
"~ t,oIyI' ,,,ceedl Ih' t09 limit allow to
~, .

,, ,

.- -
, I

Sealing of the Anodised FIlm

, ,
I 11 desi.ed the anodised film can be and for eopper In o"nge yellow
selled. Thi. P'OC. .I in 'ffKt "Ill over To obelin I consistent ,.p.odOKible
,lie pOf, .. tes of ,lie g.own aluminium uniform colour, the easiest and most
fig. 17 oxide. ,",nomal wily ia to use an orlllnic dye
Thil i. broughlabotJ' by an il\(:rease in tllat i. soluble in waler. To obtain the re·
small "«Id bit can bt' pur~h8Sed for well .. makinll i, easier Ind ne~ter to lemperature in I sealanl. wh~h in· qui.ed sha de of colou. y",oua con·
makinglhlM jig •. fh_CIOn be used 10' w". onto lh. anode bar. c.ease. the volume Ind swelll Ihe",1 c,nt.ations of 'he dyes have to be used.
,nodi.,ng I la.ge Quan tIty o f ,imlll' Wilh the components wired up • •he wallland close. the po •••. A guide is between I IIrm.pe. li,re 10
components, which would p.oya the power II switched on and edjust9d to The seal In' il UIUllty boilinll de- 100,ms pe. lit ... O.1SoB.pe. gallon '0
mOlt ""onomlcal way of processin" the rlquired <;!.IlIent density lor anodis· ionised w.'er" tempere,ureol l OO de· 1.60z•. pe. glllon. This concent.ation
,k",rn. inll.'t illhen leh for Ihe required lime 10 g"" C for • pe.iod 01 20 mlnu t... I, la will plso yary wilh colou •.
Generally tha U51 01 al umlnum Wire IS obl"n the 'lKIuired thic~ness 01 best dOn, In • 11.1nlen steel container.
Ihe most II~Qnomjc.1 for Imall Quan . anodise. An altern"ive is 10 boil pure deion;ud ()pe<.rinll Conditlon. lor Dy. Tlnk,
tities. and it Cln be bought In VI"OU' d" To enhellCtl and improve . he qu ality water In I ,"inl .....eel conlliner with The id ul tank 10' dyeing should be
amete, ,iled 'eel, 01 va'V'ng stiffn .... of anodised finish. ag italion is ,ecom· • lid. and IUlpend Ihe Inodiud a"iele made 01 good quolity ,"inle u l ' lel .
Lengths are CUI .Iightly IO!'lg8' I han re_ me nded. bUI good quali.y anodise ean in ,he .. um gl~en o H for 30 mlnu, ... Austlnlt;C grade 320S17. Howeva •.
quired and coil\ld over a bar of "",'11 or be oblaln9d in still bOlhs. To a g itate the The ..,led "tieles Ire li ken out end al· most plaSlic 0' glass tan~s can also be
wood so 11,,1 some tension i, obllioad. electrolyte a plutlc pipe wilh holes lowed '0 dry In Ihe air. Or In I convenient used. but they will 811 .equlre hel1lnll to
The component i, wired up u11nll' con- dtlll9d in is connected 10 a flexible pipe ov.n. BpplOK'mately 40 - SO deg" " C. 104 -
venoent hole. or I PlrI of Ihe surface ,h" (Fig. I 7f. end In tu,n conneclftd to a rellu. 122 deg ..... F.
will 50!1CUre 11 good electrical conlKl . laled compressor. Thi, wHl blow air inlO THE DYEING OF ANODISED The dyl is welglled ou, ~.dlng to
TI>e Will il then twisted 10 .n.... '. I rigid .h, 'Iectrolyte cau'lnll movement by ALUMINIUM the concentration. Ind added '0 hall the
contact. Tt,,, 'e51 of the componen" I', bubbllnll. Ca,e must be &J<ercised In The mljorlty 01 Iluminium 1110'(1 when yolume of hot w"er conllined in .he
wired lhe sama. if vou •• e anod .. ing I ragullllnll the air flow, Or the electrolyte anodised h.ve In Ippearence of nllurel dye link. The solution i. agillled by,,""
batch Or I sel of component • • The wired WIll blJbble ove., and could prove aluminium or '"Iver' c(>lOl.l'. Some ong O. by air agitl1ion f.om I 'egula,9d
components should hlng Ipp.o_i. dl~'ou, and eause accidents. allo'(l conUrln alloy con,muanll luch .. comP'I$$OI. This il continued until all
ma,ety midway in ,he elllCtfolyll, ..,,,th mang,...,....!rcon. magnesium and Ihe dye h.. dissolved and no partlC ....
an allowll'ICfI Q<1 \h, wire for " ' .ching it Operltlng Conditions copper. If the.. materials are pr,""nt remain in wspension. Suspended pi.·
on the lnode bat. Th wir.. lie then The plllinll ClJlfefll for anodising between 5%-8%. ,hey produce a coIor. 1~les of dye are the m.in Clull of
sn.pped off.o thlt I<H. Thll will redtH;tl Ihould be be_n 10 - IS amps pe. t.on o l lhe ..IOdised him. Th. colore"on " ..ab on thedyed wrl~ of ,he com·
tllfl surplus w"....d avoid tile pOl'" SQuire fOOl, o. O.069.omPs PI< SQuare varies from a brown for mangan,"", for ponents. Aher dissolullon of ,lie dye.
bility 01 ~",ng on the cathod' bar .. il\(:h 10 O. 1000mps per SQuare il\(:h ol the silicon Ind mag ...... um I bluish g.ey. the solulion i, made up 10 wo.~inll vof·

ume. end H'e desir&<! I~mperllur~ A point to remember is thet the
maintained by the heater. Inodlsed film letl 115 In eleeui.
After thoroughly rin.i~ the com· cllly insullting surfece, .0 if Ihl
ponents in cold weter Ihey Irl hur>g contltCl moVH, the conducting
IICtoSS I bar 01 meud o. pll"k; Ind IUrface under tlM wire ;nth' elec-
totelly immersed in the elyl, preflf.bly trolyte i. 1011. Tlte consequ'nce 01
with egltallon for the requi.ed time. The this iSlhlltlMgrowth of anodised
time. beinll dependenl on Ihe inten,ity r;lm .IOP., bUI Ihe worst pin 01
of the colour. I1 usullly between 5 and this action I, thatttle resi.lance"
15 minutM. lo mllntainlhl con.iller\CV thlt poinl inc.ease,lhe he"ingef_
01 colour for .ubtequet\t batehH 01 fact. ceu";ng Ifo";on 011 thl su.·
componlf'l\S, the condilion. ollempera- I~.

ture and liml must be closely adhlred
, A flow p.oc.ss chIn 10' Ih' v.rlous
Id After the Inodill pan of Ihe pi'o-
eelS, the components Ir, r.
moved 1ft .. switching 011 It the
process" In Inodl.ing is shown In Rg. rectifier. and quickly rinsed In cold
Poinllto .emember 10f good practice in
the Inodising process are:-
Wller, then quic:kJy imm,rMd
,ithe. in IIM dye bath or lhe HII·
ing tlnk Ilor nllu.I' enodill). At
nO lime should Ihl In.odiced mm
1') Tho.ough clllninll in th, p.e- be allowed 10 dry. To do 110 would
tr8lltmenl CYCII, Ind the complete givl I PlInlll closurl of the pore
removll of lI.elSllnd .mut I.om lrel, Ind hlnce rest.ict Ihe in-
Ihe compOr'lenta. g._ ollhe dye.
Ibl omlin, fnd mlintain, a good elec- ldj A good method of checking InO·
tricel contKC be1V>elnthe wire on dill is to UII I tHt meler IAvo
the component end the enode blr. type) set On D.e. Iow vOltagl. and
",I 10 rnilllnce. Lightly pan thl the IUrf_ het ,,"n sl1islacto.ily
mell' probe. across thl lurf&Cl. SIlled.
Any ,'ee. with no 8nodi .. will (el lo strip delective Inodise f.om
conduct. which will ceu.e I deltec- ,0mpOnentl. ttle wi.ed ~om­
lion On the meter. A simp'l check ponenlS ."Immersed'n Ihellkall
10. I ..eled surface 011 MtU'I' Cl...... for • few minutel. "nsed
Inodill i. 10 moisten. IOny .... of in cold wlter, Imm •• sed 'nlhe ni_
the surfIC', Ind touch th, IUrface t.ic &CId IIOlulio" fo •• few min-
with In Indelible pencil. If Ihe IU', ut.., rinsed and ,,·enodised. In
face i. thin wiped cleen. leaving o ther word •. blek th.ough the
no trac. of Ihe colour of Ihe pencil. pretreatments.

FIg . 19


. "
V.I.ncy ,
VOlumes (links) ""
w.""ij up
Zinc elect.oIytes "


AllefMIi"ij CV"e<11 (AC)
"" Faraday.' 1._
FI.lday (unil) ,,
Am~~ "", Gl... l~lt .ni~i"ijl
A""', ,
AnodiH electrol.,.,.
54, 55, 56, 51
A.... ",

Atomi.; weight
Atom. , Masking off
BI1tery j12 and 6 voll)
Sa1tlry chalg" 15.16.17" Nickel elect.olytes
34. 35, 42
Bright dip.
Pickles "
CI..ne .. "" PI.lties 18, 19, 20
, Potenliomete.
CUlfe<1t denlity
Dj.ect current (DC)
i)ye,nglenodiH' "",
51"1 (,"inlesl end mildl "

ElectfO Chlmkel Equivlllnt IECE)

Elect.ofo.mlng 4O,41,42,4J
Solvenls (o'genkl
St.lpPtllt "
52. 53

Eleet.ol... .1 tclfOoP I"i ng

47. 48, 49

Tin .llet.olyte. "

" "